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PATHOPHYSIOLOGY

Precipitating Factors: Hypertension Hyperlipidemia Diabetes ellit!s Heart Diseases Atherosclerosis Arteriosclerosis "hrombosis Se#ere dehydration

VASO#O$ST%I#TIO$

$lockage of the blood #essel "mbo!ism Lack of oxygen % n!trients s!pply

Predisposing Factors: Life style (sedentary) Vices (Alcohol, smoke) Age Diet Sex Heredity Self-medication

Ischemic Stroke

High blood press!re, smoking, heart diseases, diabetes, narro+ing of arteries s!pplying the brain, high cholesterol and an !nhealthy lifestyle,

'erebral (schemia

Hypoxia Altered cerebral metabolism

Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

High blood press!re, smoking, and a family history of b!rst ane!rysms, Se#ere dehydration, se#ere infection in the sin!ses of the head and medical or genetic conditions that increase a person-s tendency to form blood clots,

- 'ell death - Decreased )xygen le#el (ntracerebral hemorrhage

Venous Stroke Decreased cerebral perf!sion Large Arter Strokes

Hypertension, diabetes, smoking and high cholesterol le#els,

P A % A L Y S I S

Local Acidosis Transient Ischemic Attack Same +ith (schemic stroke

'ytotoxic *dema

Ane!rysm &!pt!re

Sma!! Arter Stroke

Hypertension, diabetes and smoking,

"mbo!ic strokes

(rreg!lar heart beat (atrial fibrillation), a heart attack (myocardial infarction), heart fail!re or a small hole in the heart called a ./) (.atent /oramen )#ale),

&rain tissue $ecrosis

'"ATH

Severe Cases

A stroke is ca!sed by a blocked or bleeding artery in the brain,

ost

strokes are d!e to blocked arteries that s!pply blood to the brain and are called ischemic strokes, Strokes d!e to b!rsting of brain blood #essels are called hemorrhagic strokes, (ntracerebral hemorrhage is ca!sed by bleeding into the brain itself, +hile s!barachnoid hemorrhage is d!e to bleeding aro!nd the base of the brain, A "(A (transient ischemic attack) is ca!sed by a temporary blockage of blood flo+ to a blood #essel to the brain lasting less than 01 ho!rs, Another, rarer, form of stroke can occ!r +hen a #ein (that drains blood o!t of the brain) is blocked, "his is called a #eno!s stroke, Ischemic Stroke "his type of stroke is ca!sed by blockage of a blood #essel (artery) s!pplying the brain, $rain tiss!e that no longer recei#es its blood s!pply can die +ithin a fe+ ho!rs !nless something is done to stop the damage, "he blockage of arteries can occ!r in large arteries in the neck or the base of the brain, or in small arteries inside the brain itself, A blood clot can form in the brain or it can form else+here and be carried to the brain by an artery and after ha#ing an ischemic stroke and the ma2ority of s!r#i#ors ha#e some long term disability, "here are many conditions that increase a person3s risk of ischemic stroke, "hese incl!de high blood press!re, smoking, heart diseases, diabetes, narro+ing of arteries s!pplying the brain, high cholesterol and an !nhealthy lifestyle, "reating these conditions can decrease stroke risk, Intracerebra! Hemorrhage "his type of stroke is ca!sed by the bleeding of a blood #essel +ithin the brain, As a res!lt of the bleeding a blood clot forms in the brain, +hich p!ts press!re on the brain and damages it, Altho!gh intracerebral hemorrhage is less common than ischemic stroke and it is more serio!s, "he most common ca!se of intracerebral hemorrhage is high blood press!re, Another ca!se, especially in yo!nger people +ith intracerebral hemorrhages, is abnormally formed blood #essels in the brain (#asc!lar malformations or ane!rysms),

Subarachnoid Hemorrhage S!barachnoid hemorrhage res!lts from the bleeding of an artery aro!nd the base of the brain, (t is the least common stroke type, acco!nting for abo!t 45 of all strokes, "he most fre6!ent ca!se of s!barachnoid hemorrhage is bleeding from an ane!rysm, An ane!rysm is a +eakening and ballooning of a short portion of an artery (similar to a b!bble on the side of an old hose), "he factors that can increase a person-s risk of this type of stroke incl!de high blood press!re, smoking, and a family history of b!rst ane!rysms, TIA (Transient Ischemic Attack) A "(A is like a temporary ischemic stroke, An artery is temporarily blocked, pre#enting blood from reaching a part of the brain, "his lack of blood flo+ ca!ses that part of the brain to stop f!nctioning, "he symptoms of a "(A are the same as symptoms of an ischemic stroke, (n a "(A, the blood #essel opens !p again, before any permanent in2!ry to the brain occ!rs and the patient reco#ers completely, ost "(A symptoms last less than 78 min!tes, .eople +ho s!ffer "(A-s are at HIGH %IS* OF ST%O*" soon thereafter, A "(A sho!ld lead to immediate medica! e+a!uation to determine its ca!se and a treatment plan to pre#ent a stroke from follo+ing soon after, Venous Stroke Veno!s stroke is ca!sed by a blood clot blocking the #eins that allo+ blood to drain o!t of the brain, (All other strokes are ca!sed by abnormalities of arteries carrying blood to the brain), Veno!s stroke ca!ses a 9back press!re: effect that leads to the stroke, "hese strokes can be either ischemic or hemorrhagic, Some ca!ses of #eno!s stroke incl!de se#ere dehydration, se#ere infection in the sin!ses of the head and medical or genetic conditions that increase a person-s tendency to form blood clots,

Common symptoms of stroke include:

Sudden paralysis of a leg, arm or one side of the face Sudden trouble speaking or understanding speech Sudden vision problems, such as blurred or double vision Sudden loss of coordination or problems with balance A severe, sudden headache without apparent cause Sudden numbness, weakness or dizziness

'ommon symptoms incl!de;


"ro!ble +alking, loss of balance and coordination, Speech problems, Di<<iness,


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=!mbness, +eakness, or paralysis, S!dden se#ere headache, 'onf!sion,


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$l!rred, blackened, or doub!e +ision,

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A mild stroke, or a Transient Ischemic Attack, can be thought of as a baby stroke. It is caused by a blocked blood vessel in the brain, usually because of a narrowed blood vessel and a blood clot. The blood vessels become narrowed because of cholesterol-filled deposits (called plaque that line the blood vessels. The clot happens when pieces of these plaque break off and travel with the blood. !r, other times, a blood clot could block these narrowed vessels. This blockage is temporary, as it is only a mild stroke. The body usually needs "# hours for mild stroke recovery. $any people, surprisingly younger ones, often e%perience mild strokes. They often pass it off as fatigue or signs of stress and aging. &ome of them who know that they're having a mild stroke (ust shrug the symptoms off, insisting its )(ust a mild stroke*. +ut, mild strokes actually can't be ignored or shrugged aside. $ild strokes are like your body's way of saying there's something wrong, and you better get down to it pretty soon. Around #,- of people who have had mild strokes e%perience more after a couple of weeks, and half of these e%perience a full-blown stroke in even less time. +ut, as stated above, a mild stroke is temporary. The body finds a way to resolve the block, thus the brain resumes its normal functioning after "# hours or less. &ince it's temporary, then there really aren't any lasting damages to the brain. The brain can

sustain dull activity or strained activity up until "# hours, so until it rights itself, there will be no permanent damage to the brain. $ild stroke recovery, as doctors suggest, is (ust to continue your usual daily activities, but modify them quite a bit, depending on the prognosis of your doctor. If it was found out that you have too much cholesterol, then you'll be given medication for lowering it, and you'll need to stay away from those mo(os and chips. If it's the lack of physical activity, then you'd be recommended to have time for a short e%ercise regime each day. .ecent theories, however, say that some patients who had one too many mild strokes e%perience changes in their mental state. &ome easily slip into depression, or some parts of their body become paraly/ed. 0octors then said that these are not the case. Those who easily became depressed were patients who were not visited often by their loved ones, and the ones with paralysis or speech impairments had many mild strokes and intervention was unsuccessful. It could be because the patients refused to take the medicine given to them, or they simply were resistant to the doctor's recommended lifestyle change. &o, it remains that mild stroke recovery is still on the person involved. After all, a person who does not wish to recover quickly will really find it hard to recover. It's all in the mind.