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Solved Problems: Chapter 1

1.1 A magnetic circuit with a single air gap is shown in Fig. 1.24. The core dimensions are:
Cross-sectional area A
c
= 1.8 10
-3
m
2

Mean core length l
c
= 0.6 m
Gap length g = 2.3 x 10
-3
m
N = 83 turns

Assume that the core is of infinite permeability ( ) and neglect the effects of fringing fields at the air gap
and leakage flux. (a) Calculate the reluctance of the core
c
R and that of the gap
g
R . For a current of i = 1.5 A,
calculate (b) the total flux |, (c) the flux linkages of the coil, and (d) the coil inductance L.

Solution:

(a) 0 since
c
R =
3
6
7 3
0
2.3 10
1.017 10 A/Wb
4 10 1.8 10
g
c
g
R
A t

= = =


(b)
4
6
83 1.5
1.224 10 Wb
1.017 10
c g
Ni
R R
|

= = =
+

(c)
2
1.016 10 Wb N |

= =
(d)
2
1.016 10
6.773 mH
1.5
L
i

= = =

1.3 Consider the magnetic circuit of Fig. 1.24 with the dimensions of Problem 1.1. Assuming infinite core
permeability, calculate (a) the number of turns required to achieve an inductance of 12 mH and (b) the inductor
current which will result in a core flux density of 1.0 T.

Solution:

(a)
2
3 3 6
12 10 mH 12 10 1.017 10 110.47 110 turns
g
N
L N N
R

= = = = =
(b)

3
3
3
1.0 T 1.8 10 Wb
110 1.8 10
16.5 A
12 10
c g g c
B B B A
N
i
L L
|
|

= = = =

= = = =



1.13 The inductor of Fig. 1.27 has the following dimensions:
A
c
= 1.0 cm
2

l
c
= 15 cm
g = 0.8 mm
N = 480 turns
Neglecting leakage and fringing and assuming 1000
r
= , calculate the inductance.

voltage

T
e
t

max
E
E

max


Solution:


( ) ( ) | |
0 0
2 7 2 4
0 0
2
mmf equation:
4 10 480 10
30.477 mH
/ / 0.08 (15 / 1000) 10
c c
g
c
c c g g c
r
c
c g c
c r c r
L N NB A
i
B
B
H l H l Ni l g Ni
Ni N A
B B B L
g l g l

|

t

= = =
+ = + =

= = = = =
+ + +


1.14 The inductor of Problem 1.13 is to be operated from a 60-Hz voltage source. (a) Assuming negligible coil
resistance, calculate the rms inductor voltage corresponding to a peak core flux density of 1.5 T. (b) Under this
operating condition, calculate the rms current and the peak stored energy.

Solution:

(a)

max max
4
max
( ) sin ( ) cos
1 1
(2 60) 480 10 1.5 19.2 V
2 2
c
c c c
rms c
d dB
v t NA B B t v t NA B t
dt dt
V NA B

e e e
e t

= = = =
= = =


(b)

2 3 2
1 1
1.67 A 30.477 10 ( 2 1.67) 85.0 mJ
2 2
rms
rms peak peak
V
I W LI
L e

= = = = =

1.16 A square voltage wave having a fundamental frequency of 60 Hz and equal positive and negative half
cycles of amplitude E is applied to a 1000-turn winding surrounding a closed iron core of 1.25 x 10
-3
m
2

cross section. Neglect both the winding resistance and any effects of leakage flux.
(a) Sketch the voltage, the winding flux linkage, and the core flux as a function of time.
(b) Find the maximum permissible value of E if the maximum flux density is not to exceed 1.15 T.

(a)











(b)

max max
max max max
3
( )
( ) ( ). 4 4 4
/ 2
4 60 1000 1.25 10 1.15 345 V
c
d
e t e t dt E f fN fNA B
dt T
E

|


= = = = = =
= =
}


1.24 The reciprocating generator of Fig. 1.34 has a movable plunger (position x) which is supported so that it can
slide in and out of the magnetic yoke while maintaining a constant air gap of length g on each side adjacent to
the yoke. Both the yoke and the plunger can be considered to be of infinite permeability. The motion of the
plunger is constrained such that its position is limited to 0 x w s s .
There are two windings on this magnetic circuit. The first has N
1
turns and carries a constant dc current I
0
.
The second, which has N
2
turns, is open-circuited and can be connected to a load.
(a) Neglecting any fringing effects, find the mutual inductance between windings 1 and 2 as a
function of the plunger position x.
(b) The plunger is driven by an external source so that its motion is given by

(1 sin )
( )
2
w t
x t
c e +
=
where c < 1. Find an expression for the sinusoidal voltage which is generated as a result of
this motion.



(a)
0
21 1 2
( )
( ) ( )
2
c
c
A x
L N N A x D w x
g
| |
= =
|
\ .

(b)
0 1 2 2 21 21
2 2 21 1 2 0 0 0
. .
2
N N D d dL dL dx dx
v L i v I I I
dt dt dx dt g dt


| |
= = = = =
|
\ .


0 1 2
2 0
1
cos cos
2 4
N N Dw dx
w t v I t
dt g
c e
c e e e
| |
= =
|
\ .