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A CONCISE DICTIONARY OF EGYPTIAN ARCHAEOLOGY .

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W. ANDERSON MORTON WITH 80 ILLUSTRATIONS AND MANY CARTOUCHES METHUEN " STREET CO. 36 ESSEX LONDON 1902 .C. BRODRICK and A.A CONCISE DICTIONARY OF EGYPTIAN A ARCHAEOLOGY FOR STUDENTS AND HANDBOOK TRAVELLERS BY M.

0C-n6l967 .

illustrating form has most figures Egyptian on gods ments monu- frequently each want set case represented chosen. "c. have be sought have of the large been has Eeferences but a only the book. names occasionally consulted given J bibliography at works been A In the placed selection the end of the of only kings' has of the been inserted. Mary Anna Brodrick Anderson Morton . aspect The under or of of depict than attributes. to the not in from one been space. that various condensed to information for in otherwise volumes. used. common transliterated. scarab such on as spelling has Thothmes.PREFACE THIS with travellers contains little book the in in a has of a been prepared to for students publication and which would to idea offering book Egypt handy form of reference. is Isis. It has more been one possible.. Pitlochry. the the cover copied of Miss from a fine green specimen in possession Molyneux. Serapis." the the but in Greek case particular has not where to some other the word become been been The familiar general the more reader. system the of transliteration adopted In or will the be found of form has heading names. "Hieroglyphs.

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LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS .

LIST Vlll OF ILLUSTRATIONS .

).A CONCISE DICTIONARY OF EGYPTIAN ARCHAEOLOGY A ah. coffin Mariette the discovered of this Thebes but M. queen. end mother an of of the Dynasty Aahmes XVIIIth the I. the cover shape from mummy. . purely the He is a moon God. to in the gilt top found articles a cofiin included double- hinged bracelet with on a gi'oundwork of gold figures.. of M. and first III. Mariette at being unfortunately time. blue enamel . diggers at 1860.v. Aah. king In of Dynasty.. of the shares lunar with Khensu and Thoth emblems sometimes crescent solar connected with {q. bottom. I. who and is Thoth disk. many coffin the mummy valuable is and The in is was absent the of The of a robbed articles. D Aah-hetep Wife of obscure Seqenen-Ea of the king XVII.

572-528.) a commercial traders settlement. and made Lydia. lapis a dagger in a sheath of gold . alliance Croesus. II. This II. a largegold collar with hawks' in These heads at each end.Khnem-ub-Bd. and daughter of Queen wife of Amen-hetep I.v.). is in the Cairo preservation. in the hope invasion. of Dynasty XVIII. with an axe with a y handle ornamented covered gold-leafand carnelian and turquoise lazuli. en-Ea-Nefert. to have Aahmes se-Nit. and he began the great independence which resulted in the expulsion He of the Hyksos. Nefert-ari was had war by of children.C.2 A CONCISE DICTIONARY a OF a large bracelet opening with of cedar-wood with hinge . king of of stemming .* Aahmes I. Amasis II.. He then Turning subjugated the Mentiu. cir. B.Dynasty He married the princessAnkhsXXVI. She the Aah-hetep Nefertari and was Aahmes I. daughter of Psammetichus Pharaoh encouraged to {q. (Dynasty XVIII. The body of Aahmes. or Bedawin. 1587 her six B. a gold chain with pendant scarabaeus . captured their capitalHat-nart (Tanis?)and drove them into the Palestine desert. First king Neb-2:)ehti-Rd. etc.. appears died in the prime of life. Aahmes his queen. an by opening enterprise both He with the as a Naukratis and as Greek free port place of also tide conquered of Persian Cyprus.C.. Semneh and Nile the the south he went repelled tp up Ethiopians. in a fair state of He Museum. . . objects are now the Cairo Museum.

the mysterious. The in height. See Papyri. or it compared to the Aamu.). to traversed Greek by a river . and created for their future accomodadivisions ' His heavenly world.' there I will gather appeared the Field of Eest . Therein do I gather as its inhabitants things which the stars (Erman). for site Abydos. the his own. and wear to the Egyptians. capital near the modern Girgeh. at Beni the walls of the tomb upon Semitic Hasan they have a distinctly type of . having reached which territory he inspected the upper regions." we in the of Seti His learn how people on that Ea. found legend of tomb Destruction I. for he had there chosen declared about him of gathering his purpose men many tion in it. tired of earth. Amu. The idea has Elysian fields.EGYPTIAN ARCHAEOLOGY In the 3 the " Aalu. Greek name of Upper Egypt. where the beard bidden forcoloured face. The Egyptian name for cynocephalus{q. retired to the sky. else- Mankind. The name givenby the Egyptians to the Sinaitic Peninsula. the Asiatic tribes " Aani. rulingdisobedient " was and fulfilled. and desire where. nome of the eighth Abet. broken ways been by several doors. even the various of the ' * ' " It was to this on " part of the divine world the death of the as " that souls made The " their way the Dead the divine their seven body. the Book of speaks in of it harvests. of Khnem-hetep II.Fields of of. Their clothes are of a shape and colour peculiar to themselves. hang from heaven. Abbott.v. The a produced departedspent barley here grew to field which of which Aalu led were surrounded and were by wall of iron." which the blessed fields time cubits harvesting. . who inhabiting were depicted They may be seen probably Semites. and majesty spake : Let there be set a great field.'and there appeared the Field of Aaru (Aalu). are yellow. plants in it.

or flora of for for Nilotica. Cyprus xerxes Dynasty XXIX. One of these was discovered in 1818 by Bankes and given to the British Museum. and is still in the temple. gives begins with Mena the names of seventy-five kings. joined forces with the King of unfortunate an campaign against Arta- A king of Adet. and the acacia Seyal. and Ashic There are now several on kinds in sont Egypt. making statues. Abydos was Petrie has Chief burial placefrom time immemorial found to there the the burial place says that it was of Osiris. The of immense Egypt being so limited.4 A CONCISE DICTIONARY I.) royaltombs Dynasties. The extraordinary fertility rendered in one sense an agriculture easy The land uncovered after the inundation the soil matter. built fine earliest known the 1st and Ilnd Seti deityAn-liur. (SeeThis. if not to be buried. One of the names of the solar bark. in their righthistorical or chronological order.and hence the custom of bringingthe dead. The first tablet of the chief kings who gives the names reignedover The to Eamses II. of Agriculture. . It is therefore not but it is valuable as givingthe kings a complete list. Tablets of. would pro- . It is much damaged. temples here. to Diodorus in II. The other was found byDiimichen in 1861. at least to rest in the sacred cincts prefor a time. who according Siculus. which and ends with Seti L. Acacia. second Egypt from Mena tablet. as the wood only trees affording The wood was also Achoris.. they appear belong to Tradition Abydos. and a OF Eamses II. but as " probablythose were mentioned the monuments Arab " Shenti the respectively tree.these were acacia tance imporused being almost carpenteringpurposes.

Ahi. to The with clumsy broad plough The short then and attached horns yoke sown. in use in ancient times the were very of a much like those wooden of oxen. are representedon the monuBarley the process rather than of '' and occasionally the modern was pulled probability heads and the from the separated up by the roots. doleful most Certain papyri and tomb give inscriptions accounts which crop This crop dhurra. As soon as the corn was cut.). Old the most frequently done by donkeys under were usually employed. a is in all of be the hard life and This to harsh own miserable condition is not from sarily neces- of the labourer. Ahu. son {q.EGYPTIAX cluce ARCIIAKOLOGY 5 But a great three or four successive crops. For also carried two pots used. lioes wood. Atum A form A of Harpocrates of the of Hathor. largely among also grown.v. stalks by a peculiar implement that looks like a comb.v. the to gather the officialtenth before the tax collector came The treading out the corn" was grainwas stored. variant name of the god Tum or {q.). the former being Vines and olive trees were trained trellises supported by forked over poles. not near sickle is in most The short-handled. still ^ used was by were the of The into Fellsihin. and men was (q. when by sheep being cut with a ripe was ) the earth. so that curved and made reapingmust have been one of sawing cutting. but later. \^ cultivated.v.) largely The implements attached to a yoke over the shoiUders. set with flint teeth. oxen and wheat both ments. Empire. to their improvidence. agricultural to poverty treatment attributed rather their but superiors. easily in order to bring of irrigation amount was necessary this the Shadoof the hiter crops to perfection. small sickle. Vegetablesmust also have been extensively the since they figure so offerings. seed the The blades it V handles. . but just under the ears. trampled driven over having been stiff muddy corn was soil it. slightly cases of wood.

frequently depicted seated in on a small pylon. which many There is a very necropohs. She is figured the picturesof the judgment before Amam. and side by which the west on discovered This altar was the east. near the east bank is alabaster to but it is not sufficiently Asyiit. notablythe interesting fragment of the pseudo-gospelof Alabaster for The There on was Peter. 3 ins. such a form the from only known at Tel el Amarna. Dowadiyeh. thus faced by Naville M. statues. Egyptians. and vases a used chief quarries were quarry near at a place There called Hat Nitb. Altar. cavations during his recent ex. being quarried admit of Alphabet. and Shmm or famous in ancient days for its linen cutters. only one genuine altar has been found in a temple.e Hieroglyphs. is another in the desert behind Minieh.. for Egyptian name the "Dewhat is usually called A composite creature. and about 5 ft. in " MSS.). part vourer. 9 ins. until then. The . ' ' Sp. wall-paintings of altar was Amam. great deal by the Egyptians of many kinds. Apu the Greeks. by 13 ft. " tables of offerings Although small altars or frequently in the pictures and wall appear decorations of temples and tombs.0 A CONCISE The DICTIONARY of tlie OF Akbmim. Sins. sarcophagi. part crocodile. and is a large stone Der platform measuring about 16ft.Panopolis of Chmim of the Copts. high. It was weavers and stone Nestorius extensive have been died found there in banishment. part hippopotamus. It is in a court on of the temple of side of the upper court the north el Baliri (Dynasty XVIII. compact for use." lioness. There are steps up to it the priest mounted.

" gods perhaps he was the one most worshipped. against the black peopleof Gush. Amsu. to One of the finest tombs " cry.)." and was supposed by those very who could stand this judgment point. littleis known Amasis Amber. confidential friend of the king Oryx Nome." and " the walls that not on el Medineh. frequentlyfound in His name conjunction with Ra than alone.so that intercourse the earliest time. . another Amen-em-hat orders to transport the king's received from the quarry the to sarcophagus and its cover eternal resting-place of his lord. his royal w^ith. Amsu. know tin which we copper Amen. to make fact the with Europe in possible which is further proved by the Egyptians obtained for alloying bronze. A name borne to by the " four use Dynasty XII.. or on expeditions of these expeditionsw^as One master. at Beni " Amen Hasan Great the of " is that chief Amen-em-hat (variant Ameni).'i. Thus he always in conjunction A god who is more was fused with with B.though almost universally with some other god. signifies Of the hidden all "the one. or Khnemu. Under Mentu-lietep of Dynasty XI. His in role probably was as a god of the dead. II.EGYPTIAX ARCirAKOLOCiV of the She it has to test. and original late times "much mystic philosophywas evolved out of his name.) Amen -em- hat. but not confined It originated probably in a war front ! of the an " kings of of royalty. 7 on Osiris in the at Der "Book Dead. The obtainable some Baltic. her the function is called been devour But she who destroys some the it wicked. See Aahmes-se-nit.." and learn that he we (Usertsen I. on the southern Egyptian frontier. of and kind a Beads in the Vlth amber of amber Xllth was was have from been the found at Abydos nearest Dynasty tombs." {See Amen Ra. From the inscriptions behalf made of.

2778-2748 b.. inscribed An stone at gold and precious stones.. who was Amen-em-hat a prince (q. The government for the gloryof their victories Se-Nehat.. in rock inscriptions recorded been have founder of He and his successors as are known internal the he the '' as much for their of the w^ise home abroad. official led by a distinguished One of these expeditions. first king O n Dynasty XII. II. there up red by granite of himself...A CONCISE DICTIONARY OF and Amen-em-hat I. penetrated beyond the Second frontier to .wdth whom followed the example He years.c. Chabas) some mystery about Amen-em-hat his death.Nuh-Kait-Eu.v. probably of the and most of Tlieban a descendant likely origin. buildingw^ell-fortified places on protect the people from the incursions of The region was important on account of its negroes. certain explorationsin the Abydos commemorates conquered country in search of the preciousproducts. portrait reign he associated son. " years of his with him the throne his young on for this son that he WTote the It was During last ten Precepts papyrus contained it would in the Sallier Papyrus de there II. cir..) of aggressionin all quarters His wars of Dynasty XI. under Mentu-hetep. and papyri. " Usertsen. From par a of Berlin (" Les seem Papyrus that Berlin. of his predecessorsin extendingthe southern boundary possessions." ^vas M. Sc-hetep-ab-Bu. named Se-Hathor." founded a Something to of the from at conditions country may be learnt Amen and Story of was temple Thebes set Amen-em-hat I. third king of Dyn- G r^ uuu ] he shared the asty XII. and the throne of his for Son some of Usertsen I.

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and His and His tablets. in his son's time.and for from inscriptions at a we are dependent chiefly of Aahmes we upon the From tombs them and that or Penthe El Kab. success usual. he was was a succeeded. He and appears as we been Nubia. a on In the fifth year of his reign he went campaign this there is nothing to but apart from into Ethiopia.and he had Thothmes IV.. and Aah-hetep queens children. became religious daughters. sons. the the walls of the is chronicled upon also to Karnak.C. cir. Aa-khejmm-Ba. succeeded I. hear of "the other being to show Napata all the of the wall of the town upon forth all the victories of the king among hung people of the negro land. ID cir. Dynasty XVIII.10 A CONCISE it DICTIONARY OF of this the nekheb king. The Amen-hetep II. after that undertook Amukehak. Museum. B. He was successful of the latter. " who w^ere Amen-hetep I.. made Ta-iia. . learn king made and the short but effectual raid into Cush a Nubia. His of queen several by As one whom. he of which of Amada into " temples have enemy " raid into Asia. . queens were Tyi. had two Sensenb six he had by whom. II. son He Amen-hetep IV. Kirgipa. the Tel el Amarna 1414-1379.. reformation. the son by Thothmes of this king is in the Cairo mummy " campaign against a Lib^'^an probably_ people.." the Amen-hetepIII.. him Under record. Neb-madt-Ed. Dynasty XVIII.daughter had two sons of Yuaa and five Thuaa.C. 1449-1423. began the first signs of that a change which. succeeded him. Nimmuriya of O 3 B.

He fame in the married Nefertiti rests afterwards 1383-1365. animals the usual paintingsof markable plants are refreedom from stilted representations. of of his death all traces years the Aten passed worship had died endeavour. which reformation of the religion in a more He endeavoured to In'ing brought about. of this king entirely upon country.ECiYPTIAX ARCHAEOLOGY 11 Anien-hetep IV. he removed to a site now known Tel el Amarna.Maat. Unfortunatelyfor the movement few and within a young. in the adoration of the Aten. and the crafts of this reign show efforts The to arts distinct nature. Dynasty XVIII. The and had six daughters. B. the A Amen combination and Ea. . he as tenets. copy and from sculpturesand for their birds. made to A successful free art from the which and priestlyconventionalities were ruiningit. of his He is at worship was generally repre- Amen-Ra. the he iniiniii ^ D men KJtu-en-Atoi. and findingthe opposition priests his capital be insurmountable. of The gods chief seat Thebes. Ncfcr-khcjjeni-Fa.) Amen-Ra. also though only temporary. or sun's spiritual w^orship of the Theban to disk. where. the impersonation of truth.C.. aided by his queen. C Called cir. {SeeAten. Of the old deities. and to raise the sought to inculcate these new moral tone of the people. was away. alone appears to have been the king recognized.

the and his head plumes cord. overcame their adversaries. form of "He a is Osiris in the mummy. I came into this I valley know I long for the water on that floweth of the by I desire the breeze the bank that river. It is divided into defined sections. children. with She takes occasionally was a place of of feminine a form Amen. The difficulties that have to be overcome by the Sungod (Ea) during his nightly journey through the " underworld twelve the Sun demons the The dwells are there described. travels of human of in Amenti again and " to the Many who animal those in form. of and Lower Mut goddess who Thebes. the Book of that which and other kings. of which runs or or cities. sometimes represented with a sheep's head.on eastern which." the the dead. a dwellingwherein They awake forms. settting lord. a bark.and as the Sun-god passed through again in the east. all dead. they nevermore sleepin their mummy their fellows. and idea of the be gathered Egyptian conception of the Amenti may from the pictureson the walls of the tombs of Seti I. in one hand On back the user are sceptre. by fields. Osiris is in the west rules sun. in horizon." is inscribed and fullyillustrated. beset path. from of which hangs {Sec Amsu Ea. their heart is careless of their wives Since . where is in the Underworld. the An other world. I am.) the Ament. which its was The he Hidden with over Land. so they expected in like manner to the blessed life. dwellings.12 A CONCISE DICTIONARY OF sented two as and holdingin standing. especially his form serpents. to pass through Hades An inscription of the time of Cleopatra speaks thus : For as for Amenti it is a land of sleepand darkness. . they behold neither their fathers to see night to " the rise nor their where mothers. and not me. a through all river. . " Amenti. A at feathers. being identified wdth Osiris. . and tall a the of other the dnhh. the crown sometimes human head and Egypt. those who are there remain.

) Amsu. of power. attributed magical to which were objects of protection. faience. nome ithyphallic Khem. and thinks "\Tetrie it probable that he was brought by his Avorshippers from Amt Nebesheh formed for its wine. as For head-dress the long plumes of Amen. he wears Behind him there are usuallygrowing plants. that being raised figure with only one arm if waving the flarjclluiii it holds above the head. the of Tell Egypt.Amsu It was marks the triad and Horus worshipped there. Armes. father. cardinal represented Some of texts points.EGYPTIAN it may of the ARCHAEOLOGY heart in its distress. Amset whom and who Mestha. the god of Panopolis. found statues of this god at Coptos. and {See Canopic called the alsoMin. one of the four the funerary geniito the canopic jars were dedicated. worn were by the livingand powers Some disposedin and about the body of the deceased. {(l-i'-)generativepower^ identified of nature he with Amen-Ea or is sometimes called is Min-AmenT! Amsu. is * 13 For the " refresh my name god or ^vllo ruleth here Utter Death. The its site.' etc. i. Amsi." inscribed with are hcl-au. the say they were others that Osiris their Figures in of these gods have been in occasionally Jaks.e. children was Horus. celebrated Amulets. or found bronze. The mound IJazit. nome nineteentli of Lower capitalof Ain-Pehii. Amen-Amsu. or Pa-Uaz. "words the land of Punt. or . monuments the on represented tightlyswathed free.the Apu and As modern of ancient Akhmim representing the and He as a Egypt.

The made girdlebuckle in some of Isis. and porphyry hematite. made Amethyst. {q.) symbolizes life. gold. amulet " usually made of " " .lapis lazuli. wearer. amber. carnelian. comone of stone besides were frit was of more some or value.porphyry or glass. which Like dnkham Mut. granite." ter chap- Bad. garnet. and been in every kind of material. Scarab." They used rock but the Every in their in kind position. agate. the the protection goddess. thct.serpentine. felspar. and in the 157th the rubric which chapter of the the commands to be placed on of the Dead Book It symbothe day of burial. jasper. and the harder the substance the finer the work. jasper.it had flowers An had to dipped lain. the important of amulets. The Jimummy signifies The 155th firmness.turquoise." but it is difficult It has was one \ to tell what most the figure represents. stability. " Tliet. and has depictedin combination an independent existence ascribed to it. were all used. neck of the mummy on lized mother of Isis.U A CONCISE mentioned from DICTIONARY in the earhest " OF and several were or are Book times.possibly to one even " tAnWi remains the life which of the found in after death. which typical of the mummy. preservation.v. colour and " placed on frequentlyinscribed was It the away the neck of with chapter of the Book An of the Dead. It is sometimes large numbers with the dad. of the *' Book the of the Dead " orders be it to be made in water of in gold." amulet " " of the placed on the neck word for its protection. malachite. used of the Dead. stone particular colour. An amulet such was as H usually sins the 156 '^ red material. obsidian. """. The washed of the blood of Isis.

placed beneath generallymade earliest ritual It is Book of scribed dethe the Dead. The white crown green substance. union. protected the w^earer from the evil eye. It in is An amulet representingthe the heads of of hematite. an amulet fastened which to the wrist or arm. Akh disk abdomen.) signifying good " !Nefer.and hence its objectwas the deceased. Egypt. {See Eubric of the Dead. The ARCHAEOLOGY collar of 15 gold which was to be of of his placed on the neck of burial. sometimes life. tQ" Ah. but in moon.and againstwords spoken in anger or malice.EGYPTIAN Usel'li. typifying An amulet The Symbolic Eye. It is is representing a some lotus column. Q \/ Upper Egypt.or of the mies. the " pillows. amulet Kim. probably represents V pCh Sam. The two were the Eyes of Horus. made of invariably of symbolicalof the gift Hez. the founrepresenting the conscience. Q Shen." chapter 166. An Sacred. to give him power bandages. '^-^ ^=^^ sun. of tain the heart. and eternal of youth. Tesher. signifying Xn amulet the representingthe Found in sun's the rising from An amulet horizon. An amulet Uaz. thought to represent the circle to secure of the sun's life to orbit." musical instrument. An or amulet a luck. The red crown of Lower .") V^ the mummy on to free himself 158th the day Book from '' chapter of Urs. some instances the left the represents the the right It the [See Eye. against the bites of serpents. '^^ " Uzat. enduring as the sun. mum- head-rests.

. in frequent Saite times. and festivals were held to in" dead. " The taken Paris a Ancestors to a chamber in it contains from Karnak Prisse. making offerings to of Thothmes representation at of his predecessors. Stairs the probably signify raising up to heaven. and justice moderation Anastasi. the so BibUotheque Nationale by It is called because III." I The Fingers.however. fathers. Similar scenes occur sixty-one Sakkfira and Abydos. Most supposed to drive away care. The 1 royal sceptre. the side being reckoned of through the mother's more importance than that through the father. for the deceased. Ancestors. The (^ " laid on the Frog It is not w^as found in use until Dynasty rection. they the only those of the house. symbohzed protection.which and earth. secure gave dominion over heaven To ThePhmwiet. w^as and |_| Neh.10 A CO"X^ISE DICTIONARY OF ^n^ Menat. Generally found inside the abdomen of mummies. probably symbolicalof the resursign means hieroglyphic "myriads. of ancestors with of of three the names names and of are are generations owner a often inscribed maternal side Frequently. paid by relatives to the Although much attention was descent tombs honour ancestor of their of the Hall M. The XVIII. this op never amounted "is small actual worship. A OY which was the sightof signof divine protection. four the of See Papyei. breast. The tomb. throne of Osiris /^ and The the idea of User.

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was (i. S-Finkh-lca-Bd.. VI..c. cir. b. Antef IV. son of Min-hetep probablyone of for bouring harthe feudal princes or a very high official. Papyrus. Arabs the foot of the The ''Aa" western mountain the found Theban Necropohs. by Brugsch Bey in 1854. Antef gildedcoffin is in tlie British B. is only If known mention by his brick name pyramid his four at Thebes and the of his in the Abbott showing the king with the pyramid. 2945.e." is in the Gizeh Antef Museum. borq the His (HI-)' Ba-seslies-ii]) Museum. the Great).C. cir. now in the Louvre.C. IIoT-uali-dnkh. Ninth and land last king of Dynasty undertaken XL An in his of Punt was to expedition reign.C. b. A stela favourite dogs was in Antef v..c. " " ** enemies. cir. 2786. Nuh-l-he2)cru-PiCf. 2902. 2940.18 A CONCISE were DICTIONARY found of OF at and mummy by B. cir. madt. second Another name. the . surnamed coffin of Antef II. An in- the decree for the degradationby containing scription this king of Teta. 2852. cir.. It is B.

god he his father being the with of a twilight.)." and is queen of in the company usually seen Eeshpu (q-v-)' lance. and J I armed hehnet. and Antha. a may He is and of represent depicted the his head names human " body One jackal. His cult was very general but to it seems throughout Egypt. Khnemu Anukit. of for speak Anubis He and the north and the south. third Her in the w4fe of triad of Elephantine.often mentioned 11. his father " swallowed nature sun " Osiris. of As the Osiris Anpu. and especially a god of the dead.EGYPTIAN ARCHAEOLOCiV Antha. wor- may have of of is son given of the Anubis apparent doubling the texts god. and to said to be the have a Nephthys. with She and is is a kind of goddess represented shield. A 19 ^0^^ goddess imported from Asia. AnubisorAnpu. Ap-uat " is (q-V. probablyof Phoenician the in origin. There was in the Delta and rise to where this the he fact was shipped. The who 5 " god presided over embalming. goddess. J distinguishing . " swinging a battle-axe. She is called Lady of heaven of the and gods. and of Kamses inscriptions Eamses war III. have had its centre at Lycopolis also a Lycopolis (Asyut). A and Anukit.

where Sati and Anukit. called the sacred Apis are bulls often buried erroneously ^ Serapeum. the imof spiritual evil . The great serpent. there She temple goddesses origin. principle the bulls Apeum. She is crown Sati being was the a name for to the the Sehel.who The dead persons.20 .. chapter of The Book Book of the There details of the combat. A goddess found at Dendera. in which after being embalmed. and in Graeco-Eoman times with Set. battled with the them " Sebau. of the entitled Overthrowing of Apepi treats .through Ea. he was confronted troops of fiends called Qettu. She sents repre- the feminine of Anpu (q. represents. " " Apis Mausoleum. ''Apepi was called He therefore never a god. is of possibly Nubian Anupt. and is devoted work " all night is until dawn. the entirely (seebelow opponent were of all souls of deceased identified with Osiris. also Nesi-Amsu). the. which of this opponent of Ea who is.not a regularlyoccurring phenomenon. though sometimes of Upper Egypt. Dead" also a Sheta.). In some find Apepi identified with instances we Typhon. but an irregular the . often but erroneously called Serapeum was the palace in which the sacred were lodged at Memphis. a serpent of many folds having a knife stuck into each.lord of the "underworld . the.) personati Apepi (Greek Apophis).v. The These excavated vaults were at the Sakkara. form another of was sun-god. "c. therefore on the sun's ultimate victory depended their safety. (SeeSeeapeum." of of feathers. As the sun went towards his 39th to " by Apepi with The the west. A CONCISE is a DICTIONARY OF head-dress she wears crown called island the onl}^ "Lady of Sati. and head of the powers of the sun darkness under the form of Ea againstwhom Horus He is represented or as waged his dailywar.

and.It treats recalling certain chapters of the Apepi {q-i'-).and both of phrases. Should be placedprobably in Dynasty XV. 31. was 39. in They of of the are fiend. . of Sim-god and back of his is represented blind. and 35 to of Nesipapyrus of the dailybattle between Ea 33. It is thought by many Egyptologists that Joseph served under the latter. and another signifies the blind one. other from as funeral is yet papyri in speakingof the deceased of as P-iia ( ^ % \ (^^^^ instead Pharaolij the Osiris. The name in green also to be on Apepi . and by the fire and into of is the Eoarer sword flinty subterranean . as ' ARCHAEOLOGY He forced names 21 storm- occasional is One one. were most interesting part of the work wax an burnt and papyrus made of several a to be burnt. there treat It contains a fifteen chapters. of the Dead. Apepi. Evolutions That variant known." notably chapters 7. is called Book by the god Knowing the showm copy the work It some is antiquity but other no by the readingswhich differs occur. he names. overcome is the strong." is of by " the The Khepera. Hyksos kings. The is that of how of shed which men gives and account were of It the creation." (Eenouf.EGYPTIAN and the cavern.' Caeculus. after being defiled. and tears wohien formed of Ea. from The which title tells the us author that in the some has borrowed. repetition for destroying the methods various mythical and magical. of the funeral A work which {q^v.). like the Latin Ubar.) Apepi Two I. and II. dark. Book forms Amsu and "Book about a of the of the third Overthrowing of. Cacus. evidently recited in the is every which the book temple monotonous of Amen-Ea Apts of day. was to be written figureswere fiends. his his cloud. or (Apophis).

The name worshipped by the Egyptians from the earliest times.22 A CONCISE DICTIONARY OF in Apes." the god of to whom born of a cow.). found such animal an throughout Egypt. The stelae that tomb large part of the w^alls of this vast of immense as givingthe importance historically. According to Herodotus with a square white spot on the forehead . lis in the Ilnd times that the Eenouf from But became The it was Heliopountil Dynasty. brought first to Nicopolis. some A tortoise-headed for the texts deity (?). and when he was Egypt. great pomp and put in an When embalmed he died. . in Lower and then with and ceremony to Memphis.). moonlight.substituted serpent Apepi {q." Apis symbolized the second life of Ptah.v. though another story says that it was duced introphis Memlater into Apis. symbol of these covered were a sacred bulls w^ere buried. a deity Memphis. searched for The priests and on the tongue a beetle. the most ancient of coveries dishis worship being at Memphis. " importance. on his back the figure of an was eagle.in the tail double hairs. Another for Ta-urt bull The {q. the body was enormous sarcophagus. The so-called Serapeum at numbers where Sakkfira is a great Apis mausoleum. name Apes or Apet. Apis bull says : '* not so of much triumph of the the over sensibly visible in the thought is most The development of the worship of the Apis bull. cult was said duced intro- to have been by Mena (1st Dynasty). which was of the sacred Apis.r. He was had descended in the form of lightningor a ray of he was black.

name of the third of Lower Chief Hathor.that is was year a king'sreign. It was which divided and " lay on into " the east Northern Apt. deity. capital modern Itfu. for the Tebt. Apis and at uraeus with was " between death " the a represented horns. the modern Luxor." worshipped Asyut. he became Greek nome one his like being with for Osiris. Greek for Tejj-ahet. the modern Hathor. The of Upper Egypt. Southern Apt. It was and royalty. Hathor.). the nome modern Edfu. Tlie Greek for Tebt. The earliest specimen Arch.EGYPTIAN dates the It of birth exact ARCHAP:0L0GY burial a 23 to say and in disk of the bulls. name Magna. name Aphroditopolis. el Hism. Aphroditopolis." represented by Karnak. Apollinopolis the capital of the second of Upper Egypt. [See of divinity Uraeus. the modern Apis. Chief deity. The Greek name of the tenth nome of Upper Egypt. the capital Nnt-eiit-IIapi. Apt. //C^^ . bank of That the part of Thebes Nile. and was to " ways.r. His office was the departed into Anubis. Hor-belmtet ((/. Chief deity.) Although the Egyptians were the arch they but acquainted with rarely used it.) Arar. human supposed that." souls land. on the head fore- serpent which of emblem the an gods and kings. Kom Egypt." He is at Ap-nat one " literally the " of the forms of the opener of Anubis. capitalof the twenty-second nome Atfih. Chief deity. introduce hidden the of the divine (See Name was of the worn Uraeus.

" apparently highly honoured it was of combined with the first At times case Bak-en-Khensu. Those probably only used . Seti I. Architects. as priestly prophet of Amen. two to (SeeWeapons.24 of a A true CONCISE arch is found DICTIONARY in a OF IVth Dynasty mastaba at Medum. One and headdress disk. all others being more or is i t natural of that all artists the architects subsidiary. whose sepulchralstatue is preservedat Munich. Arrows. son Ethiopian god was one nome is of of of Ea chief and Bast. come The down most to us famous is architect whose the name has of Sen-mut. human of the uraei. by mummiform Arms. Since architecture was Egypt's principal less accessory or art. should of many tombs. ram's horns.. by the king. and under principalarchitect at Thebes Eamses II. Ari-hes-nefer. of was royal princedid the holder chief of all the constructions of Lower Upper and Egypt. flint. of a the gates of Hades. disdain which in the and are have been on most honoured. office. and the are on the deities tenth the Upper Egypt. plumes two Arit. and a builder of Der-el-Bahri. in museums The to have names recorded stelae and in The to take office sometimes sometimes the office of even " appears a been not and hereditary. head a There is head remains his honour the the Island a or sisting con- He and represented with double a lion's crown.) and reed arrows Wood from twentywith hard with inches thirty-four metal have or wood. hard wood and flint heads long. tipped been were found. creature guarded called Aau. This of Ari-hes-nefer. of a temple to of with and Philae. favourite Hatshepsut.

.

" haunch . were according to our interpretation.) " The tomb chief walls of the sky preserved on temple and maps those at the Eamesseum. or. during an incredible number of observations are recorded. was *' the constellation. (Sahu) and (Sothis)." to astronomers attached the temples were knew called w^atchers night. cow Orion as a beckoning behind The " Sirius recliningin to the bark constellations the were reckoned and of whom the be thirty-six buted attriof Isis. of these Thoth w^as registers the god who An of " have come taught men part of the the science of priestly college The priests of Ea seem was to have been the first to recognize the importance of this study. decani thirty-six to whom were mysteriouspowers. at Thebes. in various placesas human They are represented beings standingin the little barks in w^hich they sailed our the man ocean of the him." in number. are Dendera.26 A such CONCISE as DICTIONARY in OF with these none accuracy Egypt. identified. where years. the great of the Prince of Hermonthis. Star tables are found of Eamses IV. sky." " They have kept. as some great of sight. only considered as part of the The constellations their were probably they were of the tomb. and of Setil." the the school " " the heavens. Mercury. at Thebes. registers But. dow^n to us. the "Plough. andEamses IX." Haunch. Mars and Venus Jupiter. important astronomy. were not depicted under various forms. stars as decoration represented Our Behind outlining came a the bodies of animals. to as as at a Dendera. but were Orion Sirius actually worshipped. was " the star Sothis star star Sothis transformed queen when Orion (Sahu) became into the of (Maspero. as in the tomb in the tombs but they are carelesslydone. reader of The " who knows the sightin the mansion of the face of the heavens. unfortunately." They at least five of and some of the constellations have been planets. Osiris. Saturn. supposed to be the abodes of the souls of Horus and respectively Isis.and their keenness of sightis indicated in of the titles they bear.

are the worshippers. The name given that name to the was solar disk. A. form. Until this period the rarelystood alone. name a by Josephus {contraApion) as having been built their last stronghold in by the Hyksos. it being the last place to give way before the . Aten. of Ilat-udrt.) Greek name for Lower el Heru-Khent-khati. the the in human hold hands usually which "J". in his Aten The disk god IS always represented as wdth rays extending each terminating in and The never solar from a it. (Khu-en-Aten). Hct-ta the tenth the The Caire").EGYPTIAN female A ARCHAEOLOCJY and the on 27 hippopotamus. religionof had " Aten country.sal. a couchant haunch. they present queen. hand. modern Benha w^as chief deitv The Greek Avaris. Hon faced her back with a crocodile. the tried to ship wor- of which it the under the chief cult under make " who Amen-hetep IV. Sec Crowns. was to king Tel his is to and el The at centre of his cult hills behind the and modern in tombs the of Amarna. although the phrase Ea the is not the uncommon. and eventually Egypt. the nome capitalof of Aten. Egypt. curious composite animal Atef. tioned citymen- heraht. underneath. (See and Hymns. In one tomb preserved a very fine hymn Aten the (published by in au " Bouriant Mission Memoires de la Khu-en-Aten Athribis.

) Thus in one scene In shaft to the deceased. flew to the for it came which at the death of the gods. H^ a Ba visitinor mummv. back But at it did not to remain comfort body entirely. Pelusium. the tomb as flyingdown with out-spread another it is resting wings on the top {q. K BT The Ba.28 A CONCISE DICTIONARY OF Egyptian dynasty.v. the coast near it was on possibly new Ba. and hands and hold frequently 7iif (q. some identifyingit with Tanis .which drove out the invaders. Its site is doubtful. In Egyptian pneumatology man.v. It was in represented which the the form of a bird with the dnkh it is human head. the Ba there the was the the soul of anihici.) represented . intervals mummy.

Ydsuf. by the hand of the Xllth Dynasty may have water regulationin connection with the works of Lake is always attributed After to them.Y In this form it is sometimes The a 29 tured sculp" sarcophagus hd. the It it Nome. of the god. its bed is natural. with He is temple after form at Tanis. Nile The on " conception was chapterin of food to the not. the important canal known the Bahr as Y ilsuf did not flow as it does now. worshipped in the a eastern part of the introduced XlXth Delta. and not the work great part of it would have been silted up of the Greek waiters. A form from Baal. Sohagiyeh. for of the Dead the deceased. and modified that. perhaps. See Bocchoris. in their time. are gave the conclusion It is of Yusuf. which Yusuf Derut the Bahr changes its name successively Eairm.wholly immaterial. according to the Yusuf in its present course probably a of work man." Moeris. of Bak-en-ren-f. . onlynavigablethroughout its lengthduring the inunIt is evident from Strabo and Ptolemy that.the Bahr be very old. If. Book of assures abundance the Ba great the west canal which runs parallel the Nome Crocodilopolite joining the Nile at Arsinoite is rather is a in the side. a in the time an Arab thus Greek cannot reopened by the it his name famous Sultan We Saladin. and name enlarged Possiblythe kings begun this system of of nature is unknown. Bal.EGYPTIAN of the mummy. a distance by river of 350 continuous series of canals and dation. Its ancient to Ibrahimiyeh. one.as is probablythe " case. the war wars He of was Phoenicia a the Dynasty." writers. and according to tradition it was who led then to of man.commencing and nearly opposite Akhmim. the modern El Wasta than in miles. Baal Bahr with See Bal. on a AKC'HAE()L0C.

of Mendes.by gave of the classic authors Mendes. who are accompanied by other gods before and behind. with a (Erment) in {SeeMentu. known entered most sunset sun's barks the took then " ^ are the best he his till the birth morning him to Sektit bark. simple and contains only the sun disk. until received again into the Sektit bark next morning. a He is represented ram's to fact which a curious error. Tum The Ea. in was called Hennu had the and The in some temples cases models these boats.. the * These barks stated temple at Erman god was symbol carried in processionround were times.) The which god god head." Third goat Ba-n-neter. During night he changed into different barks. ocean. {SeeMoon. and of the reverses this the calls the Mazit the bark of the morniBg. throne was Dynasty II. which kept. reigned reignthe female succession of secured. The pictures the boat is extremely Sometimes of these barks vary. The heavens Barks.) order. Ba-neb-tattu. the solar of the in these gods were The At his being conceived of as an often spoken of as progressing two in in their barks. the statement the rise. Bacis. to the king In his forty-seven(?) years."'' ^UnS_which at noon. a at others it is to without either with or self-propelled and Khepera are guide it. and Sektit the bark of the sunset.80 A CONCISE DICTIONARY OF Ball.with a cabin or shrine in the centre for the chief gods. His title that the is " Egyptians called livingsoul of Ra. See Toys. Sacred. the Greek Bakh. Sometimes there are rowers. was the name of the the sacred Mentu bull at HermontJiis was incarnate. At others it is large. most frequently accompany helmsman the gods of who Nun bark that of of Ptah- Seker-Osiris Neshmet. southern point He bark travelled the Mazit or Madet j"^. .

to be used preciousa material is for mere tectural archi- work. and Only foreign shepherds were " of hair very tightly plaitedand behind to the head-dress the or allowed to shave. women. The king wore a longer beard ears. form husband Her-hekennu. paintings show the and victim by men. w"ent clean shaven but on For it w^as great occasions This w^as customary to wear an artificial made by straps on than his subjects. " over " the a of which The seat she cat carries a basket. solar goddess and useful who heat the sun. to was " shield. the This volcanic Nile It highly valued for making found too of statues. A to extremely hard and statues on sarcophagisculptured is as perfect could be as produced finest specimens belong to the also Bast. yet the finish from this stone these XXVIth days. was This form of punishment and children. gentleman beard.EGYPTIAN ARCHAKOLOGY rock It was was . Figures of the gods are usually represented w^ith a and on the coffins pointedbeard curled up at the end form the same is frequently of the mummies found. the fierce heat. representedcat-headed. held two ^ Bast. of Horus. It valley. in purposes. chief " was sacred her. i. arms legs to the ground by Beards. The Dynasty.e. to wear beards. made one having become slaves with Osiris. used Wall his for men. the deceased an Osirian. as gentle sented repreof the She one is opposed to Sekhet. holding in a hand arm sistrum. fastened of cleanliness the Egyptian purposes in everyday life. Bastinado. not but in the desert. Prisoners were not allowed . in the being was difficult to obtain. at The \vhere Her of her worship Tell was Bubastis a the modern Basta to a great temple w^as built her. in the other.]1 Basalt.

" One papyrus to i. It was later that most from beer of Qede. an to Osiris. its that In bird. a It is sented reprebird with heron-like two long " feathers that back." turns legend at rose was Heliopolis singing from came that the bird flames beautiful listened.and during the corn the Ptolemaic was period made but how a Zythos the " favourite. old texts the soul of the deceased was compared to the Bennu Bes. his of function could form he for he not where evil.e. this evil the is identified Set. old Empire . consecrated have the Greek as the forerunner Phoenix. of to Bennu.32 A CONCISE " DICTION " ARY OF Beer. a have been to be Bes. the name a sacred been bird. emblem It seems of of and resurrection. and to aspect nature. barley. over presides . In another appears kind Bacchus. would He of an also all in figures in birth scenes invariably the mammisi of Egyptian temples. but of Punt.having the land of the be somewhat been introduced a god In complex character. certain which out of tree. Dead" in foreign origin. which The name signifies or " revolves." the a flowing Its from the back of its head. from from "Book with seem A remote god whose worship who He he is was dates of of times. There in were The times the the barleywine sorts of the ancient under the four in use Egyptians. Minor. in Asia was esteemed highly. from Upper Egypt. mentions 45 talents beer prepared is unknown. which tax at Memphis in one amounted 3100 drachmae The month. song even being Ea so himself Bennu bird.

.

34

A

CONCISE

DICTIONARY

Ol^"

of the most primitive kind, consisting steering gear was of two one or enormous oars or merely paddles. The There onl}^sails represented are square. are many of boats the tomb and walls. on pictures temple (See Barks.)

Bocchoris.

The
a

Greek

name

given by

Manetho

to

Bak-en-ren-f,
who,

Saite
was

it appears,

king of the XXIVth Dynasty, scarcely independent of the

Ethiopian kings.
Book which
"

of the Dead.

may manifested

given to Pert em hru, be translated, "coming forth by day," or in the light." It has also been called the
name more

The

"

Funeral

Bitual," and

and ignorantly, fancifully

been It has found in many Egyptian Bible. papyri,and chapters from it are inscribed on the walls of tombs and pyramids,and on sarcophagi and mummy contains all the chapters No one wrappings. copy is the same case (about 200), and in no sequence observed all through. The chapters are as independent
"

the

of

one

another is in The

as

the

Hebrew

Psalms," and
The

like 165
are

them,
known

were

composed
a

at different times.

longest

copy

chapters.

which contains papyrus, difficulties of translatingthe work Turin

the text had in the earlytimes immense, for even become copying of it by the corrupt, and the constant uninitiated increased had rendered it most obscure. This is

by the fact that the work is mythological the knowledge of all current throughout, and assumes ideas set The lofty myths on the part of the reader. in great out forth in some to stand chapters seem with the apparentlygross conceptionsfound contrast
in others
may
"

; but

in the latter

case

some

esoteric is lost.

ing mean-

be

imagined,of

which

the

key

The
every

Beatification

of the Dead

is the main

chapter." The deceased recite the chapters in order that he of his new and enjoy the privileges
of
was

subject was supposed to might gain power
life. His desire death lost at

to

have

all the

powers

he

bad

E(iVPTTAX restored said. into
to

AIUIIAI^]()L()(;V Of

35

him. have

punishment
was

almost

nothing
with

is

The

bHss liighest
to

to be identified

the

gods, and

the power

of

transforminghimself
are

Ra, Seh, Nut, Osiris,Isis,Horus, Set, Nephthys, Ptah, Thoth, The Theban Khnemu, and Turn. gods are conspicuous

anything he pleased. x\mong the principalgods

mentioned

by

their absence. The oldest papyrus of the work copy earlier copies The is of the

not are so Dynasty. the copiously illustrated as later ones, vignettes of and more more gradually becoming importance. in many coloured. Most of are cases The}'' brilliantly the versions agree in saying that the oldest chapter is the sixty-fourth, the Turin papjTUs adding that it was discovered by a son of Khufu, of the IVth Dynasty ; another ascribes it to the 1st Dynasty. text It is called "The chapter of coming forth by day in the underworld." Other chaptersare called, of coming forth by day and living after death"; "of driving
"

XYIIIth

away

shame

from

the

heart of
"

of he

the

deceased";
land
to

"a

hymn of praise to Ba when life;" of bringing words
"

setteth in the
power not

of the

magical
the

deceased

in the underworld "of

; "of

dying a
"

second "of

time";

giving

air

in

underworld";
"

form he pleaseth ; "of changing into whatsoever ing making the soul to be united to its body ; "of know"of the souls of the west"; making a mango into heaven The those
to

the side of Ra." valuable

There
on

are

directions
lets. amu-

that certain

chaptersshall
most

be written

certain

English
in

translations

are

the Proceedings of by Sir P. le P. Renouf, the Society of Biblical Archaeology, vols, xiv., xv., xvi., "c., and by E. W. Budge.

Bow.
in
at

It

was

made A

of

a

round almost
or

5 to 5i ft. in

length,either

pieceof wood, from curved or straight,
notch fixed of
to

the

centre.

received

piece of

was or string, The bow-string was horn.

the

groove else it

at
a

each

end

projecting
or

hide, catgut,

30

A

CONCISE

DT(

TIOXARY the archers
are

OF

stiiiig.On the monuments drawing the bow in two
breast,or
bow the eye. Bricks.
in

represented

the
so

much

different ways, either to the effective w^ay, when the more the arrow-hne is level with

is held

high that {See Akrows.)

made simply Ordinary oblong bricks were and a little sand, with chopped straw of clay mixed materials easilyobtained, and suitable to the climate, the Tomb to sun. quickly drying ]:)yexposure l)rick-makers us kneading the paste paintings shew with the feet, pressing it into hard wooden moulds, to dry. After an exand layingthe l)locks out in rows posure stacked of about half a day, these blocks were to allow the air to circulate freely in such a manner as
,

about For few

them,

and

remained

thus

for

a

week

or

two.

was the poorer only for a dwellings the exposure commenced. In the building was hours before

size the
a

bricks

usually
also

measured

8-7

x

4-3

x

5*5; but
x

largersize was marked They were

used, measuring 15;0 x 7-1

5*5.

in various

royal brickfields being Pharaoh the reigning found of the period of
.

in the ways, those made of stamped with the cartouche A the few

glazed bricks
at

have

been

Eamses,
brick-moulds

Tell have

Defenneh also been

and

Nebesheh. The

Wooden labour of

imposed on not being the only subject captives,the Hebrews A of. use painting at Thebes, people thus made us executed period, shows long before the Mosaic Asiatic prisoners making bricks for a temple to Amen ; in a papyrus confirms and a passage (AnastasiIII., iii.) led to by Exodus v. 8, the supposition we are required daily that a certain quantity of bricks was
found.
was

brick-making

from

each

worker.

one

of Bridge. Up to the present time we only know bridge in Ancient Egypt and that appears to have
a

crossed
An

canal

at

Zaru,

a

frontier town
on

on

the

Delta. wall

be seen illustration of it may (northend) of the Hypostyle Hall

the

outside

at Karnak.

EGYl^TIAX Bronze. Even after The the
were

ARCHAEOLOGY metal
or

37 of the

favourite
invention used. the the The

Egyptians.
hronze,
the this flint copper metal

discovery of
in

implements
and vary tin used

proportionsof
making
it
\vas

by according to
mirrors

Egyptians
use

for

wliich contain

destined. 80
to

Vases,

and and

weapons
15
to

from

85
was

parts of copper
for largely used Init these figures, Dynasty. The fine work has

20

of

tin. and

Bronze

making
do
not
occur

statuettes

miniature

until

after tlie XVIIIth for mirrors
or

bronze
an

intended

and No
seen

often of the

representation
on

alloy working
and

of

gold
Tin.)

silver. is

of this

metal

tomb

walls.

(Sec Copper
Greek
nome name

Bubastis.
the Tell Basta.

The

for Fa-Bast

capital

of

eighteenth

of

Lower
a

Chief
a

deity, Bast,
cat's head.

Egypt, the modern goddess frequently

represented with
Bull. the bull Of

all the

sacred the

animals
most

in

Egypt perhaps
In
Amen

received cult he
"

attention. Khem.

the is

ithyphalhc
addressed took
name a

is

represented by

The Theban bull, fair of face." kings title "strong the Bakut, bidl," possibly from
as

under

which in Erment. courage.

the

bull The

sacred bull Apis
was

to

Mentu emblem

was

worshipped
strength
and

the and

of and

(Sec

Mnevis

Sehapeuai.)
Busiris. ninth The
nome

Greek of

name

for

Pa-Ziusar, capitalof
the modern

the

Lower
was

Egypt,

Abusir.

chief

deity
The
nome

Osiris

(q.i'-).
for F((- Uazt, the

Buto. nineteenth sheh.

Greek of

name

capitalof

the

Lower

Egypt
(^.r.).
North.

;

the

modern

Nebe-

Chief

deity Uazit
of the

Buto.

Goddess

See

Uazit.

38

A

CONCISK

DICTIONARY

OF

Calendar.

See Year.
See PpmsiAN

Cambyses.

Dynasty.

Canopic Jars.
the embalmed said to have been

The viscera

four

jars in

which

were

placed
name

of the

deceased.

The

is

adopted,because of the resemblance the jars bore to a form of Canopus worshipped in the of each jar was The cover in the place of that name. form of a head, the heads being those of the four genii Osiris according to either of Horus children or who different texts representedthe cardinal points, dedicated. The jarcovered and to whom the jars were
" "

The

four

"eiiii.

by

the man-head

of Mestha the

or

the Amset, representing and

south, contained
That head the

stomach

large

intestines.

the covered by the dog-head of Hapi representing intestines. The the small north, contained jackal of

Tuamautef, who

the east, covered represented the the until

jar containing the lungs and heart, while hawk-head of Qebhsennuf god of the w^st, covered
,

liver and

gallbladder.

These

jarsdo

not

appear

sacred the head to was to Bast. with .) Cartouche. But more discoveries have comrecent pletely Caste.EGYPTIAN the XVIIIth ARCHAEOLOGY 89 Dynasty Dynasty. enclosure the with The a name 2nd Egyptian Gallery . very mummied bodies of Jars of the same shape. away impassablebarriers between class and one done There were no class. have : been found at several places. his dynasticcognomen. and after theXXVIth In the earlier fell into disuse. (BritishMuseum wall case. The Qebhsennuf by jars by Neith. It was supposed. the other containing his prenomen divine name. they were blue of green and later on glazed faience. Its I vN tSn appears holds be onomatopoetic. period they gradually fine kind of stone made of alabaster or some . and from these inscriptions of Isis. and Occasionally An solid wooden jars are found. This animal another. elongated seal. Tuamautef four and Selk. with this idea. to the was elliptical inscribed an line at the in which " royal name. inscription incised and stone was ones on ones painted on wooden usually placed on each." to slav a knife. The "Book of the which cat often where in figuresin vignettes it sometimes a the Dead.containing " " various sacred animals. Only royal names at least two or written one king had cartouches. also of still later of teiTa-cotta. that caste existed in ancient Egypt. who a is frequently name represented with nuiu of cat. before the great advance in Egyptology that was cipherme brought about by the deof the hieroglyphs. name be the It may The cartouche " of representation of a Pharaoh is his were enclosed thus. were frequentlyplaced in a sepulchralchest.or between and profession Cat. given end. by Each this line. under the protection learn that Mestha w^as we w^as guarded Hapi under that of Nephthys. wood.

practicefrom a religious confirmed The name Cleopatra. 16 in. to 20 in. in size.). the emblem On tomb walls the cat we see accompanying his in his little skiff when he goes fowling in the master marshes. significance was Very little. and Beni Hasan. That and this was a custom is asserted by Herodotus. monuments. X of Horus are x small stelae or tablets. by head Pharaoh. It was perhaps a symbol of the Sun-god and day. of different of several wives The married to have and daughters Ptolemies. and constituting for mitiates. Sakkfrra. seems with six or a Cleopatra was Ptolemy Epiphanes enjoyed a co-regency her seven brother-husband queens of the Philometor. Circumcision.40 A CONCISE But the much DICTIONARY OF serpent. They are of late date. point of view. of evil and darkness. animal the was meaning venerated here is obscure. and in bronze and faience. first Syrian Princess. from on 2 in. who (V. slayingthe serpent. CleopatraII. is That the been the shown by fact of numberless mummied cats that have found. and it has been suggested that the animal was taught to retrieve. name Indeed to the had all seem have . given to the the by pictures on if any. and " existingafter Dynasty. Many figares of cats of different sizes have been found. royal seal of the civil administration. especiallyat Bubastis. power the decrees ' and Light is the public perhaps to be the office and of and bearer of these officials in the story of the elevation Joseph. Cippi 3 in. A acted Chief of the Chancellors class the and of officials XVIIIth Royal the Seal Bearer. on bearingthe royal king'sseal.probablylater than the XXVIth Dynasty. They matters over Xllth before for the documents thrown the king in and to have appear with the connected treasury taxes.having them form of talisman a magical formulae.

.

These coffins were thick yellow varnish. the places and where being plastered up Coinage. transported Museum. The colossal are figures carved out of the gritstonehill at Abu Simbel. are the of Kamses Thebes largestknown. So much was thought of these figures that if a Pharaoh would not be at the pains to have his own he would the names erase portraitexecuted of his predecessor from some and substitute statues existing his own. There the founder were two. All these figures are of Ramses of granite. These were placed in front of the temples.). on was was being 57i head the south ft. " one of which was called colossal 52 ft.42 A COiXCISE DICTIONARY OF titles of the of the deceased. the ground. Their height is II. to It lies shattered of this statue and that found near side of the Ramesseum. at the A Eamesscum similar statues. like most figures.are about 66 ft. high without tomb the pedestal. See Money. at the The "Vocal colossus was {q. In now a almost destroyed at El Bersheh there was a representation the wall of the transportation of a colossus. at Memnon seated Thebes.v.They. high.v. After this period the art degenerate {q. also chaptersfrom the ''Book Dead. It is now in the British to England. Coffins of XXIInd a to XXVIth of the weighing of the heart in Dynasties have scenes the judgment hall of Osiris. The two seated colossi in front of the temple at Luxor 45 ft. four.31| ft. But few of these left standing..." The scenes represent the deceased varnished with adoring the gods. Emafter have died which out. painted over. which form the fa9adeof the temple of Ramses II. time the taste for them seems to . are The most celebrated the statues of Amen-hetep were III.) visiting The lids were fastened these were on with inserted wooden dowels. high. At Memphis lies another of Ramses statue II. Colossi. or six representing of the temple.and pictures of the Ba the body. on The chief colossi belong to the period of the New pire. high.

Many traces of the have been found among ancient mining operations rocks of this district. what made animals very both rare. " There called Boheiric. with on the The back.as agreeablesmell to also different kinds . and fuller.and the glyphs. Cosmetics. for the study of hieroknowledge of it is invaluable of the modifications The Copticcharacters are added six signs were from the Greek to which letters. The flat surface along the centre ornamented Commerce. Cones. ii(3|)(oiiiiovcipc3 zu nro^iiovii thoak. to came.EGYPTIAN Combs. Demotic. on the Eed Sea. Copper. ancient from It was one as for the Qeht. except modern is of wider on that the teeth on sometimes with the one side than quently is fre- the other. The copper used by the Egyptians in the from the Wady chiefly making of their bronze came Magharah. in the peninsularof Sinai." from the BohOra. Greek name of Upper Egypt. [SeeBronze. of of it was important town towns Egypt. two in order Greek that the those be " sounds which had no were a in equivalent dialects " could expressed." which last the older and Coptos. capitalof Kuft. and is period. with teeth on tooth comb. nome Amsu. the Perfumes much in body were give an request. carvingor inlay. most the fifth the modern to this Chief that deity. See Funerary Cones. the trade Kosseir. ARCHAEOLOGY of comb known " 48 dates from The earliest form the " is called usually of ivory.) Coptic. provincein was the Delta. Roughly speaking Coptic is the modern survival of the ancient Egyptian language. Sahidic. rude but vigorous carvings of Specimens of this period are Pre-historic later kind our sides exactlylike are wood. See Trade.

U

A

CONCISE

DICTIONARY for
on

OF

of oils and oil
on

unguents
and

rubbing into
their
new

the skin. head-dresses could

"

Sweet
"

their heads of ointment

was

requiredon
Cakes
at

great festivals by
were

all who

afford of

it.

placed on
with found
use

the heads the oil of Alabaster

feasts,and
an

to be

anointed been

considered and

especial honour.
have also hi
was

guests was Qeiiii taining pots conBlack

unguent
green

in the tombs. for the eyes.
to

paint were
This the anirnal whole it.
are

Cow. who
or even

sacred The Book the

Hathor, the goddess
a

is sometimes

representedwith
cow

cow's

ears,

head. In the

also times

represented
Isis is also
"

and Nut, the sky goddess {q-v.), connected with
names
"

at

of the Dead divine
cow,

seven

mystic
there

given

to

who

is

the wife

of the bull Osiris. In But old times there the

(SeeMehukt.)
were

\/'

Crocodile.
crocodiles
hunt

innumerable

in the

Nile, and

them.

tomb-walls The

of this animal

Egyptians went out to there are no representationson gious hunting,possibly because of relithe animal
w^as

scruples,as
{q.i\).

sacred him

to

Sebek neath be-

is often
some scenes

depictedin
show

the water seized

boats, and

by

a

hippopotamus.
the It was Ancientlycalled Shed. Crocodilopolis. as Ta-slie, capitalof a provinceof the Fayum known the land of the Lake," probably a reference to Lake
"

Moeris. Crown
,

^,

^.

j^f
seen on

,

Yf^

are

the The

crowns

most

frequently
formed
an

the monuments. and

head-dress of the

important

significant part
arc

king's royal

uniform, and

many

the varieties of

crown

pictured

ECn^PTTAN tomb
to

AHClIAK()L()(iV

45

upon
seems
a

and have the of

temple
been the red

walls.

The

festival

crown

the Pschcnt white
crown

combination and is warlike

(No. 4)
On the

(No. 7), which was of Upper Egypt crown of Lower Egypt (No. 6).
in times of peace,
"

occasions
seen

and

even

wearing the Khepersh (No. 3) or helmet. The war keeper of the king's diadem held a high position under the Old Empire ; at court done with during the New but the office was away Empire. The gods are always depicted as wearing and many of them most are complicated,as crowns, Nos. 15 and 16 ; No. 18 is one which is frequently seen the Atef cvown. on as kings as well as gods,it is known The queen's head-dress with his a vulture represented wings spread round her head in the act of protection. king
"

Cubit. 20-6

This

measure

inches.

It

varied

length was approximately at different however, slightly,
different architects.

of

periodsas employed by
Cusae. fourteenth Chief The
nome

Greek of

name

Upper

for Kcs, the capital of the Egypt, the modern Kusiyeh.

deity,Hathor.

Cynocephalus {Aroii).The
to

Thoth,

under

which

form

dog-headed the god is

ape, sacred sometimes

represented. Thoth being a moon god,the cynocephaliare frequently represented w^ith the lunar disk The Hermopolitan their heads. on sometimes eunead was represented that is,Thoth by nine cynocephali, and eightother deities ; but sometimes the eightapes attend Amen. watchers for They are called dawn." Nine the cynocephali Cynocephalus. the said in the to were gates open for the west setting sun, and each is then called Soul of the : Opener of the earth," by a name earth," ''Heart of the earth," etc. They are thus
" "

"

46

A

COXCTSP] in the

DI(

TTOXARY
to

OI^^
a

represented
inscribed and called of
on

illustrations of
sun

work

the walls of the The the
"

to the passage
"

royal during
scene

Theban the

frequently tombs, relating hours of night,
world." underin the
on

book Book

of that which of
a

is in the and

In

judgment

represented
on

papyri
walls
the

the el heart

the

Dead,"

at DOr

Medineh,
of the

cynocephalus is
of the beam is

seated

balance the Thoth

in the middle stands the

of the scales in

whicli while
to

deceased

being weighed,

by

with In

record

result.

and reed pen waiting palette this case the cynocephalus would

may
a

which represent equilibrium, the

naturallybe

qualityof

god

Thoth.

D
Dance.
amusement

Dancing
of the
a

as

old

favourite a spectacle was Egyptians, but it is improbable
a

the upper classes. pastime,at least among and the dance The usually women, performers were been to have would more a rhythmic movement seem than anything involving much Dancing energy. in representationsof feasts. are women usually seen They appear also in funeral processions,and in every are case accompanied by music and clapping of the that it
was

hands. dances apparently war which dances performed by men, A picture on tomb national dances. a dance. Hasan represents such a war There
were

and
were

harvest

probably
at

wall

Beni

Darius.

See Persian

Dynasty.

ECiYPTTAX Decree which the decree in council
were

ARCHAKOL()(;V A stela in the Cairo Museum

17
on

of Canopus.
in

is inscribed

to be

demotic, and Greek hieroglyphs, made at Canopus by the Egyptian priests, assembled, concerning the festivals which of Ptolemy Euergetes and held in honour
Mention ruler is also made had is added of the great conferred the upon

his queen Berenice. which benefits this

country, and

a

statement

tri-lingual copy every temple in
Delta.
between of Greek The

of this the

requiringthat the shall ])e set up in inscription

country.

flat alluvial land

the great arms of the This district from Memphis. letter A, received
in

Egypt lying north Nile, immediatel}'
its likeness of the Delta. of the word deemably irreto

in Lower

the

the

name

Demons

the

modern
"

sense

"

in Graeco-Egyptian largely spirits figure magical papyri in which the greater part of the spells Much addressed demons. to are importance was and their right of the demons attached to the names Khebu.) pronunciation. (Sec Maat evil

Demotic.
of the hieratic

The

name

given to
for the

a

cursive

modification

vulgardialect; it is not found introduced until the XXVth Dynasty. It was about B.C. 900 and was in use until the fourth century a.d. of signs as the hieratic, mixture Composed of the same it is extremely difficult to decipher,owing partly to
))O
o

used (q.v.)

^ 1 i

V
h

I ,1^4y
))
,^"

3

u

n

^

5

V

^

".

))

J") A\ )))

of signs which similarity and partlyto the equivalents, the thick reads and from careless. Like

have

separate
the

hieratic

fact that

writing is
hieratic it

its

parent the

rightto left. Professor H. Brugsch has publisheda but very little advancement is made

demotic
in the

grammar, studyof

An unit of measurement value of its The mean subject to slight variations. by F. modern Parva. Griffith. and like the cubit Digit.but of Egyptology is lessened students by evident want its value author's of discrimination. Egypt. with used The Sluglii. The of Greek for Het. It lies between the interesting specially of the as containing the only lapidary representation Psychostasia(q. Chief deity.). in A Greek was fortybooks of Julius historian." digit have no integral " It is Diodorus work the Siculus. Amen Ebshan.IS A CONCISf] DICTIONARY OF in it l^eingdone the characters. Diospolis of the seventh nome Hathor. Sudan. Diospolis. subjects rule very contracts texts a few as a and interesting. all the work by documents of demotic the Nor are men. seem in the . The Greek name of Lower of the seventeenth nome Egypt. and by Ptolemy Habu. Sept. some tale being the chief exceptions. the capital Ea. finished and Medinet A small temple begun by Ptolemy IX. fessor Proat -727 inch. Colossi the Cairo Museum. See and trans. supposed..) Der IV. of to mythic history of the Egyptians.since they consist of sale and magical legal matters . in chieflyof (Papyrus of by Brugsh. purpose greyhound. and occasionally made of the and same hunting in a pet of. 1867. the The hunting dog was nature a pointed uprightears now-a-days for the curly tail. the modern name capital Hou Upper Dog. Chief deity. curious a Setna Eev. This was animal was used for of desert. whose derous ponis it written.. el Medineh. LI. One section the treats after the death Caesar.r. Arch. length may be roughly estimated Petrie has pointed out that the cubit and the relation one to the other. for Pa Kheji-oi-Ament.

.

(d) an Ethiopian stela records Bibliotheque which had how the Pharaoh was a dream interpreted unite Egypt and Ethiopia that he would to him to mean of the Pharaoh under one sceptre. in this way from a singledye stuff. (b) the of Amen-em-hat Sallier Papyrus II. i. the dye. the around Sphinx . yet different colours appear Dyeing. not with dye stuffs. to receive the materials exists in Egypt a wonderful he says. to dream his . dreams found. colours. Erom the fact that know that on the the cloth. A several on nor can the would colours be afterwards confuse removed. The method but with substances various places.50 A CONCISE have been DICTIONARY OF certain date. which have the property of absorbing(fixing) the cloth . "There when in w^hite cloth is stained of dyeing. which was were revealed a to that the and son in a (c) it was in dream that Khensu Prince of of the Bekhten to visited his statue by the to god Thebes ordered return (see story possessed princess of Bekhten. they are drawn circumstance The remarkable is. the use the dye that Pliny refers. the colours it boils. as well as wool. in which Thothmes him (Harmakhis) appeared to him and made many promises on condition that he cleared away the sand from his image. that though there be only one dye in the vat. tells how the god Sphinx. Among instances of dreams : are (a)that recorded on the tablet in front of the IV. painting . on a stela in the Nationale).e. lasting until Greek in Egyptian lore times. of whom recognized class. but they are of a late sometimes required explanation Prophetic dreams there was a by a professional expert. Egyptians dyed linen." vat which cloth of itself only imparts as colours previously dyed. (e) the dream which was interpreted by Joseph in Genesis xli. the Hersheshta. but not visible upon These are applications ing when the pieces are dipped into a hot cauldron containout an instant after dyed. givesthe counsels " I. son. we they understood It is to this process of preparing of mordants.

Dynasties " " by Lepsius the Ancient XII. but because it is the only his which has were come complete These into three down to us. I. for the history of Egypt unknown some adopted. . the New Empire. 746 203 ... XXXI.. 7 " 21 " Sebennyte Persian 38 . Memphite Elephantine I. Ethiopian Saite Persian Saite Mendesian 50 .. XXVI. Dynasties Dynasties." V^I. of who wrote a x\lexandrine a Greeks. division of authority. 555 Years. . " XYII.. XX." XIII. XXIII. V. ^1 f III. ^ XVIIL" XXI. 130 " XXII. 8 . Years. 666 .EGYPTIAN ARCHAKOLOGY ." II.. Name. " Tanite Sa'ite 89 . Memphite Heracleopolite Theban . 6 " XXV. " 1 294 70 Days. xir. Menes to the " Macedonian conquest. XV. Dynasties XVIIL" grouped together great divisions.. Hyksos Theban Tanite Bubastite (Delta) 511 . usually called Middle I. Duration.1 Manetho Dynasties. indeed prevailed system of its excellence.. Thinite . Empire. XVII." XIV. XXXI. XXVII. SI 138 " 121 " XXVIII. on and account one has not. the XI. XXIX. XXX." Dynasties Empire.. XXIV. Oh 170 .. YII IX. (142 -YII ~XI. Xoite 184 .. on thirty-one dynasties from *' of use Sebennytos. 593 . .

At the in of this period washed. Ciipital of Upper Egypt. and the oldest objects dating the site of a very ancient city. and on and again under now^ shroud scarabaeus. Embalming. costing about "90. The city of Lnciiia.52 A CONCISE DICTIONARY OF E of the Eileithyias. elaborate and According expensive came to Herodotus cost the "250. the and body was placed in innumerable of natron was seventy days. the modern third nome El-Kab. the viscera removed and (see Canopic Jars). to back VI. The Greek The of Ab. In a less expensive method. the through bath by bent end instrument."which with abdomen was injected " Herodotus on states " had The a corrosive contents and were solvent action the viscera. the operator being ceremoniallychased away. the cedar tree pitch. was kept in a Finally. cassia. Amulets were the breast the bandages. Dynasty worshipped there. Chapters from the the "Book of the Dead " were sometimes written on wrappings. swathed placed gummed bandages. the first nome the modern was for the of Aswan. the most process A body " thus mummified through following made in the incision :" First. an island opposite to chief deityworshipped there name Elephantine. capital Egypt. an was processes side. Upper Khnemu. a incision for up. and An of amalgam consisting two-fifths gold three-fifths silver.a canvas place by four or five broader bandages. "c. The goddess Nekhebt was Electron. " The wine was cavity and removed thus made was cleansed nostrils sewn with The means palm brain of a filled with The it myrrh." afterwards .

). For that goddess having fallen convenience into the embraces of that her she on Seb. which away the evil eye.EGYPTIAN allowed every for it to escape. bath was common to method. This entire and cycle represents Egyptian Pantheon at others the gods of the particularlocality. The Egyptian S-net .) Esneh. though Thothmes built one here. cliief and most A the cycle of others nine his the of whom deities. added Epagomenal Days. no was cursed of any by her husband she of Ra. and Isis. in order to bring it to the lengthof the true year.The the Heliopolitan ennead. originally Evil record Dendera eye. Eye. the bodies of the poorest being prepared by simply rinsingthe . and Tefnut.Set and were not Nephthys . of remains worshipped the latus fish. It important was of Tum-Ra Seb and as sometimes consisted children chief. another name abdomen with " smyrnaea.r. one was Enchorial for Demotic Ennead. who swore day . The temple are of the Roman period. The five days which were of twelve months of thirty to the old Egyptian year days. but bring these forth children was by year should the invention her days {SeeYear. ARCHAKOLOC^Y The natron 5:". but always thus related gods of the enneads another." . that Thoth had invented The legend was them for the of Nut. so rescued from predicament." (q. to called because its inhabitants have the III. existed of A means a There is distinct evidence the old among book stored in the treated she who of the turns that this stition superis a Egyptians. Shu the to one Nut. the were Greek said Latopolis. their their grandchildrenOsiris. There which of the temple of library turningaw^ay of the evil name was favourite " w^oman's Stau-ar-ban. assistants.

a right." "the signifies healthy" Festival Songs of Isis and not older than of Nesi The the Nephthys. or poetic symbohsm sun.) Eye. A XXVIth Dynasty part of the work ." When Ra says the mine eye.and that it was ." or " Egyptian w^ord eye of Ra.). and be other meaning must " moon inferred eyes it is said of is flooded unto me Ra.). the ably probauthor hieratic British of be the to on is unknown. ." he refers to the of Kadesh The goddess as {q. The sacred a ^^^ ^^~^ eye. with Thou of openest the two and rays text light. title is The Verses of the Festival Zerti." and for this eye is eye Uzat or which (q-v.Another " speaks Utckat of Tum. for five There days in the sowing is evidence old copiesexisted. is the " frequentShakesperianphrase. flourishing. the Sacred. some rightthe sun.54 A CONCISE Horus.v." (Erman." DICTIONARY "An OF "Eye God-sent of expression denoting any gift." and by two sung of the annual occasion fourth month of the in the text that other it was tells us the papyrus virgins in the temple of Osiris festival held season. (q. They sometimes the left the when earth "Call Sekhet " the but of represent. the eyes left and called and represented. or the " eye Ea. Leaven's used by poets throughout time. papyrus the two It^forms Amsu funeral in the (No. being a eye of heaven.v. But " I am he are in the middle of the eye. who resides two a Horus says.) " 10158 Museum)." there eyes usually Horus.

a to commemorate strange festival settingup then of the carried backbone on the god. the people in the vear . occupies twenty-one papyrus. in her were somewhat At Sais bacchanalian festival" the festivals tell Inscriptions honour held at "Intoxication to Neith. A Litany to the Sun-God Eecitation . Innumerable festivals were d'lsis et held during festivals vear the year in honour of various gods. III. consistThe to he of four columns. held in honour of the god Mix. and " is entitled " Les tations Lamenthe of Nephthys iq. Dendera. 22nd great pomp . the the Litanies Seker. A mock was fight priestsof different sanctuaries. A have A Litany to the Hathors. A hy Isis . were was Harvest Part of of the devoted of to those on was held the held in honour end the which.v. at the month Khoiak. Osmis. II." Festivals. dedicated principally Ptah-Seker-Osieis it fell on December of the with At Memphis with that of was celebrated in late of the solstice. possiblysymbolizing the fight between Set and Osiris.)." which the was ing follows. of the verses subject throughout is destruction of Osiris hy Set." It has work been very lated trans- hy "The M. de Horrack. a teen sixto hieratic papyrus of Berlin contains similar to the "Festival Songs. acknowledged Perhaps the most universally of all the Nile have taken of an between festivals and a were those Those in honour of of Hapi seem the to god. intended evidently whole columns of thirty-three second composition. an accompaniment of tambourines. 30th at of the Busiris of Osiris.EGYPTIAN ARCHAEOLOfiV of variant of it H^ enough With to " allow readings having crept of in. For every there was of the 6th and importance to days of the month.which sung after the Festival Verses. times. and was nected con- the winter 9th A hymn to Amen-Ea and act a speaks of festival quarter month. and the reconstruction his body by Isis and Nephthys. During the of it which it was were repetitions required. Hathor form. consists of three parts : I.

On great festival occasions the image or symbol so on. and hung out in the sun.One of the most important of the festivals was that which took the earlydays of August) place on the 1st of Thoth (i. a drag net is often worked by two boats. were Of considered Such were sacred the in different parts of the country. which the day of the rising of Sothis on (Sirius). kinds. cj/prinus benni. and It is evident that spears were used for catching preserved and fed they were for the table in private ponds. on the walls the many el Bahri in the Nile found specimens that were considered which several were good for food. marked the ]:)eginning of a new year. . and spent the night in feasting and visiting. the 17th the of in the Fish. who used a net . be of the chief sports and amusements. That fishingwas great industry. it is that modern Eed able to tlie identify ichthyologists represented Sea fish. carried in its specialbark of the god or goddess was round about the temple and the precincts. reapingthe first sheaf carryingthe corn. well. and opened out. both fresh and salted. opening the specialfestival. and the whole country lighted new lamps. the phagrus.silurus carmuth. was. jjcrca gives Lahrus nilotica. silnnis shall. on The and have fish been are among the Hence with best drawn fish animals tomb temple of Dor walls. hooks. oxyrhinchus. and former to two the lepidotus. the festival for the dead on when called also the fire festival. The ordinary fisherman.56 X CONCISE DICTIONARY OF the cutting of the dyke. exposingthe backThe latter were split Herodotus salted. among Wilkinson Gardiner Niloticus. and canals. The gave their names well as as a places. and here the Egyptian himself by fishing with a line. one may of Nets gathered from the pictures on tomb walls.the latus. as priests sepulchral chambers.silurus bajad. various fish. The fish thus caught were eaten bone. kindled fires in front of the statues Thoth. There . or gentleman amused going out in a small l)oat to spear the fish with a bident.silurus schilbe Some niloticus.e. fished for his livelihood.

.

terra-cotta. of which are San El-Kab.E.) and centre. to bar the w^ater-way against Most of " Kummeh. Tell Nebesheh . sets of objects. Der-el-Bahri the temple of Hatshepsut. Gemaiyemi . felspar. l)y at three corners. the cities of ruins ancient Egypt On. sq. At Tukh-el-Karmus carnelian beads. pottery of ceremonial imitations of largerones evidently . of bricks. silver. . Nubia. in the Usertsen II. In the .) and centre of a building. five pits. The pits in which usuallyclosed by one two were: the deposits were placed were slabs with sand slab of stone. of the XXVIth Dynasty. strings blue thirtj^-two porcelain saucers formed part of the deposit. and green enamelled various kinds. at ruined corners corners pyramid.a hole 31 ins. a tion recording the foundagold plate with an inscription a " " " " " of the temenos Ptolemaic at Kanobos to Osiris. (notN. above the second cataract.. (not N. plaques of gold. as at Illahun. (Dynasty XIL)." also at destroyed limestone building three corners." was Thebes.lead. The chief followingplaces : Naukratis . " finds have at been corners at the four ones great temenos. the other fortified notably Thebes. and At by the and " by the nomarch superintendent of in just III.is cityin Egypt. specimens of various ores. of a temple built Aahmes II. carnelian. at the N. mortars corn-rubbers . still were strongly and Sais. beneath of area Kahun of temple built by centre .E. the oldest walled fortresses are standing. copper.58 A CONCISE commanded sometimes Semneh DICTIONARY sometimes OF of the which South. libation mud cups. . by 4 feet deep. The ruins of many Foundation the of the corners Deposits. tribes. " " two smaller . bones of sacrificial animals . " and hall.E. Ombos. or. of the central of of fort. stillin existence. by The objectsdeposited between.jaspar. four A Ptolemaic find.. a Tell Defenneh the four andS. Alexandria .E. Usertsen erected two great forts immediately opposite to each the southern other. on at the a Illahun the site of . some ware . lapis lazuli.is also of the period.

played with dice belong to late times. Funerary inches Kough terra cotta cones about ten high and three inches across.) game .the other player having to guess fingers Games the number. also played is the name rules of the game to or played. It is evident that there in were a given now" Italyto by the old Eomans. for sepulchral marks ornaments nor G Games. mark. and neither seals.) Frog. with horizontal the base. architectural sites. {See Fund. {SeeSports. which lines of inscription were on usually of the coloured.OCV were no . tomb and walls even. Cones. but the sixtycarnehan are model memoirs tools and of corn-rubbers still present. but it the in w^hich it was the way the varietyof boards discovered Mora ways. The have mora. games their and that have been modern the pictured ones. which consists in of one suddenlyholding up a certain number person for an instant. and Many draught-boards is impossible to recover know from many been found. the probable use likely that cakes of loaves or models that they w^ere were placed in the tomb.ECiYPTTAX four ARCHAKOT. the Egypt Exploration See Amulets. but it is most of these objects. on analogiesin draughts are at a Odd Shooting a with arrows frequent. In later deposits beads .". throw^ing javelinsat most block of wood and a form men of "la have " grace also occur. The gives the name inscription been proposed as to Various theories have deceased.0 of Naukratis at the temenos deposits there are eight objects.

doubtless a substitute for ledge. vases. their chemistry was was empirical. Strabo an not science. or more on They show ponds with trellises.()0 A COXC A the rSE DTCTIOXARY of to OF Gardens." that is. sarcophagiwere amulets and beads were made of it. Beakers. Glass. Glass was employed for vessels of many shapes. wood. two. It was in common in Egypt." gold of twice.of gardens on tomb walls. in scales.fish boat. use rings cups.plaques and The rings may be being depictedon the monuments. trees expensive necessity for pictures. " " . seen being weighed. and other materials practised. vines small kiosques. to The manufacture of glass was the white to could Egyptians. where contain mountains gold. In rare cases inscriptions very largely filled in with cut in the wooden it. but they never and absolutely transparent. manufacture has an always exact greenish tinge. well as the heads of mummies as being thus decorated.and was the that I'esults uncertain. and of water- plants. or largely Gilding.such mountain gold." "c. In the Arabian and Nile the the desert. luxuries of garden was one the most the several wealthy. coinage. hieroglyphs["m"^. On early tomb walls purpose are seen men working glasswith a blow-pipe. The as inscriptionsspeak of different qualities. the country between the Eed the veins of quartz in Sea.or rows and shrubs. for Venetians for the importing soda from of glass manufacture. There plans. "overlaying with gold" was objects in stone.from certain chemical The a earlyknown make it quite their inability It was eliminate substances." gold of thrice. and from " Nubia. told in iVlexandria which of middle Egypt possessed suitable *' "earth" in the for the " manufacture peculiarly glass. and also for enamelling. of which the ancient Egyptians had no knowobtained so-called The from the gold was " Gold. figurines. Possiblythis ages we Alexandria find the earth was soda. ingots. and a one. owing are perpetual irrigation.

ing standoven- {SeeJewellery.EGYPTIAN Even scarabs of ARCHAEOLOCiY (51 lapislazuli chambers or were sometimes gilded. in the of building The used in largely temples.tabernacles. There are pink and red syenites. They wuth were shaped The corn and was communication each other. finer grained kinds w^ere even used objects such as amulets. variety porphyritic granite. pyramids were originally partlycased for small The principal in this material.the making all its varieties phagi.) Granaries." " from Syene. or kinds are . and white Granite. made of the hoof and found some of her hair of a in donkey.e. yellowy grey.is found in great in Egypt. Aswan. royal sarco- obelisks. in a row Large of had no built of brick and ten twelve. to and be others found Granite veined a with small white area or with the black first within was round of cataract. black. wdiich were to be oil. Medical There are several which are in prescriptions said to the Ebers Papyrus be sure for restoring hair to the for baldness. To . Another sovereignremedy use to be in the of the plantDcgcni. i. it was most extensively quarried. statues. and colour after it had turned white. ofiicial stelae and colossi. a dog's pad all boiled was together in date kernels. whence Syenite.and w^ere under granaries kept carefully of the the care Superintendentof the Granaries. of the Vlth Dynasty. Queen Shesh. original of King Teta. poured in through an opening'atthe top and removed through a small door at the bottom. H Hair remedies Restorer. found the mother an excellent the remedy for the fallingout followingpomade. The were guarded.

in the of get it put on the head was an of the antidote a Against this. lady She of heaven. One of the four sons of Horns. Howers libation while his head bunch of lotus flowers. Hapi. the funerary genii who also represent the four cardinal points. partlymale sometimes and is a a and hands partly are table of are offerings upon lotus on which vases.and were tectors proof the four canopic jars(q-r. the of all the gods." the also The blood black was a bull boiled in oil for was " and same into ointment " useful It purpose. The fat of snake was thought to produce excellent results. bull at Hap. there hippopotamus." queen a is representedwith Name of the fish on her head. (SeeAmset. fat of the had however. Memphis. Hapi. . for which and it was purpose in oil the flower sepet and necessary a equally to rival" to boil fall together worm. of A goddess spoken as " of on the stela of Mendes one Hamhit the Mendes. sacred (SeeApis. very often. but then " boiled tortoiseshell must the head be anointed very. the eye of the sun.) The form his seen Nile of a deified human the In figure.).) Hapi.a remedy could be made blood " it the of in " of made a black of the an calf that horn of a had been also black boiled " oil.62 A CONCISE DICTIONARY OF restore prevent the hair from becoming white or to to its youthfulcolour. the hair of a "hated possible to cause out. He is represented with the head of a cynocephalus. under female. of the the wife of the powerful god in the temple ram. with which been pounded up." Hamhit. kind particular rival. Hamhit.

) Harp." em - Kliuti of the Horus is more two the rising especially and as such was represented sun. in which find records of men Harmakhis. horizons. The his heels on often he sat on strument inthe ground or either rested on was sup . for a the disk and uraeus.v.j sense exist in old wives . The four to twenty-two. of the several the " quite incompatihlewith house is the tress mislanguage in which spoken of. use in instruments.EGYPTIAN Harem. He called Ea-Harmakhis as god of picted Heliopolis. The of Greek name called Horus. of the word Pharaohs of the The did had Harem not AKCIIAEOLOGV in the modern times. many walls. form of Hathor. Egyptian "the elder. and sometimes as number of accompaniment to the voice. the musician More standing to play." and form of one in son was Harmakhis. the by the great Sphinx on is also pyramid plateau. He is always dewith a He hawk's head and usuallywith (Sec HOKUs. temple dedicated Oml)o Kom at and was partly to him he was said to be a In later timss partlyto Sebek.). He and the double worshipped at Letopolis(g. of Ea. Hor " - The or Egyptian Horniakhu. the tomb This instrument Sometimes other was in it the earliest sometimes an times. hut it Turkish Some seems " (". we polygamy A few with two and concubinage should occur instances wives. the ground. with varieties Egypt from being depicted on was played alone. that the practiceof have been common. son (See Horus.) Haroeris. Some varied from were strings of great size.

" again in who A translation may be found '" Eecords of the Past.) A chant before Harper. was joy.64 A CONCISE DICTIONARY OF ported by was a kind often It of prop. to her devoted . One of the Hatasu. Papyrus. Harpocrates. Horus. times their Harpocrates. and avenger father Osiris. the. always repi'e- in human form. is written song " that the on harper. Hathor. House a goddesses Her name of Egyptian signifies"the in one the of Horus. One version his ends thus : " For Yea no no one one carries returns away goods has witli gone him. Many festivals were and the great temple at Dendera Greeks identified lield in her was honour. usuallywith to finger his mouth. It is not a religious chant."which the walls and of two is inscribed tombs at Thebes Harris transcribed in the Harper. Lay or of the. but rather a in the strain moralizing poem of the ScripturalEcclesiastes. his his sented son The He Greek the is and name for of of Isis. most important Pantlieon. such the Her of she the rising known in later with best the As goddess beauty. love. thither. settingin is as Horus her." and aspect she is sun sky and form and goddess. ornamented with in of elaborate designs Lay colours." vol. Sec Hatshepsut. iv. (See Harper. by Aphrodite.

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erected two obelisks. the wife of Khncnm. inscribed. they the allegiance their queen of the people of of electron. is shown uraeus. the sometimes Haroeris and {q-v. its place in the incredibly short period of seven Hawk. sacred If any it may to Horus. He is represented A feminine form. and At Karnak she skins. and was frequentlymummified. high. frog. incense. and wild animals. name comes. rich gifts leopard in nearly100 ft. sometimes cat. or Heken. the god of of a with Heht. a a or Hehu. being lamps. different sometimes A form sheep.polished. associated and the idea of the symbol. for Heliopolis. It the Sed festival. it and set up quarriedat Aswrm. and is cut out of red granite. Annu. returningwith some planted in the garden of Amen. near Matariyeh.ebony.) Joseph took his wife. with the head Avas one a hawk that he Heh of the solar The head with a deity is represented be safely concluded gods. Heqt. heads. The Anint Heqt. chief deity was Ra. fact the Greek whence It was the ScripturalOn. ivory.). Christian terra-cotta carried on often found frog.the greater one being to celebrate in the sixteenth year of her reign. resur- spoken of as vague. mother is rather was of frog-headed goddess. eternity. This of bird was months. from which Lower The Greek name ^ [R of capitalof the thirteenth nome the modern Egypt. the sun god.66 A CONCISE DICTIONARY OF and which besides w^re brought to Punt. was times. [See . of a of Ta-urt and with represented of a the body hippopotamus the head The vulture. is was of the precioustrees. but with her into upon it is evident the Her role that she rection.

wrote pantheon Alexandrinus. Chief deity. Thoth According to forty-twobooks. ] the priestof who Amen at end of the XXth Dynasty. of seven nomes A district of Middle and the oases. Hershefi. of which attaches to only fragments The into their Thoth mystery the name adopted the Egyptian god of Hermes. wrested the . Egypt. of their similarity because of Neo-platonic waiters.) Each god is to the mind of the suppliantas good all other gods. Greeks Clemens had Trismegistos. was works. The chief circa B.EGYPTIAN Hennu.C.) Heno A " . Her-hor. Heptanomis." as (Eenouf." (Max Miiller. the modern Ahnasieh. the The sacred dawn. probably dates from the XXVIth Dynasty. Dynasty XXI. of Much under several '' Hermes thrice his great" name. Heracleopolis the capitalof the tw^entieth nome of Upper Egypt. 1100. All the rest is to and he only who disappearfrom the vision fulfil their desires stands before the eyes in full light of the worshippers. (See Barks. But only very small parts of these works of that remain in the writings of Stobaeus and others These time. consisting the lying between Tiiebaid and the Delta. name Magna.) phase of rehgious thought.. to the works the latest of w^hich Greek for Seten henen. " ARCITAROLOCiY boat which drawn 67 was through temples at theism. supreme of mind limitations w^hich to our a plurality necessary entail on gods must every single god. Hermes the author remain. He is felt at the time as a real as and absolute in spite of the as divinity. been claimed by some again have authorities as post-Christian. in which not conceived the individual are gods invoked limited by the power of others. . .

" Eifth king and of Dynasty in He is mentioned 64 said to date the of I. and Ethiopia. The Egyptian the country. capital of the modern Eshmunen. for the divisions of Hesepti. Chief second Thoth. . called he is has The in w^hich of Herodotus' "Euterpe. many Much that statements extravagant. Bakaliyeh. of the of metropolis .was strictly power.08 A CONCISE the of DICTIONARY OF throne himself from " effete Eamessides. name for Jnnu nome qemdt. Egypt. book a Herodotus." capital modern Chief Egypt. sacred name Het-sekhem. Arsaphes. [SeeNomes. Hermopolis. the the fifteenth of Upper Egypt. Hermonthis. deity. years. the of Southern the of the foijrth On." gives appear recorded cases history of history. of the El fifteenth The nome Greek name for Pa-Tehuti. Hersheli. war god. of A name nome of the chief of The town Parva. The name Khemenmi. Diospolis the seventh Upper Egypt. A form of Osiris generally representedwith a ram's head. from where but in the hearsay is doubtless incorrect. reigned twenty Medical Papyrus in the " Books are 130 back Book of the to his reign. Chief {tekuti). the deity. ** proclaimed Egypt. he speaks as an eye-witness he found generally to be accurate. Greek nome Egypt. Upper Mentu.) name Hesepti. capital the modern of Lower Thoth deity. Dead Het. and and Lower limited Upper king speaking." His to the Thebaid The Greek Karnak. Berlin. for Hermopolis.

EGYPTIAN ARCHAEOLOGY Hathor 60 were Diospolis Parva. used chieflyon writingthe Egyptian papyri and wooden coffins. the Chief Upper Egypt. deity. worshipped. The capital of the twelfth modern Kau el Kebir.d. hieroglyphsare into use often engraved. The is the Prisse Papyrus (Bibliotheque hieratic document Nationale. The characters are these characters have town been at found in the ruins of the oldest Elephantine. The and and Nephthys here cursive form of language. Greek nome name for Niit-enf-bak. Paris). Horus. of character employed Hieroglyphs. in use This script was Vlth Dynasty Hieraconpolis. datingfrom about the Xlth Dynasty. Hieratic. How earlyhieratic came but fragments of papyri inscribed with unknown. to so is usuallywritten from right and very rarelyin columns as left. until the fourth century a. originally by the Egyptians was . The hieroglyphic form it a pictorial.

meaning of not By the about 300 a. the alj^hahetic of the objects ideographic signsare pictorial representations spoken of. being determinative of for instance the pictureof the hide of an . The are kinds. two and the syllabic. the former sioecific. there grajjJiic.d. characters had the died until the discovery of Rosetta in 1799 that any real (q. We know that the now sounds and signs are of two kinds. and Stone of the it was god Thoth. those representing those called 2^^onetic and ideorepresentingideas Of the former.which are placed after the phonetically written word to "determine it. the phonetic characters.) was progress made in their decipherment. genericand a class " as Determinatives of two are kinds. m a s n sh ni h t h t kh cl k A a h was attributed to the all knowledge out. invention inscriptions this script The a / Alphabet.and hence they are " " determinatives.70 retained A CONCISE or a DICTIONARY case OF of stone-cut of more less in the The until late date.v.

v). Hit. He is represented mouth. with the wears side lock and fingerto and the disk and The on plumes of of Amen. The Egyptians evidently succeeded of flowers.EGYPTIAN ARCHAEOLOGY animal read are 71 the latter of a animal. the from animal bird and other facing. {See Uah-ab-Ea. there side towards are The texts either from rightto left to or right. in spite of the scarcity recipes.d. honey enters frequently into their medical There for is some evidence dead. name special A of the Temple of Thoth at Hermopolis. cursive form degeneratedinto a much simplercharacter called demotic. Chief deity. There are about 500 characters in frequent use. Nothing is called a " of the author except that he he was that probai)le Copt.. the the capitalof modern Hiser. A form of Bes found {q. attributes the //Hor-Amen. particular from or left. El the of Upper Egypt. The Greek name for Ilet-bennu..) characters Hipponus. for keeping bees. having the of Horus as added to those of Amen. hieroglyphs. Horus. at Dendera. Many of the syllabicsigns are polyphonous. that in late times it was used preservingthe Hophra.and that Egyptian. which The the text in columns. fourth HorapoUo." the original . eighteenthnome Anubis.). indicating merely an " object. is known an a. {SeeKheta. Hibeh. A complex deity. arranged commences being no rule. Hittites.v. work It is in Greek author a century. The cursive form of the hieroglyphic this In later times script is called hieratic (q. {SeeSeten-hetep-ta.) in Honey.

from the place where them was honoured the nome he was as god.. married of the Nezem-mut. his time . according to the Turin Papyrus. and the Hor-merti. with which are by his whom name Phihp. Dynasty. cir. sometimes Lower North Upper and of crowns depictedwearing Egypt . .C.72 of his A CONCISE written DICTIONARY OF work was in one the Coptic. form He of Very queen. they represent the desses godand of the South. XVIIIth Bd-ser-Jihejyeru. deity who traversed Egypt with the sun god Ea. He is also the sented repre- The winged disk. are sup. Horbehutet was a solar Hor-em-heb. and of is of followers The ShemsU'heru or Kor-shesu. that prevailed among Eyes (*S'ee A Edfu. about was Greek we form know being a translation nothing except that HorlDehutet.) worshipped at humanas represented Horus Hor-sam-taui. one either side of the disk. IVth's who was sister of Amen-hetep little is known seems abuses reignof this king been to have occupied in checking chiefly the militaryclass. Horus who. Uazit and Nekhebt. warding off evil from him and His symbol was placed over conquering his enemies. Horus. Dendera headed. V^ A^/SAAA AAAAAA -/-L\-" ^^-Y^^ y \^^ \^J I ^J\ bably pro- 1332-1323 the B. doors of the temples to protect the gates and chamber Edfu destruction. on two m-aei.

.

Khian it is thought Apepi I. finally into the Delta. As a many child he was with the side lock of hair. Amen. and Hathor. the are preserved the greater number sun-god. erroneously called Shepherd that is absolutely certain.74 who became Greek A CONCISE DICTIONARY his OF father's waged war against Set. (See Haemakhis. and the conceptionof the Deity is in such very lofty. the Nile. represented and As a frequentlywith his fingerto his mouth. a hawk's head. (Tanis). taking advantage of a period of weakness. originally Up to the present time there have only been found and of the three remains Hyksos kings. Hymns. HOEUS. and II. According to Eenouf side of Egypthese hymns represent the henotheistic tian often ideas The in them are expressed religion. He " Hyksos. established their own poured down Ha-uart and. a prince. Thothmes expelled them. Eyes op Haepoceates. and forced expelledfrom Lower Egypt by Aahmes I. But language as would be employed in these times. with was murderer. into Egypt.the . Kings very littleis knowm been barbaric to have a They appear people from the east. from After 511 years they were Memphis. Osiris. wearing a variety in his full strength. and they retreated into the country from whence they came. A word probably tribes " derived from haq. identified Horus the rising the forms worshipped in many and under names throughout Egypt. sun.. and " inhabitingthe eastern Of the Hyksos desert.under the last of whom of The that Joseph served." he is sometimes sun merged in Ea. genuineness of many in museums found the so-called Hyksos monuments has been doubted by eminent Egyptologists. after restoring government.) Apollo. the Of number of Shasii. But there are also hymns to Ptah. hymns that have been in praiseof Ea. who. governed I. solar deityhe figures with either as a hawk or man a the As of crowns.

{SeeHenotheism. and Eenouf . Dynasty.) any hall the such the as roof Hypostyle.) god. translated by Bouriant Breasted and .) " Hypocephalus. his who who and ever. reallya form of amulet. translated by Maspero . Hymn Tel el Amarna. in a tomb Birch. in the Sallier Papyrus. for he Another himself shineth in the is was thy whose followers. soul may live for in me the an underworld entrance or Heliopolis. Grant one that there be warmth of runs under the head. translated by Brugsch. to Amen. Hymn to the Nile. hidden. The name given to of which is supported by columns. An inscription of the the border round the disk. found It is under the A disk of heads paintedlinen or of bronze. Hymn XXth lated in a Cairo papyrus." : " prayer thus in his May is (Weidemann. grant that my May the great god in his disk give his rays of and an of existence. of of "Book in 15th the the to Ea." (Budge. upon the world underworld. come thou runs as of the hypoceto the Osiris Hor [name of the owner phalus] " " " madtlihent. a pantheistic hymn from the temple of El Khargeh. on a by Grebaut . A scene across being drawn frequently o f is depicted one consisting cynocephalus apes adoring Part of the border inscripthe solar disk in his bark. other representations the field. of Graeco-Eoman mummies.translated by Weidemann and others. at to the Aten. The great deal of polytheistic hymns that have been studied are. Grant exit in the thou unto underworld withoiit let hindrance. great . and face forms concealed. Hymn chapter the Dead (TurinPapyrus). translated by Chabas . transstela in to Osiris. Hymn Paris. tion follows : Chief of the gods. and is inscribed with of gods the Hathor cow magical formulae and figures them and is designed to being invariablyamong for the obtain warmth runs body.EGYPTIAN ARCHAEOLOGY 75 there is mixed invariably up with these fine passages chief a teaching.

certain were the pylon disputed representing the a still to kill his bound enemies the indicates the a the captivesto practice of sacrificing can god that after it be death 1ms positively proved we are a that order him were from that and so in tombs to learn man victims killed at the or spirits of other rich world. to the student interesting On the the celebrated of Answer Ibis. of the Shodb. The bird sacred to Thoth. It frequentlyrepresented with head . the modern Khnemu." a work of Egyptian religion. whether about Nor scenes point Pharaoh battle. sacrifice.. A Syrian Neo-platonistof has been ascribed ** the fourth century book " a."or the master Ab-Amen to Porphyry's letter to Anebo. It remains scenes Sacrifice." I lamblichus. to whom Egyptian Mysteries. deity. Human Chief The Greek nome name for eleventh of Upper Shas-hetep. Maspero has occasional persistenceof human simulated. the in follow their the {seeKa) might survive minister Theban to him in the not If this custom did civilization *' of the Empire. and therein of the doubts solutions expressed.76 A CONCISE at DICTIONARY which was OF hypostylehall over. the that of an god being ibis.real or second Theban into the times of the Empire.d. Karnak roofed originally Hypselis. M. even On the written. capital Egypt.

Spc Ideograms. and of him is his mother. cir..) See Pigments. to Ink. Greeks to god called likened Imuthcs. not means. they with Dispensing with own incubation of maturity. r.C. Im-hetep. the hens.EGYPTIAN the Ibis ARCHAEOLOGY north of of was Wady the name Haifa. exorcism to him. of a Imhetep. of fowls and of natural an shown industry by geese. hatch infinite their birds artificial process.c. Egypt analogous to that metal are rare seems have had no ''iron age" of many countries." and the young chickens inferior in any respect to those bring the eggs to thus produced are hatched by natural (Diodorus i. deserves the with rearers form Imhetep [q^v. Incubator. our " most excites the wonder. and Nut by the by them of Powers buted attribuilt to and the Asklepios. until about 800 B. of Eighth king years. Examples of the The of difficulty . contented in other bv an the course procreationknow^n number hand of the countries. Imuthes.. is not found which AetJiiopica. of village in Saite and m^n an Abusir. who. Iron.). 74. not and the is greatestpraise.. is the first-born Ptah. Hieroglyphs. Dynasty IV. forms The bird as a hieroglyph part of Thoth. cult increased Statuettes as represent him wearing a close cap and reliefs open roll of papyrus The Greek What on young often with his knee. 3730 reignednine A He Imhetep. and A the Greek between and healing were temple was Serapcum His times.

dead It is therefore. her head throne " which her also the But hieroglyphfor at times she wears other dresses. mother seems horns. motherhood. and at head the pictures on sarcophagi. and sister Nephthys. Seb and Nut. a " Osiris and Horus. w^ould also account for the examples Moreover. and to be merged She was in Hathor the true Isis.78 A CONCISE will account DICTIONARY for was OF to accoixling abhorrence by obtaining it some this. that and feet of tomb person having these two desses godthe in on frequently represented mummy walls. as sister of Osiris. headvulture is the such the particularly cap. his type Osiris she find of wifehood been and Her husband having spared no by her because killed and in her in her aided body hidden to by Set. the disk and the double crown. of the Graeco-Egyptianperiod were excavations Isis. triads. and She as of Horus. always represented wears on woman." is called . of every so become the an are Osirian. which found. The is the goddess and She a Hest of and and seat or Aset daughter wife is the is name. but held to authorities the metal was in the much Egyptians and may iron have tools dedicated few Set. With forms her. at times. or obtained during the at Naukratis. dedicated Isis The to one of the best known at great temple In the Philae was legend of Ea she figuresas also the Isis. Many disappeared simply from oxidation. magician . and she great enchantress. pains was search tions lamenta- him.

followed by a record of of various a Syrian campaign.. It was furniture. all lands become as together are in peace. dice. who His son. ruins and temple used in the first placeby Amen-hetep It was Thebes. Khubenefactions to the temple of Amen. in the A ARCTIxYKOLOGY block of of black across. Ivory. boomerangs of ivoryhave it was dyed red or green. Yenu as though it had not existed . seized is Kazmel . Among them occurs a name is thought by many to refer to the Israelites of the follows: The Bible. 3in. particularly restored by of Amen was names . The name I-s-r-a-e-1-u has of is in the Cairo been found on another stela of the time Mer-en-Ptah. Stela. of ivory objects wellfound. we elephantwas from the earliest times. Syria has people of Ysiraal is spoiled. his on Mer-en-Ptah blank side he took the stone and built it into Then of his temple with the the inscribed carved face a to the wall. runs as "Vanquished passage Kheta the Tahennu are are quieted. and objects. but the inscription by Petrie Seti I. It Ithyphallic god. thick. and sometimes Occasionally it was engraved with the pointand filled in with black. found of Mer-en-Ptah at high. no great number that the has know . the erased en-Aten a great part of it. 13in. the Syrians is made it hath no seed . 5ft. since the animal known figures of Elephantineas far back in the name as a hieroglyph the Yth as Dynasty. by Spiegelberg. the with all violence . of his rehgious inscribed it a record on III. Though been See x4. widows of the land of Egypt ." The stela is in the Cairo defeat of the " museum. such as combs.msu. The perishablenature of the for the small number of the material probablyaccounts and for small used for inlaying finds.EGYPTIAN Israel 10ft. taken is ravaged is Pa-Kanana of the Askadni (Askelon?). ornaments. and identified Museum. castanets . (Hittites) . account long Libyan invaders. with an enumeration which tribes and peoples. spoons. 4in. also been found. a 71) measurinf^ syenite.

gold and inlaid work collars. of the bracelets. in the course opposite to El Kab. has the of burying ornaments custom on mummy of the fine examples jeweller's preserved to us many found. as the best The of work which may of the New be seen in was the very Cairo Empire fine.) the beautiful Judgment. that also was recently. {See Eings. lazuli. instead More used. wonderful chased of cast bracelets and gold. beads The and faience.. though and other precious stones. turquoise. but is of the almost surpassed by that of the ornaments of cloisons The Dahshur. which were arranged in necklaces. and amethyst and w^hich found been lazuli at Abydos. turquoise. Xllth at Dynasty found filled with carnelian. other found figurines and Quibell. See Psychostasia. of the thought to have belonged to the queen 1st Dynasty. . Museum. work. amethyst. been A the considerable amount of jewellery has of greater part of it in the form of carnelian. and pectoral of Queen Aah-hetep show. beads have are of Zer. lapis lazuli gold are of paste. excavations several Nekhen. Jewellery. etc.80 A CONCISE of DICTIONARY OF found Hands breasts of his and of arms ivory In at have 1898 been laid on the mummies. objects in ivory.

.

{SeeSahu. the " The ancient name of Egypt. objects he might be supposed to want and broken free their in the tomb.) . second nine king of Dynasty II. worship of the Apis bulls at Memphis. {SeeApis. no gods.v. the was of of Ea. Egypt. (See Seten-hetep-ta. of a Khat. a in the tomb (q. and in order that the Ka might be well furnishings.. same ledge knowto the to relation that the aw/xa a-apKo^ does the (Ttu/xa TTt'eu/xartKos.capital the modern Horbeit. Astarte. The to Kas. exists governess second to introduced was Egypt probablya Phoenician into of group of at the time foreigndivinities Dynasty XVIII. eleventh The chief nome Greek name for of the Ilebcs-ka.) Kamit.) had a special Ka cartouche on a for the name of the in was Each king enclosed It kind banner. the future become a might in sdJm or and glorified in the mcorruptiblebody. were served. Ka-ka-u. eye one " Lady there a of Heaven. the Mnevis and the sacred at bulls at Annu rams (Heliopolis). the ideogram necessary that it so and sdhu to embalm body. symbolized by This dead fish.82 and A CONCISE These one or DICTIONARY were more use OF mummified. of Lower Isis.gods. body it was in order to preserve it from decay. and placed Ka. not of square only human beings who had Kas but everything." The dead corruptible. of all her. Mendes. placed idea is almost equivalent to Paracelsus' theory of astral bodies.reignedthirty- established the He is said to have (?) years. localities. deitywas A Kadesh. exact were likenesses in a of the serdab deceased." She with She goddess. which means black land.) Kabasos. possessed of khat probably stands The power. and synonymous deity.

sent Bekhten possessed . lunar such as is confused. and of us pyramid at Men-kau-Ra Inscriptionssay are this from Pharaoh. his of between Dynasty. Khem. also an exorcisor XXth of of find in spirits a later times. of a man or woman. Khaib.) or Khonsu. Mariette the fine green at the bottom The very pit in a temple workmanship of this state same the Sphinx. a splendid advanced in the were statue were indicates of art. He The is third son god in the Theban andMut.) erroneously. and emblematic He from was rising as we sun. tell us Fragments of inscriptions name in. a at Edfu. but features diorite statue a discovered near by M. that the of Khaf-Ea's The red wife Pyramids. left the the.EGYPTIAN ARCIIAKOLOGY 83 Khaf-Ra J those well of known Khufu httle to the Khephren His of the Greeks. with assumed is then Thoth. Khensu {SecAmsu. but Temple of the Sphinx was was Meri-s-anch. and sometimes. and a with represented was hawkof the head.the a of Amen and deity. identified He solar occasionally character. having been thrown broken.called the probably built by this monarch. tale of the we Dynasty. third king of the IVth stands Gizeh. a which body at death to continue elsewhere separate of entityof a own. but all. his image being to cure a where read to Khensu. its The shadow It is (See granite temple usually. representedunder the form sunshade. There several other statues place. as triad.

Kheta with with struggle an was the then king. of and life he carries staff and on which emblems -V-stability u or dominion /\ . in the sense of a a transformation. walls of scribes the the in the In times frequently various played upon meanings of The name the word. A Syria. Khepera. royal battle (SecCrown. of the and keen and XlXth attack. sar. whose Carchemish Pharaohs powerful people on the on capitalsof Kadesh looked and Megiddo were XVIIIth north the upon east of Orontes. being a emblem. Kheper The actual of the principalgods. made him. tightly side lock of the His youth. One w^ord Kheper signifies becoming or turning. the Old . by the Dynasties as Kamses alliance important after a favourite offensive ratified pointsof Khetaand the II.) Kheta. probably symbol of the resurrection. and of the as or a a the He He head god is is type of the resurrection. which with defensive marriageof the Pharaoh the daughter of the Kheta king.84 A CONCISE DICTIONARY OF He is represented as swathed. account thus of that On in for the in been stones tudes multiand in seen beetles have tomb boat the his faience found he is sun. worn on the head. man represented a with a a beetle beetle became and may head. Egypt. helmet of the Pharaohs. form is also for risingsun. wearing proper symbol. Some Egyptologists of with the Hittites these wish to identify people by Testament. princessthere. his with man's The surmounted by beetle. is the a sun disk are in the the crescent.. Khepersh. seated later Kheper.

Khu-en-aten.c.. it is symbolized by a flame of fire. Amen identified by the Greeks with their in Zeus-Ammon. name b. found bearing tolerable king'sname..C. where shipped chiefly is represented as making mankind of clay upon out a potter's wheel. " The Eenouf is " -luminous. rock Wady Maghfirah containing IV. 3969 builder one ''"=^ ^ J known.. r^0 ^ cir. cir. gave IV. It is one of the immortal and probably represents parts of man. See Amen-hetep el Khut-Aten (Tel to Amarna). The built name his cartouche. Eeigned of is daughter tablet is years. or JupiterAmmon Latin sculptures. took the name that Khu-enmade Amen-hetep aten." points out perhaps the true meaning of it. Se-itser-en-Rd. A deity wor- /" he at Philae. and is often found in conjunction with Khnem Amen being . the spirit . who the new of city that he and . the form of the n scarabs and El he may be X. ^^''''^^ ^i"g of Dynasty IV. " ^ Khu. '' glory Khufu. clear. 3100 Khnemu cyHnders placed with B. in Dynasty certainty this or Khnem. His the moulder. 63 The This king was There the a of the Great at Pp-amid of Gizeh." name signifies He is represented as ram-headed a god." the that ^h^emu.EGYPTIAN ARCHAEOLOGY From s: Khian. Henut-sen.

" for expelling the flower. of design and adaptation. The few^ remains that have palace. temple. and are for expelling opening the sight. '* of for the different preparations " thus Kummeh. of the El Kes. seventeenth The chief The Greek nome name for Ka-sa . protection against {See Semneh. the as a first cataract. Healing properties w^ere of it .80 A CONCISE DICTIONARY OF his his capital." carbonate of Sulphide of lead. the capital modern of Upper Egypt." tears. for in the use Leyden box with four toilet divisions. and been in recovered show an enormous advance in the course in art.) " purposes described . eminence miles Usertsen on A the crude east brick bank fort of standing the It was on a natural Nile. they completely destroyed the town. the look the a palace. {See Stibium. there the was deity worshipped Anubis. Green and black cosmetic used to for painting the eyes to is make also Museum the ascribed there eyelids and eyebrows in order large. about the above III. green entered to have tion largely into the composiappear copper of kohl.) Kohl. which points distinctly to commercial with from the earliest the intercourse east period of Egyptian history.) Kynonpolis. evidently parts {See Amen-hetep IV." "daily eye-paint. . thirty built by Nubians. some Petrie excavations with These are uncovered most beautiful painted of the ments pave- charming of decorative the floor treatment. sulphate of lead. successors On account of the hatred with which form of rehgion he regarded the new had started. Uaz and Meszemt.

as the further the entrance to the side of the Birket elHawara is identified have thought. almost all of and sculpture. the latter richly court are the finest the the the the pillarsof led " most polished marble. spacious halls I passed through smaller apartments. says that the citynamed it lay a little ahove Lake Moeris. who visited that ' it.RGYPrrVX ARCHAEOLOrTY 87 Labyrinth. one the whole 1500 apartments surface of two kinds. all of covered entrances oppositeto south are other. the Strabo. courts. ii. even these are inferior to the Labyrinth. all backing on to peristyle hall of twenty-seven columns." speaks of to long and intricate passages courts. in all 3000 apartments almost myself saw. there as above and of the of the The them ground upper many I beneath. near " " after that first about been the it crocodiles. which each wall and the the from are composed their of twelve are courts. fortystadia It must and canal. each to courts.148. through different and admiration. According to Herodotus. "the pyramids may of the magnificent be compared to many individually structures of Greece. states from the lay between sailing into 100 thirtyand on.LajJe-ro-Jutn-t. six encloses are to the north. and Kuriin. by Petrie as the site of the Labyrinth. Herodotus. and six . Temple at the opening of the canal (Brugsch). and Arsinoe Arsinoe lay have stadia further between not some on therefore situated Fayilm. from them excited again end. w^hitest and the without around The large and magnificent and walls are ceilings wdth Strabo which one adorned marble. the number of them wall and of the to connected with being equal . but It is . the to the . I pronounce greatest efforts of human infinite number courts industryand winding my passages warmest among The art.

which part of the limestone of the French survived the needs engineers who laid the Faytim railway and used it as their stone quarry. have been This to double. a Pliny. bearing the cartouches Sebekneferu III. places. also adjoining the temple of Mut and that of Khensu. column. also the two great be room for temples of Luxor. at Karnak . and the remains From the levels it is clear that the building was square. and decided was possible for area " Labyrinth.who courts appears have strung there together were number nome of traditional with mentions and in reports. the we Mere signifyreadily to . but mind the vast it with compare the greatest of other be Egyptian temples it may somew^hat On could be erected realized.Petrie has recovered ment On the eastern side may of the Labyrinth : yet has be seen pavement. and In one short of the all of the temples on west the east of Thebes of Hawara. says crocodile for his sixteen them.as do also the fragments of a clustered of three red granitecolumns. on largest one bank. taking Herodotus no Strabo carefully surveyedthe ground other site than Hawfira 1889. evidently prepared to receive figureswill extent not enormous building. and pavement appears with fine white consisted of blocks of yellow limestone slabs superimposed. well defined w^ith " enormous a 1000 bed of limestone chips. that space when and all the successive temples great hall of Karnak it. Here he found an by 800 ft. " . Petrie. might be placed together in the Here we of the ruins site have certainly which the Labyrinth worthy of the renown careful observations made the on acquired.). that the ft.) and of Amen-em-hat (Dynasty XIII. (Dynasty XII. and that of Amen-hetep III.and the great court and pylons of it . and still there would the the the area a of construction whole of the Eamesseum. fortystatues the of Nemesis in He also burying guides." From of the arrangethis much spot.88 nomes A of CONCISE DICTIONARY to OF Egypt. A few of the blocks limestone of the architraves stilllie about. ** and traces beneath some it of a foundation.

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DICTIONARY The first OF of the a of some part papyrus glyphs. round body or horns of the animal. Latopolis. many.and was very of any kind.and of it has a great analogy " with Festival Songs of Isis and see Kespirations.such Berber Bishari. Fish.v^For practical students have divided the period into purposes three sections. de Horrack.called Old Egyptian. XL). corresponding to the historical divisions of Old. languages of years in use it that it was During the thousands naturallycame through different phases. edition. Latus. The perhaps the oldest to no language in the world. which would giveweight and enable the rope to catch more the legs." Language. Coptic with with East the (q-v. statuettes . Records of the Past. with of North languages. however. vol. and New Empires. Middle Egyptian. The rection subject is the resurand renewed the birth of ''Book contains Osiris. In the ancient times it was most written with purelyphonetic little inflected.)." {See lation Nephthys. No treatise or signs. and Late Egyptian. Middle. Galla. of other with has and the the other exceptionof Semitic as hieroglyphs is It is closely related its descendant. languages. Africa. or of any period has been found." For trans'* 2nd by M. grammar Lasso.It Hebrew African and with affinities. metal has " certainly been Also found small used as inlayon were furniture. probably of the time of the Ptolemies.90 statue A CO]vrCISE Osiris. doors and See This See Esneh. Tomb of The show the pictures at Beni Hasan wild bulls and of the gazelles by means been to have a Egyptian lasso appears a capture lasso. Lead. and Somali. long rope with ball at the end of it. chapters of the funeral ritual in hieroThe second of part consists of five pages fine hieratic writing of the lower epoch.

deity. and formed an important part of his auxiliary " " army. The of the second Chief nome Greek name for the capital Seklieni. In a tomb at Medum there is a list . that collections of papyri were A chamber in the temple at Edfu. than woollen being considered garments. 11. They are represented in with fair hair falling rather fine men. Horus. has ever been as found in Egypt. the Libyan king was.EGYPTIAN made occasionally Osiris and Aniibis.the. there is sufficient evidence to show formed. of Lower Egypt. the catalogue of books being inscribed on its walls. if not actual of the chief ringleaders. The us. Lauhu. xllthough great collection of books." A in ARCHAEOLOGY this those metal. Letopolis. When leader. most The manufacture of linen w^as one of the It was used for clothing. Libyans of classical geographies the Labu. off the Kheiit Hall. at least one Eamses conquered them they made splendid troops for him. important industries. Libya was of Egypt. in a as paintings side lock. name of at least of Eamses one librarian has come down to that Amen-em-hant. especially 91 of Leg". director of the Theban Library under the country lying north-west Libyans. inhabited the Pharaohs by tribes with whom The kept up an intermittent warfare. was a library. with blue eyes. having fair complexions. the modern Usim. Whenever there was the petty a conspiracyamong kings againstEgypt. such the treasmre of claytablets in Assyria. constellation identified by Eenouf with Cassiopeia. no Library. and purer immense used in the mummifying of were quantities men and animals. Lebic of the mentioned for the first time are Egyptian monuments in the XlXth Dynasty. Linen.

III. Literature.what of ancient books of the be but a small proportion Egypt. record a historical lions. Numberless papyri have been found in Egypt. There is plenty of evidence that the art of is it at a very earlytime. Pakht with the lionesstimes represented of Seker.naming The they came. and over are "Yesterday. during his reign two caught killed seen hundred animal is often upon the It on temple same tomb a king is frequently accompanied lion into by favourite battle." solar all at other "This two Morning. matters. buried But on relate to religious gi^eaterpart of which This is natural. Tefnut. muslin. See Festival Songs of Isis Nephthys. and mentions from there in resembles that than districts kind there three them quahties. as seen his chair reposes under apparentlyused in the chase. Phny after the quahties. nor literature was practised of the ** " .) must Lion. finest quahty almost shows in Indian Examination threads and there in of the more always many (See Weaving warp.02 A CONCISE DICTIONARY Three OF are of different kinds of each four which an were of linen." lions. Egyptian than two artist was more successful animal this beast papyri in many lions seated of his back a drawing portraits. The animal was also tomb in walls. and were the account perishablematerial on which is left to us must literature finds its expression. and head. and at home. with the dead. lions records Some that and and in In the of ancient desert times and have been many are Ethiopia.with immense scarabs he The The tame the result. are mentioned. walls. the woof Dyeing. with the disk between is written them.In the solar Over one to back. since these documents were then well preserved. is Shu and frequentvignette.for bags as Amen-hetep or there lion-hunts. Litanies AND Tefnut also depictedas The are Bast goddesses Sekhet.

: and designedcapitals largeand small. and its cup. it is found is the the head .A found the at fragment of the of a papyrus " book the site ancient Oxyrhynchus. reached [SeePapyri. literary criticism and fiction. Sayings of our to A. It w^as Egyptian decorative a representedissuing originalmotive of much has w^ork. and not quite different is really the It a was Nelumbium Speciosum. Egyptians As in it Horus symbol on rising of again of the sun. and The white Egyptian It is lotus the Lotus.) AOriA IH20Y (LofjiaIcsoii). The realistic repremost sentations of the plant are conventional form in so that it is difficult to distinguish betw-een it and of the papyrus pictures plant. religious works. the god Nefer Turn from had from such. such such that of should sculpture. containing in all Lord. of which lotus. Hunt. because the a lotus. and it figures altars of offerings. The drama alone is unrepresented. and the writer's art have perfection. called a flower. and medical treatises. remained undeveloped. hymns and love-songs. one epic (see Pentaur)." and dating back and edited bility proba- 300. Both forms tects Egj^ptian archi- for columns in ornaments. and by this means on influence far-reaching the bud and full-blown ancient art. the capital the modern thirteenth of Upper Egypt. letters.EGYPTIAN that likely have ARCHAEOLOGY as 03 other arts. modern Discovered Behnesa. Of the papyri that remain the subjects There are moral precepts are very varied. which Nymphoea Coerula JSymplioea from held of the the so- is the is the blue rose variety. .judicialinquiries. true by Messrs. mathematical (scePTAH-HETEP). Ladies are representedwith it in their hands. Lycopolis.As an amulet it signified the on divine gift of eternal youth. Grenfell Lotus. of the The Greek nome name for Sand. it is found in great variety. saw sacred.D.

" came from the jackal-headedform of the god worshipped there.' " A of formula the in inscriptions The that exact added deceased." Maat. and two in the conception we of these divinities find is and is " that the Maat of Ea. Gods moral and and order and law. Chief M important goddesses of the She is truth and justice perEgyptian Pantheon. with with their the with identified her as a woman Maat." i." which scenes presidentof the nether Her symbol is the feather. ruler of earth. been a translation of it has for long Renouf subject of " cussion disone among scholars. sonified for the word but madt more also." as if they recognized the She is unerring order which governs the universe. "living or existing by or upon rule. considers . signifies . kings all confessed to *'ankh en maat. in the we see judgment weighed in the balances the heart of the deceased. Ptah She probably the Egyptians had spoken of as She seems loftiest ideas of the the deity. of wolves. and sometimes bandage Maat her eyes. This name. against The She is Greeks her Themis.Ap-uat. daughter assisted creation. to have Khnemu mistress of at the heaven. name . One of the most " associated with Thoth. physical.e.94 A CONCISE DICTIONARY OF " the city deity. and world. feather a represented on of truth over head. Asyut. Kheru after the U.

" by Eusebius Chronica. have been The ascribed of to Manetho. however. The work invaluable to the student for comparativeuse. with and other were defeated. of the sum being made up for the overlapping without allowance of being made of these some is. Of these. of the kings' reigns." and by Syncellus. His book is now only known by lists and some fragments preserved by Josephus in his treatise in his x\gainstApion. Several other works Mashuasha.Though Egyptian " " who. A historian givingbirth.when they seem quently Libyans." in allusion to the true voice required by the departed for the recitation of those magic incantations which would render them all-powerful in the underworld. in a " House of temple in which the given birth to the third person Maiietho.EGYPTIAN whose word is law" ARCHAEOLOCiY 95 approximates most closelyto the original Maspero would translate it "true . Syncellus does not quote from the original. while of intonation. His method was apparentlynot strictly of years for each dynasty the number chronological. it is not w4se to rely entirely his on and retranassertions.. of the Alexandrian school. the scriptions originalhas name a tribe of occurringon the monuments. living in Low^er Egypt. dynasties." That chamber goddess is supposed to have of the triad. under monuments have afforded confirmation of many of his statements. They allied themselves tribes against Mer-en-Ptah.C. since through transcriptions probably suffered from alterations. Mammisi. freagainst whom . the Pharaohs waged war. an Egyptian priest.) wrote a history of Egypt with a list of its thirty he professed to have draw^n from dynasties. But trouble under again they caused Ramses settled in the to have III.which genuine archives in the keeping of the priests. Ptolemy Philadelphus(thirdcentury B. He himself was at Sebennytus.

96 A CONCISE DICTIONARY them become OP Delta. Like ancient ones {see Tombs) these every Egyptian tomb consist of three parts the chapel. top. When of stone fagade was decorated sculptures. name Empire found and is recognized among was adopted by Mariette. the being to roughly four p?-^ other Wa"^'- the In the at sists con- cardinal of of ^ points. of a truncated pyramid. a to have auxiliaries army.) of walls " The which and trade hardest least The represented as profitable. of the being one Mastaba. Eamses. as Thi the a tombs and Mera Sakkara. consists of a rangular quadarchaeologists. Arabic word (Sallier Pap. a]'e for the benches that Usuallyplaced at the entrance of Arab doorways. and names a with and false of door the the stela settingforth titles deceased. having building is It low. in examples. the mastaba a being The east solid is mass of rubble.and of a ^7^^ chapel various cases mastaba In more a forms.the " in vertical passage this case the chamber.The mastaba with inclined massive walls. The at Sakkara. IL). Mastaba. the mastaba door T^ock usually on orientated side. and fiat on the no opening but the door. Medum. chapel succession of . sisting (conof The takes some a cophagus sar- shaft). it is no than a fagade. drove seem out. "builder is {SeeLibyans. however. and sequently subin they that Pharaoh's Mason. of the Ancient and applied by the Arabs to the tombs "c. having the appearance It was built the of stone or of crude with brick.

.

probably "saved. goddess " the of personification the north Mehurt. the knowledge that physicians had of the organs of the body and their functions limited. presented re- cow. temple.) hand. and also used. In in Arsinoe. worship." district. was necessarily practice of among dissection was The Ebers papyrus twenty-two into it and heart because was vessels. A Mehit. and hence in which cation personifisun of that and with takes Nut his and as part of the sky the rises daily course. again with a She Hathor. The beginningof all the members. send called them " says which that draw the the head contains thence lead the (oflife) spirits through the body. or A town in the the Fayum. is is at times Besides a identified being woman. of these Against some recipes the practitioner has written their to comments as efficacy. Medinet the doctor laid his el-Fayum. to its vessels some all the the members. to called anciently Shed. CONCISE There medicine is DICTIONARY sufficient the OF evidence ancient of the Egyptians. heifer of whom The the name sun was given to the great celestial a born." of and is that perhaps indicated wherever idea the of the fact that " circulation the blood by student " is told everywhere does he meet with the heart (pulse). wind. honour There of are sister-wife a of Ptolemy Philadelphus." from it it was surrounding as Later the times known the called being centre was of crocodile Crocodilopolis. insects were {See parts of animals Medical Papyri. from the Ptolemaic ruins of "cut on in reference its being lake out. she portrayed as .98 A Medicine. The medical papyri consist chiefly of prescriptions mixed up with magical formulae. but The drugs were chieflycomposed of vegetables. It seems that forbidden from religious fore thereand surgical operationswere scruples prohibited.

The northernmost it having been severely damaged is supposed by the earthquake in ]^. Name given by III. put a stop to the sounds. tlie modern Eahineh. Autwo were statues of Amen-hetepIII. of five by means of sandstone. {Sec Colossi. called the Amenophium. of red breccia.) Memphis. son of Tithonus slain by Achilles at Troy.the capitalof Mit Egypt. the their musical sounds. Chief deitv. Also Thebes.c. 27 presenteda curious phenomenon. with little remains its but the colossi. at Thebes by the Greeks were to be of representations monoliths originally a pebbly conglomerate exceedinglydifficult to work." judgment scene supposed to take placein of Mehurt.EGYPTIAN sometimes in the " ARCHAEOLOGY cow's head.Ptah. statues " " this person. and some have left records of inscribed on the legsand pedestalof experiences the statue. 4777.) " " Memiionium. of Egypt. Mena. The was 99 with Book the " a of the abode Dead. the first nome Greek of name for Lower Mennefert.which caused it to be called Vocal Memnon and brought it from far to hear Many travellers came great fame.c. Among those who left inscriptions Balbilla a court were Asklepiodotos. who colossal said These was An Ethopian.whose name . and several governors menon phenois discussed Strabo who could not believe by that the sound actually proceeded from the stone by Pausanias and Juvenal." Memnon. The clumsy restoration. The poetess. which effected by Septimius courses was Severus. _ and The rora. emitting sounds at sunrise. which at the Greeks to the rounding sur- temple two of 4men-hetep of dwellings. of Tini [Gr. {See Memnon. I U 1 or I U I cir. b. This or Thinis].

in the this construction great dike of followed Tradition by says that he was in succession. Men-kau-Hor.100 A " CONCISE the DICTIONARY was OF signilies 1st of in a Steadfast. few^ the under he the classic is statements credit no writers. he diverted the course of the Nile The found dike. capital of the sixteenth Chief A Egypt. The Greek nome name sons Mendes. 3347 "^ She B. worshipped at Heliopolis. have his Cocheiche. cir. and that. for of Lower Fa-ha-neh-tettet. Dynasty. builder of . of ( the S^^ Vth U U ) uuu~] M The seventli There is king a rock tablet of b. lion-headed Men-ka-Ra. goddess akin to Hathor and form or some degree of the heat of Bast. Nlt-aqerti. in order for his capital. was the last Dynasty. of the IVth /^q The t!^= U cir." All that of These the known doubtful first of kmg him of the consists found united Dynasty. 3845.c. Linant.C. cir. U the 1 third ^^^^^"^^^ king Dynasty. Menhit. the modern Ba-neb-Tettet. Eeigned of the sixty-three years. professes to engineer. there one being tell us was monuments left of period. deity. representing She was the sun. 3589 this king at Wady Maghfirah. U B. seven by the construction of an enormous French M.C. founded that he Egypt to secure sceptre and site giver its first law- . that a suitable Memphis. Probably the Queen Nitoeris of Manetho ruler of the Vlth and Herodotus. Men-kau-Ra. El-x\mdid.

chief monthis being of it a was at at (Erment). Neb-JcJier-Bd . a solar disk and plumes. Fifth cir. Eamses in the wrath to his " of battle compares father Mentu. adored at one Thebes as time It is important as probable that he the Amen centre of the Amen. his Egyptian war the solar gods cult there that was was god... Second I. The of . lid of the a wooden bearing the king's supposed to be his are in the Mentu.c- Mentu-hetep " 1 1 m 1 1 11 II. BakJi.c. Herthat was case god The of district between Kus later Gebelen. Mentu-hetep III. of a as equivalent Mentu man the Mnevis-bull is represented hawktwo headed wearing II. 2922 son Queen found Am. Mentu. lie at was one and skeleton British Museum.. cir. bearing this king'sname Inscriptions A tablet quarriesof Hammamat.. The name. that he conquered thirteen tribes. Neh-taui-Bd. original and form. 2965 b. was His The wife in place sacred called Ea-t-taui. O and mi of are nasty XI." himself Mentu-hetep Neh-hctep.EGYPTTAX ARCHAEOLOrJY 101 iL^reiit pyramids at coffin Gizeh. king of Dy- 1^1 b. an being Ea. king of Dynasty XI. bull this to to him. in the states at Konosso Eighth king of "^r^i 3 "= a 7 .

The I4th of the of and son of Eamses believed generally the is that tomb this king Exodus. See A name weighing The end the Osiris. 1300." She is represented with the regent of the west. The at in important inscription the Her-khuf Aswan Men of who dates from this king's reign." Meskhent. cir. and is sometimes pictured in the " mountain The the also of the west. 2832 Tumem (?)and Aah.c.v.). goddess of birth scene birth on seen on her at throne Der el presidingover Bahri. . Mehti-em-sa-f. their defeat II. His pyramid. OP Dynasty XI. with and the B.. She the walls of the of figuresin the scene Hall of the heart in the Judgment symbol on her head is a straightstem and either side.c. 3447 tomb of b. name " form she goddess loves signifies silence. The the capital Senf-nefert. like on curling over head of A nit {q..). A " dnkh. given to Greek name god Amset {q.v.. She Her is Mer-sker." disk and horns of Hathor. j\ JJjI (^g ^ Dynasty XIX. VI. -Ptah. Cairo Libyans Egypt the chief event of this otherwise uneventful of irruption Prosopis is reign. in 1899 .102 A CONCISE DICTIOXARY b. Mer-en- Two queens are known. Meszemt. the is at Sakkara. the for Mestha. Hathor. Metelis. be It is I cir. at the split the sign on Stibium and Kohl. II. Fourth king Dynasty I Q AAA. of Mer-eu-Ka. cir. may identified Pharaoh in the in into the His An at body was discovered now Amen-hetep Museum.C.

at ARCHAEOLOGY of Lower 103 seventh nome Egypt. moon was See Harem.) Moeris. of coin the ancient of but See Lake In Money. Under purchase-money was in the form of rings. [SeeAns. but made New Empire it was to have then was rings seem even weighed.EGYPTIAN of the Hii. A ah. Min. sacred black Ijull venerated Name of the Hehopohs. Mizraim. being the frequent. Moeris. Moon. the hterally Mnevis. See Amsu. Thoth. though having a uniform Such of about 5 ins.) Monogamy. Chief deity. until the Egyptians a coinage no real currency Gold for established Ptolemaic times. the weighed. The diameter varied in thickness. had was no the the sense money. a weighing out is frequently Poole's "Mr. The sacred under Khensu most different forms. It means towers." of the There Uten Attic was ordinary silver silver coinage. especially as But Thoth is it connected with "the Lunar bark. depictedon the tomb and temple walls. . The two Hebrew mazors or name of E^ypt. The during was first appearance Persian occupation . of into the very researches complicated numismatics the Ptolemaic Dynasty show that the first Ptolemy established drachma both as a silver the and coinage copper on the basis unit. [See and Trade.

ibis. bronze took or Other wooden each placed in rectangular surmounted by a little . beetle. antelope. snake . with the bull.oxyrhynchus. jackal.104 A COXCTSE the moon DICTIONARY OF measurer. eyes at Thus numbers cat- shaped. monkey or ape. or of figure the coffins mummied where and Ibises fish the animal it contained in of cases which cat- shape were of the animals themselves." Thotli times it is form and moon being the measurer of As time. shrewmouse. " A term " from " fore. or the to. moon. the city the cat-headed were were placedin earthenware often worshipped. frog. gods Those carefully met Egyptians. and the was bandages. there- In while qes. while snakes jars. ocean represented as it may others. the as sailingthe celestial in his bark. hawk. of Thoth. all the in which be seen the sini Like conceived the of planets.ichneumon. toad. been obsidian. or coloured have Large cats found was Bubastis. meaning. the Apis bulls (q. Certain sacred animals were Mummied either emblems mummified that oftenest were of. probably derived Arab word mumia bitumen. wTap up Mummifying earliest ages. hieroglyphsthe the " word is into I a X ^^ "T '^'^^"^ is c verb to to make in a mummy lit. a bitumen-preservedbody. was own a crescent on holding a disk. (human). later Osiris is identified with symbol Khensu.v.) buried in sarcowere phagi. with paste. have were been discovered at Sakktira. are cat. and silurus fishes. Of these. merely bandaged and laid in pits goddess prepared Mummy an for the purpose. rock of crystal. particular Animals.hippopotamus." dead the w^as practised from in general use until the fourth . and the latus. hedgehog. scorpion. crocodile. by many of which animals cases.. In a and being god of all the exact the heads and sciences.

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but pictures on with Trumpets. represented on Besides or ments monu- of several do not the The (q. of long. in which conclude may to performer is seen that the Egyptian tambourine provided with them. The and Cymbals modern or a only of smaller. They were reeds chiefly. of ivory. " dances.v. with DICTIONARY It resembles OF the of tomb a fmmel-shaped vase over pottery parchment were were strained similar to the wide ones. quently fremost Guitar. The length between specimens found made of vary from 7 to 15 ins. The oval body is of wood. four. Flutes also made of wood. and had three. various Sometimes it was of extraordinary 4 and 5 ft. and names. guitars know the lutes. made of brass were mixtm^e of brass The Castanets or in the form curved sticks of wood slightly long. oftenest and sometimes while the performer played by women. or of wood covered with played with . and or many five to eighteenstrings. or lute. others lyre forms. occasionallyunder ways. The of pictures do with not the we tomb walls the indicate the ringswhich the way we associate the instrument. It was met played chiefly by women. and bone.of were The Double Pipe is more horn.is perhaps the instrument with. sounded the the by the hand were plectrum . frequently the than monuments the depicted on flute. The instrument was held in various The the arm. The Flute was kinds.) of is of lyres. which were with a is decorated in It ways. The troops accompanied by men instrument about represented is a simple one 1^ ft. made apparently of brass. and sometimes five holes. in length. flute. Of Wind Instru7nents have been ones only wooden the monuments show preserved. and sometimes while chords hand touched a with the left hand right plectrum. The there which various had from It was made of the same materials the Harp as the Strmged are were we Instruments kinds. They silver. mouth. terminatingin a human Tambourines metal But hold from it up was on ivory about a foot head.100 A CONCISE walls.

triangular piece of w^ood or bone.EGYPTTAX leather neck with perforated have fastened ARCHAEOLOGY 10' several holes. w^hich of Karnak. Asher." stands She the for it also is mother. (See Music Instruments. There both men were and and ^Iusical women performers. which was bably pro- nuisic. as a woman w^earing the double she is Mut. and end kept from a contact at the other by There small must cross Musicians. 4 a With ft.where of Khensu. but the king never done to have seems honour to any particular performers. " Mut. and was less religious. A goddess. nor do w^e hear of any musician of high rank. with its The the long three neck it must measured to tlie about were strings body by bar.) was stereotyped." of eye called "mistress of in gods. w^hile the more or popular music which the people loved to have at their feasts was provided by paid entertainers who were usually accompanied by dancers. Ea. the vulture crown. if indeed they did dance themselves.the of Amen-Ea Her second she the the and of the Theban is the w4fe mother vulture meanmg triad. cap Sometimes a and with figured lioness' head.and very their taught and performed by the priests. of a III. . which " name signifies"the mother. Amen-hetep of her south built temple a the chief centre is little She is represented worship. have been two kinds of exponents belonged to very different grades in society." lady to her heaven. That not the Pharaoh enjoyed and musical entertainments evident from is singing the fact that there was a functionarywho bore the title Superintendent of song and of the recreation of the king". The higher kind.

108 A CONCISE DICTTOXARY her OF sister Mut-em-ua. of mother of the Amen-hetep II. or of the by it washing the appeared. Nile.. N Natron.e. speaking of Amfisis' favour says that he gave arrived in Egypt Greeks. Sais. about Strabo 6| miles says B.C. She her son Khut. " which or Nahal. with of Thothines is in the III. i. obtained in valley the natron of the lakes which in the desert Delta. of the modern el Hism. as city of dwell of in. century sixth but this must B.wife Amen-hetep left of the on IV. used entombment This very far from the river. fifth it. Greek Naukratis for such his During trade . and the walls of the temple of Mythology. See Religion. in the in the it was Milesians error. Co-heiress. the preparation of the body for was (seeEmbalminc?) by evaporation of the water efflorescence from probably the earth lakes on obtained .C. and at represented standingto Colossi Luxor. Nahar.and reign it enjoyed a monopoly flourished. in the in the north-west of the far from Kom fifth nome of Lower due north founded Egypt." A town A Semitic it is word be river " .. because to the century Amasis the to to granted privileges Herodotus. neutral from west carbonate are of in a sodium. not substance. and " by Brugsch thought to signifying the origin of the word Naukratis. king Thebes. by be an not Delta. .

of which " Neb-taui. defeated Instead himself He of up The last native his and king of Egypt. was Aahmes-Nefert-ari. Eeigned twenty-six(?)years. Heni Heni king of IlIrd Dynasty. be identified with this king. but revived under Alexander. The site has remains been excavated Herodotus lord ruler of the archaic covered by Petrie.however. east that represent the country Nectaiiebo of the Nile.EGYI?TIAN Its ARCHAEOLOCJY under the Persian 101) invasion. who distemples of Apollo and and Athenaios speak. in Nubia. Ninth have But been found are ing measur- centimetres. b. It suffered. of the the sister and XVIIIth . and was by the growth of its new prosperitydeclined cityabout the beginning of the third century. by Darius Ochus. the first king of the Vth Dynasty. Khejjer-ka-Bd. It is or Nefert-ari. Nectanebo himself to defending in kingdom.e. XXXth O H U who 1 was Dynasty. II. 361-340.Alexandria. only suitable Nefer-ka-Ra. the Persian. rival. fled eventually Needle. devoted shut Memphis to magic. During its period of prosperity it had attained well as commercial a as positionof literary probably extinct as a eminence. Bronze 8-10 for needles work.'' usually Lower the two thought It is to mean Upper and west and Egypt. two Aphrodite. about Napata. See Obelisk. may thought that the the predein the Prisse Papyi'us as mentioned cessor of Sneferu. coarse they and large. lands more likely. wife of Auhmes I. however.c. i.. Needles. of of the lands. at Pelusium.

and Her as reallythe adored foundress line. taken by Imthough his place is frequently the son of Sekhet. long. Neit. beautiful 10 ft. continuance the world with very as frequently mentioned. negro. are emblems distinguishing the shuttle arrows. a man represented his a lotus K springingfrom of this god in common. probably to be placed of the Xlllth Dynasty. He was Bast. Museum. Nefer triad of Turn. and . She arrows and carries a fi'equently in in her hands. confined a to Sais. function of life in not In the seems " Book be to to of the to grant come. iVs a nature or god he representsthe heat Dead" but He he is of the his is risingsun. Egyptian or name for the negroes. sometimes crossed ])0W this Neit. is Nit. in her k the goddess oldest does much of it the was name found have the and There and a inscriptions. although not seem cult to gained time then she Horus. prominence until XXVIth Dynasty. is in the Cairo coffin. 4 ins. the others being Ptah and Sekhet. The Nehesiu. Osiris of and Lower formed She triad with is the represented as crown woman wearing and her sometimes two Egypt. such she until the XXIst Dynasty.110 A CONCISE and was was DICTIONARY OF of that Dynasty. Miniature are figures paratively com- various substances Ifehesi. hetep. The third god in the Memphis. or Pakht. His may suggests that he have been a Nefer Turn. A A 1/ among name those king. whose or Neith. or Nefer-atmu. head.

of in the Nekhebt." the signifies as a cow. and her him. circumnavigated to re-cut Africa. wife search of goddess to Isis. Set. sz::7 Nephthys." particularly pyramid of Sebek. or weaver or the she " times she is identified with the At other Hathor. always asso-| ciated with Isis in funerary scenes. is said to and " be the in a mother of text the " of Ea. o 612- u 596. XXVIth Dynasty.. She helped Isis in for the body of the slain in her Osiris. we see have Libyan used name for origin. Nekan II. but wanting in fleet at with and 2). shooter. as a decorative " symbol. from the aid of Phoenician also the sailors. of and sky goddess. I The two stand facingeach other with wings outspread on either side of the or they are carved at each mummy. The 1:1 Pharaoh Necho o the Old brave He on 1 Testament and Eed getic ener- of xlvi. the design by that " shuttle. and lamentations is over Nephthys.EGYPTIAN form Athene has been ARCHAEOLO(iY 111 identified She her by may the Greeks been with of Her At their (Minerva).a prudence. 29. goddess She is usually the She was represented a vulture. or painted on Therefore she .much nation.c. assumes is represented the attributes " times She Mut. of end sarcophagi. Bubastis attempted head the canal of the Gulf of Suez. form of (Sivan). worshipped Sister at Eileithyias. Nekhebt The South. b. Jeremiah the mouths He to ruler. (2 Kings a xxiii. and maintained of the Nile the Sea. Non-ab-Rd. gods.

(containing33 columns been transliterated and translated by Budge in Archaeovol. by and 940 has lines). breath.) may seen bringingit back of the to Nile.) the Book of . the mummy. 52. her only distinguishing feature being her a woman. or Nebt-het. The given by Brugsch as . the )^ ) The The ba little sail be was symbol for to (q. and as a nature goddess She is depicted as probably. writing of Neter-khertet. for placing in the tombs. probably from Suez the on country along the Eed to the extending mountains the south. The Divine Sea on the Neter-ta. purchased by British careless Museum by the David Bremner. is the daughter of Seb and Nut.v. the Overthrowing of Apepi(q-V-). 9| ins.she was the mother of Anubis.) . part ii. represents. Festival Songs of Isis and Nephthys (q. of. and thirdly. Nil. It consists of three separate works the : first. one prepared by some whose business it was to supply funeral person papyri to relatives of the dead. the It is almost are none name river that Egypt. head-dress. secondly."which Dead " and in " in occurs frequently tomb inscriptions. in 1860 . of these o NetAos. Owing to the it has been concluded colophon.v. logia. names unnecessary ancient of them " remark derivation of the word Nile " is Egyptian. which is of very fine texture.v. that the papyrus for Nesinot written was specially but was of a number Amsu. found at Thebes papyrus Bhind and sold to the trustees of the Nesi-Amsu. the north Nif. and measures 19 ft. According to Plutarch's legend.the sunset.The whole papyrus.112 A CONCISE mummies. DICTIONARY OF coffins and Nephthys. land " . A name for the " divine "Book underof the w^orld. the Litanies of Seker (q. Nilus.

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it. Every year the Nile overflows its banks. black mud. . leaving behind it a deposit it gradually when The prosperityof the country of rich. Sobat . place it in the quite possible that it equator.114 A CONCISE of the or DICTIONARY Nile are OF and Statues very rare. the time of the summer length is About to beginsgradually rise. subsides. villages away. receiving on Its the Atbara. its way only one tributary. solstice it Should there houses be are an excessive overflow and a the dikes sometimes break whole land down. where The river.. proceeds it is joined N. called flows by to the Bahr-el-Gazelle Khartum here The it is Nile). from this point Bahr-el-Abyad (White (Blue Nile)unites with to the sea. about 3300 miles. of the . and continues so to do until the end of September. passing through north as Albert far Gondokoro. Nile but Lake and from morial imme- mystery further modern south travellers Nyanza Lake. the Bahr-el-Azrek then on stream Nyanza. If there is the deficiency. depends upon the height to which the flood Nile rises. are usually of the green river before or The Victoria rises after as even source a painted red to represent has it is of the 5" the the been the colour time after the inundation. swept damaged.

Nitocris. where wath their chief 'towns. the it surpasses highest rise recorded known recordingthe average during the reign of this that of our days by 11 J ft. con- could be cultivated. . and twenty in Lower was placed under the protectionof one .) of the the rising from news some the much that Nile the III. (b) The (c) The (d) The The modern sites : " the chief town. the former civil.EGYPTIAX which remain As is left unmoisteiied barren. twenty-two in Upper Egypt. by name Dynasty. There four divisions were kingdom of the nome : " of ancient (a) Nut. and the other religious. Nomes. canals. There in all forty-two were nomes.The great divisions of Egypt. cultivated marsh land. sluices. The office of governor hereditary.the IVth mentioned are some. to carry the are through inscribed of the and and villages.. being the seat of was g^overnment. above in our greatestinundation times. See Men-ka-Ea."c. ^ land. See Nomes. is a following towns or list with most the names of the their that villages nearly mark . is 27 ft. Nomarch. from father the eldest the to passing grandson on the mother's side (Brugsch). 3 ins. There Semneh height while the inundation monarch. each each had two oneparticular divinity capitals. w^hich. above rocks the second towns at cataract. and_ dating back to. as so ARCHAEOLOGY is not fertihzed and 11') must long ago (Dynasty XII. days of Amen-em-hat attached to importance was were despatched messengers Semneh. the X mil Ilesei). under certain ditions.

OF .116 A CONCISE NoMES OF DICTIONARY Upper Egypt.

perhaps the they considered of him in the of the of all that ' ' is. | . Abydos. Edfu. for the the female The manifestation used Nu. the father since the him ' ' water by the solar bark Pictures a Egyptian idea the source macrocosm. The The number of iiomes nome was w^as not always the same. touches studded The with with Shu female her stars. system. (^ ^ . El-Bakallyeh. T i T inn 1335. which she body over and toes fingers. depictedin the form two . lies is also the of a ground cow. The. Tell Basta. {Continued). Dendera. Ebshan. and She are Seb. Therefore . f| . . gods.EGYPTIAN NoMEs XV. "c. a of a governor nomarch. principle sented the earth. OF ARCHAEOLOGY Lower . the earth god. The celestial traversed of the Dead ocean.Such lists may Philae. instrument mystical opening of the mouth The were of the mummy. beneath. stands She is repreof Nu. Frequently underneath on arching her to support There her. The goddess Nut of Nu. Units Egyptians employed figured thus. signifies '?3' Nut. Tehuti . Numeration. Saft el-Heneh. El-Amdid. thousands. On the as called the by nomes the Greeks are temple the walls Nile be seen figures of god at represented bringing various offerings. 117 Egypt . Nebesheh. a decimal tens. Her body is since she representsthe sky. nil hundreds. Karnak. Book disk of the and to be show seated figurewearing is sidered con- the plumes /1\. Nu.

she a cat's stelae is the emerging and this water bread In tree. confused . Nut. Ra. sun. Nut. in the female of a ciple printhe or depicted head In tombs the "Book snake's head. of a and cow. troublesome mortals. in Ea. of Dead with seen " A Nu. cow was dutifully supported she safe in this position. to violently separating other the tells earth where men The leave father. from of she a surmounted and on by and to disk. rebelled anxious his against rule. which represents from his sky.118 A CONCISE DICTIONARY OF variations as of the story that her of Nut Nut.v.). with goddess She a distinct is from Nut. raised while self her- earth in form her the Shu. with Hathor capacity (q. sycomore the underworld is sometimes offering the deceased. Still the her as a son. from One her speaks husband was of Shu Seb. and that from Nut the of her own will the left Seb.

with slightly long square tapering faces. obelisks Dynasty we find small placed on either side of the stela. are more several Eoman desert " oases. the colossi that entrance to a were Obelisk. Great amount in considered kind of paradisew'here the dead went a from which search of happiness. in the form. having Fayum. Siwa " Isles of the colonized but than Blessed. fact. in these Coptic It " Egyptian remains Great was to the oasis of JupiterAmmon went to modern that Alexander the consult the famous A oracle.KGYPTIAX AHCHAKOLOGY 119 o the Owing probably to their inaccessibility. of those still standingis The largest and best worked that erected by Queen Hatshepsut at Karnak. there Ptolemaic. and pyramidion at the top." found in in Herodotus. shaft. quarried. as were early times. Although many have thought that the obelisk emblem of God. Usually they were capped with bronze or placed in front of They were giltcopper. those at Karnak measure 77 feet and 75J feet. came its name. The which is seven the oldest. there is an obelisk of rectangular . Oases. It is tells hcw^ it was 109 feet high. in early times oases were regarded with a certain been The Oasis had of superstition.is 68 feet high. At Begig. months. were The in granite from the Aswfin finest are quarries. though in point of height they might not be a pair. put on either side of the main were temple. Obelisks convex made of varying sizes and in different materials. obelisk at Heliopolis.in all probability. or a finger religious represents some it is more probable that the idea in ray of the sim " " the minds the IVth of those who raised them or was similar to that Under in the tombs of the raisers of menhirs standingstones. There always two of them. and an inscription in carved. and set up in position transported. It was other and islands.

Osiris to was applied to to the blessed so dead. brother ously treacher- ]nurdered " by " the darkness and of power and evil . and his praises. with inscriptions or figures sides bore cycle of eight gods and goddesses.The ing perpendicularlines of hieroglyphscontainand titles. Osirian" formula M. The hawk pyramidion of a obelisk decorated with scenes of offerings. The example is which found in the eight gods at Hermopolis." They were four gods and their wives. See Heliopolis. brother Osiris. and in son structed inSeb the of his religion. Osiris. used in invariably funerary inscriptions. The the king'snames decorated stood was the obelisk pedestalon which of cynocephali(q-v. possibly an to receive some groove intended emblem. Ogdoad. civilized them them them the and He Set mankind.). the offspring earth and was heaven husband Isis. A " On. the live again . N. and the subordinate been to Thoth. Ausar. taught gave He and agriculture." king Egypt. A term came Osirian.a number not frequentlymet w^ith. from "the the town city of the got its Egyptian name. of and was of Nut. of the who "Highest and of all the divine Powers. eight. and in that applied by the Egyptians faith they hoped epithetOsirian "The is the or to their dead. laws. As died and life again.120 rounded A CONCISE DICTIONARY OP a top was with a object. and to have eight seem figuredas eight cynocephali his sacred animal.

.

In the fifth a stronghold of Christianity. and by She and is a identical with solar her. is representedon tomb The ostrich for Pa-mazet. goddess. Many centmy it was papyri have been fomid on the site. nature some A headed same goddess as sidered con- Sekhet." She figures the in Speos Arlargely name temidos the at Beni of there. modern deity.122 A CONCISE DICTIONARY OF form part of royaltribute. found. figured tomb which in walls have palette pictures on responds exactly corwith those been The Fakht. .Set. rend to signifies in pieces. Hasan. tion variaHer * ' represents some of the sun heat. eggs sometimes walls at Thebes. Pakht lioness of the - or Pasht. the nome capital of the nineteenth Chief Behneseh. her cult centre having been Palette. the Oxyrhynchus. The Greek name of Upper Egypt.

great diversity both in language and caligraphy. the to papyri written such as of Ani in the British Museum. were Sometimes use. being written on. w^hich. the ninth Chief nome of Upper Egypt. pot. the signs are The latter applies placed in linear hieroglyphs. Being rolled up. usuallyonly two. to 17 ins. inch thick. basalt. they decorated. to f of At hold one end are hollows.ivory. wdde of several piecesof joined togetherto long sheet. and the name ing dedicatengraved on them. deity. inlaid or otherwise These. followed by an inscription The 94th the paletteto Thoth. an a ARCHAEOLOGY 12:3 varying from of wood rectangular block by 2 ins. in length. Down kind of pocket for holdingthe reed pens or brushes. in columns. was rolled from left to right. The representing the papyrus writing reads from right to left in most though occasionally cases. The great papyrus of papyri found in museums numbers all over Europe and in private collections cover a long period of and show of style a Egyptian history. papyrus form a roll consists A papyrus from 6 ins. piece of papyrus string One of the most familiar hieroglyphic signs is roll. the modern Amsu. capital of Akhmim. The of Book papyri of the "^ ' " " . by 2| ins. a Several palettesin other materials have been found. The earlier ones in linear hieroglyphsand hierS^tic (q-v. how^are finely probably funeraryobjectsnot intended for ever. name Greek for Apu. and sometimes such as limestone. they have been found buried with is frequently of the owner scribes. chapter of the " Book of the Dead" ink contains a prayer to Thoth for a paletteand Panopolis. it was and sealed with a lump of clay. which measures tied wdth a 135 ft.EGYPTIAN These and small consist 10 about of ins. to 16 ins. the later are in demotic and Greek.). the different is cut a groove ending in the centre pigments. The longest known is the up usually Harris Papyrus in the British Museum. Papyri.

and a since burial have some considered complete the one. Stern. using an ink which to this day retains its splendid black. many their finders Abbott a : possessors Papyrus in the British " or Museum. Palestine. tale of Sanehat. with coloured cases are pictures. The scribes wrote care requireimmense with a reed pen. When found and they are extremely dry and brittle. Tale Empire. and about Translation by Berlin Middle and 1. Maspero.124 the Dead known in some A " CONCISE DICTIONARY OF which form of the a (q-v. or the calcined dregs of wine added to gum. Papyri. legs. as the name they were last. . officer in the British an tions Transla- Newberry journey of (of longest). Nos. at or others arms between or hands. Subject. and F.C. large number papyri. They were in wooden statues of gods hollowed out for the purpose. by Chabas. composed of Pliny says it was smoke black. Goodwin. in handling. contain Medical and by George Harris Ludwig papyrus.judicialinquiry at Thebes. The following is a list of some of the best known of which called by the names of are papyri. judicial Amheest Papyei and Papyri of Hackney. by Mr. Ebers Papyrus Ebers Translations 4 Date. Papyrus. There was a under the chest. in the tale of Sekhti Anastasi and Hemti. LI. to Subject Syria Date No. inquiry at Thebes. Chabas. also placed can be little doubt of that the no making was some of papyri of kind Book trade. are frequentlyelaborately illustrated." it must been lucrative Examination not of these papyri with prepared for the deceased specially whom has been filled in buried. Museum. the sometimes under on the bandages. were " without of the copy shows of at least that chapters a Dead. Griffith. Hemti. of Lord Amherst possession Subjects. Translations in the British Subjects. These with the found buried the mummies. 2 Egyptian 1400 B.). the Tale of Sekhti of Sanehat. Museum.

and Eenouf. Middle Empire. Date. 2. and Maspero. ^loY?il treatise. Translations Subject. -Da^e. A demotic of Museum." Date. Tale collection at of A papyrus Hermitage or Xlllth Papyri. Schack. in the British Subject."and Petrie has done " kings. and Amelineau. Translations by Piehl. the Hyksos. in the British Museum. Translation * Mathematics. the yoke of the foreigners. Eevillout. Setna. in the British Museum. Brothers. Translations by de Eouge. which is Professor Maspero . has old published several Contes PopuEgyptian tales under the title of the same for English laires. Date about Museum. Called " oldest book Ehind in the world.Harem of Berlin. and Virey. No. and Brugsch. Date. Subject. of the Egyptians against Historyof the uprising i. Subject. Goodwin. Translations by Golenifamous of these is the St. No. The by Chabas. Ptolemaic. Instructions of Ebers. Papyrus Papyrus l)yChabas.v. Date. most important to chronologers. XlXth by Maspero. Chabas. Subject. discourse 1225 of B. Translations d'Orbiney The Eomance by Brugsch of the in Chabas.Maspero. by Goodwin. Usertsen I. British Museum.e. to his son Translations to the Nile. XlXth Dynasty. Heath. Brugsch. No. Date.EGYPTIAN list judicialinquiries. a. Eamesside period. Lee Medical Translation Papyrus. 12r. Maspero.Tale papyrus search a in the a for magical book." in the Griffith. the Bibliotheque Nationale. by Maspero. his chiefs. The so Petersburg. Epic poem of Pentaur (q. Cairo Papyrus of. 3. and Shipwrecked the Xllth Turin list of Translations Hess.). Groff. Papyrus and Papyri Subject. Chabas. Kamses Hareis III. T\yo Dynasty. Magic. Subject. and a Hymn Amen-em-hat I. by in Sailor. to ARCHAEOLOGY of a offerings. Subject. Translations XlXth Dynasty. Prisse Translations Papyrus Date. scheff and Dynasty.C. Papykus Eisenlohr. and conspiracy. Subject. by Eisenlohr Sallier " 1.

mats. of it. ''Egyptian Tales.other layers put widths of this were on across these with a thin solution of some unknown adhesive substance dried. then was The a good plant of result.to distinguish in the Sebennytic cultivated chiefly Pliny says it was Nome. bedding. and clothes were famous Herodotus tells us writingmaterial. rope. a plant not from which the papyrus for writingon It grew in marshy places. the triangularstalk of the 15 ft. it hyhlus. now It in was the found Egypt. and of different textures. made. shoots were gathered. being considered a delicacy.besides the all made that the cooked papyrus with the their upon which the scribes wrote prepared by removing the outer rind and into very thin layers. was very fair surface for writing upon. and out of the '' stem were made small boats. been The had in pressed and papyrus to us the whole between.when a used." first and second Papyrus. which was large and thick. The thyrsus. Several then slicingthe stem laid side by side."topped. vary cream specimens from are a that have dark come down to a colour rather brown dark A used tomb Lower colour.126 A in COXCISE his DICTIONARY OF readers series. cijperus j^f^py^'us. According to him. of the [See Papyri.) conventionalized for decorative and form purposes.and the cultivation of it seems to have been a government other varieties of this monopoly. plantwas frequently and figureslargely on also a symbol of was . provided fuel and material for making certain utensils. The books papyrus was Sails. and it was crowned with a as plant was used." Every part of the plant was root. Strabo calls the first kind common the sort. That there were was useful hieratic plant seems evident from the from references the to it in the classic authors. It temple Egypt. high. walls. The is said to be identical now growing in Sicily Egyptian papyrus." and young for food.

the from bricks of which are stamped with his cartouche. king of the XXIst Dynasty. that Pepi must From which of Unas is the earhest histhe inscription torical (q. is at conquest and travel. A scribe who has become of celebrated as of the epic gi'eat poem probablynot the author. Pasebkhanu A Pasht. we gather Ast. This tree. [See papyrus copy. Pentaur. cir. graffiti. we document learn that in this reign the Eg^^tians began to make expeditionsfor Pepi'spyramid. Meri-Bd.). See Pakht.).KCiYPTT. and son brother of Men-kheper-Ea. He was of Painezem king of Tanis while Shashanq He the throne is chiefly known at Bubastis. of any length. sat on the wall which he built round Tanis (q. Men-nefer.) Pepi.AX 7\RCHAEOLOOY man 127 " Paraschistes. Pens. But he for long supposed. Third Egypt. CaogJ 3467 B. the writer was I.v. the stone. Sakkara. king of Dynasty Vlth. as was of the but only the transcriber Poe:m of Pentaur." made order to withdraw Tho sht who.C. See Eeed.was either the balanites Aegyptiaca (Eaffenan-Delile) the Arab lehaJch or the mwuisops Schimeperi(Schweinfurth). high priest I. with side before an Ethiopian in in the of the deceased the intestines embalming the body. have been a vigorous monarch. called in Egyptian . inscriptions. of the principalsacred of ancient It w^as trees one Persea tree. of Amen. CliiQ number of From the immense and monuments bearing his name.v.

had great trouble there. Cambyses Psammetichus III. It or in scenes occurs frequently the goddess Safekh. securingto him everlasting some of on its leaves.and made Egyptians by killingtheir . life. He was by Darius Hystaspes.128 A CONCISE DICTIONARY OF Egypt. caused of is said to have monuments at the battle of Pelusium and took possessionof of many himself Egypt. Thoth.who stands near. He established a coinage. who tried to improve the condition of the people and country. canal. his reign Egypt again made ArtaHis successor. and completed the Red Sea to Mediterranean Towards the end of improved the system of taxation. I. He the destruction of the wonderful odious to the particularly shows that he new Apis bull. But another account restored the temple of Neith at Sai's and performed the succeeded rites as other Egyptian kings. but was itself independent. is in which seen the god the inscribing Persea Tree.but finally xerxes conquered Egypt. again subdued by Xerxes I. name thus king.. Persian defeated Dynasty.

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His Egypt." {SeeAgeicultuee. royal physicians enjoyed considerable distincA certain king Sahura presented his chief for his tomb. and as a sheet of clear glass a sliding cover in by Petrie has with been discovered the among This the ruins of may have Tanis. in the X Vlllth Dynasty. one present time there has discovered specimen only found. brown. black. and conquered Egypt. It is made of painted wood and contains a corners portrait are .) From the "Book of the Dead" learn that Set. we (q. This animal Pigments." a granite block covered with an inscription of his victories in telling set up at Gebel Barkel in Nubia. " " Ethiopian king who hved at Napata during the eighth century B. was probably not used Herodotus speaks of seeing a herd of pigs "treading in the seed. seemed. Museum.v. The Ameniritis is well known queen alabaster statue now in the Cairo Picture been Hawara but from Museum. to have Bone-setting been under the protection of Sekhet. The tion.C. for the purpose ing of allowevidently to pass . for food. unique specimen the figures but rarely on and monuments. her beautiful frame. fractures being cured by intercession with her. the physician with a costly false door making of which he personally superintended. was '' Piankhi. and that was when Until the excavatingin the cemetery of 1889. colours white were As in far back use as the Vth Dynasty seven .) took the form of a pig.. The celebrated Stela of Piankhi. and yellow. There is a sht running down both the top sides. once Pig.130 A CONCISE DICTIONARY OF first surgeon. and green .the enemy of Osiris. blue. the joined with mortises and tenons. however. three . it is been is now not impossible that the British picture covered in that material. red.

Dark of sand Red . tw^o blues. The colours w^ere Varnish w^as not used until about This the time from cracked of theXIXth the and gum darkened the close of w^as Dynasty. method. or sulphateof arsenic.three browns. {SecCobalt. Remains I. prepared.our modern orpiment . end all It is situated of Lake about miles w^est the southern monuments Pithom probability more built There of by Ramses is II. probably small " Blue madder . and was through the lists of Lower In no nomes the to be the of capital Timsah. time of of the bricks. two reds. however.. " Eed with " ochre.The pigments w-ere mixed as required with w^ater and a little gum tragacanth. and I. the Sea. or gypsum . 11. on by a Naville. " XXIInd have In Dynasty Shashanq Nectanebo Osorkon built at Pithom. about found the of to l)e unsuitable. and two sixteen different fourteen or greens .) of Ruins at Pithom Exodus of i. The name known Turn.that to this day of the work of Egyptian artists retains almost much all its original brilliancy. the II. the same Dynasty. was the eighth nome ten of of Egypt. as composition of the chief colours was follows : White sulphateof lime. Edouard statue this town modern The name excavations and the Maskhutah. a or cinnabar admixture .or a cheaper kind from glasscoloured by lapis and silicate of copper sulphate of powdered . or Ha-neter Tarn. " oxide " of iron pulverized lazuli. Black " from so calcined well animal bones.as it both discontinued and so was paintings. also royal been the stamp found. Pink lime coloured by some organic substance. ancient than those which no bear his mark having on " been unearthed. making about The tints..EGYPTIAN ARCHAEOLOGY 131 " yellows. some It of was probably made kind acacia. on great tablet of Ptolemy Philadelphus is also written Ha discovered at this spot. Yellow^ ochre. Ptolemy Philadelphusit was commercial expeditions to the starting-point Various Red . the Fa have Tel has el Tiini of ancient been been identified found in Egypt.

temples It was at Karnak. the walls of chambers been excavated a are good epoch. visions built for necessary for caravans for armies and about to cross or even travellers which the desert. the hero Ramses serried left almost ranks of whose among each conchariots. Poem E. s (3 Thuket . alone .) Succoth Israelites encamped. The most part were describes the enemv. Anastasi with was vi. place through the Heroopolitan Gulf. other purpose the Pharaohs into which gathered the progranaries. de it from the and See Asteonomy. as them took that the Ptolemies It is also very likely warehouses in the trade with Africa.) (" The Store-Cityof Pithom. and which Pithom name a Heroopolis. 4. 3) of the British Museum." Naville. 1007." by Edouard See statue of Ankh-renp-nefer in British Museum No. built. the w^ere on road used which to Syria. line in town 13) which the the heen identified the the in Hebrew district the Succoth which Under (Exodus w^as 20. no dicating character. abridgedinto Ero and a Pithom became that have by the Eomans. (Pap. dramatic told by an eye-witness. The portions of Dynasty. The name which w^as given by He studied a Eouge the to the great epic of Egypt.132 A COXCISE Pitliom \ DICTIONARY with " "" OF papyri or associate g -s a region called TJiukii. Sallier first discovered Its subject is Papyri (No. Planets. copy hence which The was papyrus and called Pentaur name made " by scribe was he concluded " that this on of the author.The styleis most graphic. . that M. ^ (^ has . poem is found the the w^alls of the Luxor. against the the campaign of Eamses if the story as (Hittites?). Kheta II. Greek xiii. Naville says been or I believe them to have than that of storehouses. invery substantial of these Such is the construction : " chambers. Southern Egyptian Gallery. Abu among Simbel. of Pentaur. Abydos.

" Many poems written were to be accompanied by the harp. as so we frequently see familiar in Hebrew poetry. those We little It is from tomb walls which also that are we have people.v. ii. vol. Their similes show imagination and of nature. heart.It has in part " a form with parallelism of the phrases . invincible army describes enemy hand of a returns retreat god in terror. see (For translation." One love of poem which a song flower."only were Eecords of the Past. in some and much poeticfeeling.the so-called in the tombs. and corresponding in arrangement. to The love-sick maiden is to comfort me as is sweet the alone mouth can thy breath has my says.EGYPTIAN ARCHAEOLOGY seem 188 taining three Then these those Eamses Asiatics who know have more men.than hears thousand son charioteers. "What the gall of birds .). against them. how his favourite Nuret his gallantaction and horses." . But a I many find that a than million Amen soldiers. " left to Satisfied. his father Amen. consecrated My forsaken to me me. offeringsunto not I not . found of the hymns and eulogies.) (See Poetry. . fish.) series. two short sentences following each other. In the of rhyming lines literature has But distinct use of alliteration." that he is with tells his him Then and the cry. . and observation not above the they were sense Poetry. . commencing with the name every verse The greatEgyptian epic is the so-called of Pentaur we are {q. "Victory in Thebes him." first Egyptian no a rhythm is poetry. ^Yhat are " thy the heart ? Amen Have thee ? . calls upon to completely to enclose him.he reproachesthem. and " recognizingthe and the coward to the " king. w411 help him. and also as a rule in purport. " lyricsor ballads give one example : " of the Your shepherd talks is in the the ! your He From with west sheath the with the fish.he salutes the pike shepherd is a shepherd from water the west. will humiliate innumerable soldiers Amen hundred and The is god. .

portraitwas the conkept in place by the bandages. was is to be accounted by the fact that there period a large Greek colony in the Fayum. country. and National finished these and from the memory. or This panel of cedar from The and J^ to J inch. and that traces of what Egyptians were in all probability the native races survived until were of the Pharaonic long after the commencement period. British good specimens of Graeco- Egyptian pictures in Museum.d. and strong influence. which are have been then rubbed ground to a very fine powder. but to the aboriginalinhabitants of the term Pre-Mstoric. The Egyptian priesthood seems to have . It must be remembered that the dynastic not aboriginal. From ventional of these it is style portraits thought that were they executed There are after the death. For Gallery Praefects. It is therefore than probable that many of the more so-called pre-historic objectsbelong not to the antePharaonic. Priests. and were up to a this with heated wax. varying in thickness about 9 by 17 inches in size.134 A COXCISE The dates busts The and DICTIONARY introduction of 130 OF Portraits. The for considering them to reasons be of this remote periodare hardly sufficiently cogent at present to permit of this definition being accepted in all cases. in' in the portraitscome Fayiim." appliedby some Egyptologists to all objects which they believe to be anterior to the 1st Dynasty. which show for a from was the Greek period cemetery of excavated by Mr. 1889. into heads Hawara Petrie This at painted portraits succeeded which that the Egypt and from about a. see the best '' list of under Praefects Eoman of Egypt Professor Milne's A Egypt Eule. and at to the moulded stucco cartonnages with were of the mummies covered. The portraits executed in colours.. was laid over the face of the mummy. and appliedwith the brush fine wood.

."all ranked Prisse Papyrus. The founder of the He married Dynasty at Sais. heiress of the Ethiothe daughter and pian Shep-en-apt. XXYIth to establish themselves in the Delta. many have function been to recite. Setevi. to sing and seems titles the following the best known are : Among priestly the The chief priest at Memphis. JSani priest was The a that the Hcrsheshta was the diviner. From the earliest times we " of importance.1 Kings and goverlargeand elastic order. Psammetichus Uah-kh-Bu. nors. which Saite art shows a influence. strong Hellenic those which as though the ideas are the same vailed preThis king employed under the ancient Empire. Psammetichus made successful a military expedition his reign is chiefiy remarkable for into Nubia ." above the ordinarypriest. and permitted Greeks Greek mercenaries in his army." the and the divine "purifier. care. princesses. 666-612. fatlier. The ritual and services of the temples were elaborate.EGYPTIAN been ARCHAKOLOGV 18. the "prophet. b. his queen and x\meniritis. but the priesthoodwas faction gradually of the priestly increased during power the Middle Empire. There chief whose were priestesses. The " The Khcr-heh was master of ceremonies. trecepts of. See Ptah-hetep . I. and there entailed a were recurring festivals which perpetually a very great find amount of labour. but fiourished under his fostering the revival of art. and king Piankhi as a brought Patoris to her husband wedding gift. priestly queens those of high rank there were numberless and below with the various grades of officials in connection temples and services of the different gods.c. and a ll held offices. and under the New Empire it of the most forms one important elements of the kingdom.

and put to death within B. a conducted a Osiris. or Anpu is usually standingclose Above the is seen a by test the indicator. and then at Memtaken he was prisoner. DICTIONARY OF Psammetichus -i?a XXVIth . she is called Wicked." and beneath of behind The soul is then to . body of lioness.136 A CONCISE III . and the join the cycleof the gods . him sided pre- stands birth " and the Eenenet. of the balance into attendant to examine of Thoth. in the form of a small vase. heart or presence conscience.J^"^/i-/{. After a the invasion phis.who gallantly of his country by Cambyses. Amam. De- vourer of the hand on taken him an by is are the the by Horus. Behind with the him is a hideous a posite com- animal. It was an accepted one belief from be the very earliest ages that every of Double the Hall Truth.who before seated ** throne canopy are four children Horus." standing upon him Isis and ing openis lotus flower . palette in hand. Dynasty .."-e?2 . the soul of the Near Meskhent deceased at hand resting upon Shai. 525. J resisted II. over education yond Be- the scribe of the gods. deceased in the permitted to pronounced.).and behind two goddesses who of children. and Judgment is then either Nephthys. Destiny.v. upon the sits the little cynocephalus (q. or the and top of pylon (?). ready to inscribe the result of the is weighing of head and the heart. Son of Aahmes six months of his accession. negative confession Dead. stern resistance. is ducted con- Forty-Two the of the The of Osiris.C. lirst at Pelusium.the the the quarters hind" of a crocodile.and forequarters of a hippopotamus. is placedin the the beam scale opposite to the feather of Truth ."reed-pen and Thoth. Osiris for their The before the course must and of conduct Assessors soul. Psychostasia. after first making the brought into there be judged by during life.

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vices is of the pride. which lasted nearly three hundred years. which he A form of the god Ptah under symbolized the inert form of Osiris. however. Ptolemy. and Dendera there Ptolemaic temples. and contain papyri inwith certain chaptersfrom the Book of the Dead. The path of the virtuous is shown to be advantageous. translation. and by contrast the evil of disobedience." The figures and pedestalsare gailypainted. are his At Philae. The historyof the fourteen Ptolemies and the seven Cleopatras is a record of small campaigns. Many activity of built. Kom Ombo. murders. which a on projects some distance in front. and are usually inscribed with the ordinary prayer for sepulchral formula meals." other ''Eecords Ptah-Seker-Osiris. divided empire was among Egypt fallingto the lot of his favourite and famihar had risen from who an companion. easily kind as teachingis Book of the same that fomid of Proverbs. {See Cleopatra.188 A CONCISE The in DICTIONARY moral the OF understood. At the death of x\lexander the Great in his generals. certainty mummy of Ptah-Seker-Osiris Large numbers figures been have found. intemperance.) . The pious son is extolled. At the same time there was and scientific great literary during the early part of the period. " Ptolemies. This pedestal and the statuette itself are scribed frequentlyhollow.C. a man obscure in the founded He a dynasty position army. laziness. Edfu. ending with the death of Cleopatra in 30 B. altered considerably extant . and For pointed out. the style from that of Pharaonic times. made of wood. 323 B.and duty to parents and superiors inculcated.the well-preservedremains temples were form some of the finest examples of architecture which of art had. the with its possibilities and of resurrection.C.see Past. and immorality. and They are mounted little pedestal.

EGYPTIAN ARCHAEOLOGY 180 Punt. gold and metal rings. Mariette. It consisted of a large. logs of ebony. a country rich trees. the face held of contained On chambers. there were statues. sometimes were only a staircase. the fleet and two sons. Roash. and sculptured Inscriptions pictures the (see Pentaur). Sakkiira. four vertical grooves. and tends Brugsch. daughter After an interchangeof gifts. apes. as that part of the African coast which exfrom the Straits of Bab-el-Mandeb to Cape It was in balsam and incense-be Gardafui. small having sloping faces Sometimes of each these two overhanging towers cornice. Abu and the in the groups..skins.were times some- dimensions. divide themselves into Faydm group. viz. of the There Abu They representedthe royalfounder Pyramids. in precious woods. of which of enormous four or six. that of MedCim standingalone. Punt. are remains on of at the north least seventy in less ruined These pyramids Eoash long plateau. the "land of God. upon " " " " " Pylon. with odoriferous returned to Egypt. and sloping fronts The obelisks were or placed before them. On their a fleet of five largevessels received in the most arrival they were friendly by way wife of and their his Prince Ati. called This also Ta-neter. . The colossal gateway forming the fa9adeof a temple. more or temple. Lisht. Parihu. to Medum extending from the south. for the purpose. in which were great wooden covered statues masts." region is identified by Maspero. Gizeh. laden sycomore with identified by Mariette the trees myrrh tree" of Pliny ivory. Dahshur. lapislazuli.ordinary entrance. and heaps of the precious gum. bearing floatingstreamers different colours. and building equipping Hatshepsut sent an expedition. gold dust. with enormous masses of and massive masonry an on either side. The whole depicted story of this expeditionis vividly of Dcr the walls of the great temple el Bahri. this blessed To land Queen ivory and amber. iVbusir.

has been a puzzle to the engineeringmind proved that measuring have the period of the since record neither classic what times. by Persians. had been be the Herodotus told to and them It on Diodorus the been both point. command has of the recently to proved manual that itwould at with possible quite the unlimited Pharaohs pyramid without any complex or elaborate The finer examples are built of nummumachinery.solely as tombs The method of construction preservationof royal mummies. . such In some only the led to the accidental discoveryof chambers of detritus knowledge that the mound above was once a pyramid. etc. of construction. conclusively the tomb of the second proving that this was king of the IVth Dynasty. inside were arranged with an intricacy designed to foil the efforts of plunderers. and when in more modern times nothing investigated in the chambers remained but a lidless sarcophagus without above of the chambers inscription. In spiteof the great care thus taken the mummy. The great pyramid at Gizeh in its original surfaces to state presented four smooth the beholder.N. only the passages chambers being limestone. as it was faced with graniteand entirely limestone blocks the most joined.140 A CONCISE less than DICTIONARY OF have been identified have been But as of all these tombs twenty of different as kings. U. purpose.but theory labour a is conclusive.''' litic limestone from the quarries of Turah and Masarah construct on the other were side of the river. Of the two other pyramids that has * See " Mechanical Triumphs of the Ancient Egyptians. of Dahshur. and cases built of mud inside at Others. The passages having for centuries served as a quarry. as some brick." Commander Barber.S.In some the of Khufu name was discovered. But beautifully whole of this outer the place casing has disappeared. the pyramid was to conceal opened many times. Eomans. and Arabs.. Many excavation theories method advanced fco their age. and much and built between they were 1st and Xllth for the Dynasties.

granite at alabaster and at Aswan at Hammamat. chief See Canoptc Jaiis at are quarries for limestone Masfirah. Qullah.EGYPTIAN form the Gizeli ARCHAEOLOGY 111 Khephren. Pepi I. At Sakkfira Unas. and is more difficult to translate. those . various carved contain chapters from the inscriptions of the Dead. Q Qebhsennuf Quarries. Pepi I. This Dynasty. of the Xllth el pyramids at Thebes. . The pyramids Ea-en-user are the larger is that of Khafra or groups. and There are 11. These long. Ethiopia. Maspero in the Becucil de Travaux. that of Men-kau-Ea or Mycerinus. Mer-en-Ea. and at Meroe Pyramid Texts. at Lisht. that of Usertsen of Sneferu Fayum. and Hammamat Gebel Abu Fedeh and .. or Kebhsenuf. in the Pepi x\men-em-hat also III. with a French transThe form of the language differs greatlyfrom phrase refers to " the that found in later times. and tombs other of the Dynasty kings." Book They have been published by lation. at Abusir Vth are the tombs of Sahu-Ea. nearly opposite to the site of Tiirah. .. . the other. . porphyry The Hat Nub. exquisitelyPepi II. at Medilm of Usertsen II. near Napata in inscriptions of Unas. Teta. in the pyramid tombs Teta. and Sandstone was chieflyquarried at Silsilis Memphis. and Seker-em-sa-f. that I..

seat is his symbol. cir. built plain bank his the Greeks of the tomb Nile. called it the The {sec Tomb)...C. They also called it the tomb of Osymandias. a usually depicted as human being crowned disk and uraeus. According to some tions inscripcreator more of ancient The sun. on It served as a mortuary chapel to valley behind Memnonium. men. many the king'swars againstthe Kheta. the BethHe is shemesh. B. User-maat-Ea. . Eamses The walls are of which relate the story of and illustrations. accordingto Diodorus. Ea. the Greek Heliopolis. even than of firmament. of the worship of Ea Hebrew On or Annu. With the also the revival of incoming of this new dynasty the ancient worship of Amen. the the The was The he world. Eamses I. turningthe simple word frequently into a proper "memorial" or meaning "monument" name. hawk-headed with the sun's user and grasping the sceptre in his hand. that is who.light. by a corruption of Egytian word viennii. The of of name Ramesseum. which word they observed in the inscriptions. chief emblem and life. given to the on great temple the Eamses XL. was covered with inscriptions II. Men-i^ehtetBd. was and gods. in the the western Thebes. came 1400 (B).142 A CONCISE DICTIONARY OF R Ra. fertility. Dynasty XIX.

. and are the Eamesseum. he In placed the largestcolossal also many buildings. statues before that are which known. The first care of this monarch to finish on ascending the throne was the beautiful temple of Abydos begun by his father.. II.C. Kadesh being the rallying-point .however.was continued was begun during his successor.) courage of the war but a very out are loudlysung..the powerful Kheta. a source rise of the danger to powerfulKheta people became The the Egyptian kingdom. This king did the work of his predecessors hesitate to appropriate himself. 1333 of the (P. II. reignof Seti under . and his own cut over them. The Sesothis one of Manetho of the most Sesostris Greeks. and both on temples and statues their may be the seen of his chiselled out. it is clear that the working at Kuban inscription upon Eamses of the Nubian goldmines. and cir..Kheta-sar. restored that of Ptah at Memphis. waged war againstEgypt. and built as of his fame the rock-cut temple of memorial a lasting x\bu Nubia not to names celebrated of all the Simbel. reignof Eamses under their king. and Egyptian kings. rests of the Seti of I. 's monuments at Thebes. and. II.v. in the Eamses fact that his son. User-maut-Bu..Dynasty XIX. successSyria. fame the of Eamses I.). Sctep-en-Ba.EGYPTIAN and The of his Thebes became once ARCHAKOLOGY the seat of U3 more government. more ful.which I. Peace was ratified by the marriage of the Kheta In king's daughter with the Pharaoh. although in the of Pentaur and prowess Poem the king's {q. He added Luxor. B.and most grandson.. the Egyptian army was and there are long lists of the conquered peoples During to be seen an From the II. also to the temples of Karnak and Seti I. were two celebrated Ramses long line of Pharaohs. he comes doubtful conqueror.

cir. of turbed dismilitary reign was peace Harem by the famous conspiracydescribed in the Turin. the the little to say but that in their hands the country steadilydeclined.c. and great The his victories.. with also as She representedas on woman the sun's disk and a cow-horns same her head. Ramessides. capitals Ramses 11. the Lee. this king marks of great commercial era an prosperity celebrated for his buildings and Egypt . and was Mer-en-Ptah.date from this became of the one reign . b. The mummy of this Pharaoh is in the Ramses III. 1200. for any Thebes. he reigned sixtysucceeded seven by his fourteenth son. than Heliopolis (On). and was rather principle prieststhan a distinct deity. of Ra. of the kingdom. steadily goddess feminine idea not representsthe an abstract is of the a She frequently met with. B. and Zaan or Pa-Ramessu. built by the forced labour of the Israelites. and uraeus with the head-dress. and of high priests Ra-t. years. XXth " from Ramses III. the Rhampsinitus of the for The reign of Greeks. A Amen at Thebes greatness of power of the rose. numerous The name " usuallygiven to the XIII. the. Cairo Museum. he is more his rich gifts to the alreadyexisting temples of Abydos. Rollin. 1200"1100. Dynasty XX. to kings of that name who occupied the throne of Egypt during the Of them there is Dynasty. resembling . is by most Egyptologistsconsidered to be the Pharaoh of the oppression. Uscr-maut-Ra.C.144 The " A CONCISE cities " DICTIONARY of Pithom and OF treasure Ramses. and Amherst papyri.. razors. cir. Bronze somewhat Razors.

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a long notched symbol on her Frequently she branch in her being a 1 goddess Ta-urt merely for the Egyptian hippopotamus. lit. connected L harvest of the with for goddess of goddess." House Rert.The word rert is " god imported from Asia in later times. . the of day and night. lord of might in the ruler of eternity. Ta-urt her. the notched carries hand. A goddess representing the personified year. lord of heaven. A " Renpit.v. probably the same as Eesef. and of tw^o sometimes head-dress plumes divine insignia.). and to Ren. Renenet the "Book Ranen. identi- fied with is picturedin human head form. A late form of the {q. rejijntbeing She longed befor year.Name. Egyptian word to the Memphite cycle of gods. looked they practically upon A man's was name thought to exist after him.140 A CONCISE the sunrise DICTIONARY and OF return recurrence " sunset. She the is spoken of as dwelling in of Suckling.the battle between lightand darkness. palm branch. The " be known in heaven. or Renpit the Repit. Phoenician He the war god. In she is usually She with with other Meskhent. Reshpu. /(? 1\ is the a representedwith uraeus human body and head. the Shai Dead" and a or The good fortune. She and Hathor are Sometimes Eenenet. called is great god. Egyptians considered the name to be a most important part of a hum^an being in fact it as a separate entity.

Many designs are wire with a gold. and had their names of their cartouches maybe seen on the walls which many occurring they built or restored. The emuneventful perors It was an period on the whole." natural He is It' of the face divine and represented^vitll of the Semitic beard. iron.) being Tiberius and Claudius. Rhampsinitus. before of his mistakes. 640 .EC^YPTIAX midst a ARCHAEOLOGY circle. translated into Egyptian. of the very charming. head of a m^aeus wears the miniature gazelleon his forehead. the Rohes. Reshpn.D. The in Greek one name for Eamses numerous III. been found in Rings. 30 and Emperors. Egypt formed part The emperors governed the country through apraefect. frit and stone. Some of a bronze. silver.c. however. Roman A. worshipped in the years of the Eoman Fayum. and instead Eert. Herodotus. Between b. those most frequently {SeePeaefects.enamel. placeshim Khufu have or (Cheops). Empire. Some scarab set so that it can A form of Sebek consist turn single round.

A papyrus contains Museum the Turin an amusing caricature of in hand. Auswahl. 9 ins. lines of 14 are by 2 ft. proved the key to the decipherment of the hieroglyphs.148 A CONCISE Stone. tion. and at the capitulationof Alexandria into the came possession of the British in 1802 who Government. There 32 lines of demotic. Part of the off. Berlin. For translations see LTnscription hieroglyphique Brugsch. hieroglyphs. 1851 . for the in gods. officer of the Nile by a French Rosetta mouth artillery named Boussard. . Ruten was Syria. for Egyptian name Rutennu is spoken of in or Rutennu. For de Rosette. Epiphanes (b. and of the old rouge Rutennu from the face. So long ago a lady. the old of the An East. by 11 ins.. Thothmes III. The country and of the XVIIIth inscriptions having warred against them.mirror mentioned the Old are Empire two sorts of rouge as for the dead . and thirdlyin Greek.c. for it is inscribed then in first in hierogl3^phs. in 1798. reproducsee Lepsius. " " Bouge. The ferring subject is a decree of the priests of Memphis condivine honours on Ptolemy V." by Inscriptio 195). A DICTIONARY slab of black OF Rosetta basalt. bearing a which trilingualinscription. Bl. rougeing her lips. Rosettana. placed it in the British Museum (Southern Egyptian Gallery). with decree written a the found It was near demotic. an Rouge for the was in use among the Egyptians as article for the toilettes of ladies statues of fashion. 4| ins. so that it now measures 3 ft." by Chabas. 18. Paris. 1867. and according to in the lists of offerings an Abydos ritual the priestof the day on first entering of the god and the statue to incense the temple was its toilette by removing the then proceed to commence dead. and 54 lines of Greek. Upper from distinction the Lower people figure largelyin Dynasty.also a portion of the righttop has been broken has hand lower corner.

of Lower Nit. inverted Memphis symbol pahxi-leaf circled by the horns is peculiar to her. or properlyof writing. of the ancient village standingon the site of Memphis. was The carries or a either reed a notched palm Safekli y " and palette. for of the fifth nome Salt. capital Sa el Egypt. A modern Greek name b." beautiful it is figured a as khat or corruptible body. in the vignette Book of the Dead from lily springing up (SeeKhat. from of She branch the earliest times. The Nit. spiritual In which " shall not see " a corruption. reignedthirteen years.) Sahu. 3693 Sais. The local deitywas Sakkara. Chief deity fifth nome of Lower Egypt. The principal necropolis Arab . cir.) The second the Sahu-Ra king of Dynasty V. Saites. The body.. In such behind a usually stands venerated at her.EGYPTIAN ARCHAEOLOGY 119 goddess of learning. {See Seshta. The r^ with Thoth She the eternal life.thus endowing the name him scene Safekh. perhaps more She is usually representedstanding by the sacred tree of HeUopoUs. the modern Hagar.c. on she is writnig the leaves of which of the king.

" the Serapemn. Thothmes " two worlds.and breccia were granite. to a series of forty-seven kings. great the historic tions excava- Sakkara. been to have of using sarcophagi seems . It They was fastened papyrus. It was found named Tunari. and The brought to museums. to XVIIth the Vllth From Dynasty time the custom in abeyance. Various kinds of used. Sandals. many belong to the first six dynasties. of the fashioning days. after his accession. a beautiful semi-transparent and in the case The design varied with the dynasties. vaulted flat or with a first it was rectangular. three. presence them etiquetteto wear superior." and the Mastabat-el-Farun. lid.150 monuments or " A CONCISE at DICTIONARY the " " OF Sakkara the tombs are Pyramid and of Degrees " Stepped Pyramid. U niter of the Sam-ta. placed. of Seti I.. also limestone. At alabaster. and now in the Cairo Museum. or one Formed of generally were leather." given to III. two straps. It agrees closely the Tablet of Abydos. casing in which or more seen The the sarcophagus mummy. a name or Sam-taui. with the list of kings given on Mer-ba-pen. The use of sandals was to men. and reprepriest sents of Eamses in the him name paying homage of whom II. the interest at Tablet of. Several many be in the tombs. basalt.. outer stone two. of Thi Ptah-hetep. with was the its one. may have still been wooden in situ was coffins. M. the the in passing over of a the instep and not the between toes. They were workmanship displayedin in these is unsurpassableeven them of the finest and usually made kind of stone hardest procurable. is the first in the tomb mentioned on the Tablet of Sakkfira. A stela of discovered by of a Mariette during Sakkfira. the sixth king of Dynasty I. with on other palm bast. almost confined entirely Sarcophagi.

Scenes but sometimes en crciix. he who turns or "rolls. Later and more elaborate. She the swift his other shoots Anukit formed the triad. as She of is mentioned is daughter Isis. This as is an amulet '* made sacer." for the conception was that Khepera caused the sun to the sky as the beetle causes move across its ball to roll. the sides were {q. was One of the Elephantine triad who is with who of gods. recording on were inscriptions early ones the and td the names and titles of deceased Seten-hetep formula however.). worked massive. rectangularshape again comes the numerous times this period up to Ptolemaic and decorated. and Upper Egypt horns.e. an arrow. i.e. on straightand is known of Sehel remains texts as a about there of the the of a her. shaped hke succeeding dynasties then cartouche From into favour. and also form represented with the Sati. finely examples were The short. and vulture Ea. in the " form of the of beetle known the Scarabeus It is the symbol god Khepera. Occasionally.EGYPTIAN In the of XYIIIth a ARCHAEOLOGY 151 them in made the in the XXVIth Dynasty Some a we find in . form were mummy. sculptured to represent a building with doors and became decorations various the openings. but have been the two some temple of the in goddesses. entirely form and long extracts from the "Book of the Dead the main subjectof the decorations. wife She wife of of Khnemu. as picturesquely cataract) Little the island found to spoken forth archeress the current as the (i.usually incised or in relief more in relief. " Sati. Scarab. A scarab inscribed with the 30th (b)chapter of the Book of the Dead" took the place of the heart " . wearing the cow's crown head-dress.i'.

A round. common This ancient been emblem the insect found for must have been of in have the times. and though holding one frequently shown goddesses are more wdth a lotus flower at the top. granite. as an insect is looked upon by the Arabs emblem fertility. almost any rank could be of the profession. *'One has only to .152 A CONCISE of the DICTIONARY deceased. and form for prescribed with a silver ring gold plated. to one no was sceptre proper Sceptre. lapis lazuli. colour common and shape of the hind legs. Kings and gods are alike representedholding the usei' sceptrewith the greyhound (?) head. The attained by a clever member most phrase in the scholars' frequently-recurring exercises of the New Empire was. which are peculiar position end of the placed very far apart and at the extreme body.and many other The stones. There royalty. was OF in the such for number body heart-scarabs attachment. carnelian. they also often carry the other. composed of majority were faience. This is to enable the insect to roll the ball of refuse containingits eggs into some place of safety. fairly magical its sting. an and increase and a in size until they are This of sometime^ inch half in diameter. They were crystal. but as they are pushed along by the scarab's hindlegs they Scarabeus become firm and Sacer. who is Scribes. scorpionon her head. soft and balls are first these At shapeless. variety. Scorpion. large beetle of black metallic for the It is remarkable in Egypt. for numbers formulae It was with represented from protection of the goddess Selk. ambitious To be a scribe was the great desire of the Egyptian youth. The have been fomid in Scarabs great made in amethyst.

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Isis. Set. That he was oldest gods of the Egyptian Pantheon is evidenced by the fact that his name has been incorporated into many royal of the Xlllth names Dynasty. a In the later texts is a common name A either god represented as as ^^^ crocodile. were fed by the priests. and the also a great centre of his Fay dm was of the one worship. His symbol is a goose. accordingto decorated with jewels and Strabo. various in and The have an played as especially antagonism to the as evil deity other Ombo deities. the Nut.which. name I. Sebek-em-saf Probablya Xlllth mamat. was such at times confused at Kom double temple Sebek. Dynasty king. form He that the is called some was great cackler.. Sukhos is the Greek of the god. back of Seb the earth. and father of Osms. and with he " is in represented bird upon his human head. The sacred lake of the temple to Sebek in the Fayilm contained numbers of the sacred crocodiles. and a name. Sebek." and have laid the and " by egg supposed to w^hich " from the earth all the for thingssprang. and Nephthys. the sky. with Set.154 A CONCISE of DICTIONARY husband of OF was the son Shu. or a human He one r(51es. partly dedicated to his cult. with seems the head to of crocodile. His name is found have at Ham- statue and statuette been found his bearing . Bd-scldiem-uaz-ldiau.

Dynasty daughter of Amen-em-hat sister of Amen-em-hat Greek nome Sebennythos. Sebek-hetep III.C. Two kings U^fA Dynasty XIIL. of the twelfth The name for Thch-nctert. C^3D Sebek-hetep II. (US) Ra-sekhcm-suaz-taui. frequent occurrence. Sebek-neferu (Queen). circa III. capital of Lower Egj-pt. 2420 but B.. mJt Qiii^m) king Amherst appears is only known papyri. . Ed-khd-nefcr.the An modern Samanhud.. whose names are of at of whom httle is known present. Bd-selchem-s-shedi-taui. of QElj cir.. A king of D^ Dynasty XIIL of this king than There of any are more (jm monumental of this remains other dynasty. he Sebek-hetepI.C. Nub-khfi-s. Eighth 2569 and B. His to to us from the Abbot L and have had was queen three children. and She monarch the IV. Rd-sekliou-lchu... chief deitywas her.EGYPTIAN ARCHAEOLOGY 155 This Sebek-em-sauf II. last was f of ^^s-s^ ^^ i i A XII.

A goddess of like a nature with " protectress of the canopic jars.150 A CONCISE DICTIONARY OF Seker.) or Selk Serqet. See Ptah-Seker-Osiris. cording Dynasty II. Selk. " Philae terrible of Sekhet. Acbeing 5 cubits giant." it was mankind. A Sekhet. of a 3 Eighth king to tradition this king was palms in height. sacred in place which in was an the Egyptian temple. a represented with Sekhet. placed the shrine containing emblem of the titular deity. of the was goddess. ft.or just over 8 Sekhem. or sometimes a as scorpion with was a Isis. She is figuredwith a scorpion on the top of her head. Sacked The boat of the sun in the morning. bolized of the perhaps symscorchingheat . lioness' uraeus. Sekhtet.she Sekhet text at must of the represented the power have represented its great of Isis that she is says In the legend of the destruction who heat. other lioness- cat-headed sun. The most Seker-nefer-ka. deities. Ea. of identified She a daughter and the sun. Sekhet helped to destroy them. to son perwho of and and or considered and mother She head Like But for a as be the wife Ptah of Nefer is the with the Tum disk Im-hetep. second triad at Memphis. also human head. [See Barks. is with at times Safekh.

of this one king was Aah-hetep. B.Ta-da. erected his southern It stands on an by Usertsen the of protection frontier of the Nubians. Dynasty XVII.7 Semiieh.) Sen-mut. was Nothing one is known of the royal tombs king except inspected under that the Rames- sides. was celebrated coffin the " Princess The among found of his containing the Royal find at fallen on being one king's mummy Der that el Bahri he in 1881. and one we know his of of whom about died this daughter. cir.. was Evidently he wounds. west A crude fort still standing on III. the from the for raids bank of the Nile. artificial platform of commanding height. Aah-hetep was^his queen. died It Berberi. the queen two sons. and on the tomb of Shery. the and he had Nefert-ari " several children of them. Ta-da-qen. (See Kummeh. Seqenen-Ra III. 1610. had the battle-field and was a Petrie suggests that a for Queen Aah-hetep her the magnificent the now found buried with jewellery. Fifth Se-qenen-Ra I.. Senta. . Dynasty XVII. sand at Dra-abu'1-Negga. It is in the Cairo Museum. .C.c. IMedical Papyrus .EGYPTIAN ARCHAEOLOCJY brick ir. a priest.. Eeigned fortyThis king is mentioned in the Berlin one (?)years. cir. See Architects.. king of Dynasty II. was few feet under made. 1660 b.and young.

On either side of the long gallery are the enormous deep pits in w^hich are sarcophagi. made their god Serapis(q. another those of XXIInd XXVth Dynasties. 389. The huge vaults opened by Mariette consist of three parts.158 A CONCISE This name DICTIONARY is OF to Serapeum.the two first being covered with sand. This god i.only three gone.e. and with bull's head surmounted by a is sented repredisk and . stone. of which the very few remains covered with are sand.. and one some long gallery excavated shorter ones.t Alexandria was temple of Serapisfounded by Ptolemy Soter. 8 ft. or Serapis. This part consists of in the rock. Thus the burials about cover b. (XXVIth reign of Psammetichus Dynasty) to the " time to 50 of the later Ptolemies. " a Serapeum or Serapeion a. Osiris-Apis. and the third part those from the I.C.. and was introduced into He is Egypt by the Ptolemies.). accounted to be the second a son of Ptah. limeare or the average measurements being length.e. width. 1450 years.v. incorrectly given The Serapeum site of the the the temple built over the proper excavated tombs. i.one which originally contained the bulls of the periodfrom Amen-hetep TIL to the XXth to Dynasty.c. Mariette found the covers of most of the sarcophagi pushed aside and the contents Of the twenty -four that are there. from 1500 Only the third part is open to the public. These monoliths of red or black granite. 11 ft. which said to be only surpassed in splendour by the v/as It was Capitolat Rome.d. Ausar Hapi.13 ft. of the Apis with is a combination Osiris. Apis was mausoleum at Sakkara. The word is a combination of the two Egyptian words combination of which the Greeks a Osiris-Apis. bore an}^ inscription. height. destroyedby order of Theo- The dosius in a. The ruins were discovered by Mariette in 1860. a period of about B.

v. from an A or cell in " the tomb In .).EOrPTIAN His was ARCRAKOLOOY all over loO uraeus. through which The walls of Serda])s perfume might reach the statues. who seems to have serpents was Apepi or Apophis ((/.). There of spiritual is a been a personification of the Overthrowing of called the Book work religious of fear and the idea of proApepi" {q. but of good. some of evil portent.A spirit pitiation which led the to to probably great popularity " this cult at Three monuments. depositedKa statues {q. a poisonous of Scripture. but Usually it was left communicating small sometimes a aperture was incense tomb with the or chapel. or cerastes.and as such Bes and Ta-urt are them. It was this last that represented " " .. Arabic w^ere hidden chamber.)of the deceased. the Serdab were not decorated.opposes is Horus of the of the solar bark in which standing chief all the The evil winged snake. which representedon the capello{uraeus) the the symbol of divine " the forehead of and is seen on royal sovereignty. Serdab.Large largely with all appear on of them tomb walls. completely sealed up.v.at Thebes. serpents numbers enters As earlycivilizations the cult of into Egyptian religion. evil. kinds serpents cobra are (a) The cli was basilisk of the and Greeks. In the their foes. Serpents.v. (6) The "sj.opposing his progress enemies during underworld the his through the journey through twelve hours of night. many In one a depicted. serpents the ithyphallic god.and are often seen strangling tomb are of Seti of I. the Typhonian Apepi. possibly the A great coluber of what speciesnot yet deterrnined. and very worship extended popular under the hidden word chamber for a " the kingdom. Nehebka. in scenes arms with the form progress upon a serpent with and legs. They were perhaps as many of the sun-god. one time of attained. Eoman domination. gods and kings. (c) cockatrice viper.

and nine those tombs the who maid housefive scribes. bearer of cool bakehouse. must cruelly in thirty III. actual the soil ." of canals.) the the son Set."but it more which inscriptions is not impossible modern were some sense. importance was partly of servants he kept.In the el Amarna find among "Superintendent of we at Tel other the servants following: of house. epagomenal days {q.v. is Nephthys His wife . The {SeeEamses god He the whom was II.Among with had to do food-providing. has that Slaves been it There is ** a translated means slajve. A high measured by the number I. or either bought captured in war. but goddess of learning . The name is often. find that in Egypt.seven providers. servant our in the real been of sense of the w^ord from having merchant. born third to of the hence brother Osiris. for we years Eamses The presented113.160 A COXCISE formulae DICTTOXARY OF have been Many found. as now. their been importations. attached but there is no good " evidence have been There treated. foreign were They serfs that the to property masters.four herdsmen.).433 of them to the temples alone. at all periods. on Seb. Sesostris." Seshta. magical against snakes word in the in Servants. Of these there were messengers. her written Safekh (q. a superintendent the chief servants were priests.v.). incorrectly. scribe of the libations. drinks. their of Nut Greeks of Nut identified and with Typhon." the the court at an important position man's a Then. preparer of sweets. of the Xllth Usertsen official under Dynasty had enumerated the officers and servants on sixty-three ' ' they were great numbers walls nine of his tomb "food at Beni Hasan. superintendent of the the provision superintendent dwelling. Directors of the Eoyal Slaves occupied of Pharaohs.

.

ner "C. and on the walls of the temple be seen of Karnak a vivid representationof the may of the successful campaign againstthe events principal Shasu. and The temples of Abydos and of Columns is at Karnak are Gurnah. the largestof mother a the celebrated son places. daughter grand- of Khu-en-aten. among and the most his tomb and lastingmemorials el Molouk burial Ramses The of this and his in the Biban rock-cut king's fame.162 A CONCISE DICTIONARY to drink OF the the of the north river. neb lord (of) !Je Ahtu :r" may s per kheru "^ i"l du oxen. cir. menTch clothes. nomes of the capitalof one of the been in the of identified. and the is from About time of the Xllth this prayer the deceased. is in Sethroe. which Rouge thinks it must have yet been . Aby dos td-f give he sepulchral meals birds. Dynasty XIX.c. was mummy The of successor. the Cairo Museum.. The early years the constant of this incursions king's reign were troubled the neighbourhood of the Delta. Greek Lower De name of Seti I. II. for distinctly depth of the Dynasty and ita (q. b.v.. has not Egypt. the Great Hall againstthe Libyans.)of U Sefen fa n Ijefep Asdr veh Zattu neter da Osiris lord (of) Tattu God great. Having been victorious in the Delta. 13G6. After this we find the Pharaoh the Cushites waging in the south. Seti I. Kadesh the Orontes to to on punish pushed on who broken had the Kheta the Mauthanar king." onwards wind. Tiu. Seti I. treaty by made between himself and war of the tribes from Ramses I. Maftt-men-Ba.

EGYPTIAN ARCHAEOLOGY 168 ioiixteenth. w^as such as that still in It a or a country.. day of son his son. It may he ThcJcut. 131. the of the month Tybi . The He god of associated destiny. and of Ahura " wife.C. 1875. in Revue des Deux Mondes. Ptahneferka. taken the tomb the probably constituted Tale of Two Brothers. . of the one ''the The king User-maat. the being. and the finders.Khent-abt. w^ater Egypt for lifting consists of a pole restingon an upright post. w^ritten in the year 35." a story tells of (See " for the sacred Thoth. 1867. 4. the the and author's and name.. M. Setna. reads w^hich thus: tells "This the is the end of his of manuscript of of Merhu story Setna Kharmes. which does not give quitethe same. search its of Setna that is twice is Eamses book of called II. Ethiopia. third written found at other from century B. Soury. " Copticmonk. Shabaka. Shadoof. or on of brick horizontal beam supported on two columns end a weight which as mud. also translations and Eevue into English by Griffith ." vi. in Archeologique. happen in with figures Meskhent . grammar The colophon." Septembre. Dynasty XXV. having at one serves to the bucket. . the papyrus second with was some or of. the usual means employed from the Nile. the style earlier papyrus. The chief deity^vas in the Thebes which Atmu. counterpoise Shai. in a of a wooden box. 700. translated 2 Kings. used in the ancient The King of ordinary shadoof.B. unhke the of it is very similar to that of the in demotic. in the Cairo Museum. He decreed Renenet what and with should Renenet. . Brugsch. Sahaco. goddess to men.) " " Past. was manuscripts." itis written Though.C. and Hbrary of this Egyptian. xvii. that is the thirty-fifth year of the Ptolemies. Brugsch says. or So. of fortune. of the calamities Eecords possessionbrought on by into French Goodwin by Maspero ." February 15th. p.

learn that his eldest w^e Eeigned twenty-two of Ptah-Shepses. and Dendera Funeral were form of Isis. 26-40).. to her.164 the scenes A CONCISE of the DICTIONARY of the heart OF in the weighing His ment judgor hall of Osiris.). Shasu. of the conquered Syrian the names xii. Shishak I. those of conquered peoples their name figuresamong of Thothmes on II. Among districts and towns engraved upon the walls of the This king is . At Busiris.Amentemple w^alls in inscriptions II. 966. A and to signifies {SeePsychostasia. and Eamses in Syria it was inevitable In campaigns carried on that the marching Egyptian armies should come into collision with these people. 2 Chron. Dynasty IV. (M..c. portionout. In the fifth court Jeroboam Eehoboam's stigatio reign. ^ 1 Sixth king of cir. at Sakkara. HilMil ^ zi known the monarch to whose as chiefly fled (1 Kings xi. with whom in conflict Bedawin...c. the tomb From years. hetep II. Arabia Shenthit. Thus were perpetually literally. sanctuaries See Hyksos. Dynasty cir. Abydos. dedicated Shepherd Kings. daughter w^as Maat-khfi. XXII. Shashanq. 0 P 3759 b. b. Shepses-ka-f. inhabitingthe " deserts of north the kings of Egypt Syria. . 25-28 .) name divide See tribe Shishak. and possibly at the inyear of marched of Jeroboam. Amen-hetep IV. since they were obliged to pass through their territory. Shishak againstJudah Jerusalem and pillaged (1 Kings xiv. Seti I..

legend that {q. on tlie other hand. the co-operation As a nature god he may be said to be a of the atmosphere which personification the sky (Nut) from the earth divides (Seb). which some have considered of represents the king or Icinfjclovi Jiidali. supposed be blind. These have httle creatures been form found on were sometimes bronze It was cases mummified. of Horns. though Tefnut a later produced Shu and without of a goddess. while Seb a lies beneath. in the hieroglyphs white gold. who Shu. because not any the New more Empire. man. He is frequentlyfigured with arms supporting the starry uplifted. remain. little faience figuresof Shu holding up sun-disk. very much imported into Egypt from Asia of standard " in rings. with to a and in small of figure was the mouse a the top." from which it is know^n inferred that gold was to the Egyptians prior Fevv objectsmade in this metal to silver. when gold and electron came From into use.EGYPTIAN ARCHAEOLOGY is that of 165 Judah-melek.v. lions. two He two is the twin-brother Tefnut. old it is clear that silver inscriptions the most looked upon as w^as precious metal.and sheets It . represent the god placing in its right position between sun and sky of earth. associated Silver. some among and a few vases and rings. Maspero. temple of Karnak Shi'ew-mice. called was weight. worshipped in Letopolis.) Nut. part of a temple treasure. sacred to Her-khent-an-ma. possibly found Under there was in Egypt. beHeves that it is more hkely to be Jehudah. a town of the tribe of Dan. " bricks. it decreased was Silver in value. them chains are specimens of statuettes. the as being frequently Shu. He is The representedas the feather the the on with his symbol the top of his head. son The says of Ea Ra and Hathor.

Sneferu.. supposed of power the evil or by have the frightening Typhon. of bronze or A four musical metal ribbon of a loop instrument. ware Models were of sistra in enamelled often were deposited first broken in in the tombs. from being merely bent at each end to keep them bore metal rings. s. Sistrum. Mus. of the the handles Sometimes The the bars was one were in of little serpents. . cir. always in the form of the head were usually of bronze. away used in the most spirit. See Servants. queens 3998 are B.. table case A. First king of Dynast}^ years.and with The or also been length varied eight to Plutarch 63) that some the sistrum to eighteen {deIside. and they sometimes the added the sound when which to considerably three instrument the form usual as a was shaken.C. slippingout. sistrum of the attributes design for The goddess Hathor. Sivan. sixteen mentions was were Hathor. goddess. IV. and was used of columns the head of over capitals of the instruments of that inlaid found. Egyptian Eoom. See Nekhebt. sometimes Enamelled of the whole handles have from inches.) mourning. These quiteloose. but of sign 4th (See Brit.166 A CONCISE sometimes DICTIONARY used for OF Silver was making the eyes of statuettes. they religious of high often carried by women were rank. Sistra were when solemn services. formed fastened to a handle. almost silver. Sistrum. crossed by bars passing through holes in bars were each side of the loop. Slaves. reigned twenty-nine Mertitefs and Two known.

round The festivals called held at great festival of with Sokaris Memphis.)ments monuas the upon Saft el-Henneh Sopt. hawk's Sopt. identified He is described at " with {q-v. A that Sneferu sent the Sinai tablet expedition againstthe Sokaris. the long pyramidal shaft of light seen after is the sun has set or before he rises. the god Bes of the x\rabian times some- nome. important star known importance also to the dog-star. Nefert-kau.v. and one pyramid From an and temple at The daughter. Horus connected East. the and be Spiritof the as the East.) seems. accordingto Wiedemann. and To fifth He especially belonged the hours of the night.or Sokar. or {SeeMedum. him. Hawk. Medilm belong to this king. fourth sun. nightly head. modern chronologercan hardly the .). He Naville herald considers the probably represents zodiacal the light. the from whence brilliant star name Canis. The a firms symbol high. passed during his journey from sunset is represented as a mummy with a [See Ptah-Seker-Osikis. SotMs. it in connection the winter the solstice. The Greek its form in fact that his Sopt. and. in little others. through which Ea. or Sepd. to dawn.) god of whom with emblem bark was Seker. of the the Egyptian constellation word for Sirius. it is evident Bedawi. perhaps the most Its to Egyptian astronomers.EGYPTIAN ARCHAEOLOGY 167 Meri-s-ankh. was is known He was a except when combination his sacred in the sun-god at at one time." to {q. and carried hennu. narrow pyramid conthis supposition. of the with of the the Turn him sun.

the paws 70 ft. contour It is hewn out of in rock. was personifiedas a goddess. Egyptian Gallery]. long. to in old Part festivals astronomical tables.whom their Artemis " given to a small It was begun by of the XVIIIth of the lionessidentified with the Eoman oldest Gizeh Diana. 50 ft. still remains uraeus are now But on some original Parts Museum ment monu- colouring and been the in the than the beard has [N. the made red a ft. be over-estimated. rock-cut name temple at Beni Hasan. Queen Hatshepsut and Thothmes Dynasty. cleared has drifts round to and More the from the sand which constantly Government buries it. extensive . long. the head being 14 150 ft. Its date is unknown . and frequentlyrepresented. The features that of fanaticism of the cheek. one headed the Greeks goddesses.and possibly restored by this king . quarter of a in consider the solid that it is of much The later date. See Ba A and Ka. i n the Graeco-Eoman especially temples. rock-cut Greek or designate a small temple shrine. of the great pyramid. though some was Egyptologists Sphinx.and at was was the star devoted Sothis. word used to Speos. for recorded of Isis. It is dedicated to Bast. the deficiency is about being supplied body greatest height about 30 ft. Of late jxars the Egyptian made excavations here.as a She is queen of the thirty-six constellations cow. known monument a platform mile S. standing on The the about Egypt. and the breadth of face have been spoiled by Mohammedan by masonry.E. The Greek Speos Artemidos. of Khufu but an inscription mentions it it.. of the in temple Dendera the the honour of rising of {SeeYeak.168 A CONCISE DICTIONARY the OF was Egyptian calendar The star arranged by the heliacal risingof Sothis. British once target of the face.. III.) Soul.

.

He then prefectAelius Gallus.decrees. renders three languages. syenite. the later rounded. high. bearinginscriptions life of the his and the titles to deceased. called the Israel Stela {q-v. The earliest examples are square at the top.). under the The best kind is known in the ancient times. Philae Syene work. accompanied by his wife and family.They have been found in a variety of materials limestone. spent some in Alexandria. "c. The these stelae have of the been biographies on greatest importance to chronologers and historians. on the eyes account that disease being frequent in healing properties. The majorityare sepulchral. wood. These They contain also forms of prayers.which then the great worldwas of learning. great value. Besides name being used for of adornment.170 to A the CONCISE DICTIONARY OF 10 ft. famous the Greek geographer of he visited and the first century and with years centre B. while in the time of the XYIIIth Dynasty the relatives gave place to representations of gods. A cosmetic in frequent use for Strabo. stelae were placed in the tomb in various positions.and are often coloured. the eyes.which the tablet of two or Such Stone and the Rosetta are (q-v. Sometimes these are religious given in hymns. The In the Stibium. it was for probably used purposes of its in cases of ophthalmia. ascended the year 24 B. Nile as far as Egypt. and in some the only authorities for certain are cases periods. The latter are ones frequently decorated at the top with the disk and wings. In the early dynastiesthey usuallybear picturesof the deceased. inscribed with Stelae. pottery. records of important events in certain reigns. relating relatives.). Greek.amassing materials for his great This geography is the most important work . and Latin.C. one " great slab of black painting hieroglyphs of meszemt. 3 ins. other than are sepulchral. found at Philae in hieroglyphs.C. and granite.

Sacked. The lioness. The is derived from and hence name It owed its ancient the hieroglyphicswi. pcrsca the most important of the sacred sacred to to Nut and Hathor. and statues was taken. north last describes (XVIIth) book of his Egypt.v.and cat-headed sun. trees were sycoinoie trees of Egypt. {Sec nomes. they conception bark.EGYPTIAN on ARCHAEOLOGY has come 171 to us the that subject It is in the that he of down from classic geography the times. between of its being a frontier town Egypt proper and Syeiie. as from picturesin the tombs. The ^ . Ea under personified his the form of iq-V-)'Many were of attributes. mean of the by the Milky Way. The for Aswan. Stream. A name givento Set (q. tance impormaterial for whence its to granite quarries." regarded as the Memphite Hathor being called Lady of the of Southern Sycomore. and coast Libya." The peasants made offerings and water fruits and vegetables in jarsto such trees. Ethiopia. temples. sun. the disk this in across sun a represented sailing aspects also Sntekh. and different the night personified. according to obtained. Great. whose doubles of were supposed " South the was "Sycomore the livingbody of Hathor on earth. was Dead.). be seen Land The may of the Sycomore was a name given to the Memphite and Letopolite The tree is the wild fig. goddesses represent The Egyptian varyingdegrees of the heat of the sun.Osiris was Horus at times the rising Tuni the settingsun. of the sky beingthat it w^as avast ocean.) " " " " inhabit it. It was The and Sycomore. here. Trees. and on account obelisks." purification The sun was The Understood Kenouf the " to Book Sun. It gives name Scriptural form of granite found there to a particular its name called syenite.

693. his Eratosthenes for the this calculations measurement of the earth. In the (Aahmes II. king of Judah. Defenneh. lie because it was noticed immediately under the tropic. Tahpanhes. fought by whose his way of Egypt. Later on Taharqa was in turn defeated by the son and grandson of the Assyrianking. Josephus. Ant.) the whole Greek reign of Amasis and its place garrison was deported to Memphis . 588 (Jer.xliii. He is best known to history Djmasty XXV. 154). Sec Granite.. Syenite. B. 7 . for havmg rescued Hezekiah. king of Assyria.172 A In CONCISE Ptolemaic DICTIONARY times it was OF considered to Nubia. Taharqa. whom he conquered. ix. that during the summer solstice the rays of the sun fell vertically to the bottom of a well in the town. It was the home of Zedekiah's daughters after Jerusalem had been besieged and taken by Nebuchadnezzar.C.30 and ii.C. camp known The as " the Greek of The Daphnae. 7). ii. Tirliahah (2 Kings xix. 9). B. an the present Tell fortress and ruins old frontier Palace of the Jew's Daughter. and whose foundation to the throne discovered beneath the four corners of depositswere the fort (Herod. This made well use has of not been fact in discovered. 6.king of Ethiopia. king of Babylon." of the Carian and Ionian Probably the original garrison mercenaries aid Psammetichus I. out of the hands of Sennacherib.

An also earth combined more were succeeded Tanen. and was supposed by some worshipped as Apet. There evidence of a polltax even as late as Ta-urt. and that in old the people only as now days even is no paid under protest.who Persian garrison.v-). records that It is evident there was from a various regular system of taxation. as god Tanen being Simbel is often spoken man on he is described a represented as and disk father to Kamses II. Scriptural An Chief embalm The Horus. goddess represented as with woman's a hippopotamus. Egypt. usually the disk. of the dead. or Thoueris. He Tanen At Abu He two god. deity. is witli Ptah. have given Osiris. Tanis." also the "good nurse.the capital San." she presided at the birth of children. represented " mistress gods. another form the of than of Seb (q. to Her head-dress and is Thebes. is also identified being a personification with the night sun. He is the presidingdeity of the land borderingon Lake Moeris. feathers his Tanen. and where birth she to Ta-urt. besides of the earth. . the the leaning on is called amulet of Isis. Ptalialone. Taxation. er Taricheutes. the modern Zoan. fourteenth and The nome Greek of name for Lower of the Zaiit.EGYPTIAN ARCHAEOLOGY in their turn 178 taken by a by Egyptians. though occasionally head. head. sometimes a as was a whole woman. She at was the wife of Set. horns and the blood of the for she is shown which She plumes. with the ram's horns.

174 the time intervals each until each induced there the
w^as

A

CONCISE

DICTIONARY

OF

of the several

earlyPtolemies.
times be had
a a

But

when

at

regular
came,

year
scene

the tax-collector of distress his In and

would village debtor do
an so

uproar times

paid up
the and

due, probably only
Ptolemaic

to

by

stick.

tion, crushing system of taxathe injustice arisingprobably from the fact that farmed collection of the taxes was out. Ptolemy V.

elaborate

instituted

a

five per cent,

tax

on

all sales.

Tefnut, twin

sister to

Shu

and

As a daughter of Ra and Hathor. nature goddess she probablyrepresents the dew. Philae, Elephantine, Memphis, Dendera, "c., w'ere
centres

of

her

cult, but
functions

the

ceptions con-

of her She is

varied.
a

represented with
the the
to

lion's
uraeus

head, with
above. is from In

disk

and

pyramid

texts

she

supposed

carry the deceased.

aw^ay

thirst

Tel
Tefnut.

el Amarna.

The

name

of

the the

modern site of

which marks village Khut-Aten {q.v.). of the the made

Tel- el-Amarna Khut-Aten

Tablets. One of the

East
most
was

Royal palace of
**

was (q.v.)

discovered times hundred

House here in

of the logical archaeo-

Royal
in the

Rolls." finds

important

of modern of three

1887,

clay tablets inscribed in character. the cuneiform They proved to be despatches the neighbouring kings of Babylon, and letters from the Cappadocia, also from Assyria, Mitanni, and Egyptian rulers in Jerusalem, Canaan, the "field of Bashan," and Syria. They throw a great deal of light, not only on the historyof the reign of Khu-en-Aten, but on the state of Palestine, and the relations existing
shape

EGYPTIAN

ARCHAEOLOGY
at

1

I.)

Among the letter writers are Burnaburyas, king of Bab3'lonia, Dushratta, king of Mitanni, and Ebed-tob, the vassal king of Jerusalem. IV.) {SeeAmen-hetep
between
the powers that time.

Temple.
Christian

The

Egyptian temple was
or

not

built

as

are

for the mosques, of public worship and instruction ; its very purposes It precludessuch possibilities. arrangement at once churches Mohammedan shrine for as a generallyerected by a monarch then the tutelarydeity first,and the personal as raised l:)y him which monument to himself, on may of the he seen his deeds slaughter of his prowess, of gifts to the presiding enemies, his dedication deity,Sec. of wood or wattle, The earliest temples were evidently and were the symbols of merely the shrines enclosing the god ; under built of the Old Empire they w^ere stone, i.e. temples of the Second Pyramid at Gizeh, but were and of King Sneferu at Medfim, severely Empire the temple became simple; under the New from the fact that successive much more complicated, buildingsby adding kings enlargedtheir predecessors' halls of columns, chambers, "c. The essential plan of the same brick a crude practically every temple was the pylon or entrance surroundingw^all, gateway, with flanking towers, before w^hich generally stood two colossal statues of the king and two obelisks,and the containingthe innermost naos, sanctuary where was of time this simple kept the divine symbol. In course ture, plan became expanded into a most complicatedstrucreached sometimes by as many as three pylons, of sphinxes, and followed separatedby three avenues courts, a hypostyleor columnar hall,and by columned flanked by numerous ments, chambers, where the books, vestand treasures of the temple were kept ; all of which led up to the seWiem or holy place. The roof was of flat slabs of stone, while light always constructed admitted either by stone was gratingsor by small slabs. shafts in the roofing
w^as
"

170

A

COXCISE

DICTIONARY

OF

r

I

iiiiiiiiiii

iiiii^^*""'
c

lllllll

|'iimiiim"","'^",""^

I
i
20 w bV SO m 120

moo

Scale of feet.

Plan
a, the
c, screen

of very
;

simple form
Dromos

of

an

Pylons ; h, the

d, the Pro-naos
the

; e,

Egyptian Temple : flanked hy Sphinxes/; in which the Adytum
" "

this

example is within Adytum or sanctuary
Tenait.
One

Naos.

In

some

cases

the

fillsthe whole

of the Naos.

of the feasts commemorative of

of the death of the month. dera there
name are

Osiris,held
from of the

on

sentative reprethe seventh day

and

In

the

greattext

the

temple of
and

Denis

directions

for its celebration.

Tenait

also the

of the fifth hour

day

of certain

days

in the month. The Greek of for

Tentyris.
of the sixth dera.

name

Ta-en-tarert,capital
the modern Den-

nome

Upper Egypt,

Chief

Hathor. deity, The
"

^'Tesherit.
desert.

red

land," or region of the Arabian

Teta

I.

First

king

of

Dynasty VI.,

cir. 3503

B.C.

Thothmes I." and the people of Upper Mesopotamia. the exact He wrote the inventor books The and and sciences.. ( his half 3 ^ 1 A 1516 " 1503. represented as he with god ibis. His mummy is in the Cairo Museum. B. far as the cityof Niy.. 1541 " 1516. and pen. situated near as Aleppo and on the Euphrates. the king subdued Anu of Khent.) cir. ibis cynocephalus.letters. El-Kab.C. married Aahmes Mut-nefert. paletteand or carrying the palm in always where result of the of all had judgment scenes. as the fine arts. Aah-Wicpcr-cn-Rd. (Ailfl B. and Thothmes I. learn that this Thotlimes II. Dynasty XVIIL. It is from and the tombs of the at two Court that " Aahmes officials. Two animals the Sometimes an especially and the the is quently fre- him.178 A CONCISE DICTIONARY and to wears OF the lunar are deity and sacred crescent disk. Thothmes XL.C.but most in human form appears the head of that bird surmounted crescent a by the and branch. Aa-kJicj^er-ka-Bd. learning sacred Isis. Married sister.Dynasty XVIII. and had He succeeded three children. we Pen-nekheb. disk. Hatshepsut . was by his son. He is either notched found he of Thoth. Greeks fied identi- {Sec Hermes Trismegistos. the Nubians. him with great knowledge of magic Hermes. records his palette the on the weighing of the heart He the as was the deceased.

in "the land of the Fenkhu the shores of the Mediterranean.. in the hands He maintained his predecessor's have to appears authorityin Gush. 1423 " 1414. married^ and two sons. and succeeded That and he was queens Nebtu. .Dynasty XVIII. and round (Phoenicians).EGYPTIAN and ARCHAEOLOGY 179 three he had royal blood. The long been a matter of doubt. himself of He Nubia to and Syria.his cousin.but of Egypt in power ence is better knowm from the referstela between removed the paws quence conse- the Sphinx. succeeded him. him. His III. = . spoiUng the image been god. had B. . are Egyptologists Probably he was yet son the IV. upon of Thothmes Thothmes II. Men-lcliepem-Fid. has not been grave discussion. Thothmes III.C. concubine he the whether under queen. 8J are cir. or of II. Men-Jiheper-Ra.. of the di'eam. not of " His mummy is in the Cairo Museum. He for Meryt-Ea one had son. he was of desert which Tin. Thothmes successor. Perhaps it was owing to his delicate health left the government of that this king seems to have the country chiefly of Queen Hatshepsut. in Very little tin has discovered Egypt. who was a is absolutely certain. whom. one He of asserted Mut-em-ua. Aset. cir. this was a several actual pedigreeof not king has the son daughters. Dynasty XVIII. was only son. by whom his children. His and two Hatshepset. who B. a the upon On this the of the king relates how.C. the Amen-hetep the in sands III...but I. 1503 " 1449. of Thothmes son Aset.and unanimous the point.

is correct of any This fact is easily accounted littleremains The for if Diodorus call their time houses saying. but in houses Egyptians.180 A no CONCISE DICTIONARY OF hieroglyphs has yet been found. pyramids and mastabas tombs those of the of rock-cut The great groups are Vlth and other dynasties at Aswan. the wall were .) Tomb. those of the Xllth and Dynasty at Beni Hasan. and representations in In a secret chamber (Serdab. were pations occu- with which the walls the of the chambers cases decorated find in represented majorityof the of its owner. a pure {See Bronze.v. The of all these tombs idea in the construction tially essenwas the same. Of the former kind examples covering the entire historic period. account of the during which they inhabit them.he was admiral. the lifetime of the the an man. those of dynastiesof Pharaohs But and his people at Tel-el-Amarna. " Egyptians short on hostelries. amusements. No traces have yet appeared of the sources whence the tin used obtained. Khu-en-aten besides tombs in almost there are groups every available hillside throughout the country.q. pictures of ships and There lands. though carried out in different ways. Yet with all the bestowed of the the tomb.) spoilbrought from fishingand fowling scenes.). those of the XVIIIth successive at Thebes . discovered tin ring set with glass at Gurob. in making bronze was Professor Petrie Objectsin pure tin are extremely rare. Hence the elaboraThe tombs of Egypt in every detail of the tomb.for instance. are foreign other of the chase. care and word for it in the Egypt on is a land of tombs. these main Each consisted of three parts " forming a kind shaft. latter belong to the time of the earlydynasties.v. but the tombs tion they call eternal dwelling-places. we If. leading to (c) the tomb was prepared during of chambers The scenes series or {a)a chamber of chapel. those excavated in the fall naturally into two classes ' ' " rock there and are those which were built. They are of two kinds. (b)a passage or The sepulchralchamber. The (q.

the accompanying only painted. being worked A crushing corn. of wood of leather Many balls painted two stuffed with have colours rushes.coffers. and the hole tilled up with the sometimes scenes. fossil occurred cement. extracted.) after was deposited. discovered many Some the Several children's excavations. on body was great object in The low scenes the chamber sometimes flint walls are sometimes The at others relief. and wooden arms playthings There have been of during " are dolls sorts from ivory ones to of the Xlth rag doll. of Egypt.cut tombs by a deep of shaft Bakt sepulchral (the deepest at is that over the 105 tomb III.ECiYPTIAN ARCHAEOLOGY small smoke ^^^ placed the Ka statues. wines from chariots.. birds and fish (driedfish from Tyre). commerce was limited their for ."c. Trade. also Some others been are are with fixed on legs. sections. incised. importance in piecingtogetherthe history Toys. in jaw has to light. hair arms a inserted. various countries from Among the . a the being left by which penetrate to the statues. Syria. the Beni . being to secure filled up with rubble. the the mummy from disturbance. the a fewness of of ports carried from but on amount trade was by objectsimported were vases Cyprus and Crete. man crocodile with movable come found. a hieroglyphsbeing of the Theban When fine limestone surface it for was hills afforded a or good painting on.simulates a stand. Foreign Egyptians by the considerable caravan. it is which. a a figureis jointedat and. seats. string. ft.fruit. In chamber known Hasan the was case aperture sometimes of incense the might of reached in rock. others show One Dynasty holes with movable the the the been Eoman have still hair where left on their had and heads. eye-salve from Syria. Inscriptions accompany which have of much been containing biographies.

There was makers. the blacksmith's are fingers rugged as the crocodile. woods (including ebony). The the walls of her to climb the ladder mason. the mason w^hile he builds.masons.) organized and afterwards Hatshepsut. and obtained leopard skins. in early times. weavers. long-tailedmonkeys. ivory. no recognized medium of exchange. though the record puts it more picturesquely. carpenters. and domestic The rareness of is waters expedition beyond Mediterranean any trading evidenced by the extreme importance attached to the expedition to and sent out the "Land by Queen (q. of rank. and gay ornaments . battle-axes. the Egyptian ships having brought daggers. incense." well informed tomb walls. The exposed to all the winds w^alls are represented on tomb principalcraftsmen boat-builders. on of Punt" recorded with at objects desired and obtained incense were trees."the barber has to run from street to street is seeking custom.nor his way to notice. OF horses. shoein the its chief. for instance.". gold." and the articles brought for exchange "an offering trade Of home put there for the goddess Hathor. There merchant did any mere tradesman win princes. glass-blowers.182 A CONCISE some DICTIONARY animals. callingthe objectsobtained ''tribute. sandalmetal-workers. But trade seems to have developedbeyond the never ordinarybazaar marketing business such as one sees in any eastern town were no nowadays. so that business done was by Anastasi " " " . are we on by the pictures in daily Since everything made in the country.dogprecious headed apes. and confectioners. and later among the poorer classes.though one of the professions or two enabled trade had or a man temple iUustrations many Der el Bahri. be merely the necessities of the conditions of their "as labour. or a Each maker.its master master master smith.painters. greyhounds. All these were iDybarter. use was the class of craftsmen and tradesmen was very large.v. sculptors. "c. According to waiter hard a Papyrus the lot of all craftsmen was but the hardshipshe enumerates would to seem one. eye-paint. potters.

triad honoured The Ombo. as aspect be considered may of Ea. but here the tree is rather a symbol than an object of worship.and preside over four Canopic jars(q. Also was four the Atum. and the present day. barter. play in the religions Egyptologists read of a very acceptedtree worship as a fact. Im-hetep. who Tuamautef so represented standing flower. Sacred. and their son. represents the night He is Turn. .). Sebek. Ten kinds of trees are mentioned. They were Amen. great hall Trees. wasPtah. Tuamautef. as api)arently. Sekhet. Mut at Memphis their son Khensu. for he sun. that at Kom Triad.'^. triad was that of Thebes. So " " on names the leaves of which to Thoth secure and to Safekh him write the immortality . of a a upon the has jackal. It consisted frequently of the god.EGYPTIAN ARCHAEOLOGY at 18. when was every temple seems to of the monarch have had its sacred tree. We ancient sacred tree in the at Heliopolis. (See Persea Tree. They are the cardinal points. the four children lotus head of or Duamautef. from the fact cycle of three gods. A Hathor and Khensu. a The most important goddess his wife. Turn. are one of four quently fre- funerary genii. the Horus. Atmu and the chief of the gods of an He (Heliopolis). Annu called Tmu. which was worshipped in most his wife. much important a part do certain trees have that some cult. and of its temples.v. Sycomore and Flora). The nearest approach to actual worship under the Ptolemies. arising of other deities being associated with the chief god of the place. took haggUng place.

king of The Egyptian fleet.in the Delta. district of east Ethiopia. 591"572.." took " city of Pithom from the fact of there being a temple name there. man u TJah-ab-Ra. his successor. deity. and with its help Tyre held for thirteen years. of Korosko. but who had married the daughter of Psammetichus II. out againstNebuchadnezzar Hophra l^uilt a beautiful temple at Sais." The its pa as a (lit. the T The name for Thebes of and generally. wearing the double crown self-created. soldiers revolted His againsthim. own capital. who leagued unsuccessfully Zedekiah against Nebuchadnezzar. was TJast. of the with The Old Apriesof the Greeks... Chief of the capital Amen Ra. He is represented house) of Tum of Egypt. Testament. . B. shut him up in his Aahmes II. Hdd-db-Ed. TJa-ua-t. successful however.18i A CONCISE of DICTIONARY OP of the " called " ''creator men.C. against the Babylonian. Dynasty XXVI. cir. the Pharaoh Hophra Babylon." ancient ''maker gods. A fourth nome Upper Egypt.a man and made of low origin.

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three daughters are known. TJser-ka-f.. in the this reign which all other In the admirable obelisks tomb works building throughout Egypt. Second XII. greyhound (?) head of the hands gods. to the Fay um. User. .. at of Ameni of this Beni one Hasan.. lies red a Fayiim. and was completely who publishedplans of both streets excavated by Petrie.. and XII.Khejyer-ka-Rd. The first king of Dynasty V.C. Klul-khepcr-Rd. cir.. men's town lay a mile to the east .180 A CONCISE The for DICTIONARY instrument used in the OF the eyes funeral of the TJr heka. king of Dynasty I. The pyramid of Illahun.C. At Carried Begig. graniteobelisk of is unique. found It is (1u~^ cir.C. 2758 B. Fourth Usertsen II. king of 1P"""^ Dynasty 1 OS A queen. and houses. 2684 B. perhaps longer. 3721 B.. as it differs in shape from as yet found. Nefert. ceremonies mummy. at the entrance AvorkThe marks the burial place of this Pharaoh. on reigned forty-four years. Usertsen reigned twenty-eight years. ahnost A symboHcally opening sceptre with the always in symbolicalof power. of the we have an pictureof the life of ditary great here- nobles period. cir.

It consisted recently wire. probablya sister of Usertsen Pharaoh. south At Semneh and Kummeh. of the the Their deceased " the form business in the of the thus : " mummy to " with deposited as act the servants underworld. used in the scales as a weight. in this beautiful found pyramid that jewelleryof de the III.preparatory to the conquest of Nubia. here c=:!. KJia-kdu-Ra.. The uten was only a itself the did not standard. and O do if the Osiris (deceased) is commanded UsJiabtiic. 2660 her in ]'. ordered through the cataract. 34 ft... whatsoever in the neter kJiert let all any work from before him.) exchange. fifth king of Dy- ^ "^ ^^1 cir. piece change necessarily hands in transactions. TJshabtiu. accordingto a tablet at Sehel. The Sacred. is sarcophagus in the N. of was a in given to figurines the dead. A measure value. and the east to the west. ready whensoever to "Be to ready always canals with ye call. from water. wide and 24 ft. are Usertsen III. [SeeMoney." ** Again. two about of his miles thirty erected by southern of the cataract. To His It was Q u u u nasty XII." plough and sow to carry the sand fields. first channel to be made a cataract. for the fortifications protection frontier The againstthe name Nubians. Dead " The 6th chapter of on Book runs is usuallyinscribed them. deep. . or standard of translated tahmi.c.more of a pieceof TJzat. 187 III. See Eye. Set-Hathor.EGYPTIAN Usertseu ARCHAEOLOGY . pyramid Morgan Princess This at Dahshur. queen. am I when ye call. known from sandstone 1894 the Henut-tani." of Uten.. weighing from 91 to 92 (?) copper So uniform its weight that it was also was grammes." obstructions be cast down to " Here ye fill the am I.

hieroglyph. having as as oases Another speaks of ponds with lotus flowers. reads. for Many goddesses form of a her wear name has head-dress value kind for The form cap in the sometimes vulture.it in tomb-paintings. . planted numerous vineyards in the southern well and northern others. simply. was trained over trellises. and divine as either forks. which more were supported by wooden Vulture. down " inscription Careful above ing doctorthe left humerus in a young of examination of and learned a mummied ibis.188 A COXCISE DICTIONARY OF V various been fomid Veterinary their were Art. as pictured Temple on Nubia. of the ox. The second is the a triad mut. in the the graphic ideoof of is Mut. from the Throughout Delta to country We are vines told were grown (Harris papyrus) that Eamses III. [See Wine.) bird sacred Thebes. forcing a bolus. with that the Egyptians One he the the habit of a a painting represents has throat a doctoring their animals. papyrus celebrated mountain vineyard which belonged to the a Thebes. fractured convinced the reunited that particular way. it had undergone Cuvier surgical treatment. was This such is of the to symbol the vulture of maternity." in front of him. tomb walls. in goddess of a Nekhebt represented the vulture. which man vase taken of an out ox. The of Amen at vine. by wooden pillars or. the Vine. From has inscriptions.

period have Stone weapons Javelins also had wooden shafts. simpler (See Linen. of or daggers are heads. and the Egyptians fine as silk muslin was woven. women. in- industry.short clubs. though invariably fashion of the coiffure changed continually. The ladies' wigs were long. on distinguished curly hair. for both men and shaved always are Apparently men put on their Two one heads. and metal shapes. laid. were Weapons. and her head. This husband and brother Osiris. The were very proud of their skill in its manufacture. band. . short the the monuments. fitted at the end into a of various of bronze. imitating The details and periodsand kinds always prevailed. garments for their goddesses Isis and Nephthys wove Weaving.EGYPTIAN ARCHAEOLOGY 189 W belonging to the early recovered. daggers and knives.which w^as carried on by Linen as was brought to great perfection. and kinds and for full-dress occasions a wig. Besides brown of spears.and the other long. sharp-pointed. bows flint. women were Artificial head-dresses in use.) {SeeBow and straight. Neith Two bears kinds for her of looms symbol a shuttle on are depicted on tomb form at walls the one earlier and at Beni Hasan. but the two the . and swords. been They are of a lightthe Egyptians and arrows. The sometimes took the shape of hawk and Arrow^s. javelins. the later Thebes. The heads.) Wigs. different kinds used slings. battle-axes from five to six made of a shaft of wood Spears were feet in length. arrangements of them vary at different accordingto current fashions. Swords handles were short.

For skin priests did it next woollen the their and outer garment one before much use their always removed entering the temple. Each unlawful was sheep An in the year. w^hich Under Empire several made the wdne was together. reason impure. w^as Egyptians. and wrappings . black. exceptions. that two yielded two rule the fleeces was wool w^omen large flocks of in the Thebaid. exception to the of regarded as impure is the case from fact that were " who to recite The the "Festival in of of Isis and songs the papyrus are ram's w^ool.). of woollen the chief Only But. bodies. according food. the Mareotic the New wine. to and answered best. to never a See Hon Behutet. This last considered kinds were red. articles of of the sheep to reared mutton Strabo. (See Vine. have the been not considered of some found wear at Tourah. e.g. out runs the and other bottom. Nephthys that they {q. Empire. Wine.) brought down often mixed " Winged Wool hence in the was case was Disk.190 A CONCISE DICTIONARY made of human hair OF mixed with They were sheep's wool. The. commerce made poor wool that was is certain were garments. When sealed stored in carefully stoppered jars and by the of wine be of the making Pictures treasurer. men put it in amphorae of mixing A them. curious seals treasurer scene shows three wines siphons in separate jars being to one large one. Four sorts usually A favourite were drink use in among under the northern the Old wine. The tomb are men seen depicted treading on wine from the which at the the wine-press. where.v. the w^hite. were directions to wear garlands ." may walls. certain used extent for burial w^orkmen's this .

Sothis on period w^as first day of with the and by rising of the first month rise of the Nile. Sakha. year of the of the Nile rise. name for the CJiasuiit. seasons consisted which were of intercalary days into the three These months of Shet. the sixth The nome Greek Ea.EGYPTIAN ARCHAEOLOGY lUl X Xerxes. 20th Pert. inundation. month. growing. Shat.and Shat. Year. Sec Persians. The was July. and Professor H. as to all intents the purposes Documents day.was This the (6) The calculated Sothic of 365 j days. or Chois. year wath the addition of the intercalary little year to a lunar year. to at the close. twelve added were (a) The Civil each of or months. of opinionthat the w\as correspondedto great year a lunar days. Brugsch year of the reigningmonarch. Chief Amen deity. sowing. five divided Vague year thirtydays. when which was it coincided (c) The solar same were year. dated from the " " . thus givingfive and the of reckoning the year. Xois. difterent methods " " the Civil year.which looked about as the upon New^ beginning Year's Day. the niodern capitalof of Lower Egypt.

twenty-fivefeet in height. sought its protection Three Persians. Eamses.192 A CONCISE DICTIONARY OF Zaan (themodern is a San . Dynasty. As . which eighty and a feet high. of of the work Dynasty.was monarchs.still Pasebkhanu. San has served as a quarry for the neighbourhood. Greek. are of island twenty The Xllth earliest local remains discovered of the of bearing the name Dynasty . sphinxes of this period liave been Under the XXVIth discovered. built an wall enclosing the temple. It was enormous eighty feet thick. been Statues . probably destroyed much built of the fragments.. of Dynasty. when Sais became the capitalof the Delta. A great feature of the temple precincts was a statue between of Eamses was II. came They are all either of black or darkgrey granite.. and Hebrew. built in the shelter of the great wall But houses Avere II. of the XXIst remain. for his pylon is largely To this day. Portions. Shashanq. and miles north of Tel-el-Kebir. the temple fell into disrepair. Eamses of the later the work enlarged of these beautified by II. Zoan) kind the branch is about in the swamp of the Delta on of the river flowing into Lake Menzaleh. Tanis . Most recovered which have been Hyksos antiquities from San. of the XXIInd Only fragments remain. and Nectanebo during the XXIXth the XXXth againstthe Dynasty. Dynasty. and hundred was probably a monolith. Under the Ptolemies more houses were built.. the of Amen-em-hats found temple. the few inscriptions Pepi-Meri-Ea being on blocks probably brought from Dendera and which used here and was for the Usertsens second have and time.

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Les des Classique. series as J. in in Premieres Civilization. Library. names III. 5 Brugsch Petrie XYII. See below. The Dawn III. a.0. Maspero VOrient Les . and that Chaemeron. ii. Gaston. Strabo. . Maneth. Egypt's under in History. Book Eook Bohn's xvii. Maneth. See vol. the Pharaohs. Fragments thenes. H. Histoire Empires. C. to Mahaffy.0. and C. "W.by J. same series as . Fra'jments. Egypt F. etc. Diodorus. have classic been preserved in the writings of other in Ancient will be found Fragments. Chronologie ties ManeihOy by Plutarch. etc. Les Empires. Egypt under the Dynasties Dynasty. Fragments. the of The Passing of Peuples de VOrient. Place Universal Nations. Cory. Petrie. History. P. the I. Eusehius. J. . In History of Egypt. EratosDiodorus. I.ples de Origines. C. from M. Bunsen vols. De of Unger.. Struggle of the h. below. Melees Peuples. of the Herodotus. F. iii. Ptolemaic same Petrie. Histoire three des under The Ancienne vols. in Geography of Straho. Milne .. Gr.BIBLIOGRAPHY Classic Writers. etc. Egypt under Roman Rule. Ancienne J. P. Ptolemy. authors. . Classical Book See i. II. : Pev. Syncellus. des translated English II. 2 vols. Isicle et Osiride. I.

Maspero G. Ancient Religion of the Ancient Egyptians. A. I Monumenti Rosellini. Gli lated Egyptian History. delV Egitto e della Nuhia. 1832- Duemichen. 1869-80. E. 1889. W.trans- De Cara Hylcsos o de re Pastori de JEgitto. Relation A. sur V Ah y do s . G. W. Renouf . monuments. Rayet.tees Monuments Monuments Divers. Abd-el-Latif. H. Religion.eology section are and Art. The Tel-el. le Page. 1879. Soldi. L'Egypte. and Bezold. . Sir P. Aug.196 Mariette BIBLIOGRAPHY Outlines of Ancient . of Upper Egypt. Arch. The Hibbert Lectures for 1879.. Baliari. Monitments of Ancient Antique. Tab- Budge . 1849-59. 3 vols.Amarna lets. bas-reliefs. . The Art translated by A. Egyptian Doctrine of the Immortality of the Soul. C. Mariette. and Egyptian Archaeology. fouilles execu. Prisse Histoire Monuments Egyptiens. A. description des emplacement de cette ville. The first works with mentioned in this chieflyfolio volumes R. de Der-el- pictures. La Trouvaille Maspero Parrot . . Egypt. Egyptian 1868. Aug. B. Queen from the Century before our D'Avennes. XVIIth Tlie Fleet of an era. Denkmdler aus plates. R. of the Lotus. Dizionario di MitologiaEgizia. La Les de I'Art Sculpture Egyptienne. with notes by Mary Brodrick. 2 vols. etc. Edwards. and Brugscb. The Grammar Goodyear. de I'Art Egyptien d'apres les . inscriptions. Chipiez. Aegypten Aetliiopien. C. 1844. ttnd Liepsius . 1847. Lanzone Wiedemann The .

Easy Lessons Egyptian glyphics. Kil. G.7 geroglifico in v. in Recueil 1868. dAvins. f. . W.). Vocahulario copto-ehraico. ChampoUion Erman F.Universal History. epistolairechez les anciens Egyptiens. G. Egyptian. Adolf.'" Language and Letters. Budge P. the Hieroglyphic Grammar). 6 vols. HieroglyphisclieGrammaAik. 1889. de Rouge Emmaiiuel. from toire d. Hiero- Egyptian ReaAing Book. First Renouf.comprenant les g4ographiques. M. (Book of the Dead). Pyramid Hymne au Les Du Contes Genre .es Religions. 1867 v.and Ancient Egypt. The even of contain Past. Thesaurus inscriptionum aegyptiacarum Verzeichniss der Hieroglyphen mit Lautivorth (from .-iv. E. egyptienne. the T. populaires d. Two ii. Breasted. vol. Egyptian Erman'a of in future Life. W. vols. . 4 1836. texts Etudes JEgyptiennes. numbers . H. 1880.e VEgypte ancienne. since 1882. 1872. Dictionary of Hieroglyphics Vol. TJie Papyrus of Ani. Simeone. (Late texts). royaux. . lei historiques. Birch. E"jyptian Religion. Series i. Place Samuel. ^^ de VHisRevue Ritual dv. the E.BIBLIOGRAPHY 197 Ideas Budge. Sir . sacrifice funeraire. J. by Bunsen. . A. Chresiomathie Grammaire egyptienne. and Egyptological subjects. Vols. 1875. Steps in A.-vii. Petrie Records Egyptian Tales. H. de travaux. series. Maspero. Egypjfs 1867vols. Pierret mots et langue. . P. Life See chapters in Maspero's Histoire. PauL de la Vocahulaire noms hieroglyphique."^ Le "W. i. Hierogh/phisch-demotischesWdrterhuch. in Egyptian Language. translated by J. Brugsch. also Le Maspero Bulletin critique de la religion 4gypiienne. Levi . Egyptian Grammar. . 1894. Egyptian Gmmmar.

Egypt for the consist- ing Fnnd. 2Ioses. TJne Enqnete Judiciare a Thetes. R. of the U. W. H. Triumphs Barber. Aegypten G.198 BIBLIOGRAPHY Civilization and General. ge'ographique Egypte.S. Lake Petrie . oeuvres des Edited dispersees progress. The Mummy. Melanges Ebers. Life Dieiionnaire in Ancient Erman . Moeris. F. of of records the of Egypt excavations Exploration done in Fund. . Maspero Brown. Commander. A. the Ancient Sir Gardner. Mechanical Egyptians. Egyptian egyptologiques. and die Biicher Magic. Adolf. . The Fayum and. Maspero. ..E.N. W. The Manners and Customs of Egyptians. Ancient . M. Budge Chabas. Egypt. Ten Years' Diggings The in Egypt. de Vancien Brugscli 1880. Wilkinson. Major Hanbury. containing many plates. E. Bibliotheque egyptologues by Publications egyptologique frangais In comprenant dans divers les recueils. .

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