LecLure on SLorage SysLems

Pard ulsks

Andre 8rlnkmann
Agenda
Pard ulsks
• PlsLory
• ArchlLecLure of Pard ulsks
– ulsk head, -arm, .
– Calculauon of access umes
– Zonlng
• 1rends
– lnßuence of 1Þl, 8Þl, . on performance and prlce
SLorage Plerarchy
• Þrlmary SLorage: CÞu
– 8eglsLer (1 Cycle, ns)
– Cache (10-200 Cycles, 0,02 - 0,3µs)
– Local memory (0,2 - 4µs)
– nuMA-memory (2 - 10 x local memory)
• Secondary SLorage:
– Pard ulsks (2-20 ms)
– Solld SLaLe ulsks (0,03 - 0,3 ms)
– Cache (0,03 - 0,3 ms)
• 1eruary SLorage
– Lxchangeable medla(1apes, llopples,
Cu, ... (ms - mlnuLes)
– 1ape Llbrarles, opucal [ukeboxes
(few seconds - mlnuLes)
– 1ape llbrarles (few mlnuLes - days)
Tera-Peta Bytes
Mega-
Giga Bytes
Giga-Tera
Bytes
Kilo - Mega
Bytes
PlsLory: Þunch Card
Þunch cards
• used slnce mlddle of 18Lh cenLury for
repeaung Lasks, e.g. ln looms or muslc
lnsLrumenLs
PollerlLh punch card
• llrsLly used ln uS census ln 1890
• SLandardlzed ln 1928
• used ln compuLer sysLems slnce konrad Zuse's
Z1 ln 1937
• LayouL of punch cards has had lnßuence on
developmenL of compuLer languages (Cobol,
lorLran)
• uaLa processlng needs Lhree seLs of punch
cards: lnpuL / ouLpuL / program
• CapaclLy of 80 byLes (80 rows, 12 columns)
Slide based on lecture from Prof. R. Burns (Baltimore) / Wikipedia
Punch cards for a pipe organ
Punch card writer
Fortran punch card
1apes
• 1apes are used ln compuLers slnce 1931
(unlvAC l)
– uenslLy of 128 byLes/lnch on 8 Lracks
(6 daLa Lracks/ 1 parlLy/ 1 clock)
– Speed of up Lo 100 ln/s
• used Lo sLore baLch appllcauons
• Plgh laLency for random access daLa
• SLarL/sLop mode lf lnpuL sLream ls Loo
slow
– Low performance
– Plgh lmpacL on medla llfe span
• 1oday only used as oMlne backup medla
• L1C drlves have performance of up Lo 140
MbyLe/s (L1C-3) and uncompressed
capaclLy of 1.3 1byLe/Lape
Tape from 1985
Slide based on lecture from Prof. R. Burns (Baltimore) / Wikipedia
1apes
1ape durablllLy
• 13 Lo 30 years archlval
• 3000 carLrldge loads/unloads
• ApproxlmaLely 260 full ñle
passes
– Cne ñle pass ls equal Lo wrlung
enough daLa Lo ñll an enure
Lape
Oracle StorageTek StreamLine SL8500
Modular Library System
Up to 640 tape drives
100,000 slots and 1,000 PB (utilizing 2:1
compression) capacity

Slide based on Wikipedia / Oracle
PlsLory: Pard ulsks
• l8M lnLroduced ñrsL hard dlsk ºl8M 330º
ln 1936
– 30 plauers a 24 Zoll
– CapaclLy of 3 M8yLe
– LaLency of 600 ms
• Pard dlsks have been random access
memory
• Pard dlsks have been small and have
been used as maln memory, Lapes have
been perslsLenL memory
• 1oday: Pard dlsks are secondary memory
and are movlng lnLo backup and archlval
secLor
IBM 305 RAMAC, two IBM 350 disks in the
foreground and middle
Slide based on lecture from Prof. R. Burns (Baltimore) / Wikipedia
PlsLory: Pard ulsks
Data
density
Mbit/sq. in.
Capacity of
Unit Shown
Megabytes
1973:
1. 7 Mbit/sq. in
0.14 GBytes
1979:
7. 7 Mbit/sq. in
2.3 GBytes
Source: New York Times, 2/23/98, page C3,
“Makers of disk drives crowd even more data into even smaller spaces”
Slide based on lecture from Prof. D. Patterson (Berkeley)
1989:
63 Mbit/sq. in
60 GBytes
1997:
1450 Mbit/sq. in
2.3 GBytes
Source: New York Times, 2/23/98, page C3,
“Makers of disk drives crowd even more data into even smaller spaces”
1997:
3090 Mbit/sq. in
8.1 GBytes
Slide based on lecture from Prof. D. Patterson (Berkeley)
PlsLory: Pard ulsks
• Lvoluuon of hard dlsks has been drlven by form facLor
and capaclLy, noL by performance
• 1970s: Malnframes and 14'' magneuc dlsks
• 1980s: MlnlcompuLers, servers wlLh 8'' magneuc dlsks
and 3.23'' hard dlsks
• 1990s:
– Þlzza box ÞCs: 3.3'' hard dlsks
– LapLops, noLebooks: 2.3''hard dlsks
– Smaller devlces Lyplcally do noL use hard dlsks => 1.8''
magneuc dlsks noL yeL successful
PlsLory: Pard ulsks
Slide based on lecture from Prof. D. Patterson (Berkeley)
SeagaLe u833 (2006)
• 730 C8, 3.3'' dlsk
• 7200 8ÞM, A1A100 / SA1A
• 9.4 waus (ldle)
• 8.3 ms avg. seek
• 100 - 300 M8/s Lransfer raLe
• !"# % & %'()* + ,-
Source: www.seagate.com
SeagaLe 8arracuda 7200.11 (2009)
• 1 18, 3.3-lnch dlsk
• 7200 8ÞM, 3 CblL/s SA1A
• 8 waus ldle, 9.6 waus busy
• ? ms avg. seek
• 120M8/s susLalned Lransfer raLe
• ." % & %'('" + ,-
Source: www.seagate.com
1'' Pard dlsks
• 2006 PlLachl 1ravelsLar C4k60
– 71 x 34 x 8 mm
– 60 C8, 4200 8ÞM,
13 ms seek
– 2 plauers, 4 heads
– ulglLal cameras, Þalm ÞCs
• 2006 PlLachl Mlcrodrlve 3k8
– 40 x 30 x 3 mm
– WelghL: 13g
– 8 C8, 26 M8/s Lransfer raLe
Source: www.hitachigst.com
Magneuc ulsks
• Þurpose ln compuLer sysLems:
– Long-Lerm, lnexpenslve sLorage for ñles
– º8ackup" for maln-memory.
– Large, lnexpenslve, slow level ln Lhe memory hlerarchy (vlrLual memory)
Control
M
a
i
n

M
e
m
o
r
y

Output
Data Path
Input
Processor
Disk
Slide based on lecture from Prof. D. Patterson (Berkeley)
ÞhoLo of ulsk Pead, Arm, AcLuaLor
Actuator 
Arm 
Head 
Platters (12) 
{
Spindle 
Slide based on lecture from Prof. D. Patterson (Berkeley)
ulsk uevlce 1ermlnology
• Several plauers, wlLh lnformauon recorded magneucally on boLh
surfaces (usually)
• 8lLs recorded ln Lracks, whlch ln Lurn dlvlded lnLo secLors (e.g., 312
8yLes)
• AcLuaLor moves head (end of arm) over Lrack (ºseek"), walL for secLor
roLaLe under head, Lhen read or wrlLe
Platter
Outer
Track
Inner
Track
Sector
Actuator
Head
Arm
Slide based on lecture from Prof. D. Patterson (Berkeley)
8ead- / WrlLe Peads
8ecordlng 1echnology
Þerpendlcular 8ecordlng
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xb_PyKuI7II
ulsk urlve Þerformance l
• ulsk LaLency = Seek 1lme + 8oLauon 1lme + 1ransfer 1lme +
ConLroller Cverhead
– Seek 1lme? depends on no. Lracks Lo move arm, speed of acLuaLor
– 8oLauon 1lme? depends on speed dlsk roLaLes, how far secLor ls from head
– 1ransfer 1lme? depends on daLa raLe (bandwldLh)
of dlsk (f(blL denslLy,rpm)), slze of requesL
Platter
Arm
Actuator
Head
Sector
Inner
Track
Outer
Track
Controller
Spindle
Slide based on lecture from Prof. D. Patterson (Berkeley)
ulsk urlve Þerformance ll
• Average dlsLance of secLor from head?
• 1/2 ume of a roLauon
– 7200 8evoluuons Þer MlnuLe ! 120 8ev/sec
– 1 revoluuon = 1/120 sec ! 8.33 mllllseconds
– 1/2 roLauon (revoluuon) ! 4.17 ms
• Average no. Lracks Lo move arm?
– ulsk lndusLry sLandard benchmark?
• Slze of ulsk cache can sLrongly añecL performance!
– Cache bullL lnLo dlsk sysLem, CS knows noLhlng
Slide based on lecture from Prof. D. Patterson (Berkeley)
Seek 1lme
lnßuence facLors on seeks ume
• Accelerauon of dlsk arm:
– Accelerauon beLween 30-40g
– Plgher welghL requlres hlgher forces on dlsk arm
– Smaller welghL can lead Lo deformauon of dlsk arm !
head crash
• Areal denslLy:
– Plgher 1Þl and 8Þl allow smaller dlameLer aL same capaclLy
• Smaller dlsk dlameLer enable llghLer dlsk arm
– Plgher accelerauon and smaller dlsLances lead Lo smaller
seek umes
Slide based on C. Ruemmler and J. Wilkes: An introduction to disk drive modeling
Average Seek 1lme
• Average seek ume descrlbes lmporLanL aspecL of access
ume
• Average seek dlsLance ls 1/3 of full seek dlsLance (Why?)
• ulñerenL posslblllues Lo calculaLe average seek ume
1. Measure ume for access of 1/3 of full seek
2. ulvlde full seek by 3
3. Sum all ume for all posslble seek dlsLances and dlvlde by
number of seeks
4. WelghL dlñerenL seek dlsLances from 3. wlLh Lhelr access
probablllues
• Whlch calculauon model ls besL sulLed Lo descrlbe average
seek ume?
Slide based on C. Ruemmler and J. Wilkes: An introduction to disk drive modeling
Average Seek 1lme
Why ls Lhe average seek dlscLance only 1/3 of Lhe maxlmum seek dlsLance?
We assume ln Lhe followlng LhaL each Lrack ls accessed exacLly once from each oLher
Lrack:
• 1rack 1 accesses Lrack 2,3,.,n aL dlsLance 1,2,.,(n-2), (n-1)
• 1rack 1 accesses Lrack 3,4,.,n aL dlsLance 1,2,.,(n-2)
• .
• 1rack (n-1) accesses Lrack n aL dlsLance 1

1hls leads Lo Lhe followlng equauon:
1 1
2
1 1
1 1
1 1
( 1) (2 1)
( )
6
1
3
( 1)
2
n n
i i
n n
i i
n n n
i n i i
Seek n n n
n n
i i
! !
= =
! !
= =
! " " !
" !
= = ! = ! =
! "
# #
# #
(n-1) times
2 times
1 time
Average Seek 1lme
1he followlng equauons can be used:
1
( 1)
2
n
i
n n
i
=
! +
=
"
2
1
( 1) (2 1)
6
n
i
n n n
i
=
! + ! +
=
"
lallacy Average Seek 1lme
• ManufacLurer need sLandard benchmark Lo
compare ºaverage" seek ume
– CalculaLe all seeks from all Lracks and dlvlde by number
of seeks => average seek ume
– 8eal ºaverage" depends on daLa layouL on hard dlsk
and access pauern of Lhe appllcauons => appllcauons
oûen access nearby Lracks
• 8ule: Measured seek ume Lyplcally beLween Z and
x of seek ume on daLa sheeL
Slide based on lecture from Prof. D. Patterson (Berkeley)
Seek 1lme
• A seek ls composed of:
– Speedup: 1he arm ls acceleraLed unul lL reaches half of Lhe seek dlsLance or a
ñxed maxlmum veloclLy
– CoasL-Þhase: 8ange, where Lhe arm moves aL maxlmum veloclLy
– Slowdown: Arm ls slowed down unul belng near lLs desunauon
– Seule ume: ConLroller ad[usLs arm aL LargeL Lrack
• very shorL seeks are domlnaLed by seule ume (1-3 ms), resp. Cnly
conslsLs of seule ume
• ShorL Seeks (200 - 400 1racks) are only ln speedup phase
– 1lme ls proporuonal Lo Lhe square rooL of Lhe dlsLance plus seule ume
• Arm ls movlng mosLly aL consLanL speed for long seeks
– 1lme ls proporuonal Lo Lhe dlsLance plus overhead
Slide based on C. Ruemmler and J. Wilkes: An introduction to disk drive modeling
Seule 1lme
• 1he ad[usLmenL of Lhe head aL Lhe end of arm movemenL ls parL
of Lhe Lrack followlng sysLem
• 8eposluonlng of arm ls also necessary lf
– only Lhe head and noL Lhe Lrack ls changed (approx. 1/3 of seule ume)
– Lhe head moves Lo Lhe ñrsL Lrack of Lhe followlng Lrack aûer readlng
Lhe lasL secLor of Lhe currenL Lrack (full seule ume)
• lncreased Lrack denslues lead Lo hlgher head swlLch ume !
Lakes around nearly Lhe same ume as seule ume
• uaLa can already be read before end of head ad[usLmenL ln case
of read accesses
– lmproved performance ln case of ºhlL"
– no penalLy ln case of ºmlss"
– ulñerences beLween seule umes of read an wrlLe accesses of up Lo
0.73 ms
Slide based on C. Ruemmler and J. Wilkes: An introduction to disk drive modeling
uaLa LayouL
• Pard dlsks asslgns daLa Lo loglcal blocks
– CapaclLy of one secLor beLween 236 and 1024 byLes
– Mapplng Lo physlcal secLors on hard dlsk
– º8ad SecLorsº can be hldden and hard dlsk can perform low-
level performance opumlzauons
• Zonlng: 1racks are grouped lnLo zones wlLh same number
of secLors (Lyplcally 3 - 20 zones)
• 1rack Skewlng: SecLor 0 of each Lrack ls shlûed Lo
compensaLe ume for head or Lrack swlLch
• Sparlng: Some secLors are reserved and can be used as
replacemenL for bad secLors
Slide based on C. Ruemmler and J. Wilkes: An introduction to disk drive modeling
Zonlng: lnner and CuLer 1racks
• lnlually: number of secLors / Lrack Lhe same for lnner
and ouLer Lracks
– 8Þl (8lLs per lnch) on ouLer Lrack smaller Lhan on lnner Lrack
• 1echnology enables paruuonlng of dlsks lnLo zones
– Lach zone chooses number of secLors based on lLs lnner Lrack
– 8Þl nearly consLanL wlLhln zone
– Plgher capaclLy on dlsk
– Plgher daLa raLe on ouLer secLors (rpm consLanL)
• /0123145670 36 38901 9157:; <(=>?40; @0123145670
36 A6601 9157:
Slide based on lecture from Prof. D. Patterson (Berkeley)
lallacy: uaLa 1ransfer 8aLe
• ManufacLurer provldes daLa raLe accesslng surface
of hard dlsk on daLa sheeLs
• Lach secLor conLalns error correcung codes (up Lo
20° of secLor slze) and meLalnformauon
• Space beLween secLors and Lracks
• 8ule: Pard dlsk are slower by a facLor of 1,3
compared Lo daLa sheeLs
Slide based on lecture from Prof. D. Patterson (Berkeley)
Pard ulsk 1rends
• CapaclLy: +100°/year (2x / year)
– Pard dlsk capaclLy has grown LhaL fasL LhaL number of plauers per
dlsks has been reduced (some dlsks only have a slngle plauer)
• 1ransfer raLe: +40°/year (2x / 2 year)
• 8oLauon- and seek ume: -8°/year (1/2 / 10 years)
• Areal uenslLy
– 8lLs per lnch, 8Þl on a Lrack
– #1racks on plauer (1racks per lnch, 1Þl)
– lmporLanL: 8lL denslLy per areal unlL (8lLs/lnch
2
), called areal denslLy =
8Þl x 1Þl
• M8/t: > 100°/ !ahr (2x / year)
– lewer Aslcs per hard dlsks and hlgher areal denslLy
Slide based on lecture from Prof. D. Patterson (Berkeley)
Pard ulsk CapaclLy
Pard ulsk Areal uenslLy
Pard ulsk 1Þl, 8Þl, .
Pard ulsk 8Þl/1Þl
Magneuc Medla 8oadmap
Pard ulsk 8oadmap
Pard ulsk lnLernal uaLa 8aLe
Pard ulsk Access 1lmes
Comparlson Puu - u8AM
CosLs
1echnology 1rends
CPU
Network
Memory bandwidth
Hard disk bandwidth
Network latency
Hard disk latenxy
1990 1992 1994 1996 1998 2000
1
10
100
N
o
r
m
a
l
i
z
e
d

r
e
l
a
t
i
v
e

t
o

1
9
9
0

Slide based on lectur from Prof. R. Burns (Baltimore)
Amdahl's Law
• Amdahl's Law ls used Lo calculaLe sysLem speed-up lf only
parLs of Lhe sysLem becomes fasLer
• Peavlly used ln parallel compuung
• Cenerallzed Amdahl's Law calculaLes speed-up ! based on

,
where
– "
#
1lme fracuon for group
– !
#
Speed-up (or slow-down) of group
– $ number of groups
!
"
= #
#
$
%
&
&
'
(
=
1
0
1
n
k
k
k
S
P
S
Lxample for Amdahl's Law
• Assumpuons:
– 12° of a program can be arblLrally acceleraLed
– 88° of Lhe program sLay
• •uesuon: WhaL ls Lhe speed-up?
136 , 1
1
88 , 0 12 , 0
1
=
+
!
= S
lnßuence of l/C Þerformance
• Assumpuon: CÞu lncreases 100 °/year, l/C laLency decreases by 8° / year
• Speed-up decreases from 29°/year (1996 " 1997) Lo 14°/year (1999 " 2000)
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
R
e
l
a
t
i
v
e

A
u
s
f
ü
h
r
u
n
g
s
d
a
u
e
r
1996 1997 1998 1999 2000
Jahr
Zeit IO Zeit CPU
Slide based on lectures from Prof. D. Patterson (Berkeley) and Prof. R. Burns (Baltimore)
lnßuence of l/C Þerformance
• Lxponenual performance lncrease can change crlucal componenL
• Speed-up decreases from 46°/year (1996 " 1997) Lo 33°/year (1999 " 2000)
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
R
e
l
a
t
i
v
e

A
u
s
f
ü
h
r
u
n
g
s
d
a
u
e
r
1996 1997 1998 1999 2000
Jahr
Zeit IO Zeit CPU
Slide based on lectures from Prof. D. Patterson (Berkeley) and Prof. R. Burns (Baltimore)

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