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Robert L. Gale, A Herman Melville Encyclopedia. Greenwood Press: Westport, CT., 1995. p.

6 Ahab, Captain ("Old Thunder," "Mogul") . In Moby-Dick, Ahab is the n!odl" b t !odli#e $aptain o% the whalin! &essel the Pequod. Ahab has been to $olle!es and a'on! the $annibals. (is 'ono'ania$al hatred o% )ob" *i$#, the white whale that depri&ed hi' o% his le!, en!enders a pride in hi' whi$h lti'atel" pro&es %atal to hi' and to 'ost o% his &aried $rew. +alentine Pease, ,r.,- the $aptain o% the Acushnet, whi$h was the 'odel %or the Pequod, onl" s per%i$iall" rese'bled the &ol$ani$ Ahab. A 'ore thoro !h.!oin! 'odel was Charles Wil#es, na&al o%%i$er and a thor o% /arrati&e o% the 0.1. 23plorin! 23pedition d rin! the 4ears 1565, 1569, 1578, 1571, 1579 : 5 &ols. and atlas, 1575;. <oth Wil#es and Ahab 'a" be des$ribed as dan!ero s, e$$entri$, and '"sterio s, and both as da ntless, %lawed b" insolen$e and pride, persistent, seawise and so l.si$#, and wrath% l. Parallels e3ist in the li&es o% both, and their &o"a!es were parallel at ti'es and in$l ded si'ilar !a's. Bibliography: Walter 2. <e=anson, >)ob".*i$#: *o$ 'ent, *ra'a, *rea'>, pp. 169.918, in <r"ant, ompanion? (arold <loo', ed., Ahab : /ew 4or#: Chelsea (o se P blishers, 1991;? // 6? <rain (i!!ins and (ershel Par#er, eds., ritical Essays on Herman Melville!s Moby-Dick : /ew 4or#: G. @. (all, 1999;? ,a%%A? Le"da. p. B Albert. In Billy Budd, he is Captain +ereCs ha''o$#.bo" who is sent to brin! <ill" < dd to hear and respond to ,ohn Cla!!artCs $har!es a!ainst hi'. p. 16 Archy. In Moby-Dick, he is a sailor who tells his %riend Caba$o, a Cholo, that he had heard 'en in the a%ter.hold. The '"sterio s 'en t rn o t to be Dedallah and his $rew. p. 91 Azore Sailor. In Moby-Dick, he is a sailor aboard the Pequod who dan$es d rin! the 'idni!ht %esti&ities in the %ore$astle. p. 69 Belfa t Sailor. In Moby-Dick, he is a sailor aboard the PeE od who be$o'es !lee% l when *a!!oo and the 1panish sailor be!in to %i!ht d rin! the 'idni!ht %esti&ities held in the %ore$astle. The <el%ast sailor 'a" be based on ,a'es Ros'an, an Irish sailor aboard the A$ shnet? he ran awa" at 1alan!o, on the Colo'bian $oast. p. 65 Betty. In Moby-Dick, she is )rs. (osea ( sse"Cs $ha'ber'aid at the Tr" Pots Inn, on /ant $#et. p. 69 Bildad, Captain. In Moby-Dick, he is a tall, pio s, parsi'onio s, well.to.do whale'an. Fn$e a $hie% 'ate, he is now retired and is one o% the prin$ipal owners o% the PeE od. (e is a G a#er, as is Captain Pele!, another part.owner o% the PeE od. Bibliography: <rian (i!!ins and (ershel Par#er, eds., ritical Essays on Herman Melville!s Moby-Dick : /ew 4or#: G. @. (all, 1999;.

p. 78.77 Billy Budd : 1997;. :D ll title: Billy Budd" #ailor? also $alled Billy Budd" $oretopman and Billy Budd" #ailor %An &nside 'arrative( .; In$o'plete no&el. :Chara$ters: Albert, <ristol )oll", <ill" < dd, ,ohn Cla!!art, the *ans#er, Lord ,a$# *enton, *onald, HCo'teI de Grasse H DranJois ,oseph Pa l, )arE is de Grassetill"I, Captain Gra&elin!, the (andso'e 1ailor, Captain )ordant, )r. P rser, Lie tenant Rat$li%%e, Red Pepper, Red Whis#ers, HAd'iral, <aron, Geor!e <r"d!esI Rodne", 1E ea#, Ta%% the Welsh'an, Captain the (onorable 2dward Dair%a3 +ere, Captain +ere, Wil#es, K..; Wal#in! on do$#s, sailors will o%ten s rro nd their %a&orite ship'ate, s all" so'eone tall and handso'e. Twent"one."ear.old <ill" < dd is s $h a one. (e was i'pressed in the late 1B98s o%% the )ights-o*-Man. (is sweet presen$e had 'olli%ied and $al'ed the nr l" $rew o% this oddl" na'ed 'er$hant'an, a$$ordin! to Gra&elin!, her dis$onsolate $aptain. F%% <ill" ' st !o. 1o, wa&in! a $heer% l %arewell to his 'ates, he a$$o'panies Lie tenant Rat$li%%e aboard the (.).1. <ellipotent, a se&ent".%o r o tward bo nd. <ill" is rated an able sea'an and is assi!ned as %oretop'an on the starboard wat$h. (e loo#s noble b t a bit adoles$ent, and he is a <ristol orphan, as he e3plains when as#ed abo t his parenta!e. (e is also illiterate, nai&e, and e3 berant. (e has a %law, whi$h is a liabilit" to sta''er. In April 1B9B, a ' tin" at 1pithead brea#s o t. In )a", another brea#s o t at the /ore. <oth are s ppressed a%ter so'e !rie&an$es .. not in$l din! i'press'ent .. are redressed. Lo"alt" in the 'arine $orps and a'on! in%l ential se$tions o% the $rews helped as well. In the s ''er, when <ill" boards the <ellipotent, she is on her wa" to Loin the )editerranean %leet. : )el&ille di!resses at this point to praise Ad'iral (oratio /elson- %or his painsta#in! %oresi!ht and lo&e o% !lor".; The $aptain o% the <ellipotent is 2dward Dair%a3 +ere, a ba$helor abo t %ort" "ears old. (e is nsel%ish, stri$t, 'odest b t resol te, $onser&ati&el" boo#ish and e&en pedanti$, nLo$ose, and honest and dire$t. Also drea'", he is $alled >1tarr" +ere.> (is 'aster.at.ar's is ,ohn Cla!!art, abo t thirt".%i&e, thin and tall, with a pale brow and dar# $ rls, and possibl" s %%erin! %ro' de%e$ti&e blood. (is n#nown past !i&es rise to r 'ors that he was a $he&alier who a&oided tro ble with 2n!lish law b" Loinin! the na&", whi$h is #nown as a re% !e %or the insol&ent and the i''oral. Tho !h npop lar, Cla!!art is pro'ptl" obe"ed b" his s bordinates, who ha&e b ilt hi' an nder!ro nd sp" s"ste' aboard ship. Li%e in the %oretop pleases <ill", who is d ti% l, espe$iall" a%ter he on$e had to witness a %lo!!in!. (e is tro bled, howe&er, be$a se Cla!!artCs poli$e #eep %indin! thin!s a'iss with his !ear. Fne da" he as#s the *ans#er %or an e3planation. This s$arred old &eteran, who li#es <ill", sa"s onl" that Cla!!art has it in %or the handso'e "o th. The ne3t da", the ship rolls and <ill" spills his so p on the de$# L st as Cla!!art wal#s b", slappin! his rattan. /otin! the 'ess, he sa"s, >(andso'el" done, '" ladM> /ai&e <ill" thin#s that the sar$asti$ words are %latterin!. < t what ails Cla!!artN (e is ba%%lin!, nat rall" depra&ed. (e is pro d, witho t pett" sin, not 'er$enar" or a&ari$io s or sens al. (e is a dan!ero s l nati$ be$a se he is in$onstantl" so. In short, he is e&iden$e o% >the '"ster" o% iniE it".> (e both hates <ill" and en&ies his !ood loo#s and ob&io s inno$en$e. )atters are 'ade worse when 1E ea#, Cla!!artCs rat.li#e $orporal, reports lies abo t <ill" to the e%%e$t that <ill" has

applied $ertain $riti$al epithets to Cla!!art, whose $ rio s $ons$ien$e e3a!!erates the' and 'a#es hi' de$ide to $he$# p on the lad. A %ew ni!hts later, <ill" is aro sed %ro' his ha''o$# b" a whisper r!in! hi' to $o'e to the %ore$hains. 0nable to sa" no, he !oes on de$# and en$o nters an n#nown 'an, also i'pressed into the na&", who tries to bribe <ill" to help in an nspe$i%i$ wa". With a sta''er, <ill" tells hi' to be o%%. <ill" is p ==led when he later sees an a%ter! ards'an who he thin#s is the 'an who spo#e to hi', be$a se the %ellow la !hs and has an open 'anner. <ill" tells part o% the stor" to the *ans#er, who sa"s a!ain that Cla!!art has it in %or hi'. <ill" does not be$o'e an in%or'ant, and he re'ains i!norant, si'ple, L &enile, and tr stin!. Cla!!art $ontin es to spea# pleasantl" to hi'. < t what abo t Cla!!artN (e "earnin!l" loo#s a%ter <ill" with tears in his e"es, as tho !h he $o ld lo&e the lad b t %or %ate. )eanwhile, the 'ono'ania$ %eels a hidden %ire eatin! deeper into hi'. A%ter the <ellipotent passes thro !h the 1traits Ho% GibraltarI, she is deta$hed %ro' the %leet on s$o t d t", $hases an ene'" ship, b t loses her when she $rowds sail and es$apes. I''ediatel" a%ter this in$ident, Cla!!art reE ests per'ission to spea# with Captain +ere on his E arterde$#. +ere, who barel" #nows his new 'aster.at.ar's, is ad&ersel" i'pressed and is sho$#ed when Cla!!art, with a 'i3t re o% !rie% and deter'ination, reports that <ill" < dd d rin! the $hase o% the ene'" &essel beha&ed s spi$io sl" and then hints that the res lt 'i!ht be$o'e a repetition o% the re$ent ' tin". 2&en tho !h he thin#s that Cla!!art 'a" be a$tin! li#e a perL rer he on$e obser&ed, +ere de$ides to in&esti!ate, $alls %or <ill", and orders Cla!!art to stand b". <ill" reports to his $aptain. Cla!!art repeats his a$$ sation. <ill" t rns as pale as a leper and sta''ers ! r!lin!l". +ere, who has been thin#in! paternall" o% pro'otin! the lad, tries to $al' hi' b" r!in! hi' to ta#e his ti'e, b t <ill"Cs h !e %ist shoots o t li#e a $annon and Cla!!art %alls dead to the %loor, li#e a dead sna#e. A!hast at s $h an Ananias.li#e L d!'ent, +ere s ''ons the s r!eon to &eri%" the death and then .. aware that <ill", tho !h an a&en!in! an!el, ' st ine&itabl" han!$on&enes a dr 'head $o rt. The s r!eon 'o'entaril" s spe$ts his $aptainCs sanit" and wo ld pre%er to t rn the $ase o&er to the %leet ad'iral. A$tin! both pro'ptl" and se$retl", +ere appoints three o%%i$ers, holds $o rt in the E arterde$# $abin, and des$ribes what happened. <ill" testi%ies that he had no 'ali$e a!ainst Cla!!art, did not intend to #ill hi', is sorr" the 'an is dead, b t %elt he had to a$t when lied abo t and when his ton! e %ailed hi'. +ere sa"s that he belie&es <ill", who is !rate% l b t who is re'o&ed nder ! ard. +ere pedanti$all" b t e%%i$ientl" tells the $o rt that 'oral s$r ples &itali=ed b" $o'passion are irrele&ant in the %a$e o% a sit ation reE irin! 'ilitar" d t", and he warns the o%%i$ers to i!nore not onl" their hearts and $ons$ien$es b t also <ill"Cs intent. (e adds that, altho !h God 'a" %or!i&e <ill", the Arti$les o% War are $lear as to the penalt" %or a sailor who stri#es a 'ortal blow to an"one o% s perior ran#. +ere $alls <ill"Cs a$t ' tino s ho'i$ide. +ere also notes that the possible pro3i'it" o% the ene'" 'a#es E i$# a$tion ne$essar". I% the death penalt" does not i''ediatel" %ollow, the 'en will thin# that their o%%i$ers are %lin$hin!. A deadl" rela3ation o% warti'e dis$ipline will res lt. The $o rt, tho !h neas", senten$es <ill" to han! in the 'ornin!.

+ere personall" reports the &erdi$t to <ill". The e3a$t $ir$ 'stan$es o% their %inal 'eetin! are ne&er re&ealed. Perhaps +ere $l t$hed <ill" to his heart as Abraha' did his son. Probabl" <ill" appre$iated +ereCs %ran# spirit. +ere tersel" reports the e&ents to his asse'bled $rew, and soon therea%ter Cla!!artCs bod" is honorabl" b ried at sea. The $haplain !oes to <ill", who in sleep on the pper ! n de$# has a $hildCs &ir!in inno$en$e on his %a$e. The $haplain ret rns, o%%ers what spirit al $o'%ort he $an, b t $on$l des that inno$en$e is better to !o to , d!'ent with, #isses <ill"Cs rose.tan $hee#, and withdraws. At %o r in the 'ornin!, all hands are piped on de$#. , st be%ore bein! r n p to the 'ain"ard, <ill" in $lear s"llables sa"s, >God bless Captain +ereM> The $rew e$hoes these words. The dawn $lo ds are %lee$". <ill" as$ends in rose li!ht, and his bod" does not twit$h. Tal#in! o% this pheno'enon later to the p rser, the s r!eon denies that it sho ld be eE ated with e thanasia and h rries o%%. <ill"Cs bod" is $onsi!ned to the deep. Aw#ward sea%owl $roa# a reE ie' o&er the splash. +ere orders the dr ''er to beat to E arters. A little later, while the <ellipotent is reLoinin! the %leet, she en!a!es a Dren$h line.o%. battle the Atheist, and +ere is wo nded. *"in! at Gibraltar, he is heard to ' r' r, ><ill" < dd, <ill" < dd,> tho !h not re'orse% ll". Wee#s later, an a thori=ed na&al $hroni$le reports that Cla!!art dis$o&red a ' tino s plot b t, be%ore he $o ld tell his $aptain, he was stabbed b" Willia' < dd, ndo btedl" a %orei!n a!ent and there%ore properl" han!ed. (is ship'ates, howe&er, in ti'e treas re bits o% the spar %ro' whi$h he was han!ed, as tho !h the" were pie$es o% the Cross? in addition, one tarr" hand wrote a ballad $alled ><ill" in the *arbies,> whi$h p rports to be the doo'ed sailorCs tho !hts as he ponders death and drea's o% %allin! >%atho's down> into >the oo=" weeds.> At his death in 1591, )el&ille le%t <ill" < dd as an in$o'plete 'an s$ript o% 651 lea&es. (e wrote the' probabl" between 1556 or so and 1591, at whi$h ti'e he was %or$ed to E it be$a se o% %atal illness. (is n 'ero s so r$es in$l de his own e3perien$es at sea, his ponderin!s while he wrote &ario s poe's in ,ohn )arr, his #nowled!e o% ei!hteenth .. $ent r" <ritish na&al law, and .. $loser to ho'e .. the 1o'ers ' tin". The 1o'ers was a 0.1. na&al bri!, s'all and 'anned b" Captain Ale3ander 1lidell )a$@en=ie : 1586.1575;, a %ew L nior o%%i$ers, and "o n! sailors .. 'ostl" "o n! $adets on their %irst o tward.bo nd &o"a!e. While the 1o'ers was ret rnin! %ro' a $r ise alon! the A%ri$an $oast late in 1579, a ' tin" was planned b" the rin! leader Philip 1pen$er, the ei!hteen."ear.old son o% ,ohn C. 1pen$er, President ,ohn T"lerCs se$retar" o% war. The wo ld.be ' tineers intended to ' rder )a$@en=ie and Lie tenant G ert Ganse&oort,- $on&ert the 1o'ers into a pirate &essel, and pre" pon $o''er$ial shippin! o%% the A'eri$an $oast. The $rew o% se&ent".%i&e wo ld be reE ired to parti$ipate or wo ld be #illed. )a$@en=ie was in%or'ed b" a s pposed $onspirator. Two.thirds o% the $rew were in&ol&ed. The o%%i$ers anti$ipated their a$tion and retained ar'ed $ontrol. Three wo ld.be ' tineers .. 1pen$er, 1a' el Cro'well, and 2lisha 1'all .. were arrested, tried b" dr 'head $o rt, o% whi$h Ganse&oort was an appointed o%%i$er, and han!ed : 1 *e$e'ber 1579;. A'on! 1'allCs last words were >God bless the %la!M> Ganse&oort, )el&illeCs $o sin, &oted that the prisoners sho ld be p t to death to 'a#e a ne$essar" i'pression on the $rew, b t he brooded %or the rest o% his li%e o&er his part in the trial. The 1o'ers a%%air $a sed partisan $ontro&ers" and $o''entar" %or "ears a%terward, as late .. in )el&illeCs li%eti'e .. as 1559. In the A'eri$an )a!a=ine appeared >The ) tin"

on the C1o'ersC> : )a" 1555; b" Lie tenant (. *. 1'ith? in the osmopolitan, >The ) rder o% Philip 1pen$er> : , ne, , l", A ! st 1559; b" Gail (a'ilton : )ar" Abi!ail *od!e;. )el&ille $o ld ha&e been in%l en$ed b" both o% these arti$les while he was writin! <ill" < dd. In a di!ression, he $ites the 1o'ers ' tin" b t >witho t $o''ent.> When )el&ille &isited the 0nion $a&alr" $a'p o% his $o sin (enr" 1an%ord Ganse&oort- : April 1567;, he heard abo t "o n! Willia' 2. Fr'sb", a hotheaded 0nion soldier twent".%o r "ears o% a!e who deserted, Loined the Con%ederate ! errillas nder ,ohn 1in!leton )osb",- was $apt red b" 0nion soldiers near Aldie, +ir!inia, and was tried b" a dr 'head $o rt.'artial, %o nd ! ilt", and shot b" a %irin! sE ad b" order o% his $o''andin! o%%i$er, Colonel Charles R ssell Lowell, nephew o% the 'ano%.letters ,a'es R ssell Lowell : Debr ar" 1567;. 1e&eral details o% this in$ident are paralleled in <ill" < ddCs a$tion, speed" trial, and E i$# e3e$ tion. The ri$h, i'a!isti$, and all si&e st"le o% <ill" < dd has intri! ed readers, b t it is the ps"$holo!i$al nat re o% the three prin$ipal $hara$ters that has $hallen!ed the $riti$s. In what wa"s is <ill" < dd a Christ %i! reN What does his sta''er s"'boli=eN To what de!ree is Captain +ere an ad'irable na&al o%%i$er and %ather %i! reN What is his 'oti&ationN Is Cla!!art an n'iti!ated 1atanN Is <ill" < dd to be read as )el&illeCs testa'ent o% %aith or as an ironi$ do$ 'ent $on$ernin! %allen h 'anit"N Bibliography: Adler? R. W. *esai, >Tr thCs CRa!!ed 2d!esC: A Pheno'enolo!i$al InE ir" into the Captain +ere.<ill" Relationship in )el&illeCs <ill" < dd, 1ailor>, #tudies in the Humanities 19 : , ne 1999;: 11.96? Garner? (arrison (a"%ord, ed., +he #omers Mutiny A**air : 2n!lewood Cli%%s, /.,.: Prenti$e.(all, 1959;? (ershel Par#er, )eading Billy Budd : 2&anston, Ill.: /orthwestern 0ni&ersit" Librar", 1998;? Peter 1haw, >The Date o% a 1tor">, American #cholar 69 :A t 'n 1996;: 591.688. p. 75 Boo!er, Captain. In Moby-Dick, he is the $aptain o% the 1a' el 2nderb". (e lost his ri!ht ar' while he was $hasin! )ob" *i$# with his 'ate )o nttop. <oo'er was later attended b" *r. ,a$# < n!er, his s r!eon. p. 57 Bri tol Molly. In Billy Budd, she is <ill" < ddCs !irl%riend, a$$ordin! to ><ill" in the *arbies,> a poe' written b" his ship'ate. p. 55 Budd, "illia! ("Billy," "Baby," "Beauty"). In Billy Budd, he is the tall, handso'e, nai&e, sta''erin! %oretop'an. (e is twent".one "ears old. (e has been i'pressed %ro' the )ights-o*-Man to ser&e on the Bellipotent" nder the $o''and o% Captain 2dward Dair%a3 +ere. When ,ohn Cla!!art ntr th% ll" reports to +ere that <ill" is %o'entin! ' tin", <ill" .. nable to spea# in his own de%ense .. stri#es o t with his bi! %ist and #ills his a$$ ser. Altho !h his a$t was witho t pre'editation, <ill" is han!ed %or this $apital o%%ense. The p ==lin! absen$e o% death twit$hes d rin! his e3e$ tion has been dia!nosed as spas'odi$ d"sphonia. (is adorin! 'ates treas re his 'e'or". <ill" is niE e a'on! )el&illean heroes be$a se he dies in an at'osphere o% lo&e and sa$ri%i$e, not alone, not hated, not boast% ll" de%iant.

Bibliography# )erton ). 1ealts ,r., >Inno$en$e and In%a'": <ill" < dd, 1ailor>, pp. 78B .68 in <r"ant, ompanion? 1'ith. p. 59 Bul$ington. In Moby-Dick, he is a tall, broad.sho ldered, bi!.$hested sea'an. (e 'a" be %ro' +ir!inia. (e dise'bar#s at /ew <ed%ord %ro' a %o r."ear &o"a!e aboard the Gra'p s, sta"s at the 1po ter Inn, and in a 'atter o% da"s si!ns aboard Ahab Pequod. < l#in!ton is pop lar b t aloo% and see's nable to re'ain ashore %or lon!. When he stands at the hel' one $old winter ni!ht, Ish'ael apotheosi=es hi' inordinatel" %or r shin! ba$# pon the o$eanCs depths, sin$e >in landlessness alone resides the hi!hest tr th, shoreless, inde%inite as God.> < l#in!ton has the !ood E alities o% the 'ore $o'ple3 Ahab. p. %& Bunger, 'r. (ac$. In Moby-Dick, he is the s r!eon aboard the #amuel Enderby, whose $aptain, <oo'er, lost his ri!ht ar' while $hasin! )ob" *i$#. The two 'en are realisti$ rather than &en!e% l. p. 66 Cabaco. In Moby-Dick, he is a Cholo sailor. (is %riend Ar$h" tells Caba$o that he hears 'en in the a%ter.hold. The" t rn o t to be Dedallah and his $rew. p. 67 Canny, "alter. In Moby-Dick, he is a sailor who was lost with %i&e others at sea %ro' the Eli,a in 1569. Their ship'ates pla$ed a 'arble in his 'e'or" in the Whale'anCs Chapel in /ew <ed%ord. p. 65 Captain. In Moby-Dick, he is ,onahCs 'er$enar" $aptain in the ser'on deli&ered b" Dather )apple at the Whale'anCs Chapel in /ew <ed%ord. Captain. In Moby-Dick, he is the $o''ander o% a 'er$hant ship. (e on$e &isited G eeE e!Cs %ather, the @in! o% @o#o&o#o, and i!norantl" washed his hands in the p n$h bowl, b t he was not la !hed at b" the $o rteo s and tolerant nati&es. Captain. In Moby-Dick, he is the $aptain o% the Moss" whi$h $arries Ish'ael and G eeE e! %ro' /ew <ed%ord to /ant $#et. While aboard the Moss" G eeE e! wrestles a 'i'i$#in! "o n! b 'p#in. G eeE e! then sa&es the lad when he is #no$#ed o&erboard b" a swin!in! boo'. Captain. In Moby-Dick, he is the $aptain o% the +o-n-Ho who resists the te'ptation to %lo! the ' tino s 1teel#ilt, where pon his 'ate Radne", whose Law 1teel#ilt has bro#en, does so. 1oon therea%ter, )ob" *i$# #ills Radne". In real li%e, (ira' Wee#s was the $aptain o% the whaler 'assau" aboard whi$h a sailor na'ed L ther Do3 ' rdered the %irst o%%i$er, whose na'e was ,enne" : April 1576;. Charity, Aunt. In Moby-Dick, she is Captain <ildadCs thin old sister. 1he s pplies the Pequod with !in!er.L b, a 'ild, nonal$oholi$, and hen$e nwanted be&era!e. p. B9 China Sailor. In Moby-Dick, he is a Pequod sailor who is $riti$al o% the dan$in! d rin! the 'idni!ht %esti&ities in the %ore$astle. p. B6

Claggart, (ohn ("(e!!y )eg "). In Billy Budd, he is the tall, thin, pallid 'aster.o%. ar's aboard the Bellipotent. (e is thirt".%i&e "ears old. Thro !h en&" o% the !ood loo#s and inno$en$e o% <ill" < dd, thro !h a stran!e "earnin! toward hi', and also be$a se o% >innate depra&it",> Cla!!art %alsel" a$$ ses <ill" o% %o'entin! ' tin". 0nable to spea#, <ill" stri#es o t and #ills Cla!!art witho t pre'editation and is han!ed %or the $apital o%%ense. It has been s !!ested that the $hara$teri=ation o% Cla!!art 'a" owe so'ethin! to the alle!edl" sadisti$ nat re o% Ale3ander 1lidell )a$#en=ie, $aptain o% the #omers at the ti'e o% the $elebrated aborti&e ' tin" : 1579;. Bibliography# Charles Roberts Anderson, >The Genesis o% <ill" < dd>, American /iterature 19 : /o&e'ber 1978;: 699 .76. p. 5B Coffin, (ohnny. In Moby-Dick, he is the "o n!er son o% Peter and 1al Co%%in. Coffin, *eter. In Moby-Dick, he is the landlord o% the 1po ter Inn, in /ew <ed%ord. (e assi!ns Ish'ael to be the roo''ate o% G eeE e! there. Co%%in and his wi%e 1al ha&e two sons, 1a' and ,ohnn". Peter Co%%in and (osea ( sse" are $o sins. Coffin, Sal. In Moby-Dick, she is Peter Co%%inCs wi%e. The Co%%ins ha&e two sons, 1a' and ,ohnn". Coffin, Sa!. In Moby-Dick, he is the older son o% Peter and 1al Co%%in. Cole!an, 'eacon 'euterono!y. In Moby-Dick, he is the dea$on o% the Dirst Con!re!ational Ch r$h, on the island o% /ant $#et. Ish'ael eni!'ati$all" tells Captain Pele! and Captain <ildad that G eeE e! is a 'e'ber o% >the Dirst Con!re!ational Ch r$h> .. 'eanin! the $on!re!ation o% h 'an#ind. Cole!an, +athan. In Moby-Dick, he is a sailor lost with %i&e others %ro' the Eli,a in 1569. Their ship'ates pla$ed a 'arble tablet in their 'e'or" in the Whale'anCs Chapel in /ew <ed%ord. p. 98 Co!!odore, The. In +ypee, he is the $o''ander o% the na&al &essel aboard whi$h the narrator later ser&ed when he entered the ba" o% / # he&a. @in! )owannaCs tattooed wi%e $o'es aboard. p. 186 'aggoo. In Moby-Dick" he is a !i!anti$ bla$# %ro' A%ri$a and then /ant $#et. (e is little Dlas#Cs harpooner. p. 185 'ani h Sailor. In Moby-Dick" he is a Pequod sailor who is indi%%erent to the approa$hin! stor' d rin! the 'idni!ht %esti&ities in the %ore$astle. 'an $er, The ("Board,-er,in,the,S!o$e"). In Billy Budd" he is a !ri', s$arred old 'ain'ast'an and an Agamemnon &eteran. (e la$oni$all" tells <ill" < dd that ,ohn Cla!!art has it in %or <ill". Tra!i$all", the *ans#er ne&er inter%eres and ne&er ad&ises, and %ails to interpret or se% ll" rea$t.

Bibliography: 1haron <aris, 0Melville!s Dansker: +he Absent Daniel in Billy Budd"0 pp. 156.B6 in +he 1ses o* Adversity: $ailure and Accommodation in )eader )esponse, ed. 2llen 1pols#" : Lewisb r!, Pa.: < $#nell 0ni&ersit" Press, 1998;. p. 185 'eer, 'eric$ de. In Moby-Dick" he is the Ger'an $aptain o% the 2ung*rau o% <re'en. 1he is de&oid o% sper' oil. 'enton, )ord (ac$. In Billy Budd" he is a relati&e o% Captain 2dward Dair%a3 +ere. *enton $on!rat lated +ere %or his !allant part in the West Indian $r ise nder H Ad'iral <aron Geor!e <r"d!esI Rodne". *enton !a&e +ere the ni$#na'e >1tarr".> p. 119 'onald. In Billy Budd" he is <ill" < ddCs ship'ate. A$$ordin! to another ship'ateCs poe', entitled ><ill" in the *arbies,> *onald pro'ised <ill" to stand b" his plan# at b rial. p. 117 'ough,Boy. In Moby-Dick" he is the pale.%a$ed steward o% the Pequod. Tashte!o terri%ies hi' with a s$alpin! #ni%e. *o !h.<o" ti'es the spo tin! o% whales and is reb #ed %or o%%erin! !in!er.L b to G eeE e!. p. 198 'utch Sailor. In Moby-Dick" he is a Pequod sailor who sin!s and tal#s d rin! the 'idni!ht %esti&ities in the %ore$astle. p.197 .bony. In Moby-Dick, this is another na'e %or the A%ri$an.A'eri$an $oo# re! larl" #nown as Dlee$e. p. 195 .li/ah. In Moby-Dick, he is a tattered prophet on the /ant $#et whar%. (e hints to Ish'ael and G eeE e! abo t an ad&erse %ate in store %or Captain Ahab, his $rew, and the PeE od. .llery, "illi . In Moby-Dick, he is a sailor lost with %i&e others %ro' the 2li=a in 1569. Their ship'ates pla$e a 'arble tablet in their 'e'or" in the Whale'anCs Chapel in /ew <ed%ord. p. 199 .nderby, Sa!uel. In Moby-Dick, he is the 'er$hant leader o% a London %a'il" that has %itted o t 'an" whalin! &essels, in$l din! one $alled the #amuel Enderby, $o''anded b" Captain <oo'er. Bibliography: 1idne" @aplan, >(er'an )el&ille and the Whalin! 2nderb"s>, American /iterature 97 : )a" 1959;: 997.68. .ngli h Sailor. In Moby-Dick, he is a Pequod sailor who d rin! the 'idni!ht %esti&ities in the %ore$astle praises Captain Ahab and then insists that the %i!ht between *a!!oo and the 1panish sailor be a %air one. p. 166

0aya1ay. In +ypee, she is the bea ti% l, oli&e.s#inned nati&e !irl who e&identl" lo&es and is lo&ed b" To''o. 1he is deli$atel" tattooed, is %ond o% raw %ish, and weeps at his depart re. Bibliography: GreLda. 0edallah. In Moby-Dick, he is the Parsee who', with %o r %ellow Frientals, Captain Ahab se$retl" brin!s aboard his Pequod. At the %irst lowerin! %or a whale, Dedallah and his 'en e'er!e as AhabCs >%i&e d s#" phanto's.> In d e ti'e, Dedallah !i&es Ahab spe$io s $o'%ort when he prophe$ies eE i&o$all"? b t he then pre$edes his 'aster to death be$a se o% the see'in! 'ali$e o% )ob" *i$#. The na'e Dedallah in Arabi$ 'eans >sa$ri%i$e or ranso' o% God.> Dedallah is a diaboli$al, '"sti$al in%idel and an assassin o%%erin! his own li%e in desperate %atalis' so as to destro" what he re!ards as the satani$all" pro d and hate.%illed Ahab. DedallahCs !arb 'a" be partl" based on des$riptions b" Charles Wil#es in his 'arrative o* the 1.#. E3ploring E3pedition during the 4ears 5676, 1569, 1578, 1571, 1579 :5 &ols. and atlas, 1575; o% nati&es and 'esti=os in )anila, in the Philippine Islands, while DedallahCs per%idio s nat re 'a" owe so'ethin! to Wil#esCs $o''ents on 1 l s, espe$iall" the 1 ltan and his son, also in the Philippines. Bibliography: Din#elstein? <rian (i!!ins and (ershel Par#er, eds., ritical Essays on Herman Melville!s Moby-Dick : /ew 4or#: G. @. (all, 1999;? ,a%%A? (elen P. Tri'pi, p. 169 0ifth +antuc$et Sailor. In Moby-Dick, he is a PeE od sailor who sees li!htnin! d rin! the 'idni!ht %esti&ities in the %ore$astle. p. 178 0ir t +antuc$et Sailor. In Moby-Dick, he is a PeE od sailor who sin!s d rin! the 'idni!ht %esti&ities in the %ore$astle. 0la $ ("2ing,*o t"). In Moby-Dick, he is the short, sto t, r dd", p !na$io s third 'ate o% the Pequod. (e is a nati&e o% Tisb r", on )arthaCs +ine"ard. *a!!oo is his harpooner. Dlas# sees no s"'bolis' in the do bloon nailed to the 'ain'ast. The third 'ate o% the Acushnet" the 'odel %or the PeE od, was a Port ! ese na'ed Geor!e W. Gal&an, who went ashore at Pa"ta. )el&ille 'a" ha&e had Gal&an in 'ind when he 'entions the third 'ate in >CharlesC Isle and the *o!.@in!>, in >The 2n$antadas>. Bibliography: Le"da. 0leece (".bony"). In Moby-Dick, he is the old A%ri$an.A'eri$an $oo# aboard the PeE od. (e prea$hes to the nois" shar#s as the" rend and !obble whale bl bber. 1t bb E eries Dlee$e on reli!ion and le$t res hi' on the best wa" to $oo# whale stea#. p. 179 0ourth +antuc$et Sailor. In Moby-Dick, he is a PeE od sailor who d rin! the 'idni!ht %esti&ities in the %ore$astle reports that Captain Ahab told 1tarb $# to steer the ship strai!ht into the approa$hin! stor'. p. 176 0rench Sailor. In Moby-Dick, he is a PeE od sailor who dan$es d rin! the 'idni!ht %esti&ities in the %ore$astle.

p. 179 3abriel. In Moby-Dick, he is the 'ad prophet o% the 2eroboam. (e $a'e %ro' the /es#"e na 1ha#ers and predi$ted the death o% (arr" )a$e" when that 'an so !ht to #ill )ob" *i$#. p. 168 3ardiner. In Moby-Dick, he is a son o% Captain Gardiner o% the )achel. The lad was res$ ed %ro' one o% the three whaleboats that p rs ed )ob" *i$#, b t his twel&e. "ear.old brother is 'issin! in the %o rth boat. 3ardiner. In Moby-Dick, he is the twel&e."ear.old son o% Captain Gardiner o% the )achel. The bo" is or was in a 'issin! whaleboat t !!ed o t o% si!ht or destro"ed b" )ob" *i$#. 3ardiner, Captain. In Moby-Dick, he is the /ant $#et $o''ander o% the )achel. Captain Ahab ada'antl" re% ses to Loin in the sear$h %or GardinerCs twel&e"ear.old son, who is or was in a 'issin! whaleboat t !!ed o t o% si!ht or destro"ed b" )ob" *i$#. A%ter the Pequod is s n#, Gardiner b" $han$e sails ba$# and res$ es Ish'ael. p. 166 3leig, Sa!uel. In Moby-Dick, he is a sailor lost alon! with %i&e others %ro' the Eli,a in 1569. Their ship'ates pla$ed a 'arble tablet in their 'e'or" in the Whale'anCs Chapel in /ew <ed%ord. p. 45& 3ra6eling, Captain. In Billy Budd, he is the obese, habit all" $heer% l $aptain o% the )ights-o*-Man. (e be$o'es sad b t is ne$essaril" passi&e when Lie tenant Rat$li%%e i'presses <ill" %ro' her to Captain 2dward Dair%a3 +ere Bellipotent. p. 1B7 3uern ey!an, The. In Moby-Dick, he is the i!norant $hie% 'ate o% the Dren$h whaler the Bouton de )ose. 1t bb tal#s hi' o t o% a pre$io s, ns spe$ted treas re o% a'ber!ris inside a whaleCs disease.riddled $orpse. p. 1B9 -and o!e Sailor. In Billy Budd, he is a t"pi$all" tall and handso'e sailor whose ship'ates wal# with hi' on shore. <ill" < dd is des$ribed as s $h a t"pe. p. 158 -ardy, .ze$iel, Captain. In Moby-Dick. (e is a whalin! $aptain #illed b" a sper' whale o%% the $oast o% ,apan in 1566. (is widow ere$ted a tablet in his 'e'or" in the Whale'anCs Chapel in /ew <ed%ord. -ardy, Mr . .ze$iel. In Moby-Dick, she is Captain 2=e#iel (ard"Cs widow. 1he ere$ted a tablet in his 'e'or" in the Whale'anCs Chapel in /ew <ed%ord. p. 159 -arry. In Moby-Dick, he is a sailor who, with ,a$# and ,oe, is s spi$io s o% ,onah in Dather )appleCs ser'on at the Whale'anCs Chapel in /ew <ed%ord. p. 156 -ay,Seed. In Moby-Dick, he is a t"pi$al !reen b 'p#in who $o'es to /ew <ed%ord to ship aboard a whaler. p. 155 -igh,Chief, A. In Moby-Dick, he is the @in! o% @o#o&o#o and is G eeE e!Cs %ather.

-igh *rie t, A. In Moby-Dick, he is G eeE e!Cs noble n$le and the brother o% the @in! o% @o#o&o#o, G eeE e!Cs %ather. p. 196 -u ey, -o ea. In Moby-Dick, he is the proprietor o% the Tr".Pots on the island o% /ant $#et. Ish'ael and G eeE e! stop there be%ore si!nin! aboard Captain AhabCs Pequod. ( sse" and Peter Co%%in are $o sins. -u ey, Mr . -o ea. In Moby-Dick, she is the wi%e o% the proprietor o% the Tr" Pots on the island o% /ant $#et. 1he is %a'o s %or her $la' $howder, whi$h Ish'ael and G eeE e! enLo". p. 195 7celand Sailor. In Moby-Dick, he is a Pequod sailor who re% ses to dan$e d rin! the 'idni!ht %esti&ities in the %ore$astle. p. 985 7 h!ael. In Moby-Dick, he is the narrator and possibl" the hero. A%ter %o r &o"a!es in the 'er$hant ser&i$e, Ish'ael si!ns aboard the Pequod, Captain AhabCs whalin! &essel, be$o'es the boso' %riend o% the harpooner G eeE e!, &ows with the others to p rs e Moby Dick, and niE el" es$apes the res ltin! wre$#. (e is $alled 1#ri'shander b" Peter Co%%in. Bibliography: *a&id 1$ott Arnold, /iminal )eadings: $orms o* 8therness in Melville" 2oyce and Murdoch : /ew 4or#: 1t. )artinCs Press, 1996;? <rian (i!!ins and (ershel Par#er , eds., ritical Essays on Herman Melville!s Moby-Dick : /ew 4or#: G. @. (all, 1999;? Robert Ooellner, +he #alt-#ea Mastodon: A )eading o* Moby-Dick : <er#ele": 0ni&ersit" o% Cali%ornia Press, 19B6;. (ac$. In Moby-Dick, he is a sailor who, with ,oe and (arr", is s spi$io s o% ,onah in Dather )appleCs ser'on at the Whale'anCs Chapel in /ew <ed%ord. p. 916 (enny. In Moby-Dick, this is a na'e in a son! partl" re$ited b" Pip in %ront o% the do bloon nailed to the 'ain'ast. p. 917 (i!!y. In +ypee, he is the irresponsible, tabooed old sailor in the ho sehold o% @in! )owanna o% / # he&a. ,i''" helps Tob" es$ape %ro' / # he&a b t is nable, or nwillin!, to tr" to 'ana!e the release o% To''o %ro' +ypee. p. 915 (oe. In Moby-Dick, he is a sailor who, with ,a$# and (arr", is s spi$io s o% ,onah in Dather )appleCs ser'on at the Whale'anCs Chapel in /ew <ed%ord. p. 919 (onah In Moby-Dick, he is the li&in! hero o% Dather )appleCs stirrin! ser'on at the Whale'anCs Chapel in /ew <ed%ord. p. 996 2alo1. In +ypee, he is a T"pee $hie% who attended the probabl" $annibalisti$ %east %ro' whi$h To''o is e3$l ded. 2a!eha!eha 777 (4849,48:9) . :Alternate na'e: @a i#eao li.; (awaiian #in!. 1oon a%ter the death in London o% his brother @a'eha'eha II,- @a'eha'eha III be$a'e

#in! and r led ntil his death. At %irst, howe&er, he was pla$ed nder the re!en$" o% @aah 'an ,- who was the %a&orite wi%e o% @a'eha'eha I.- When @aah 'an died : 1569;, @a'eha'eha ICs da !hter @ina be$a'e re!ent, ntil @a'eha'eha III, her hal%.brother, be$a'e the % ll.%led!ed #in! : 1566; .and a li$entio s and dissipated one, at that. A little later, howe&er, he did pro' l!ate se&eral e3e'plar" 'eas res, in$l din! the *e$laration o% Ri!hts : 1569;, the 2di$t o% Toleration : 1569;, and (awaiiCs %irst $onstit tion : 1578;. 0nder this last do$ 'ent, he established a le!islat re o% ele$ted representati&es and a s pre'e $o rt. (e also a$hie&ed diplo'ati$ re$o!nition o% the independen$e o% his island nation b" the 0nited 1tates : 1579;, 2n!land : 1576;, and Dran$e : 1576;. In +ypee, )el&ille des$ribes @in! @a'eha'eha III :whose na'e he spells @a''aha''aha; as the hal%.$i&ili=ed, %at, la=", and al$oholi$ #in! o% (awaii in 1576. )el&ille adds that the #in! was %oolishl" pers aded b" *r. H Gerrit Par'eleI , dd to s rrender (awaii to the <ritish. Ad'iral H Ri$hardI Tho'as ret rned the islands to their #in!. In 8moo, )el&ille des$ribes @a'eha'eha III :whose na'e he spells Ta''aha'aha; as the present #in! o% (awaii and adds that the #in! was a 'ere lad in 1565 b t now e3pansi&el" #eeps at his $o rt a rabble o% %orei!ners, in$l din! <ill" Loon, ,oe, and )orde$ai. p. 99B 2ara$oee. In +ypee, he is a tall, tabooed rene!ade shan!haier %ro' Fah . <e$a se o% @ara#oeeCs e%%orts, alon! with those o% )arnoo, To''o is able to lea&e the )arE esas Islands aboard the 2ulia. 2ar$y. In +ypee, he is the 'aster tattooer o% +ypee. To''o resists his arts. 2arluna. In +ypee, he is 'entioned as a nati&e whose propert", li#e that o% other T"pees, is respe$ted b" e&er"one. 2arnoonoo. In +ypee, he is a T"pee nati&e whose La&elin handle To''o $ar&es. p. 968 2ing,*o t. In Moby-Dick, this is 1t bbCs ni$#na'e %or Dlas#. p.969 2o$o6o$o, The 2ing of. In Moby-Dick, he is G eeE e!Cs Pol"nesian %ather, a hi!h $hie%. (e 'a" be dead b" the ti'e Ish'ael and G eeE e! 'eet and be$o'e %riends. 2olor. In +ypee. #ee @olor". 2olory (")ord *ri!ate") . In +ypee, he is a T"pee soldier.priest. (e $ %%s )oa Art a, his reli!io s doll, into pro&idin! a$$eptable answers to E estions he whispers to it. (e is also $alled @olor. 2ory,2ory. In +ypee, he is the tall, athleti$, happ" son o% )arhe"o and Tinor. @or". @or", abo t twent".%i&e "ears o% a!e, $arries To''o abo t on his ba$#, bathes hi', e3plains &ario s aspe$ts o% nati&e li%e :%or e3a'ple, b rial plat%or's, dan$in!, and pol"!a'";, and 'inisters to his needs as well as he $an. When )el&illeCs <ritish p blisher ,ohn ) rra"- said that the readin! p bli$ wo ld wel$o'e proo% o% the

&era$it" o% parts o% +ypee, )el&ille replied that he la'ented his inabilit" >to s bpoena . . . @or".@or" who ICll be bo nd is this blessed da" ta#in! his noon nap so'ewhere in the %lower" &ale o% +ypee :9 1epte'ber 1576;. Bibliography: Anderson, *a&is, // 17. p. 969 )a car Sailor. In Moby-Dick, he is a Pequod sailor who interr pts the dan$in! d rin! the 'idni!ht %esti&ities in the %ore$astle b" anno n$in! the approa$h o% a stor'. )azaru . In Moby-Dick, this is the na'e Ish'ael assi!ns to a shi&erin! be!!ar who is sleepin! on the $ rb o tside Peter Co%%inCs 1po ter.Inn at /ew <ed%ord. p. 976 )e1i , (ac$. In +ypee, he is a sailor aboard the Dolly whose abilit" to steer is n%airl" $riti$i=ed b" Captain +an!s. p. 976 )ong, ;obert. In Moby-Dick, he is a sailor lost with %i&e others %ro' the 2li=a in 1569. Their ship'ates pla$ed a 'arble tablet in their 'e'or" in the Whale'anCs Chapel in /ew <ed%ord. p. 97B )ong 7 land Sailor. In Moby-Dick, he is a Pequod sailor who dan$es d rin! the 'idni!ht %esti&ities in the %ore$astle. p. 956 Macey, -arry. In Moby-Dick, he is the $hie% 'ate o% the 2eroboam" the $o''ander o% whi$h is Captain )a"hew. )a$e" de%ies the predi$tion o% the 'ad prophet Gabriel and p rs es )ob" *i$#, whi$h %inall" #ills hi'. Macey, Mr . -arry. In Moby-Dick, she is the wo'an whose letter &ia the Pequod rea$hes the 2eroboam too late. (er h sband was $hie% 'ate o% the 2eroboam ntil )ob" *i$# #illed hi'. p. <:8 Macy, Seth. In Moby-Dick, he was a sailor lost with %i&e others %ro' the Eli,a in 1569. Their ship'ates pla$ed a 'arble tablet in their 'e'or" in the Whale'anCs Chapel in /ew <ed%ord. p. 968 Malte e Sailor. In Moby-Dick, he is a Pequod sailor who spea#s eroti$all" while his 'ates dan$e d rin! the 'idni!ht %esti&ities in the %ore$astle. p. 969 Man=!an, The ("The Old Man= Sailor") . In Moby-Dick, he is an old na ti$al seer who, the %irst ti'e he obser&es Captain Ahab, s r'ises that the stri$#en 'an ' st be s$arred %ro' $rown to toe. The old sailor is wearil" $riti$al o% the wild PeE od $rew d rin! the 'idni!ht %esti&ities in the %ore$astle. Mapple, 0ather. In Moby-Dick, he is the r !!ed, &enerable prea$her at the Whale'anCs Chapel in /ew <ed%ord. 1in$e he was on$e a sailor, his salt" ser'on on the s bLe$t o% ,onah 'o&es Ish'ael and the other sailors who hear it. p. 969

Marheyo. in +ypee, he is @or".@or"Cs %ather. It is in )arhe"oCs h t that To''o sta"ed d rin! his $apti&it" a'on! the T"pees. )arhe"o is senile, spends ' $h ti'e tin#erin! with the $onstr $tion o% a shed, b t nderstands his nhapp" ! estCs desire to ret rn ho'e. p. 9B1 Marheyo. in +ypee, he is @or".@or"Cs %ather. It is in )arhe"oCs h t that To''o sta"ed d rin! his $apti&it" a'on! the T"pees. )arhe"o is senile, spends ' $h ti'e tin#erin! with the $onstr $tion o% a shed, b t nderstands his nhapp" ! estCs desire to ret rn ho'e. p. 9B5 Mayhe1, Captain. In Moby-Dick, he is the $o''ander o% the whaler 2eroboam, whi$h has the 'ad 1ha#er prophet Gabriel aboard. The ship re$entl" lost her $hie% 'ate to )ob" *i$# and is now swept b" a 'ali!nant epide'i$. p. 9B6 Mehe6i. In +ypee, he is the bra&e, noble.loo#in! $hie% o% the T"pees a'on! who' To''o li&es %or abo t %o r 'onths. (e does not want To''o to lea&e. )ehe&iCs da'sel is )oonoon", b t the %ellow is also %lirtatio s elsewhere. p. 959 Mel6ille, -er!an (484>,48>4) . The salient %a$ts o% )el&illeCs li%e are as %ollows. (er'an )el&ille was born in /ew 4or# Cit". (is %ather, Allan )el&ill,- was an i'porter and a 'er$hant? his 'other, )aria Ganse&oort )el&ille,- %ro' a well.to.do Alban" %a'il", was the da !hter o% an A'eri$an Re&ol tionar" War hero. )el&illeCs parents had se&en other $hildren. The" were Ganse&oort )el&ille,- (elen )aria )el&ille Gri!!s,- A ! sta )el&ille,- Allan )el&ille,- Catherine Ganse&oort )el&ille (oadle",- Dran$es Pris$illa )el&ille,- and Tho'as )el&ille.- A%ter !oin! to s$hool in /ew 4or# : 1595.1568;, )el&ille 'o&ed with his %a'il" to Alban" when his %atherCs b siness $ollapsed : 1568;. )el&ille attended s$hool in Alban" : 1568.1561;. Dellow st dents at the a$ade'" in$l ded his $o sins ( n Ganse&oort,- Leonard (er'an Ganse&oort, ,r.,- and 1tanwi3 Ganse&oort.- When his %ather died ban#r pt and insane : 1569;, )el&ille too# &ario s Lobs, in Alban" and near Pitts%ield, )assa$h setts :to 1565;, and also st died the $lassi$s in Alban" and s r&e"in! in Lansin!b r!h, /ew 4or# : 1565.1565;. A%ter p blishin! a %ew s#et$hes, he be$a'e a $o''on sea'an on a tradin! &essel to Li&erpool and ba$# : 1569;. (e ta !ht s$hool in /ew 4or# state : 1569.1578; and si!ned aboard the whaler Acushnet : 15711579;. (e deserted in the )arE esas, li&ed brie%l" in the Taipi +alle" o% / # hi&a, shipped aboard an A stralian whaler, deserted and was i'prisoned brie%l" at Tahiti, es$aped, and wor#ed on a potato %ar' there : 1579;. (e si!ned aboard a /ant $#et whaler : 1579.1576;, was dis$har!ed in the 1andwi$h Islands, and wor#ed in (onol l : 1576;. (e Loined the A'eri$an na&" on the %ri!ate 1nited #tates : (onol l to <oston, 1576.1577;. )el&ille then be!an his literar" li%e. In Lansin!b r!h a!ain, he wrote +ypee :p blished 1576, %irst in London thro !h the e%%orts o% his brother Ganse&oort, se$retar" o% the A'eri$an le!ation, then in /ew 4or#; and 8moo : 157B;. (e 'arried 2li=abeth @napp 1haw : )el&ille-;, da !hter o% Le' el 1haw,- Chie% , sti$e o% the )assa$h setts 1 pre'e Co rt, in 157B, and 'o&ed with her to /ew 4or#. :the )el&illes lti'atel" had %o r $hildren .. )al$ol' )el&ille,- 1tanwi3 )el&ille,2li=abeth )el&ille,- and Dran$es )el&ille Tho'as.-; )el&ille p blished short pie$es : 157B. 1558;, the 'ost si!ni%i$ant o% whi$h was >(awthorne and (is )osses> : 1558;, e&en while he also wrote and p blished Mardi and then Redb rn :both 1579;.

(e wrote a pair o% anon"'o s re&iews. +he *irst revie- -as o* +he ali*ornia and 8regon +rail b" Dran$is Par#'an. This re&iew was p blished in the /ew 4or# /iterary 9orld : 61 )ar$h 1579;. The se$ond re&iew was o% +he #ea /ions b" ,a'es Deni'ore Cooper- : /iterary 9orld" 95 April 1579;. The /iterary 9orld was owned and edited b" )el&illeCs p. 998 %riends 2&ert * "$#in$#- and his brother Geor!e * "$#in$#.- A%ter a trip to London to see p blishers and to !o on to the Continent : 1579.1558;, )el&ille p blished 9hite-2acket : 1558;, 'et and ad'ired /athaniel (awthorne,- borrowed 'one" %ro' his wi%eCs %ather and bo !ht a %ar' he na'ed Arrowhead near Pitts%ield, )assa$h setts, and 'o&ed there with his %a'il" : 1558;. (e p blished Moby-Dick : 1551; and Pierre : 1559;. (is pro%essional li%e too# a t rn %or the worse when Mardi, Moby-Dick, and Pierre %ailed to win wide appro&al. )el&ille tried witho t s $$ess to obtain a $ons lar appoint'ent : 1556;, was oppressed b" %inan$ial worries and depression, b t 'ana!ed to p blish 'ore than a do=en stories and s#et$hes in Harper!s 'e- Monthly Maga,ine- and Putnam!s Monthly Maga,ine- : 1556.1556;. (e seriali=ed &srael Potter : 1557; and rep blished it in boo# %or' a "ear later. ><artleb",> >The <ell.Tower,> ><enito Cereno,> >The 2n$antadas,> and >The Li!htnin!.Rod )an> he $olle$ted in +he Pia,,a +ales : 1556;, %or whi$h he wrote >The Pia==a> as an introd $tor" s#et$h. Pie$es not $olle$ted and reprinted in )el&illeCs li%eti'e in$l de >Co$#.a.*oodle.*ooM,> >Poor )anCs P ddin! and Ri$h )anCs Cr 'bs,> >The (app" Dail re,> >The Diddler,> >The Paradise o% <a$helors and Tartar s o% )aids,> >,i''" Rose,> >I and )" Chi'ne",> >The CGees,> and >The Apple.Tree Table>. : )el&illeCs short stor" >The Two Te'ples> $o ld not %ind an" p blisher in his li%eti'e.; )inor ite's and attrib ted pie$es swell the total o% prose writin!s sli!htl". )el&ille a!ain went abroad : 1556155B;, this ti'e to Glas!ow, Li&erpool :where he rende=&o sed with (awthorne;, the (ol" Land, Gree$e, and Ital"? he then ret rned ho'e &ia 2n!land. +he on*idence-Man : 155B; %ollowed, b t it was s $h a pop lar and $riti$al %ail re that )el&illeCs pro%essional writin! $areer $a'e to an end at this point. (is ei!ht 'aLor boo#s sold ro !hl" 65,888 $opies and earned abo t P18,788 p to the ti'e o% his death in 1591. )el&ille le$t red %or three winter seasons, on >1tat es in Ro'e> : 155B1555;, >The 1o th 1eas> : 1555. 1559;, and >Tra&elin!: Its Pleas res, Pains, and Pro%its> : 1559. 1568;. A dien$e responses were 'i3ed, and )el&ille netted rather little 'one" .. P788 d rin! the %irst season, L st o&er P588 %or the se$ond season, and L st o&er P188 %or the brie% third season. )el&ille ne&er p blished his le$t res, and no 'an s$ripts o% the' ha&e s r&i&ed. (e restlessl" tra&eled a!ain, this ti'e on the $lipper ship $aptained b" his brother Tho'as, to 1an Dran$is$o, ret rnin! &ia the Panama isthmus : 1568;. )el&ille %ailed a!ain in his e%%orts to obtain a $ons lar position : 1561;. Dollowin! , d!e 1hawCs death : 1561;, the )el&illes 'o&ed to /ew 4or# and into )el&illeCs brother AllanCs ho se in )anhattan. /ot lon! a%ter &isitin! a 0nion ar'" $a'p in +ir!inia %ollowin! a Ci&il War 'ilitar" en!a!e'ent nearb" : 1567;, )el&ille p blished Battle-Pieces : 1566;. It in$l des >The Portent : 1559;,> written in 1559 a%ter the o'ino s han!in! o% ,ohn <rown,- and >)is!i&in!s> : 1568;, with these $hillin! lines .. >I ' se pon '" $o ntr"Cs ills .. Q The te'pest b rstin! %ro' the waste o% Ti'e Q Fn the worldCs %airest hope lin#ed with 'anCs %o lest $ri'e.> Fther

'aLor titles in$l de The Colle!e Colonel, >The (o se.top: A /i!ht Pie$e :, l", 1566;,> p. 991 /i!ht Pie$e :, l", 1566;,> )al&ern (ill :, l", 1569;, >The )ar$h into +ir!inia,> >1heridan at Cedar Cree# :F$tober, 1567;,> and >1hiloh: A ReE ie' :April, 1569;>. A%ter the war, )el&ille be$a'e an o tdoor dep t" $ sto's inspe$tor at the port o% /ew 4or# : 1566.1555;. 1 spi$ion o% insanit" in )el&ille res lted in aborti&e tal# o% a 'arital separation : 156B;? later the sa'e "ear, his older son )al$ol' )el&ille $o''itted s i$ide. )el&ille p blished larel : 15B6;. (is "o n!er son died %riendless in 1an Dran$is$o : 1556;. )el&ille $olle$ted 'ost o% his sea poetr" in 2ohn Marr : 1555; and +imoleon : 1591;, and at his death he le%t 'ore poe's and Billy Budd. )el&ille is one o% A'eri$aCs 'ost stirrin! a thors. (is earl" no&els are deli!ht% ll" ro'anti$ b t are dar#ened with to $hes o% d alis', as he $ontrasts pri'iti&is' and Christian 'oralit", 'indless pleas re and $al$ lated $r elt". With Mardi, he !rew 'ore serio s b t then re&erted to so'ewhat si'pler narrati&es, ntil the ti'e o% his 'asterpie$e, Moby-Dick, whi$h 'i3es s"'bolis' and a'bi! it" with %a$t al details, a tobio!raphi$al to $hes, and tin!lin! ad&ent re, all o% whi$h perple3ed his %irst readers. With Pierre $a'e per'anent tro ble, and not e&en the best o% +he Pia,,a +ales $o ld re&i&e interest in >that 'an who had li&ed a'on! $annibals.> A%ter the $o'ple3 and satiri$al ironies o% +he on*idence-Man %ailed to attra$t 'an" readers in the !enerall" opti'isti$ readin! p bli$ o% the 1558s, )el&ille was aware that neither pop lar nor $riti$al s $$ess $o ld be his d rin! his li%eti'e, i% e&er. The Ci&il War % rther depressed hi', altho !h it inspired hi' to write niE el" 'o&in! war poetr". (e 'i!ht ha&e s$ored an a t 'nal s $$ess i% he had $hosen to polish and p blish Billy Budd. Instead, he lapsed into near.silen$e in the 15B8s and 1558s, apart %ro' his e3$eedin!l" lon! reli!io s poe' larel, and it re'ained %or the twentieth $ent r" to dis$o&er and la d his niE e powers. It was not ntil the 1998s that his tr e worth be!an to be thoro !hl" nderstood. p. 995 Moby,'ic$ : 1551;. :D ll title: Moby-Dick: or" the 9hale? title o% %irst <ritish edition: +he 9hale H 1551I.; /o&el. :Chara$ters: Captain Ahab, Ar$h", A=ore 1ailor, <el%ast 1ailor, <ett", Captain <ildad, Captain <oo'er, < l#in!ton, *r. ,a$# < n!er, Caba$o, Walter Cann", Captain, Captain, Captain, Captain, A nt Charit", China 1ailor, ,ohnn" Co%%in, Peter Co%%in, 1al Co%%in, 1a' Co%%in, p.999 *ea$on *e terono'" Cole'an, /athan Cole'an, *a!!oo, *anish 1ailor, *eri$# de *eer, *o !h.<o", * t$h 1ailor, 2liLah, Willis 2ller", 1a' el 2nderb", 2n!lish 1ailor, Dedallah, Di%th /ant $#et 1ailor, Dirst /ant $#et 1ailor, Dlas#, Dlee$e, Do rth /ant $#et 1ailor, Dren$h 1ailor, Gabriel, Gardiner, Gardiner, Captain Gardiner, 1a' el Glei!, the G ernse"'an, Captain 2=e#iel (ard", )rs. 2=e#iel (ard", (arr", (a".1eed, a (i!h.Chie%, a (i!h Priest, (osea ( sse", )rs. (osea ( sse", I$eland 1ailor, Ish'ael, ,a$#, ,enn", ,oe, ,onah, The @in! o% @o#o&o#o, Las$ar 1ailor, La=ar s, Robert Lon!, Lon! Island 1ailor, (arr" )a$e", )rs. (arr" )a$e", 1eth )a$", )altese 1ailor, the )an3'an, Dather )apple, Captain )a"hew, )o nttop, Fld Ga".(ead Indian, *on Pedro, Captain Pele!, Perth, Perth, )rs. Perth, Pip,

Port ! ese 1ailor, G eeE e!, Radne", )rs. Radne", 1t. ,a!oCs 1ailor, *on 1ebastian, 1e$ond /ant $#et 1ailor, 1i$ilian 1ailor, 1narles, *r. 1nodhead, 1panish 1ailor, 1tarb $#, 1tarb $#, 1tarb $#, 1tarb $#, )ar" 1tarb $#, 1teel#ilt, 1ti!!s, 1t bb, 1 b. 1 b, /athan 1wain, Tahitian 1ailor, ,ohn Talbot, )iss Talbot, Tashte!o, Third /ant $#et 1ailor, Tisti!, TranE o, 0sher.; The narrator be!ins his a$$o nt with the words >Call 'e Ish'ael>. (e lea&es )anhattan %or /ew <ed%ord to see# wor# on a whaler. At an inn he 'eets G eeE e!, a %riendl" Pol"nesian sailor. In the 'ornin! he attends Dather )appleCs Whale'anCs Chapel. Ish'ael and G eeE e! ta#e a s$hooner to /ant $#et and si!n %or d t" aboard the Pequod, the $aptain o% whi$h is Ahab, who lost a le! to a 'onstro s whale and has onl" hal% re$o&ered. 2liLah, a po$#.'ar#ed prophet, warns the' abo t ser&in! Ahab. Ish'ael and G eeE e! %an$" that the" see %o r or %i&e shadow" %i! res dart onto the Pequod, whi$h on Christ'as *a" >blindl" pl n!ed li#e %ate into the lone Atlanti$.> 1tarb $#, a 'arried G a#er, is %irst 'ate and wants G eeE e! as his harpooner. (app".!o.l $#", $ool 1t bb %ro' Cape Cod, the se$ond 'ate, wants Tashte!o, a noble Ga" (ead Indian, %or his harpooner. The third 'ate, p !na$io s Dlas# o% )arthaCs +ine"ard, sele$ts an enor'o s A%ri$an.A'eri$an na'ed *a!!oo %or his harpooner. Dinall" >'ood" stri$#en Ahab,> the PequodCs $aptain, appears on the E arterde$# and soon tosses his pleas reless pipe o&er the side in the bri!ht sprin!ti'e. At the 'asthead one da", Ish'ael lets dan!ero s pantheisti$ tho !hts inter%ere with his loo#in! o t %or whales. Ahab asse'bles the $rew, nails a !old $oin to the 'ast, and pro'ises to !i&e it to the %irst 'an to si!ht )ob" *i$#, the white, wrin#lebrowed, $roo#ed.Lawed whale with p n$t res in his le%t %l #e. When Ahab sa"s that that whale >dis'asted> hi', the $rew &oi$es lo"alt". 1tarb $# $o'plains that the &o"a!e is %or pro%it and not re&en!e on a d 'b br te, b t Ahab o&er'ans hi' b" de%inin! )ob" *i$# as ins$r table 'ali$e. Ish'ael re$ords that the h !e )ob" *i$# see's possessed o% an > ne3a'pled, intelli!ent 'ali!nit"> and that its weirdl" white $olor 'a" represent >a d 'b blan#ness,> the >inde%initeness> o% whi$h >shadows %orth the heartless &oids and i''ensities o% the ni&erse.> Ahab heads %or the so thern tip o% A%ri$a so as to 'a#e %or the eE atorial h ntin! !ro nds o% the Pa$i%i$ F$ean. Fne s ltr" da" while Ish'ael is wea&in! a 'at and ponderin! ne$essit", %ree p. 688 will, and $han$e, Tashte!o si!hts a sper' whale. Di&e d s#" phanto's e'er!e on de$#. The" are AhabCs propheti$ %riend Dedallah and that ParseeCs $rew o% ti!er."ellow Frientals. The PequodCs %irst $hase a%ter a whale ends in %ail re. When so theast o% the Cape o% Good (ope, her $rew hails the ;oney b t learns nothin! abo t )ob" *i$#Cs whereabo ts. Then the Pequod !a's with the +o-nHo and hears abo t 1teel#ilt, a La#e'an who, when pro&o#ed, str $# his o%%i$er Radne", was %lo!!ed, and planned to #ill Radne"? b t he was spared the tro ble when )ob" *i$# $hewed Radne" to bits. 1teel#ilt es$aped to Tahiti and be"ond. *a!!oo 'ista#es a sE id %or the white whale. In the Indian F$ean, 1t bb lowers %or a whale, #ills it in a !or" wa", and dines on whale stea# while shar#s thrash the sea and tear o%% pie$es o% whale 'eat at the water le&el. /e3t da" is the 1abbath, bro#en b" topside b t$her" as the $rew $ ts strips o% bl bber and tries o t inn 'erable barrels o% oil. The 'en learn %ro' the 2eroboam that )ob" *i$# has L st #illed her $hie% 'ate and there%ore Ahab $annot

deli&er a letter to hi'. When the Pequod han!s the heads o% a ri!ht whale and a sper' whale on opposite "ardar's, Ish'ael $ontrasts the' as 1toi$al and @antean. G eeE e! res$ es Tashte!o when the noble %ellow %alls into the sper' whaleCs head and into the sea with it? G eeE e!Cs sword th s rese'bles an obstetri$ianCs s$alpel. The Pequod 'eets the 2ung*rau, sadl" de&oid o% sper' oil. *a!!oo, G eeE e!, and Tashte!o #ill a si$# whale, whi$h pro'ptl" sin#s %ro' si!ht. Ahab steers between 1 'atra and ,a&a, ai'in! %or the Philippines and the $oastal waters o% ,apan. Ish'ael and his %riends see an ar'ada o% whales, so'e dall"in! a'oro sl". Wee#s later, 1t bb tal#s an i!norant $rew aboard the Bouton de )ose into !i&in! hi' pre$io s a'ber!ris inside a diseased whaleCs $orpse. Pip, the little bla$# $abin bo" %ro' Alaba'a, %alls into the water and is de'ented when res$ ed. Therea%ter, Pip is tenderl" treated b" Ahab. Fne da" Ahab e3pli$ates the i'a!e o% three 'o ntains on his nailed $oin in s $h a wa" as to re%le$t $redit pon hi'sel%. 1tarb $# interprets the 'o ntains as the Trinit". 1t bb ta#es note o% the =odia$al ar$h o&er the pea#s. Dlas# sees nothin! o% s"'boli$ &al e. The Pequod en$o nters the #amuel Enderby, whose $aptain lost an ar' to )ob" *i$# b t re!ards the whale as displa"in! >aw#wardness> not >'ali$e.> Ad'ittin! that >an a$$ rsed thin! is not alwa"s what least all res,> Ahab r shes awa", wren$hes his i&or" le!, and orders his $arpenter to 'a#e hi' a new one. G eeE e! inspe$ts lea#" oil $as#s in the hold, $at$hes a $hill whi$h t rns to a deadl" %e&er, and orders the $arpenter to 'a#e hi' a $o%%in? b t he re$o&ers. When his ship enters the &ast Pa$i%i$, Ahab orders his bla$#s'ith to %ashion a spe$ial harpoon barb, whi$h he te'pers blasphe'o sl" in heathen blood %ro' *a!!oo, G eeE e!, and Tashte!o, sa"in! >2!o non bapti=o te in no'ine patris, sed in no'ine diaboliM> The Bachelor sails b", loaded with sper' oil and bo nd %or ho'e in /ant $#et. Ahab wat$hes a whale swin! its head toward the settin! s n and die. Dedallah predi$ts that Ahab will ha&e neither hearse nor $o%%in, that he will see two hearses, that Dedallah will pre$ede his $aptain to death, and that onl" he'p $an #ill Ahab. Ahab dis$ards his E adrant, plows thro !h a t"phoon, addresses %ier" $or. p. 681 posants on his "ardar's, repla$es a li!htnin!.t rned $o'pass with one o% his own de&isin!, and loses his lo! and lo! line. When a 'an %alls o&erboard and sin#s alon! with a b o" h rled a%ter hi', G eeE e! has his $o%%in lidded and $a l#ed as a #ind o% b o". Ahab re% ses to aid the )achel, o t%o !ht b" )ob" *i$#, in a sear$h %or her 'issin! sailors. Ahab see#s onl" his ene'". The Delight rolls b", in a sha'bles a%ter the white whale atta$#ed her. Ahab re'inis$es !entl" in 1tarb $#Cs presen$e, >dropped a tear in the sea,> b t res 'es the p rs it. The" si!ht )ob" *i$#, and three da"s o% atta$# %ollow. Fn the %irst da", )ob" *i$# bites AhabCs s'all boat in two. Fn the se$ond da", a%ter )ob" *i$# s'ashes three boats p rs in! hi', AhabCs i&or" le! and Dedallah are 'issin!. Fn the third da", Ahab $hases the white whale, on whose ba$# %o led lines ha&e tan!led Dedallah, who th s points his $aptain the wa" to death. The whale is the prophetCs hearse. )ob" *i$# s'ashes the s'all boat and #ills all in it b t one tossed %ree, then b tts a %atal hole in the Pequod hersel%. Ahab re$o!ni=es her as the se$ond hearse. When )ob" *i$# t rns ba$# toward Ahab, the %ated 'an lan$es his 'onster, b t a harpoon line loops aro nd the 'an and he is $arried to his doo'. The Pequod sin#s. The lone s r&i&or, Ish'ael, %loats on G eeE e!Cs $o%%in and is pl $#ed %ro' the shro d.li#e sea b" the )achel.

Moby-Dick is enor'o s, with a pre%ator" >2t"'olo!"> and >23tra$ts> :i.e., E otations abo t whales;, 165 $hapters, and an >2pilo! e>. In 'ore than %ort" $hapters, )el&ille has Ish'ael s spend his narrati&e to o%%er $etolo!i$al in%or'ation, be!innin! with Chapters 97 and 95, >The Ad&o$ate> and >Posts$ript,> in whi$h he dis$ sses the !oriness o% whalin!, the ses o% whale oil, and the predo'inan$e o% A'eri$ans in the whalin! ind str". Fther $etolo!i$al di!ressions $on$ern t"pes o% whales, spe$i%i$ % n$tions o% 'en in&ol&ed in whalin!, the dan!ers and see'in! %atalis' o% h ntin! spe$i%i$ whales, pi$t res o% whales, the %ood o% whales, the harpoon and its a$$o tre'ents, $ ttin! p the bl bber, the whaleCs anato'", >The Glor" and (onor o% Whalin!> :Chapter 59;, s$hools o% whales as >The Grand Ar'ada> :Chapter 5B;, whales as lo&ers, s"'bolis' in >Dast.Dish and Loose.Dish> :Chapter 59, the %or'er bein! hoo#ed, the latter wo nded b t %ree;, a'ber!ris, and %inall" >*oes the WhaleCs )a!nit de *i'inishN .. Will (e PerishN> :Chapter 185;. >The Ga'> :Chapter 56; de%ines the 'eetin! at sea o% whalin! &essels? nine irre! larl" spa$ed $hapters :Chapters 59, 57, B1, 51, 91, 188, 115, 195, 161; are de&oted to !a's o% the Pequod and other whalers. <e!innin! with >2nter Ahab? to hi', 1t bb> :Chapter 99;, there are ele&en $hapters :$ontin in! with Chapters 66.78, 185, 198.199, and 19B; $ast in the %or' o% 'ini.dra'as with sta!e dire$tions, soliloE ies, and dialo! e. Moby-Dick, tho !h written and rewritten in se&eral sta!es and not per%e$tl" asse'bled, is one o% the !reatest no&els in world literat re. 1adl", )el&ille was ri!ht when he $o'plained in a letter to his %riend /athaniel (awthorne- :H 1 , neN 1551I;: >The $al', the $oolness, the silent !rass.!rowin! 'ood in whi$h a 'an ought alwa"s to $o'pose, .. that, I %ear, $an seldo' be 'ine. *ollars da'n 'e? and the 'ali$io s *e&il is %ore&er !rinnin! in pon 'e, holdin! the door aLar.> )el&ille added this: >What I %eel 'ost 'o&ed to write, that is p. 689 banned, .. it will not pa". 4et, alto!ether, write the other wa" I $annot. 1o the prod $t is a %inal hash, and all '" boo#s are bot$hes.> Moby-Dick, tho !h i'per%e$t, is an"thin! b t a bot$h. It appeals to readers on se&eral le&els. 4o n! readers li#e its wild ad&ent re. Flder readers %ind its &aried st"le 'ost appealin!. And all readers sho ld be $hallen!ed b" >'ood", stri$#en> Ahab, who is partl" Pro'ethean b t also partl" 1atani$. (e see#s 'ono'ania$all" to destro" the see'in!l" biE ito s, o'nis$ient, o'nipotent white whale, whi$h he per$ei&es as h !el" 'ale&olent. 4et his desire %or re&en!e on what 1tarb $# $alls >a d 'b br te> is insane, i% not, as 1tarb $# adds, >blasphe'o s,> and that desire r ins the inno$ent. In writin! Moby-Dick, )el&ille drew pon his personal e3perien$es aboard whale ships, espe$iall" the Acushnet, as well as sailorsC "arns told there and elsewhere, %or details o% the whalin! %isher". Aboard the Acushnet, the %ollowin! sailors 'a" ha&e pro&ided details o% $hara$teri=ation, th s: ,ohn <a$# s, %or Pip? )artin <rown and ,oseph L is :$alled ,o Port ! ese;, %or the Port ! ese sailor? Geor!e W. Gal&an, %or Dlas#? ,ohn (all, %or 1t bb? +alentine Pease, ,r., %or Ahab? Drederi$# R. Ra"'ond, %or 1tarb $#? ,a'es Ros'an, %or the <el%ast sailor? and 2phrai' Wal$ott, %or Perth. In addition, )el&ille read the %ollowin! boo#s %or ba$#!ro nd 'aterial: Tho'as <eale, +he 'atural History o* the #perm 9hale to 9hich &s Added a #ketch o* a #outh-#ea 9haling <oyage in 9hich the Author 9as Personally Engaged : London, 1569;? Drederi$# *ebell <ennett, 'arrative o* a 9haling <oyage round the ;lobe" *rom the

5677 to 567=. . . : London, 1578;? ,. Ross <rowne,- Etchings o* a 9haling ruise . . . : 1576;? Fwen Chase,- 'arrative o* the Most E3traordinary and Distressing #hip-reck o* the 9hale-#hip Esse3" o* 'antucket: 9hich 9as Attacked and $inally Destroyed by a /arge #permaceti-9hale in the Paci*ic 8cean . . . : /ew 4or#, 1591;? (enr" T. Chee&er, +he 9hale and His aptors: or" the 9haleman!s Adventures" and the 9hale!s Biography . . . : /ew 4or#, 1579;? Ri$hard (enr" *ana ,r. ,- +-o 4ears Be*ore the Mast : /ew 4or#, 1578;? ,ere'iah /. Re"nolds ,- >)o$ha *i$#: or the White Whale o% the Pa$i%i$: A Lea% %ro' a )an s$ript ,o rnal> : >nickerbocker" )a" 1569;? Willia' 1$oresb" ,r., An Account o* the Arctic )egions" -ith a History and Description o* the 'orthern 9hale $ishery : 2dinb r!h, 1598;? 1$oresb" 2ournal o* a <oyage to the 'orthern 9hale-$ishery: &ncluding )esearches and Discoveries on the Eastern oast o* 9est ;reenland . . . in . . . 56?? : 2dinb r!h, 1596;? Charles Wil#es, 1nited #tates E3ploring E3pedition . . . : Philadelphia , 1577. 1576;? and ' $h else. )el&illeCs 'anner o% pl nderin! his a tobio!raphi$al, histori$al, literar", and s$ienti%i$ so r$es is $o'pli$ated al'ost be"ond anal"sis. When it was %irst p blished, Moby-Dick attra$ted 'an" re&iews both in the 0nited 1tates and in 2n!land. 1o'e re&iewers ad'ired the narrati&e, the des$ripti&e passa!es, the h 'or, the philosoph", and the n s al literar" %or'. Fthers obLe$ted to the %or', the i'piet", and the interLe$ted $etolo!i$al 'aterial. Moby-Dick sold abo t 9,888 $opies in the 0nited 1tates in its %irst %ew 'onths b t in the %ollowin! third o% a $ent r" $onsiderabl" nder 9,888 'ore. Gen inel" p. 686 per$epti&e $riti$is' and &al able s$holarship on Moby-Dick did not $o''en$e ntil well into the twentieth $ent r". Bibliography: Walter 2. <e=anson, >)ob".*i$#: *o$ 'ent, *ra'a, *rea',> pp. 169.918 in <r"ant, ompanion? <rian (i!!ins and (ershel Par#er, eds., ritical Essays on Herman Melville!s Moby-Dick : /ew 4or#: G. @. (all, 1999;? // 6. p. 687 Mogul. In Moby-Dick, this is the $rewCs ni$#na'e %or Captain Ahab. p. 685 Monoo. In +ypee, he is a T"pee $hie% and warrior o% lon! a!o. A$$ordin! to @or". @or", )onoo b ilt the %o ndation o% the sa$red (oolah (oolah !ro nd in a sin!le da". p. 686 Moonoony. In +ypee, she is the da'sel o% )ehe&i, who also shares her a%%e$tions with a %i%teen."ear.old lad. Mordant, Captain. In Billy Budd, he is Captain 2dward Dair%a3 +ereCs $aptain o% 'arines. (e is a !ood.nat red, obese, bra&e o%%i$er. (e ser&es on the dr 'head $o rt and rel $tantl" &otes to $onde'n <ill" < dd to death. p. 618 Mounttop. In Moby-Dick, he is the %irst 'ate o% the #amuel Enderby, whose $aptain, <oo'er, lost his ri!ht ar' while $hasin! )ob" *i$#.

Mo1anna, 2ing. In +ypee, he is the r ler o% / # he&a. (e is en$o ra!ed b" the Dren$h to %o'ent tro ble in&ol&in! / # he&a, the T"pees, and the (appers. )owanna has a tattooed wi%e. Mo1 Mo1. In +ypee, he is the %ier$e, one.e"ed T"pee $hie% who is wo nded in a &i$torio s en!a!e'ent with a !ro p o% (appars. (e later opposes To''oCs s $$ess% l e%%ort to es$ape to the A stralian &essel in the harbor. :(is na'e is also !i&en as )ow.)ow.; p. 611 Mungo. In +ypee, he is the A%ri$an.A'eri$an $oo# aboard the Dolly. p. 616 +ar!onee. In +ypee" he is a bra&e warrior in an en!a!e'ent with the (appars. The $ontest "ields three (appar $orpses %or what is probabl" a $annibal %east. +arnee. In +ypee" he is a $lownish 'an b t is also an e3pert at $li'bin! $o$on t trees. p. 61B +ed. In +ypee" he is a sailor aboard the Dolly. (e points to the &alle" o% T"pee as the lo$ale o% $annibals. p. 695 Old 3ay,-ead 7ndian. In Moby-Dick, he is a 'e'ber o% the Pequod $rew. (e e3plains that Ahab lost his le! o%% the $oast o% ,apan. p. 696 Old Thunder. In Moby-Dick, this is the na'e that the 'ad prophet !i&es Captain Ahab. p. 677 *edro, 'on. In Moby-Dick, he is a 1panish %riend o% Ish'aelCs who with *on 1ebastian heard Ish'ael tell at the Golden Inn in Li'a the thrillin! stor" o% 1teel#ilt and Radne" o% the +o-n-Ho. p. 676 *eleg, Captain. In Moby-Dick, he was %or'erl" the $hie% 'ate nder Captain Ahab o% the Pequod and is now one o% her prin$ipal owners. Li#e Captain <ildad, another part. owner, he is a G a#er. A%ter inter&iewin! Ish'ael in a bl sterin! 'anner, Pele! si!ns hi' aboard and ar! es with the stin!" <ildad abo t Ish'aelCs pa". Bibliography# <rian (i!!ins and (ershel Par#er, eds., ritical Essays on Herman Melville!s Moby-Dick : /ew 4or#: G. @. (all, 1999;. p. 679 *erth. In Moby-Dick, he is the li'pin!, bearded bla$#s'ith o% the Pequod. When he was abo t si3t" "ears old, he was dri&en to sea b" liE or and the wret$hed death o% his lon!.s %%erin! wi%e and their three $hildren. Captain Ahab orders Perth to %or!e a spe$ial harpoon with whi$h he hopes to #ill )ob" *i$#. The bla$#s'ith aboard the Acushnet" whi$h was the partial 'odel %or )el&illeCs Pequod" was a 'an na'ed 2phrai' Wal$ott? he reportedl" ran awa" to 1an Dran$is$o.

*erth. In Moby-Dick, he or she is an" one o% PerthCs $hildren, all o% who' died. *erth, Mr . In Moby-Dick, she was the lon!.s %%erin! and now de$eased wi%e o% Perth the al$oholi$ bla$#s'ith aboard the Pequod. p. 655 *ip ("*ippin"). In Moby-Dick, he is a little A%ri$an.A'eri$an lad %ro' Alaba'a. (e is a $astawa" d rin! a $hase %or a whale and !oes insane, a%ter whi$h Captain Ahab be%riends hi' in a to $hin! 'anner. Pip 'a" be based to a de!ree on ,ohn <a$# s, des$ribed as a little bla$# person aboard the Acushnet" whi$h was the partial 'odel o% the Pequod. p. 6B8 *ritchard, Mr . In +ypee, she is the bra&e wi%e o% the <ritish $ons l at Papeete, Tahiti. 1he de%ends her %la! when the Dren$h nder Ad'iral HAbel A bertI * Petit Tho ars want it ta#en down. p. 6B1 *ur er, Mr. In Billy Budd, he is Captain +ereCs p rser. (e tells the shipCs s r!eon that he was s rprised to note that <ill" < dd displa"ed no death spas' when he was han!ed. p. 6B5 ?uee@ueg. In Moby-Dick, he is Ish'aelCs boso' %riend, a tattooed Pol"nesian prin$e whose %ather was #in! o% the island o% @o#o&o#o. G eeE e! is assi!ned to be 1tarb $#Cs harpooner, res$ es Tashte!o %ro' a sin#in! whale head, be$o'es ill a%ter wor#in! in the da'p hold, and orders the $arpenter to 'a#e hi' a $o%%in. When G eeE e! re$o&ers his health, he ses the $o%%in %or a sea $hest. A%ter the Pequod sin#s, the $o%%in pops p %ro' the depths and sa&es Ish'aelCs li%e. Captain Pele! $alls G eeE e! G oho!. G eeE e!Cs ba$#!ro nd, appearan$e, arti%a$ts, $hara$ter, and beha&ior 'a" owe so'ethin! to the detailed $o''ents on an a'iable /ew Oealand $hie% na'ed @o.towatowa, o% @ororari#a, b" Charles Wil#es in his 'arrative o* the 1.#. E3ploring E3pedition during the 4ears 5676" 567@" 56A@" 56A5" 56A? : 5 &ols. and atlas, 1575;. Bibliography# <rian (i!!ins and (ershel Par#er, eds., ritical Essays on Herman Melville!s Moby-Dick : /ew 4or#: G. @. (all, 1999;? ,a%%A? Robert )artin, >1leepin! with a 1a&a!e: *e$ lt ration in )ob".*i$#>, American +ranscendental Buarterly n.s. 5 : 1epte'ber 1991;: 195.986? (elen P. Tri'pi, >)el&illeCs 0se o% *e'onolo!" and Wit$h$ra%t in )ob".*i$#>, History o* &deas 68 : F$tober.*e$e'ber 1969;: 576. 69. p. 6B6 ?uohog. In Moby-Dick, this is Captain Pele!Cs 'ispron n$iation o% the na'e G eeE e!. p. 6BB ;adney (";ad"). In Moby-Dick, he is the !l" +ine"arder 'ate o% the +o-nHo. Radne" o%%ended 1teel#ilt, one o% his 'en, and threatened hi' with a ha''er. 1teel#ilt $r shed his Law %or his pains. Radne" then tied and %lo!!ed 1teel#ilt, who wo ld ha&e ' rdered hi' b t %or the ti'el" appearan$e o% )ob" *i$#, whi$h both 'en $hased and whi$h sa&a!el" #illed Radne". Radne" 'a" be 'odeled in part on a 'an na'ed ,enne", the %irst o%%i$er o% the 'assau" a whaleship o t o% /ew <ed%ord.

(e ar! ed with a $rew 'e'ber na'ed L ther Do3, who se&erel" $ t ,enne"Cs le! with a 'in$in! #ni%e. ,enne" bled to death : April 1576;. Do3 was handed o&er to A'eri$an $ons lar a thorities in (onol l :, ne;. ;adney, Mr . In Moby-Dick, she is the wi%e o% the +o-n-Ho 'ate. 1he drea's in /ant $#et o% the white whale that #illed her h sband. p. 6B9 ;atcliffe, )ieutenant. In Billy Budd, he is the o%%i$er %ro' the Bellipotent who boards the )ights-o*-Man. p. 657 ;ed *epper. In Billy Budd, he is a red.haired %ore$astle 'ate o% <ill"Cs to who' <ill" reports that the s per$ilio s.a$tin! a%ter! ards'an was s# l#in! aro nd in their area. ;ed "hi $er . In Billy Budd, he is a Bellipotent sailor whose ins ltin! horsepla" with <ill" res lts in <ill"Cs beatin! hi' p %ast. Then he and <ill" be$o'e !ood %riends. p. 695 ;uaruga. In +ypee, he is )arhe"oCs ne3t.door nei!hbor. p. 699 St. (agoA Sailor. In Moby-Dick, he is a PeE od sailor who sa"s that the 1panish sailor is insane to pi$# a %i!ht with *a!!oo d rin! the 'idni!ht %esti&ities in the %ore$astle. p. 785 Seba tian, 'on. In Moby-Dick, he is a 1panish %riend o% Ish'aelCs who with *on Pedro heard Ish'ael tell at the Golden Inn in Li'a the thrillin! stor" o% 1teel#ilt and Radne" o% the +o-n-Ho. Second +antuc$et Sailor. In Moby-Dick, he is a PeE od sailor who parti$ipates in the 'idni!ht %esti&ities in the %ore$astle. p. 71B Sicilian Sailor. In Moby-Dick, he is a PeE od sailor who dan$es d rin! the 'idni!ht %esti&ities in the %ore$astle and then lies down. (e tries to warn Captain Ahab when the sea haw# is abo t to snat$h o%% his hat. p. 715 S$ri! hander. In Moby,'ic$, this is Peter Co%%inCs ni$#na'e %or Ish'ael. p. 798 Snarle . In Moby-Dick, he is a si!n painter on the island o% /ant $#et. )rs. (osea ( sse" wo ld li#e hi' to paint a si!n %orbiddin! s i$ides in her Tr" Pots Inn. p. 791 Spani h Sailor. In Moby-Dick, he is a PeE od sailor who, d rin! the 'idni!ht %esti&ities in the %ore$astle, pi$#s a %i!ht with *a!!oo b" ins ltin! hi' %or bein! bla$#. The stor' interr pts the'. p. 799 S@uea$. In Billy Budd, he is one o% ,ohn Cla!!artCs $ nnin! $orporals. (e is an in%or'er who lies abo t <ill" < dd. p. 796

Starbuc$. In Moby-Dick, he is the Pequod!s $hie% 'ateCs %ather, #illed b" a whale. Starbuc$. In Moby-Dick, he is the Pequod!s $hie% 'ateCs brother, also #illed b" a whale. Starbuc$. In Moby-Dick, he ser&es as Captain AhabCs $hie% 'ate aboard the PeE od. Thirt" "ears o% a!e, 1tarb $# is a nati&e o% /ant $#et, a G a#er b" des$ent, and a tall, thin realist. G eeE e! is his harpooner. 1tarb $# sees the Trinit" in the do bloon nailed to the 'ast. (e tries b t %ails to diss ade Ahab %ro' p rs in! )ob" *i$#, is te'pted at one point to shoot his deran!ed $aptain b t does not, and is lost at sea in the wre$# o% the Pequod. 1tarb $# 'a" be based in part on Drederi$# R. Ra"'ond, %irst 'ate nder +alentine Pease, ,r.,- $aptain o% the Acushnet, on whi$h the PeE od is 'odeled to a de!ree. Ra"'ond had a %i!ht with his $aptain and went ashore at Pa"ta. Bibliography: <rian (i!!ins and (ershel Par#er, eds., ritical Essays on Herman Melville!s Moby-Dick : /ew 4or#: G. @. (all, 1999;? Le"da. Starbuc$. In Moby-Dick, he is the s'all son o% the Pequod!s $hie% 'ate and his "o n! wi%e )ar" 1tarb $#. Starbuc$, Mary. In Moby-Dick, she is the "o n! Cape Cod wi%e o% 1tarb $#, the $hie% 'ate aboard the Pequod. The" ha&e one s'all son. Starry. In Billy Budd, this is one o% the ni$#na'es o% Captain +ere. p. 796 Steel$ilt. In Moby-Dick, he is the pro d La#e'an %ro' < %%alo who is a sailor aboard the Town.(o. The 'ate Radne" threatens 1teel#ilt, who brea#s his Law and is %lo!!ed %or the a$t. 1teel#ilt wo ld ha&e ' rdered Radne" b t %or the ti'el" appearan$e o% )ob" *i$#, whi$h both 'en $hase and whi$h sa&a!el" #ills Radne". 1teel#ilt then deserts the +o-n-Ho. *id #teelkilt ta nt Radne" abo t ho'ose3 alit" or trans&estis'N 1teel#ilt 'a" be 'odeled in part on a 'an na'ed L ther Do3, o% Renselaer&ille, Alban" Co nt", /ew 4or#. When ,enne", the %irst o%%i$er o% the /assa , a whaleship o t o% /ew <ed%ord, ar! ed with Do3, Do3 so se&erel" $ t ,enne"Cs le! with a 'in$in! #ni%e that the 'an bled to death : April 1576;. Do3 was handed o&er to A'eri$an $ons lar a thorities in (onol l :, ne;. p. 795 Stigg . In Moby-Dick, he is a "o n! sailor %o nd harpooned to death in a ba$# roo' o% (osea ( sse"Cs Tr" Pots Inn on /ant $#et. 1ti!!s had stopped there a%ter a whalin! &o"a!e o% 'ore than %o r "ears. p. 769 Stubb. In Moby-Dick, he is the happ".!o.l $#" se$ond 'ate o% the Pequod. (e is a reliable Cape.Cod'an and relishes s'o#in! little bla$# pipes. Tashte!o is his harpooner. 1t bb tri$#s the 'ate o% the Bouton de )ose" a ;uernseyman" out o* an unsuspected treasure o* ambergris. #tubb interprets the ,odiacal arch on the doubloon nailed to the mainmast. He may be partially based on 2ohn Hall" the second mate o* the Acushnet" -hich is to a degree a model *or the Pequod. Hall reportedly returned home and then -ent to ali*ornia.

Sub-Sub. &n Moby-Dick" he is the grubbing sub-sub-librarian -ho supplies the pre*atory e3tracts concerning -hales. p. A7C S1ain, +athan ("+at"). In Moby-Dick, he is a whaler %ro' /ant $#et and )arthaCs +ine"ard. Di%t" "ears earlier, he #illed %i%teen whales in one da". (is lan$e is on a wall in Peter Co%%inCs 1po ter Inn. Captain Pele! re'ar#s that /at lost his darin! as soon as he Loined the $h r$h and be$a'e pio s. >The 1wa'p An!el> : 1566;. Poe', in Battle-Pieces. The poet l"ri$all" des$ribes the 1wa'p An!el as bla$#, thi$# o% lip, %a$in! a $it", and breathin! doo' %ro' a%ar. At ni!ht it sends s$rea'in! stars that b rst in the $it", >a!e . . . the "o n!,> t rn 'aidens pale, brea# down walls, and wrea# ha&o$. )el&illeCs s bLe$t is the Parrott $annon pla$ed in the 'arshes o% ,a'es Island o tside Charleston and bo'bardin! the rebel town d rin! the Ci&il War. The 0nion ! nners ni$#na'ed the weapon >the 1wa'p An!el.> The Parrott ! n was na'ed a%ter its in&entor Robert Par#er Parrott, who !rad ated %ro' West Point : 1597;, resi!ned %ro' the 0.1. Ar'" : 1566;, de&eloped his $annon in Cold 1prin!, /ew 4or#, and patented both it and its shells : 1561;. It was a ri%led, ' ==led.loadin! $annon, %itted with a thi$#, heat.shr n#, wro !ht.iron band aro nd the bree$h to help the barrel withstand press re d rin! %irin!. *i%%erent 'odels %ired %ro' 18. to 958.po nd shells, %ro' 6 to 18 in$hes in dia'eter, with e%%e$ti&e ran!es o% %ro' 6,588 to 7,788 "ards. <i! Parrotts were se% l in destro"in! 'asonr" %orts. Con%ederate %or$es also had Parrotts. Bibliography: <oatner, Da st, Garner, // 11, Warren. p. 76B Taff the "el h!an. In Billy Budd, he is a %or'er ship'ate whose b rial at sea <ill" < dd re'e'bers, a$$ordin! to the poe' ><ill" in the *arbies,> $o'posed b" <ill"Cs %riend. Tahitian Sailor. In Moby-Dick, he is a !olden.h ed sailor who is re'inded o% his nati&e land when he wat$hes his 'ates dan$e d rin! the 'idni!ht %esti&ities in the %ore$astle. Later he and the !ri==led )an3'an hea&e the lo!, the wei!ht o% whi$h brea#s its rotten line. p. 765 Talbot, (ohn. In Moby-Dick, he is a sailor lost at the a!e o% ei!hteen o%% Pata!onia, in 1566. (is sister ere$ted a tablet in his 'e'or" in the Whale'anCs Chapel in /ew <ed%ord. Talbot, Mi . In Moby-Dick, she is the drowned ,ohn TalbotCs sister. 1he ere$ted a tablet in his 'e'or" in the Whale'anCs Chapel in /ew <ed%ord. p. 778 Ta htego ("Ta h"). In Moby-Dick, he is a pro d, p re.blooded /ati&e A'eri$an %ro' Ga" (ead, in )arthaCs +ine"ard, and the harpooner o% 1t bb aboard the Pequod. Tashte!o si!hts the %irst sper' whale p rs ed. (e is res$ ed b" G eeE e! when he %alls into a whale head and it then drops %ro' its hoo#s into the o$ean. When Tashte!o perishes in the wre$# o% the Pequod, he $arries a s#" haw# to its death with hi'.

p. 775 Third +antuc$et Sailor. In Moby-Dick, he is a Pequod sailor who !rows tired o% dan$in! d rin! the 'idni!ht %esti&ities in the %ore$astle. 0+his" +hat and the 8ther0 : 1997;. Part o* 9eeds and 9ildings, $ontainin! >The A'eri$an Aloe on 23hibition,> >The A&atar,> >The C ban Pirate,> >A Gro nd +ine Inter$edes with the G een o% Dlowers %or the )erited Re$o!nition o% Clo&er,> >Ins$ription,> >his : 1565;,> >Pro% ndit" and Le&it",> and >Ti'eCs <etra"al.> p. 751 Tinor. In +ypee, she is @or".@or"Cs 'other and )arhe"oCs wi%e. Tinor is a t"pi$al ho'e.lo&in!, b stlin! ho sewi%e. p. 759 Tior, The 2ing of. In +ypee, he is the r ler o% the &alle" o% Tior, near / # he&a, o% the T"pees and the (appars. Ad'iral HAbel A bert * petit.I Tho ars $on%ers with this i'posin! 'onar$h on o$$asion. Ti tig. In Moby-Dick, she is a Ga" (ead sE aw who said that the na'e Ahab, whi$h his widowed and $ra=ed 'other !a&e to hi' lon! a!o, wo ld pro&e propheti$. p. 756 Toby. In +ypee, he is an E i$#.te'pered, athleti$ "o n! sailor who deserts the *oll" with the narrator, spends so'e ti'e with the T"pees, !oes to the bea$h %or help, and disappears. In a seE el, the narrator e3plains that Tob" went into debt to a nati&e na'ed ,i''", was nable to obtain help, and had to ship as a sailor to /ew Oealand. Tob" and the narrator 'et a!ain, in 1576. The real.li%e Tob" was Ri$hard Tobias Greene.p. 757 To!!o. In +ypee, he is the narrator who with Tob" deserts the Dolly in the ba" o% / # he&a, !oes with Tob" to the &alle" o% the T"pees, s %%ers pain in a le!, resides with )arhe"o and Tinor %or abo t %o r 'onths, $onsorts with the lo&el" Da"awa", is sa&ed b" @or".@or", and es$apes with the aid o% )arnoo and @ara#oee. To''oCs le! 'alad", i% not ps"$hoso'ati$, 'a" ha&e been $a sed b" an in%e$tion, an inse$t or sna#e bite, an inL r", or phlebitis. To''o is also the nna'ed narrator.hero o% 8moo. p. 75B Too,Too. In +ypee, he is a "o n! T"pee nati&e who has b ilt a bab" ho se in the bran$hes o% a $o$on t tree and who sin!s a%ter he has $li'bed alo%t. p. 755 Tran@uo. In Moby-Dick, he is the #in! o% TranE e, whi$h is one o% the Arsa$ides islands. Ish'ael &isited hi' on$e and saw there a !len de$orated with $ar&ed whale bones. p. 769 Typee. In +ypee, he is the hero and narrator. (e rebels a!ainst Captain G " o% the 2ulia, insti!ates and si!ns the ro nd.robin, and is i'prisoned in the Calaboo=a <eretanee. When allowed to !o %ree, he wanders with *r. Lon! Ghost to )artair,

Ta'ai, I'eeo, Loohooloo, Partoow"e, and Taloo, and he %inall" ships aboard the /eviathan. At one point, *r. Lon! Ghost $alls hi' Pa l. Typee : 1576;. :D ller title: +ypee: A Peep at Polynesian /i*e.; /o&el. :Chara$ters: Captain HRi$hardI Charlton, the Co''odore, Ad'iral HAbel A bertI * Petit Tho ars, Da"awa", ,i''", *r. HGerrit Par'eleI , dd, @alow, G een @a''aha''aha III, @ara#oee, @ar#", @arl na, @arnoonoo, General @e# anoa, @olor", @or".@or", ,a$# Lewis, )arhe"o, )arnoo, )ehe&i, )onoo, )oonoon", @in! )owanna, )ow )ow, ) n!o, /ar'onee, /arnee, /ed, Lord Geor!e Pa let, G een Po'are HI+I, HGeor!eI Prit$hard, )rs. Prit$hard, R ar !a, Ad'iral HRi$hardI Tho'as, Tinor, the @in! o% Tior, Tob", To''o, Too.Too, Captain +an!s, Wor'oonoo.; The narrator la'ents that, a%ter si3 'onths at sea, their ship Dolly is a sha'bles. Their %resh %ood is also all !one, in$l din! Captain +an!sCs pi! and all the $hi$#ens e3$ept Pedro the rooster. 1o the $aptain plans to shi%t $o rse %or the )arE esas. )owanna is now #in! o% / # he&a there. (is Loll" wi%e on$e p. 766 startled the Dren$h'en in the harbor b" hoistin! her s#irts to $o'pare her tattoos with those o% a sailor. A%ter a la=" period d rin! whi$h the narrator obser&es &ario s %ish and sea%owls, the Dolly approa$hes / # he&a, dis$o&ered in 1B91. Dren$h warships are in port, the lo&el" island see'in! a reproa$h to their ! ns. /ati&es brin! $o$on ts to the ship, a$$o'panied b" bea ti% l 'aidens who swi' alon!side and $li'b aboard. A$ts o% deba $her" %ollow. The white 'anCs $i&ili=ation is ni%or'l" $orr ptin!. The nati&e %ear and hate the Dren$h, with their shin" troops, $ rio s %or!e, and stran!e horses. In 1579, a %ew wee#s be%ore the arri&al o% the Dolly, Ad'iral * Petit Tho ars na'ed )owanna #in! o% the whole island to stir p n%riendl" T"pee nati&es and (appar nati&es to rebellion, whi$h the Dren$h $o ld then inter&ene to E ell. G een Po'are o% nearb" Tahiti, nable to resist Dren$h %irepower, was obli!ed to desert her throne. The narrator de$ides to L 'p ship. The $aptain is a t"rant, the $rew p sillani'o s, the %ood bad, and the % t re aboard a slow whaler n$ertain. 1o he %inds o t what he $an abo t the island .. its harbor, nati&e ho ses, inlets, 'o ntains, &alle"s, and s pposedl" $annibalisti$ inhabitants. White o$$ pation has been $r el, and the nati&es are o%ten anta!onisti$. When the narrator !oes ashore with a landin! part", he pl n!es into the !len o% Tior, where he sees a 'eetin! between the #in! o% Tior and Tho ars. What a $ontrastM The sa&a!e appears happier. The narrator ret rns to the ship and as#s Tob", a sli!ht, E i$#.te'pered, !ood.loo#in!, intelli!ent, and li#able %ellow sailor, to L 'p ship with hi'. Tob" a!rees. When the $aptain %r itlessl" warns his $rew not to a&ail the'sel&es o% libert" ashore tho !h !ranted, the pair !o with their 'ates, who soon %all asleep in a $anoe ho se. The es$apees pl n!e into a !ro&e and p sh thro !h $anes toward a 'o ntain rid!e, %ro' whi$h the" hope to wat$h their ship lea&e later. At s nset the" rest 6,888 %eet abo&e sea le&el. The" !a=e pon a s$ene o% 'at$hless lo&eliness. < t a series o% rid!es and &alle"s p ==les the'. 1till, the" re% se to retreat. When the" $he$# their s pplies, the" %ind bits o% toba$$o 'i3ed with sweatand rain. soa#ed bread. The" $ t it into rations %or si3 da"s. The" ta#e a pathli#e tra$# ntil it

stops b" a ra&ine, where the" %ashion a h t that pro&es no de%ense a!ainst 'ore rain. A%ter a wret$hed ni!ht, the narrator awa#ens with $hills and %e&er .. and a '"sterio sl" swollen le!. < t beneath the' n%olds a !reen paradise dotted with nati&e h ts. Tob" thin#s that the" ho se T"pee $annibals. To pla" it sa%e, the" tr" to tra&erse ro$#" !or!es toward the &alle" ahead o% the', hopin! that it will be %ertile and no$$ pied. The narrator b rns with thirst, then t rns i$" $old. A%ter a %r itless da", the" E it that ro te, ha&e a bite o% %ood, b ild another little shelter, and rest. The narratorCs le! still h rts, b t Tob" arises all re%reshed, %inds so'e so%t bar#, and eats it. (e s !!ests that the" %ollow the strea's down to the h ts, whi$h are pres 'abl" in the (appar &alle". The" wade and $rawl and, at ni!ht, b ild another h t. /e3t da" the" en$o nter a $atara$t a h ndred %eet down. The" !o down beside it b" swin!in! on roots in ro$# %iss res. The" 'a#e another des$ent alon! led!es ntil the path ends. p. 767 The" leap into pal' trees and slide down their tr n#s. A%ter another h t, another da", and another h t, the" %inall" are sa%e in the !or!eo s &alle". The" %eel that the" ' st sta" here openl" and ris# the possible en'it" o% the nati&es. While the" are sa'plin! the %r it o% so'e little ann e trees, the" see a na#ed bo" and !irl and approa$h the', !i&e the' so'e $loth, and %ollow the' to a &illa!e o% attra$ti&e ba'boo str $t res. It is e&enin!. 1e&eral $hie%s s rro nd the'. When it be$o'es $lear that these nati&es are T"pees, the narrator sa"s, >T"pee 'ortar#ee,> that is, T"pees are !ood. In a tri$e, all is Lo"% l. The narrator is d bbed To''o. The leadin! $hie%, )ehe&i, stares at his ! ests, whose white li'bs the nati&es !ather ro nd to s'ell and %eel. 2&er"one %easts on $o$on ts and poee.poee .. a porrid!e 'ade o% bread%r it. The" s'o#e, tr" to e3press their shared hatred o% the Dren$h, and sleep. A%ter a ni!ht 'ade restless b" le! pains and %ear, To''o is aro sed b" a be&" o% !irls and a troop o% bo"s. )ehe&i enters in a war dress .. head pl 'es, t s# ne$#la$e, whale teeth in ears, dar# loin$loth o% tappa, an#lets and bra$elets o% h 'an hair, paddle spear, and pipe. (e haran! es a while, see#in! in%or'ation abo t the Dren$h. /oti$in! To''oCs swollen le!, he $alls %or a 'edi$ine 'an, who po nds the li'b 'er$ilessl" and $o&ers it with wet herbs. To''o s r&e"s the $o''odio s, &entilated h t in whi$h he is sta"in! and ta#es note o% the hideo s %eat res o% @or".@or", the stron! nati&e assi!ned as his &alet. (e %eeds To''o and $arries hi' to the strea' %or a bath. To''o is deli!hted with )arhe"o, @or".@or"Cs senile %ather, and Tinor, his b stlin! 'other. <est o% all is !or!eo s Da"awa", an oli&e.s#inned, brown.haired, bl e.e"ed, sli!htl" tatooed nati&e !irl .. s all" na#ed b t %or %lowers in her ears. Fne da", To''o and Tob" are es$orted to the taboo !ro&es, where the" e3a'ine a te'ple $alled the Ti, 988 %eet lon!. The" spot so'e old ' s#ets and a %ew dread% ll" old 'en with tattoos whi$h are t rnin! !reen. That ni!ht, while beside the te'ple, the" see %la'es and are %ed tender por#. To''o thin#s that the" are bein! %attened %or the #ill, b t the" are 'ar$hed ba$# to )arhe"oCs ho'e. 0n$ertain o% their % t re, Tob" pers ades )arhe"o to lead hi' to the ed!e o% (appar territor", whi$h he hopes to $ross to / # he&a %or 'edi$ine to treat his %riendCs le!. Tob" is atta$#ed b" three (appars, is wo nded in the te'ple, and is $arried ba$# to his %riends. The white 'en !row despondent, despite @or".@or"Cs le$t res on T"pee deli!hts and despite Da"awa"Cs 'inistrations. When boats are reported in the harbor nearb", Tob",

pro'isin! to ret rn with 'edi$ine, sa nters to the bea$h nder $o&er o% the h bb b o% nati&es $artin! $o$on ts to sell to the 'ariners. Con%li$tin! a$$o nts $o'e ba$#: Tob" will ret rn, he is 'issin!, he has deserted. In an" e&ent, To''o ne&er sees hi' a!ain in the lo&el" &alle" o% the T"pees, who redo ble their e%%orts to please their 'elan$hol" in&alid. To''o wat$hes the nati&es as the" prepare bread%r it in a &ariet" o% re$ipes. Three wee#s or so pass. (e !oes nati&e b" wearin! tappa robes, shows his hosts how he $an sew, and sha&es the head o% a heroi$.loo#in! warrior na'ed /ar'onee. When his le! i'pro&es, To''o %eels happier and %a&orabl" $o'pares p. 765 this island paradise with $i&ili=ation and its e3e$ tions, wars, prisons, debts, stri%e, and illnesses. 1 ddenl" word $o'es o% a (appar atta$#. )ehe&i and his allies rep lse it. To''o enLo"s swi''in! with shoals o% 'aidens in a la#e a h ndred "ards a$ross. (e is per'itted to brea# a lon!.standin! taboo and ta#e Da"awa" in a boat. 1he stands p in it, $on&ertin! hersel% into a %et$hin! 'ast, and spreads o t her robe %or a sail. 1 ddenl" )arnoo enters. (e is a handso'e, $ rl".haired, bri!ht.e"ed nati&e who is a sa$red wanderer alon! all shores and thro !h all &alle"s o% the island. The T"pees are thrilled b" his eloE en$e. (e astonishes To''o b" spea#in! 2n!lish to hi'. < t when To''o pers ades hi' to as# )ehe&i to let hi' !o ba$# to / # he&a, the attra$ti&e stran!er re% ses and de$a'ps. To''o, sad on$e 'ore, deter'ines not to %lin$h %ro' %ate. (e whittles pop! ns o t o% ba'boo and !i&es his shoes to )arhe"o, who wears the' aro nd his ne$#. To''o wat$hes tappa 'an %a$t rin!, sa'ples horrible.tastin! 'edi$inal water, and inspe$ts $ rio s terra$ed 'asonr" and ho se %o ndations $alled pi.pis. (e wat$hes the sla !hter and ba#in! o% wild ho!s and other preparations %or a %east. This $elebration ta#es pla$e near the Ti and lasts three da"s and ni!hts. To''o dresses in a nati&e wa" appre$iated b" his hosts, who %eed hi' poee.poee and por#, share their toba$$o with hi', and treat hi' to a nar$oti$ be&era!e $alled ar&a, se% l in $ rin! a $ertain disease introd $ed b" white 'en. To''o is p ==led b" n de old wo'en dan$in! sti%%l", ntil @or".@or" e3plains that the ha!s are berea&ed widows o% warriors. The po ndin! o% shar#s#in dr 's pro&ides entertain'ent. Deelin! $ertain that the banE et is reli!io s, To''o dis$ sses nati&e belie%s. In a h t near the la#e, there is an e%%i!" o% a warrior paddlin! a $anoe toward eternit". /ati&es o%%er %ood to their !ods. Fne priest na'ed @olor" has a reli!io s doll whi$h he whispers to and $ %%s into !i&in! proper answers. To''o dis$ sses the appearan$e o% the nati&es, in$l din! their $o'ple3ions and teeth. (e dis$ sses their $ sto's re!ardin! propert"? their se3 al, %a'ilial, wor#in! :or nonwor#in!; habits? and their b rial rites. (e e3plains that $i&ili=ation has bro !ht 'an" Pol"nesians dread% l diseases, and 'issionaries ha&e 'ade so'e o% the nati&es 'ere beasts o% b rden. 1ee'in!l" 'ore &irt o s than their >s periors,> the islanders are $ooperati&e, happ", and witho t stri%e. (e dis$ sses the ani'als, inse$ts, and birds o% T"pee, and taboos and tattoos. (e resisted the art o% @ar#", 'aster tattooer. (e dis$ sses the $li'bin! and swi''in! abilities o% the nati&es, and the weather, sin!in!, hair oil, and $annibalis' on the island. Fne da" To''o sees three h 'an heads, one that o% a white 'an :not Tob";, sw n! down %ro' the rid!epole o% )arhe"oCs h t. 2'barrassed at the re&elation, the in'ates

h stle the pa$#a!es o t o% si!ht. To''oCs le! starts to h rt a!ain. (e %ears that he will be beheaded and the rest o% hi' $oo#ed and eaten. (e wat$hes so'e %ier$e warriors, in$l din! one.e"ed )ow )ow, ret rn %ro' a battle with the (appars and brin! what see' to be three pole.sl n! bodies o% de%eated %oes. To''o is denied a$$ess to the Ti area, where a %east is held %or $hie%s and priests onl". The %ollowin! noon he is per'itted to ret rn to the taboo p. 766 !ro&es, where he spies a h !e wooden &essel with a lid. @or".@or" h stles hi' awa", b t not be%ore he has !li'psed a %resh, %lesh.!arnished h 'an s#eleton. @or".@or" $alls it pi!, and To''o pretends to belie&e hi'. Ten da"s later, )arnoo ret rns b t a!ain re% ses to inter$ede %or To''o, altho !h he tells hi' to %ollow his path to P eear#a, his nati&e &alle". To''o is inter$epted b" @or"@or", altho !h his %ather )arhe"o s"'pathi=es with their !loo'" ! est. A%ter what %eels li#e abo t %o r 'onths on the island, To''o hears a r 'or that Tob" has ret rned. A boat stands o%%shore. )ehe&i per'its To''o to be $arried to a h t near the bea$h. Altho !h Tob" is not there, To''o pretends to belie&e that he is, so that his enth sias' will disar' the nati&e ! ards while he tries to !et to the water. Da"awa" weeps at the possibilit" o% his depart re. @or".@or" is sad too. < t )arhe"o, repeatin! the two 2n!lish words he #nows .. >(o'e> and >)other> .. see's to nderstand. @ara#oee, a tabooed rene!ade shan!haier o% sea'en, appears and tries to bribe the T"pees with a ' s#et, so'e powder, and so'e $loth to release To''o to a tabooed $rew waitin! in a whaleboat o tside the s r%. )ost o% the T"pees sha#e their La&elins in an!er. As @ara#oee ret rns to the boat, To''o e'bra$es Da"awa" a %inal ti'e, r shes into the water, and is res$ ed. The boat p lls awa". 1e&eral nati&es swi' a%ter it. To''o thr sts a boat hoo# at )ow )owCs throat. An oars'an slashes another nati&eCs wrists at the ! nwales. 1oon the narrator t 'bles aboard the 2ulia, an A stralia &essel in need o% additional $rew 'e'bers. It is three 'onths be%ore he is health" a!ain. In an appendi3, )el&ille e3plains details o% the arri&al %ro' 2n!land o% Lord Geor!e Pa let at Fah . Captain Charlton, <ritish $ons l.!eneral, ab sed b" anti<ritish a thorities in the (awaiian Islands, appealed to Ad'iral Tho'as, who sent Pa let. This strai!ht%orward 'an a$$epted at %a$e &al e a nati&e s bter% !e.the s rrender o% the island, desi!ned to aro se world opinion a!ainst 2n!land. The %irst thin! Pa let did when he be!an to !o&ern the islands was to prohibit $ sto'ar" li$entio sness. Di&e 'onths later, Tho'as landed at (onol l , too# down the <ritish %la!, and restored the islands to nati&e r le. Rioto s lo$al reLoi$in! ens ed, %or whi$h Pa let was a!ain bla'ed, tho !h wron!l". (e deser&ed and re$ei&ed <ritish and (awaiian pla dits %or his $ond $t. In a seE el, )el&ille e3plains what happened to Tob". When he le%t To''o, he went to the bea$h near the (appar 'o ntains and pro'ised so'e 'one" to an irresponsible and tabooed sailor na'ed ,i''", in the ho sehold o% @in! )owanna o% / # he&a, to lead hi' thro !h (appar territor" to / # he&a. Fn$e there, he si!ned as a sailor aboard a &essel to obtain 'one" to pa" ,i''". Tob" also as#ed that an ar'ed boat be sent to T"pee %or his $apti&e %riend. < t onl" ,i''" and so'e tabooed nati&es were per'itted to !o, and the" ret rned witho t To''o. A%ter waitin! %or da"s, Tob" shipped %or /ew Oealand. In 1576 he and the a thor 'et a!ain.

The deri&ation o% the word >T"pee> is p ==lin!. An 1576 )arE esan.Dren$h di$tionar" de%ines it as peuple ennemi: also +eei is said to 'ean Deune homme de condition noble. p. 76B +ypee" a partl" a tobio!raphi$al no&el, is based to a de!ree on )el&illeCs e3perien$es a'on! the T"pees %or one 'onth : 9 , l".9 A ! st 1579;. )el&ille wrote it while li&in! in his 'otherCs ho'e in Lansin!b r!h, /ew 4or# :probabl" %ro' late 1577;, and !a&e part o% his 'an s$ript to his brother Ganse&oort )el&ille,- who was the newl" appointed se$retar" o% the A'eri$an le!ation in London and who' )el&ille as#ed to ne!otiate %or hi' there. Ganse&oort interested ,ohn ) rra",- the <ritish p blisher, in parts o% it : F$tober 1575;. ) rra" 'o'entaril" do bted its a thenti$it", reE ired a %ew $han!es in the interests o% propriet", and soon :*e$e'ber; bo !ht <ritish ri!hts to it %or 188 and ass ran$es that the A'eri$an edition wo ld not pre$ede its appearan$e in 2n!land. While en!a!ed in readin! proo%, Ganse&oort shared parts o% the boo# with Washin!ton Ir&in!,- then in London : ,an ar" 1576;. (e also showed the boo# to Geor!e Pal'er P tna',- the A'eri$an p blisher then doin! b siness in London. P tna' $ontra$ted %or the p bli$ation o% +ypee in the 0nited 1tates b" his %ir', Wile" and P tna'. Ganse&oort altered the te3t to so'e e3tent, and ) rra"Cs 'an s$ript reader re&ised it % rther :and was paid L st o&er 58 b" ) rra" %or his ser&i$es;. The <ritish edition was p blished as 'arrative o* a $our Months! )esidence among the 'atives o* a <alley o* the Marquesas &slands: or" A Peep at Polynesian /i*e :9B Debr ar";? the A'eri$an edition was p blished as +ypee: A Peep at Polynesian /i*e. During a $our Months! )esidence in a <alley o* the Marquesas -ith 'otices o* the $rench 8ccupation o* +ahiti and the Provisional ession o* the #and-ich &slands to /ord Paulet :1B )ar$h;. )el&ille dedi$ated +ypee to Le' el 1haw,- his % t re %ather.in.law. Ganse&oort )el&ille died in )a" 1576. Ri$hard Tobias Greene- t rned p in < %%alo, /ew 4or#, and p blished a noti$e that, as the ori!inal o% Tob", he $o ld &o $h %or the a$$ ra$" o% )el&illeCs narrati&e : , l" 1576;. )el&ille p blished a seE el abo t Tob" in re&ised editions o% +ypee. The <ritish p blisher Geor!e Ro tled!e pirated it, as did Gibbs, another <ritish %ir' :both 1558;. In addition to his own e3perien$es %or +ypee, )el&ille read and drew on <oyages and +ravels in <arious Parts o* the 9orld . . . 56E7-56EF, b" Geor! (Heinri$hI &on Lan!sdor%% - : 1516;? 2ournal o* a ruise Made to the Paci*ic 8cean in the 1.#. $rigate Esse3" in the 4ears 565?" 5657" and 565A, b" *a&id Porter - : 1515;? A <isit to the #outh #eas" in the 1.#. #hip <incennes" during the 4ears 56?@ and 567E, b" Charles 1. 1tewart : 1561;? Polynesian )esearches, b" Willia' 2llis : 1566;? <oyages round the 9orld" by Ed-ard $anning : 1566;? and Historical Account o* the ircumnavigation o* the ;lobe" and o* the Progress o* Discovery in the Paci*ic 8cean. . . . anon"'o sl" p blished : 1566;. )an" re&iewers o% +ypee, espe$iall" se&eral in 2n!land, do bted its a thenti$it"? others re&iled its a thor %or his $riti$is' o% the 'issionaries. ) rra" printed 5,888 $opies o% +ypee, b" the end o% 157B had sold 7,187, and printed 1,819 'ore $opies : 1575;. Literar" pira$" slowed le!iti'ate sales? still, ) rra" printed B55 'ore $opies : 155B;, 'a" ha&e printed so'e 'ore, b t then wat$hed sales dwindle into the 15B8s. The <ritish +ypee went o t o% print : 15B6; and was bro !ht ba$# npro%itabl" a "ear later. )eanwhile, in A'eri$a, Wile" and P t.

p. 765 na' sold 5,955 $opies and paid )el&ille PB69 :thro !h 1575;. A%ter $o'pli$ated dealin!s, handled b" )el&illeCs brother Allan )el&ille,- )el&ille assi!ned ri!hts to +ypee to (arper R <rothers,- the /ew 4or# p blishers : 1579;. Their printin!s sold onl" 96B : 1579. 1551;. )an" $opies o% a new printin! : 1559; were b rned in a disastro s si3.ho se (arper %ire : 1556;, and the A'eri$an +ypee soon went o t o% print : 1557;. In all, )el&ille perhaps reali=ed abo t P9,888 %ro' his %irst boo#? in addition, his identi%i$ation as >a 'an who li&ed a'on! the $annibals> pre&ented hi' %ro' e&er obtainin! a $o&eted $ons lar appoint'ent. Bibliography# Anderson? <r $e A. (ar&e", >CPre$epts Gra&en on 2&er" <reastC: )el&illeCs T"pee and the Dor's o% the Law>, American Buarterly 75 : 1epte'ber 1996;: 697.797? (oward? Le"da? // 1. p. 7B1 B her, The. In Moby-Dick" he is the %i$titio s !ra''ar.s$hool !ra''arian who s pplies the pre%ator" et"'olo!" $on$ernin! whales. p. 7B6 Cang , Captain. In +ypee" he is the t"ranni$al, ne!le$t% l $aptain o% the Dolly" %ro' whi$h the narrator es$apes while she is in the harbor o% / # he&a. p. 7B9 Cere, Captain. In Billy Budd" Captain 2dward Dair%a3 +ereCs distant senior relati&e, also a na&al o%%i$er. Cere, The -onorable .d1ard 0airfa=, Captain (".d," "Starry") . In Billy Budd" +ere is the short, boo#ish, stern, $o ra!eo s $aptain o% the Bellipotent. /ow abo t %ort" "ears old, +ere is e3perien$ed, dis$iplined, and learned, also re%ined and o$$asionall" drea'". When <ill" < dd #ills ,ohn Cla!!art, Captain +ere has hi' arrested and $har!ed with ' rder, $on&enes a dr '.head $o rt, pers ades its 'e'bers to %ind <ill" ! ilt", and han!s hi'. )ortall" wo nded in $o'bat later, +ere dies with <ill"Cs na'e on his lips. Captain +ere is one o% the 'ost eni!'ati$, a'bi! o sl" drawn $hara$ters in all o% )el&illeCs wor#s. Bibliography: Ri$hard A. (o$#s, >)el&ille and CThe Rise o% Realis'C: The *ile''a o% (istor" in <ill" < dd>, American /iterary )ealism 56FE-5@5E 96 :Winter 1997;: 6851? 2dwin (a&iland )iller, Melville : /ew 4or#: Geor!e <ra=iller, 19B5;? )i$hael Pa l Ro!in , #ubversive ;enealogy: +he Politics and Art o* Herman Melville : /ew 4or#: Al%red A. @nop%, 1956;? Tho'as ,. 1$or=a, &n the +ime be*ore #teamships: Billy Budd" the /imits o* Politics" and Modernity : *e@alb: /orthern Illinois 0ni&ersit" Press, 19B9;? <roo# Tho'as, >The Le!al Di$tions o% (er'an )el&ille and Le' el 1haw>, ritical &nquiry 11 : 1epte'ber 1957;: 97.51. p. 799 "il$e . In Billy Budd" he is one o% Captain +ereCs 'idship'en.