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The Study of History in Schools

A Report to the American Historical Association by the Committee of Seven, 1898 Andrew C. McLaughlin, Chairman Herbert B. Adams George L. Fox Albert Bushnell Hart Charles H. Haskins Lucy M. almon H. Morse te!hens

Table of Headings
"re#ace and "reliminary $ork o# the Committee %alue o# Historical tudy Continuity o# Historical tudy and the &elation o# History to 'ther ub(ects Four )ears* Course, consisting o# Four Blocks or "eriods $hy no hort Course in General History is &ecommended How the +i##erent Blocks or "eriods May be ,reated Methods o# -nstruction ources -ntensi.e tudy ,he /eed o# ,rained ,eachers College0entrance &e1uirements 2ntrance 2xaminations A!!endixes A!!endix -3 ,he !resent condition o# history in american secondary schools A!!endix --3 tudy o# history below the secondary schools A!!endix ---3 History in the German gymnasia A!!endix -%3 History in French lyc4es A!!endix %3 History in 2nglish secondary schools A!!endix %-3 History in Canadian econdary chools A!!endix %--3 ome books and articles on the teaching o# history A!!endix %---3 Ma!s and atlases

Preface

-n the early winter o# 5678 the committee making the #ollowing re!ort was a!!ointed by the American Historical Association to consider the sub(ect o# history in the secondary schools and to draw u! a scheme o# college entrance re1uirements in history. ince that time we ha.e held #i.e meetings, each lasting se.eral days9 at each o# these meetings all the members o# the committee ha.e been !resent, exce!t that "ro#essor almon was absent in 2uro!e during the last two. 2.ery 1uestion in.ol.ing doubt has been care#ully, thoroughly, and systematically discussed, and in the conclusions here !resented. all the members concur. '# the se.en !ersons com!osing the committee only one is a teacher in a secondary school9 three others, howe.er, ha.e been secondary0school teachers, while others ha.e been acti.ely interested #or years in the general !roblems under consideration. Although we #elt that we had at the beginning some knowledge o# the situation, and knew o# the di##iculties and limitations as well as o# the accom!lishments o# the schools, it seemed necessary to make a care#ul study o# the whole 1uestion and to gather in#ormation concerning the conditions and the tendencies o# historical instruction. $e ha.e endea.ored, in the light o# the actual #acts, to !re!are a re!ort that may be use#ul and suggesti.e to teachers o# history and that may #urnish to su!erintendents and !rinci!als some assistance in the task o# #raming !rogrammes and in determining methods o# work. $e ha.e sought to be hel!#ul rather than merely critical or de!reciatory, and ha.e tried to consider the whole #ield in a broad and general way, remembering that we were making suggestions and recommendations, not #or the schools o# one section or o# one kind, but #or the schools o# the nation.

Preliminary Work of the Committee


History as a secondary study now demands serious attention. ,he re!ort o# the /ational Commissioner o# 2ducation #or 567807: shows that there were at that time 568,;65 !u!ils in the secondary schools studying history <other than =nited tates history>. /o statistics ha.e been collected to show the number studying the history and go.ernment o# the =nited tates9 but there is good ground #or saying that, i# such students were taken into account, the number o# history !u!ils would be #ound to exceed two hundred thousand, and would !erha!s e1ual i# not exceed in number those engaged in the study o# any other sub(ect sa.e algebra. According to the statistics o# the Bureau o# 2ducation, the number o# !u!ils studying history <other than =nited tates history> has increased one hundred and #i#ty0two !er cent in the last ten years, a rate o# increase below that o# only one sub(ect in the curriculum. ,hese sim!le #acts seem to make it !lain that college entrance re1uirements, that are !ro!erly based u!on the work and tendencies o# the secondary schools, should include a liberal amount o# history among the !rescribed and o!tional studies. An in.estigation o# the sub(ect o# history, as it is studied and taught in the secondary schools, !resents many di##iculties. 2.en be#ore the committee began seriously to consider what work was to be done, it became a!!arent that only a thorough study would be !ro#itable, that general conclusions or recommendations, e.en on such a 1uestion as that o# college entrance re1uirements, could not be made without an examination o# the whole #ield and a consideration o# many #undamental !rinci!les, or without ascertaining what was now doing in the high schools and academies o# the country. Be#ore this work was undertaken, there had not been any systematic attem!t o# this kind9 nor had there been any !rolonged e##ort by any national association to !resent the claims o# history, or to set be#ore the schoolmen a statement o# what might be considered the .alue o# historical study and the !lace which it should occu!y in the school !rogramme. $e do not lea.e out o# consideration the work o# the Committee o# ,en, nor do we underestimate the .alue or the e##ect o# the able and highly interesting re!ort o# the Madison Con#erence on History, Ci.il Go.ernment, and 2conomics9 ?5@ and we do not lose sight o# the #act that historical instruction in the secondary schools had o#ten been discussed in !edagogical con#erences and teachersA associations. Be#ore we began our work, it was !lain that there was an awakening interest in this whole sub(ect, and the time seemed to be at hand when a systematic e##ort would meet with res!onse and !roduce results. But in s!ite o# all that had been done, and in s!ite o# this awakened interest, there was no recogniBed consensus o# o!inion in the country at large, not one generally acce!ted (udgment, not e.en one well0known !oint o# agreement, which would ser.e as a beginning #or a consideration o# the !lace o# history in the high0school curriculum. uch a statement cannot be made concerning any other sub(ect commonly taught in the secondary schools. ,he task o# the committee was, there#ore, to disco.er the actual situation, to see what was doing and what was the !re.ailing sentiment, to localiBe and establish a modicum o# !ractices and !rinci!les, howe.er small and limited it might be9 and, ha.ing a!!rehended what was best and most hel!#ul in s!irit and tendency among teachers o# the country, to seek to gi.e that s!irit ex!ression in a re!ort that would be hel!#ul and suggesti.e, and that would be o# ser.ice in widening the #ield o# agreement and in laying the #oundations #or a common understanding. -n all o# our work we ha.e endea.ored not only to disco.er any agreement or common understanding that may exist among American teachers, but to kee! in mind the #act that local conditions and en.ironments .ary exceedingly9 that what may be ex!ected o# a large and well0e1ui!!ed school need not be ex!ected o# a small one, and that large !re!aratory schools and academies, some o# them intentionally #itting boys #or one or two uni.ersities, are in a situation 1uite unlike that in which the great ma(ority o# high schools are com!elled to work. $e ha.e sought chie#ly to discuss, in an argumentati.e way, the general sub(ect submitted #or consideration, to o##er suggestions as to methods o# historical teaching and as to the !lace o# history on the school !rogramme, being #ully aware that, when all is said and done, only so much will be ado!ted as a!!eals to the sense and (udgment o# the secondary teachers and su!erintendents, and that any rigid list o# re1uirements, or any body o# !erem!tory demands, howe.er (udiciously #ramed, not only would, but should, be disregarded in schools whose local conditions make it unwise to acce!t them. ,he committee determined that e.ery reasonable means should be used to ascertain the !resent condition o# historical study. e.eral hundred circulars asking #or in#ormation were sent out to schools in all !arts o# the =nited tates, selected not because they were su!!osed to be exce!tionally good or exce!tionally bad, or unusually strong in historical work, but because they were recommended to the committee by com!etent authority as ty!ical schools. Circulars were sent to di##erent kinds o# schools, to those in small towns as well as to those in large cities, and to !ri.ate academies as well as to !ublic high schools. About two hundred and #i#ty re!lies ha.e been recei.ed, and the in#ormation thus gathered is !resented and discussed in Appendix to this re!ort. But to seek in#ormation through !rinted interrogatories is always somewhat unsatis#actory9 and the committee there#ore used other means also. te!s were taken to secure #ull discussions in the di##erent educational associations o# the country, in order that many teachers might become interested in the work o# the committee and gi.e need#ul in#ormation, and in order that there might be a #ree interchange o# o!inion on some o# the more im!ortant !roblems that called #or solution. +iscussions on some !ortions o# our re!ort ha.e been held by the /ew 2ngland History ,eachersA Association, the Association o# Colleges and "re!aratory chools o# the Middle tates and Maryland, the Michigan choolmastersA Club, the &ound ,able in History o# the /ational 2ducational Association, and by other educational bodies, as well as at two meetings o# the American Historical Association. Moreo.er, at .arious times in the course o# the !ast two years, di##erent members o# the committee ha.e !ersonally consulted teachers and talked the sub(ect o.er with them. ,hese

e##orts seem to demonstrate that we ha.e not reached conclusions hastily, and that our re!ort is not merely the ex!ression o# the theoretical as!irations o# college !ro#essors who are unac1uainted with the conditions o# the secondary schools. -t is in a .ery !ro!er sense the result o# care#ul examination and systematic in1uiry concerning the secondary conditions o# the country. -t is not necessary to re.iew here in detail the conclusions reached #rom a study o# the circulars recei.ed #rom the schools. -t will be seen by an examination o# these conclusions, as !resented in the A!!endix, that in regard to many matters on which we sought in#ormation there is little or no agreement. Concerning the amount o# history o##ered, the #ields o# history studied, the order in which the di##erent #ields are taken u!, and the years in which the sub(ect is taught, there is much di.ersity o# !ractice9 but, on the other hand, we #ind marked a!!roach to uni#ormity in one !articular, namely, that good schools in all !arts o# the =nited tates ha.e ado!ted substantially similar methods o# instruction. -t is !er#ectly !lain that the old rote system is going by the board. "ractically e.ery school now re!orts the use o# material outside the textbook, and recogniBes that a library is necessary #or e##icient work9 and nearly all teachers assign to!ics #or in.estigation by the !u!il, or gi.e written recitations, or ado!t like means o# arousing the !u!ilAs interest and o# leading him to think and work in some measure inde!endently, in order that he may ac1uire !ower as well as in#ormation.?C@ '# course these methods are more extensi.ely de.elo!ed in some schools than in others9 but the #acts !oint to a common understanding, or at least to the a!!roach toward a common understanding, o# what history teaching should be, and to a growing a!!reciation o# what historical study can do. $e .enture to say that i# a school has well0trained teachers, who know why they teach and how to teach, the order o# historical studies, or the exact method o# handling a #ield o# historical in1uiry, is com!arati.ely unim!ortant9 and it is this e.idence o# a realiBation that history has a .alue as a !edagogical sub(ect, indicating as it does a new interest on the !art o# teachers and directors o# schools, and bringing surely in its train a demand #or skil#ul teachers, which should gi.e courage and ho!e to those who are interested in the success#ul use o# history as a means o# disci!line and culture. -n matters o# detail, the conclusions that could be drawn #rom the re!lies to the circulars were somewhat meager, but they were hel!#ul in enabling the committee to (udge o# tendencies and to #orm a general o!inion as to existing conditions. But, as we ha.e already said, we ha.e not contented oursel.es with this method o# ascertaining the situation. By the more !ersonal means ado!ted we ha.e gained in#ormation which cannot readily be tabulated, but which enables us to ha.e some assurance concerning the tendencies o# the time, and to #eel that in many res!ects !resent conditions are not satis#actory to the acti.e, !rogressi.e teachers o# the country. -t is o#ten more .aluable to #ind out how one highly success#ul teacher attains his end than how twenty unsuccess#ul teachers do not9 and to disco.er what !ractical, ex!erienced teachers, who ha.e gi.en thought to the sub(ect, think can be done and should be done, than to know the static condition o# twenty others who are content with the semi0success or the #ailure o# the !resent. -n the summer o# 567: three members o# the committee were studying educational !roblems in 2uro!e. Miss almon s!ent the summer in Germany and German witBerland, studying the methods o# historical instruction in the secondary schools. ,he results o# her in.estigations were gi.en in a !a!er read be#ore the American Historical Association in +ecember, 567:. Mr. Haskins has at di##erent times studied the educational system o# France9 a#ter a #urther examination o# secondary conditions in 567:, he !re!ared a re!ort on the sub(ect o# history teaching in that country. Mr. Fox has a thorough ac1uaintance with the 2nglish !ublic schools, and has !re!ared a re!ort on the teaching o# history in the secondary schools o# 2ngland. ,hese articles on the conditions o# historical instruction in 2uro!ean countries are gi.en as A!!endices to this re!ort. ,hey are not o##ered as #urnishing us models to which we ought to con#orm, but as in.estigations in the study o# com!arati.e education9 they may, howe.er, gi.e to teachers o# this country suggestions on the sub(ect o# general !edagogical .alues, methods o# historical instruction, and the arrangement o# studies. ,he committee has not su!!osed that it is !ossible to im!ort a #oreign0made r4gime to which the American schools can be asked to ada!t themsel.es. -t will be seen that o# #oreign countries Germany is the one that o##ers to America the most lessons, o# which !robably the most im!ortant is that suggested by the great ad.antage resulting #rom ha.ing the sub(ect o# history, as well as other sub(ects, in the hands o# thoroughly e1ui!!ed teachers, who ha.e recei.ed instruction in method, and are .ersed in the art o# im!arting in#ormation with due regard to the !u!ilAs age and degree o# mental ad.ancement. -n the German gymnasia the course o# history, #rom Homeric times to the !resent day, is co.ered with great thoroughness and system. ,o this !art o# the re!ort on the German schools we wish to call s!ecial attention, #or while we do not think that it is !ro#itable #or us, e.en in this !articular, to #ollow the German curriculum exactly, we belie.e that there should be an e##ort on the !art o# those who are organiBing !rogrammes to reach toward this ideal, by extending the course o# history o.er a number o# years, and by de.elo!ing it in accordance with the !sychological !rinci!les which ha.e been adhered to in the !re!aration o# the German course o# study. -t should be noticed too that in German schools, history is correlated with other sub(ects. ,he teacher o# history, where o!!ortunity o##ers, makes use o# the #oreign language which the !u!ils are studying, and the language teacher re#ers to historical #acts. 'ne sub(ect in the curriculum thus hel!s to re0en#orce another. ,he methods o# the German teacher also deser.e care#ul consideration. -nterest is aroused by skil#ul oral teaching, in which the teacher ada!ts his story to the minds and ca!acities o# his hearers, and so holds their attention that concentration o# mind and ability to gras! the sub(ect are de.elo!ed. -t must be con#essed that Miss almonAs descri!tion o# how a teacher in Bale, in the middle o# a hot summer day, held the breathless attention o# a class o# boys #or #i#ty minutes, while he told the story o# the dramatic struggle between Henry -% and Gregory %--, suggests not only !henomenal methods, but unusual boys9 but withal we must attribute the teacherAs success to his skill, and to the !re.ious training which the boys had recei.ed in the lower grades, where inattention or heedlessness was not tolerated. +oubtless teachers o# history in this country can not #ollow the exam!le o# German teachers in all res!ects. ,he German belie.es that, until the boy reaches the uni.ersity, he has no (udgment to be a!!ealed to, and no great reasoning #aculty to be de.elo!ed9 that it is his business, until eighteen or nineteen years o# age, to absorb, not to argue or discuss. He is not ex!ected to ask 1uestions9 he is ex!ected to do what he is told. uch, howe.er, is not the system #or making American citiBens, and such is not the atmos!here in which the American boy or girl should li.e. /or can it be said that under our !resent conditions the teacher o# history should attem!t to gi.e instruction to secondary !u!ils without the hel! o# a text. ,he system and methods o# instruction in the schools o# France are interesting, but somewhat less suggesti.e than those o# the German schools. ,here, as in Germany, history is in the hands o# trained teachers, who ha.e a ca!acity #or holding the !u!ilAs attention, arousing interest, and de.elo!ing a lo.e #or historical study, as well as #or gi.ing a .ast amount o# historical in#ormation. ,he course o# study is long, thorough, and systematically organiBed. ,he conditions o# German witBerland are essentially similar to those o# Germany itsel#. ,he situation in 2ngland does not o##er many .aluable lessons to American teachers. ,he most noticeable #eatures are a lack o# historical instruction, a common #ailure to recogniBe the .alue o# history, and a certain incoherence and general con#usion. $e cannot here discuss the reasons #or these conditions. -t is enough to say that the

laisseB #aire idea has been carried #arther and is more marked in 2ngland than in

America9 #or, on the whole, we ha.e an educational system, and each !assing year shows an increase in the common stock o# !rinci!les. And yet one who examines the condition o# historical instruction in this country, and com!ares it with that o# France and Germany, #eels that 2nglishmen and Americans are o# one blood9 the indi.idualistic s!irit o# the race has #ound unusual ex!ression in educational !ractices, and has made against coo!eration and harmony, while instincti.e a.ersion to theoretical arrangement has hindered the de.elo!ment o# general !rinci!les. A com!arison o# 2nglish conditions with those o# the continent will be likely to show the .alue o# system and order, and the ad.antage resulting #rom the sway o# good !edagogical doctrines. $e must endea.or in America to reach a system o# our own, and to recogniBe the #orce o# sound !rinci!les, without losing sight o# the #act that our local conditions are many, and that we must rely on indi.idual initiati.e and enthusiasm, i# not on im!ulse. /e.ertheless, in s!ite o# local di.ersity, and in s!ite o# the #act that a rigid r4gime seems on the whole im!ossible i# not undesirable, in this country, there are sound general !rinci!les that may be termed absolute rather than relati.e9 there is a !ro!er method o# un#olding the sub(ect, and there are im!ro!er methods9 or, to s!eak more (ustly, method and system, which recogniBe the true character o# the study and the !rinci!les by which it may be ada!ted to !u!ils o# di##erent ages, are certainly wiser and better than any ha!haBard method and lack o# system can be. $hile it is im!ossible to trans!lant any #oreign course o# study to our schools, and unwise to imitate blindly 2uro!ean methods o# instruction, there are at least two lessons that may be learned #rom #oreign schools9 namely, the wisdom o# demanding thoroughly trained teachers o# history, and that o# gi.ing a large !lace to historical instruction in all courses. -n both France and Germany, history is taught by s!ecial teachers, whose historical training has been carried to a !oint well beyond our American bachelorAs degree, and whose !edagogical ability has been s!ecially tested. -n France an hour and a hal# each week is gi.en to history throughout the ten years o# the elementary school and lyc4e9 in Germany, history is !ursued two or three hours weekly in e.ery year o# the nine years o# the gymnasium9 and e.en in &ussia the time gi.en to history is much longer than in the a.erage American school. /ot merely on these grounds, howe.er, do we ask larger recognition #or history9 we ho!e to !resent, in the course o# this re!ort, substantial reasons #or such recognition, drawn #rom the nature o# the sub(ect and #rom its relations to the de.elo!ment o# the American boys and girls9 but we call attention to what is now done in other countries as e.idence that our recommendations are not #anci#ul or re.olutionary.

Next: Value of Historical Study

?5@ ,his con#erence was held in +ecember, 567C9 its conclusions #orm a !art o# the re!ort o# the Committee o# ,en, !ublished by the Bureau o# 2ducation in 567D, and re!rinted by the American Book Com!any, /ew )ork, 567E. ?C@ =ndoubtedly the re!ort o# the Madison Con#erence had a .ery bene#icial in#luence in this direction, by calling the attention o# the teachers o# the country to what ideals o# historical instruction are.

Value of Historical Study

-t may seem to be unnecessary to consider the .alue o# historical study in itsel#, or to show how history may be related to other sub(ects in the school curriculum. As a matter o# #act, howe.er, the educational .alue
o# e.ery other sub(ect has recei.ed more attention than that o# history9 indeed, only within the last #ew years has there been anything like a thought#ul discussion by !ractical teachers o# the worth o# history as a disci!linary study. $hen so much has been said o# the necessity o# studying the natural sciences, in order that one may come to some realiBation o# the !hysical and .ital world about him, and may know himsel# better as he knows his surroundings more thoroughly, and in order that his !owers o# obser.ation may be 1uickened and strengthened, it seems strange indeed that the same method o# argument has not been used in behal# o# historical work. -# it is desirable that the high0school !u!il should know the !hysical world, that he should know the habits o# ants and bees, the laws o# #loral growth, the sim!le reactions in the chemical retort, it is certainly e.en more desirable that he should be led to see the ste!s in the de.elo!ment o# the human race, and should ha.e some dim !erce!tion o# his own !lace, and o# his countryAs !lace, in the great mo.ements o# men. 'ne does not need to say in these latter days that secondary education ought to #it boys and girls to become, not scholastics, but men and women who know their surroundings and ha.e come to a sym!athetic knowledge o# their en.ironment9 and it does not seem necessary now to argue that the most essential result o# secondary education is ac1uaintance with !olitical and social en.ironment, some a!!reciation o# the nature o# the state and society, some sense o# the duties and res!onsibilities o# citiBenshi!, some ca!acity in dealing with !olitical and go.ernmental 1uestions, something o# the broad and tolerant s!irit which is bred by the study o# !ast times and conditions. -t is a law well recogniBed by !sychologists, a law o# which the teacher in school or college sees daily a!!lication and illustration, that one obtains knowledge by adding to the ideas which one already has new ideas organically related to the old. &ecent !sychological !edagogy looks u!on the child as a reacting organism, and declares that he should be trained in those reactions which he will most need as an adult. ,he chie# ob(ect o# e.ery ex!erienced teacher is to get !u!ils to think !ro!erly a#ter the method ado!ted in his !articular line o# work9 not an accumulation o# in#ormation, but the habit o# correct thinking, is the su!reme result o# good teaching in e.ery branch o# instruction. All this sim!ly means that the student who is taught to consider !olitical sub(ects in school, who is led to look at matters historically, has some mental e1ui!ment #or a com!rehension o# the !olitical and social !roblems that will con#ront him in e.eryday li#e, and has recei.ed !ractical !re!aration #or social ada!tation and #or #orce#ul !artici!ation in ci.ic acti.ities. $e do not think that this !re!aration is satis#actorily ac1uired merely through the study o# ci.il go.ernment, which, strictly construed, has to do only with existing institutions. ,he !u!il should see the growth o# the institutions which surround him9 he should see the work o# men9 he should study the li.ing concrete #acts o# the !ast9 he should know o# nations that ha.e risen and #allen9 he should see tyranny, .ulgarity, greed, bene.olence, !atriotism, sel#0sacri#ice, brought out in the li.es and works o# men. o strongly has this .ery thought taken hold o# writers o# ci.il go.ernment, that they no longer content themsel.es with a descri!tion o# the go.ernment as it is, but describe at considerable length the origin and de.elo!ment o# the institutions o# which they s!eak. $hile we ha.e no desire to underestimate the .alue o# ci.il go.ernment as a secondary study, es!ecially i# it is written and taught #rom the historical !oint o# .iew, we desire to em!hasiBe the thought that a!!reciation and sym!athy #or the !resent is best secured by a study o# the !ast9 and while we belie.e that it is the im!erati.e duty o# e.ery high school and academy to teach boys and girls the elementary knowledge o# the !olitical machinery which they will be called u!on to manage as citiBens o# a #ree state, we insist also that they should ha.e the broader knowledge, the more intelligent s!irit, that comes #rom a study o# other men and o# other times. ,hey should be led to see that society is in mo.ement, that what one sees about him is not the eternal but the transient, and that in the !rocesses o# change .irtue must be militant i# it is to be trium!hant. $hile it is doubtless true that too much may be made o# the idea that history #urnishes us with rules, !rece!ts, and maxims which may be used as immutable !rinci!les, as unerring guides #or the conduct o# the statesman and the !ractical !olitician, or as means o# #oretelling the #uture, it is e1ually true that !rogress comes by making additions to the !ast or by its silent modi#ication. All our institutions, our habits o# thought and modes o# action, are inheritances #rom !receding ages3 no conscious ad.ance, no worthy re#orm, can be secured without both a knowledge o# the !resent and an a!!reciation o# how #orces ha.e worked in the social and !olitical organiBation o# #ormer times. -# this be so, need we seriously argue that the boys and girls in the schoolroom should be introduced to the !ast, which has created the !resent0 that historical0 mindedness should be in some slight measure bred within them, and that they should be gi.en the habit, or the beginnings o# a habit, o# considering what has been, when they discuss what is or what should beF Belie.ing, then, that one o# the chie# ob(ects o# study is to bring boys and girls to some knowledge o# their en.ironment and to #it them to become intelligent citiBens, we need hardly say that, i# the study o# history hel!s to accom!lish this ob(ect, the !ublic schools o# the country are under the hea.iest obligations to #oster the study, and not to treat it as an intruder entitled only to a berth in a cold corner, a#ter language, mathematics, science, music, drawing, and gymnastics ha.e been com#ortably !ro.ided #or. G-t is clear,G as ,homas Arnold has said, Gthat in whate.er it is our duty to act, those matters also it is our duty to study.G -t is true that any sub(ect which aids the !u!il to think correctly, to be accurate and !ainstaking, which awakens his interest in books and gi.es him resources within himsel#, in reality #its him #or good and use#ul citiBenshi!9 but what other sub(ects do in this direction more or less indirectly, history does directly9 and moreo.er, i# !ro!erly taught, it is not in#erior to other sub(ects as a disci!linary and educational study. Fortunately, an examination o# school !rogrammes, educational !eriodicals, and like material will now con.ince any one that educators are coming to the conclusion that history must recei.e more attention, and must be taught wisely and well.

History culti.ates the (udgment by leading the !u!il to see the relation between cause and e##ect, as cause and e##ect a!!ear in human a##airs. $e do not mean by this that his attention should be directed solely to great mo.ing causes, or that he should study what is sometimes called the G !hiloso!hy o# history9G #ar #rom it. /or do we mean that time should be consumed in discussing the meaning o# #acts when the #acts themsel.es are not known. But history has to do with the becoming o# !ast e.ents, not sim!ly with what was, but with what came to be, and in studying the sim!lest #orms o# historical narrati.e e.en the a.erage !u!il comes to see that one thing leads to another9 he begins 1uite unconsciously to see that e.ents do not sim!ly succeed each other in time, but that one grows out o# another, or rather out o# a combination o# many others. ,hus, be#ore the end o# the secondary course the well0trained !u!il has ac1uired some !ower in seeing relationshi!s and detecting analogies. $hile it is !er#ectly true that the generaliBing #aculty is de.elo!ed late, and that the secondary !u!il will o#ten learn unrelated data with ease, i# not with a.idity, it is e1ually true that history in the hands o# the com!etent teacher is a great instrument #or de.elo!ing in the !u!il ca!acity #or seeing underlying reasons and #or com!rehending moti.es. -n the ordinary class0room work, both in science and in mathematics, there is little o!!ortunity #or discussion, #or di##erences o# o!inion, #or balancing o# !robabilities9 and yet in e.eryday li#e we do not deal with mathematical demonstrations, or concern oursel.es with scienti#ic obser.ations9 we reach conclusions by a (udicious consideration o# circumstances and conditions, some o# them in a!!arent con#lict with one another and none o# them susce!tible o# exact measurement and determination. ,he study o# history gi.es training not only in ac1uiring #acts, but in arranging and systematiBing them and in !utting #orth indi.idual !roduct. "ower o# gathering in#ormation is im!ortant, and this !ower the study o# history culti.ates9 but the !ower o# using in#ormation is o# greater im!ortance, and this !ower too is de.elo!ed by historical work. $e do not ask that !u!ils should be re1uired to do so0called Glaboratory workG0 we ab(ure the !hrase0and create histories out o# absolutely unhewn and un#ramed material9 we sim!ly say that i# a !u!il is taught to get ideas and #acts #rom .arious books, and to !ut those #acts together into a new #orm, his ability to make use o# knowledge is increased and strengthened. By assigning well0chosen to!ics that are ada!ted to the ca!acity o# the !u!il, and by re1uiring him to gather his in#ormation in .arious !laces, the teacher may train the !u!il to collect historical material, to arrange it, and to !ut it #orth. ,his !ractice, we re!eat, de.elo!s ca!acity #or e##ecti.e work, not ca!acity #or absor!tion alone. ?D@ History is also hel!#ul in de.elo!ing what is sometimes called the scienti#ic habit o# mind and thought. -n one sense, this may mean the habit o# thorough in.estigation #or oneAs sel# o# all sources o# in#ormation, be#ore one reaches conclusions or ex!resses decided o!inions. But only the learned s!ecialist can thus test more than the most ordinary and common!lace truths or !rinci!les in any #ield o# work. ,he scienti#ic habit o# mind in a broader sense means a recognition o# the #act that sound conclusions do rest on somebodyAs !atient in.estigations9 that, although we must acce!t the work o# others, e.erybody is re1uired to study and think and examine be#ore he !ositi.ely asserts9 that e.ery 1uestion should be a!!roached without !re(udice9 that o!en0mindedness, candor, honesty, are re1uisites #or the attainment o# scienti#ic knowledge. ,he thought#ul teacher o# ex!erience will !robably say that, e.en in the earlier years o# the secondary course these !rime re1uisites o# wholesome education may in some measure be culti.ated9 and that, when o!!ortunity #or com!arati.e work is gi.en in the later years, historical0mindedness may be so de.elo!ed as materially to in#luence the character and habits o# the !u!il. $hile we belie.e that !ower and not in#ormation must be the chie# end o# all school work, we must not underestimate the .alue o# a store o# historical material. By the study o# history the !u!il ac1uires a knowledge o# #acts that is to him a source o# !leasure and grati#ication in his a#ter li#e. -# there be any truth in the saying that culture consists o# an ac1uaintance with the best which the !ast has !roduced0 a .ery insu##icient de#inition, to be sure0we need not argue about the .alue o# historical in#ormation. But we may em!hasiBe that brighter and broader culture which s!rings #rom a sym!athy with the onward mo.ements o# the !ast and an intelligent com!rehension o# the duties o# the !resent. Many a teacher has #ound that in dealing with the great and noble acts and struggles o# bygone men he has succeeded in reaching the inner nature o# the real boys and girls o# his classes, and has gi.en them im!ulses and honorable !re(udices that are the surest sources o# !ermanent and worthy re#inement. $e may .enture to suggest that character is o# e.en greater .alue than culture. A no less im!ortant result o# historical study is the training which !u!ils recei.e in the handling o# books. History, more than any other sub(ect in the secondary curriculum, demands #or e##ecti.e work a library and the ability to use it. kill in extracting knowledge #rom the !rinted !age, or in thumbing indexes and #ingering tables o# contents, is o# great .alue to any one who is called u!on to use books. ,he inability to disco.er what a book contains or where in#ormation is to be #ound is one o# the common #ailings o# the unschooled and the untrained man. ,hrough the study o# history this #acility in handling material may be culti.ated, and at the same time the !u!il may be introduced to good literature and ins!ired with a lo.e #or reading which will !ro.e a !riceless treasure to him. -n this latter res!ect the study o# history is second to that o# 2nglish literature alone. $ith these results o# historical study two others o# decided .alue may in conclusion be brie#ly mentioned3 By the reading o# good books, and by constant e##orts to re0create the real !ast and make it li.e again, the !u!ilAs imagination is at once 1uickened, strengthened, and disci!lined9 and by means o# the ordinary oral recitation, i# !ro!erly conducted, he may be taught to ex!ress himsel# in well0chosen words. -n the study o# #oreign language, he learns words and sees distinctions in their meanings9 in the study o# science, he learns to s!eak with technical exactness and care9 in the study o# history, while he must s!eak truth#ully and accurately, he must seek to #ind a!t words o# his own with which to describe !ast conditions and to clothe his ideas in a broad #ield o# work which has no technical method o# ex!ression and no !eculiar !hraseology.

Next: Continuity of Historical Study and the Relation of History to

ther Sub!ects

?D@A consideration o# what is said in a later di.ision o# this re!ort on the methods o# teaching will show more #ully how history may be used to this end.

Continuity of Historical Study and the Relation of History to

ther Sub!ects

$e ha.e no intention o# #raming a secondary0school course, in which each study shall be care#ully related in time and s!ace with e.ery other. uch a !rocess is, #or the !resent at least, a task #or each su!erintendent or !rinci!al in the conduct o# his own work. Certain suggestions, howe.er, are !ertinent, and may be hel!#ul. $e belie.e that, whene.er !ossible, history should be a continuous study. -n some schools it is now gi.en in three successi.e years9 in others it is o##ered in each o# the #our years o# at least one course. ome !ractical teachers, im!ressed with this need o# continuity and #eeling unable to gi.e more time to the work, ha.e thought it wise to gi.e the sub(ect in !eriods o# only two recitations !er week #or one year or more9 and such a !lan may !ro.e desirable #or the !ur!ose o# connecting two years in which the work is gi.en #our or #i.e times !er week, or #or the !ur!ose o# extending the course. "robably two !eriods a week, howe.er, will seem altogether im!racticable to the great ma(ority o# teachers, and we do not recommend that this ste! be taken when the circumstances allow more substantial work. A !ractical working !rogramme in one o# the .ery best western schools !resents the #ollowing course3 :th grade, American History 6th grade, American History 7th grade <5st year o# high school>, Greek and &oman History 5Hth grade, 2nglish History 55th grade, -nstitutional History 5Cth grade, American History E !eriods C !eriods D !eriods D !eriods C !eriods C !eriods

Another school o# high grade, where e##ecti.e work is done, gi.es history in three !eriods !er week #or two years, and in #i.e !eriods !er week #or two more years, .iB3 5st year o# high school, 'riental, Greek, and &oman history Cnd year, mediae.al and modern 2uro!ean history Drd year, 2nglish history Eth year, American history, economics, and ci.ics D !eriods D !eriods ; !eriods ; !eriods

-n both o# these schools some o# the historical work is o!tional or electi.e, other !arts are re1uired. ,hese courses are gi.en here sim!ly to show how a long, continuous course may be arranged in case the circumstances make it inad.isable to gi.e work #our or #i.e times !er week #or #our years. $e do not recommend courses in which the study comes twice a week, but only say that in some instances they may !ro.e ad.isable as a means o# kee!ing the !arts o# the course in connection. $e can not see our way clear to !ro!osing the acce!tance o# a two0hour course in history #or entrance to college, i# units are counted or de#inite re1uirements are laid down. A secondary0school course in which there are many distinct sub(ects may #urnish to the !u!il only bits o# in#ormation, and not gi.e the disci!line resulting #rom a !rolonged and continuous a!!lication to one sub(ect, which is gradually un#olded as the !u!ilAs mind and !owers are de.elo!ed. A course without unity may be distracting, and not educating in the original and best sense o# the word. At least in some courses o# the high school or academy, history is the best sub(ect to gi.e unity, continuity, and strength. $here a #oreign language is !ursued #or #our consecuti.e years, it ser.es this !ur!ose9 but in other cases it is doubt#ul whether anything can do the work so well as history. 2.en science has so many branches and distinct di.isions0at all e.ents, as it is customarily taught0that it does not seem to be a continuous sub(ect. +oubtless there are relationshi!s between !hysiology, chemistry, !hysics, botany, and !hysical geogra!hy, and o# course the methods o# work in all o# them are similar9 but to treat science as one sub(ect, so that it may gi.e o!!ortunity #or continuous de.elo!ment o# the !u!il, and #or a gradual un#olding o# the !roblems o# a single #ield o# human study, seems to us to !resent many almost insurmountable di##iculties. A committee o# historical students may be !ardoned there#ore #or thinking that history #urnishes a better instrument than science #or such !ur!oses. ,he history o# the human race is one sub(ect9 and a course o# #our years can be so arranged as to make the study a continually de.elo!ing and enlarging one, as the needs and ca!acities o# the !u!il are de.elo!ed and enlarged. History should not be set at one side, as i# it had no relation with other sub(ects in the secondary course. -deal conditions will !re.ail when the teachers in one #ield o# work are able to take wise ad.antage o# what their !u!ils are doing in another9 when the teacher o# Latin or Greek will call the attention o# his !u!ils, as they read Caesar or Ieno!hon, to the #acts which they ha.e learned in their history classes9 when the teachers o# French and German and 2nglish will do the same9 when the teacher o# !hysical geogra!hy will remember that the earth is manAs dwelling !lace, or more !ro!erly his growing !lace, and will be able to relate the mountains, seas, and tides o# which he s!eaks with the growth and !rogress o# men9 when he will remember that Marco "olo and Henry the /a.igator and Meriwether Lewis were un#olding geogra!hy and making history, and that Ca!e %erde not only (uts out into the Atlantic, but stands #orth as a !romontory in human history. -s the time #ar distant when the march o# the ,en ,housand will be looked u!on not merely as a !rocession o# o!tati.e moods and conditional clauses, but as an account o# the great .ictory won by Greek skill, disci!line, and intelligence o.er the hel!lessness o# 'riental con#usionF And will Caesar long be taught only as a com!ound o# ablati.e absolutes and indirect discourses, rather than as a story, told by one o# historyAs greatest men, o# how our ,eutonic #ore#athers were brought #ace to #ace with &oman !ower, and how the !eo!les o# Gaul were sub(ected to the art and the arms o# &ome, and made to !ass under the yoke o# bondage to southern ci.iliBation and southern lawF ,he teacher o# history, i# he knows the #oreign languages which his !u!ils are studying, may connect the words they ha.e learned with concrete things9 and he may, abo.e all, hel! to gi.e the young !eo!le who are trying to master a #oreign tongue some a!!reciation o# the tone, tem!er, and s!irit o# the !eo!le, without which a language seems .oid and characterless. History has a central !osition among the sub(ects o# the curriculum. Like literature, it deals with man, and a!!eals to the sym!athy, the imagination, and the emotional nature o# the !u!ils. Like natural science, it em!loys methods o# care#ul and un!re(udiced in.estigation. -t belongs to the humanities, #or its essential !ur!ose is to disclose, human li#e9 but it also searches #or data, grou!s them, and builds generaliBations #rom them. ,hough it may not be a science itsel#, its methods are similar to scienti#ic methods, and are .aluable in inculcating in the !u!il a regard #or accuracy and a re.erence #or truth. -t corrects the #ormalistic bias o# language by bringing the !u!il into sym!athetic contact with actualities and with the mind o# man as it has reacted on his en.ironment. -t gi.es breadth, outlook, and human interest, which are not easily de.elo!ed by the study o# natural !henomena. ,hus, as a theoretical !ro!osition, at least, the assertion that the story o# li#e and the onward mo.ement o# men, not their language or their !hysical en.ironment, should #orm the center o# a liberal course, would seem to lea.e little ground #or argument. $e may add to all these considerations the #act that e.en in the natural sciences, as well as in other sub(ects, the historical method is not seldom used by ad.anced scholars and thinkers. ,he scholarly scienti#ic in.estigator knows #rom care#ul study the de.elo!ment o# his sub(ect9 he sees the successes and the #ailures o# the !ast, and recogniBes the lasting contributions that ha.e #rom time to time been made in his #ield o# in.estigation9 he o#ten studies the ci.iliBation that ga.e birth to bygone and obsolete theories, and comes thus to a knowledge o# his de!artment o# work as a growing and de.elo!ing de!artment. o, too, the ad.anced linguistic scholar is #re1uently engaged, not so much in the study o# language, as in the examination o# successi.e intellectual mo.ements which ha.e #ound ex!ression in literature. ,his !ractice o# linking the !resent with the !ast, o# watching !rogress and studying change, has become one o# the marked characteristics o# modern learning9 and it indicates that history, in the broad #ield o# human a##airs, is a sub(ect which is contributory to others, is indeed a !art o# them, and occu!ies a central !osition among them.

"our #ears$ Course% consisting of "our &locks or Periods


As a thorough and systematic course o# study, we recommend #our years o# work, beginning with ancient history and ending with American history. For these #our years we !ro!ose the di.ision o# the general #ield into #our blocks or !eriods, and recommend that they be studied in the order in which they are here set down, which in large measure accords with the natural order o# e.ents, and shows the se1uence o# historical #acts3 <5> Ancient history, with s!ecial re#erence to Greek and &oman history, but including also a short introductory study o# the more ancient nations. ,his !eriod should also embrace the early Middle Ages, and should close with the establishment o# the Holy &oman 2m!ire <6HH>, or with the death o# Charlemagne <65E>, or with the treaty o# %erdun <6ED>. <C> MediJ.al and modern 2uro!ean history, #rom the close o# the #irst !eriod to the !resent time. <D> 2nglish history. <E> American history and ci.il go.ernment. /o one o# these #ields can be omitted without lea.ing serious lacunJ in the !u!ilAs knowledge o# history. 2ach de!artment has its s!ecial .alue and teaches its s!ecial lesson9 abo.e all, the study o# the whole #ield gi.es a meaning to each !ortion that it cannot ha.e by itsel#. Greek and &oman ci.iliBation contributed so much to the world0the work which these nations accom!lished, the thoughts which they brought #orth, the ideas which they embodied, #orm so large a !art o# the !ast0that in any systematic course their history must be studied. ,he student o# modern !olitics cannot a##ord to be ignorant o# the !roblems, the stri.ings, the #ailures o# the re!ublics and democracies o# the ancient world. $e s!eak o# these nations as belonging to anti1uity, but we ha.e much o# them with us to0day. ,he law o# &ome has not gone9 the highest thought o# Greece is eternal. $e might (ustly insist that mediJ.al history is worthy o# a !lace in the school !rogramme #or its own sake, recounting as it does the de.elo!ment o# the !a!acy and the Church, the establishment o# #eudalism, the #oundation o# modern states, the &enaissance, and the beginning o# the &e#ormation. But, i# #or no other reason, the history o# the Middle Ages deser.es study because without it Greece and &ome are isolated and seem to dwell in a world a!art. 'n the other hand, the character o# the #orces o# modern times cannot be understood by one who examines them without re#erence to their mediJ.al origins. /or will any one seriously maintain in these latter days, when men are studying world mo.ements0when, as we are told, America has become a world !ower0that the intelligent citiBen has no concern with the chie# e.ents and leading tendencies o# the last #our centuries o# 2uro!ean history. -t is es!ecially desirable that American !u!ils should learn something o# 2uro!ean history, since, by seeing the history o# their own country in its !ro!er !ers!ecti.e, they may a!!reciate its meaning, and may be relie.ed o# a tem!tation to a narrow intolerance, which resembles !atriotism only as bigotry resembles #aith. 2nglish history until 5::8 is our history9 2dward -. and "ym, Ham!den and $illiam "itt belong to our !ast and hel!ed to make us what we are. Any argument in #a.or o# American history, there#ore, holds almost e1ually true #or the study o# 2nglish history. A realiBation o# !resent duties, a com!rehension o# !resent res!onsibilities, an a!!reciation o# !resent o!!ortunities, can not better be inculcated than by a study o# the centuries in which 2nglishmen were struggling #or re!resentation, #ree s!eech, and due !rocess o# law. ,he orderly chronological course which we here ad.ocate has its marked ad.antages, but it should be so arranged that the !u!il will do more than #ollow the main #acts as he traces them #rom the earliest times to the !resent. ,he work must be so de.elo!ed and widened, as time goes on, that in the #inal years the !u!il will be dealing with broader and dee!er !roblems than in the early years, and will be making use o# the skill and scholarly sense that ha.e been awakened and called into action by !re.ious training. By a course o# this sort, !u!ils will obtain a cons!ectus o# history which is #airly com!lete and satis#actory, will #ollow the #orward march o# e.ents and will come to see the !resent as a !roduct o# the !ast9 while the teacher, at the same time, will ha.e o!!ortunity to un#old the !roblems and di##iculties o# historical study. ,he desirability o# arranging historical #ields o# work in their natural chronological order will !robably a!!eal to e.ery one, and need not be dwelt u!on. ome !ersons, howe.er, may ob(ect to the arrangement as unwise, in the light o# other considerations. -t may be contended that !u!ils should !ass G#rom the known to the unknown,G #rom the #amiliar to the un#amiliar and strange. ,his !rece!t we do not care #ormally to acce!t or to re(ect9 but it will be remembered that in all !rimary and grammar schools some historical work is gi.en, and that we can take #or granted the !robability that all !u!ils know something o# American history, and !erha!s o# other history, in addition. As a matter o# #act, there#ore, we are not running counter to the doctrine abo.e re#erred to, or .iolating the law o# a!!erce!tion. A like ob(ection may be met with a similar answer. American history, some will say, should come the #irst year in the high school, because many !u!ils lea.e school be#ore the later years. But this ob(ection !ro.es too much, #or a large !ercentage o# boys and girls do not enter the high school at all. American history should there#ore be gi.en in the grammar school. -n #act, it is gi.en in the eighth and lower grades in !robably the .ast ma(ority o# schools9 to re!eat the course there#ore in the #irst year o# the secondary course is almost a waste o# time, inasmuch as any marked de.elo!ment in the method o# treatment is im!ossible. 'n the other hand, by !utting the study late in the course, the !u!il can work along new lines and attack new !roblems9 the de.elo!ment o# American institutions can be studied9 new and more di##icult books can be read, and more ad.anced methods used. ome teachers, belie.ing that American history is essential in e.ery course, will ob(ect to the curriculum here suggested, on the ground that the last year is already o.ercrowded, and that we are asking the im!ossible when we suggest that the study be !laced in that year. -n any argument on such a sub(ect, history is at a disad.antage, because other sub(ects ha.e #rom time immemorial been considered #irst, while history has been treated as a !oor and needy relati.e9 other sub(ects ha.e their !laces, and claim at once nine #ull !oints in law. -# it is more im!ortant that !u!ils should ha.e knowledge o# chemistry, solid geometry, !hysics, Greek, 2nglish literature, Latin, and what not, than a knowledge o# the essentials o# the !olitical and social li#e about them, o# the nature and origin o# the Federal Constitution, o# their duties and rights as citiBens, and o# the #undamental ideas #or which their country stands, then o# course American history need not enter into the contest at all. -n making these recommendations, howe.er, we are not acting u!on merely theoretical grounds9 an in.estigation o# existing conditions leads us to belie.e that there is a strong tendency to !lace American history in the last year o# the course. -t will be argued, again, that Greek and &oman history is too di##icult #or the #irst year. ,o this we may answer, <5> that a number o# excellent and success#ul teachers gi.e the sub(ect in the #irst year, and <C> that it is not necessary to #athom all the mysteries o# the Athenian constitution, or to !enetrate the innermost secrets o# &oman im!erialism. -t is not im!ossible to know the main outlines o# Greek and &oman history and to see the main #eatures o# Greek and &oman li#e. -# Caesar, a great source o# &oman history, can be studied in the original in the tenth grade, with all the su!!lementary in#ormation on military and historical matters which recent editors !resent, can not secondary material in the .ernacular be studied in the ninthF $hile we do not think that Greek and &oman history should be treated as a handmaiden o# the Latin and Greek languages <to treat the sub(ects thus is to in.ert the natural relationshi!>, we suggest that a course in ancient history in the #irst year will ser.e to gi.e li#e and meaning to all the work in the classic tongues. ,he idea may come home to the !u!il that Caesar and Cicero were real, li.ing, thinking, acting men, and not imaginati.e creatures begotten by the brains o# modern grammar0mongers to .ex the soul o# the schoolboy. -# this basis o# #act is in the !u!ilAs mind, the classical teacher can am!li#y it in the later years o# the high0school course, and can with #ar greater assurance use the language that he is teaching as a medium #or bringing his !u!ils into contact with the thoughts and mo.ing sentiments o# anti1uity. ome one may ob(ect that mediJ.al and modern 2uro!ean history is too di##icult #or the tenth grade, and that other sub(ects should come at that time. ,he answer to such ob(ection is, o# course, that any other sub(ect is too di##icult i# taught in its height and de!th and breadth, but that the cardinal #acts o# 2uro!ean history can be understood, interesting and intelligible books can be read, the signi#icant lessons can be learned. How many boys, when they are 58 years old, can not understand G,he cottish Chie#s,G G,he ,hree Musketeers,G G,wenty )ears A#ter,G G-.anhoe,G G,he ,alisman,G G$ith Fire and wordGF And is the sim!le, truth#ul historic tale o# border con#lict, the li#e and !ur!oses o# &ichelieu, the death o# Charles -, the career o# &ichard the Lionhearted, the character o# aladin, the horrible barbarism o# ,artar hordes, harder to be understood than the !lot o# an elaborate, historical no.el dealing with the same #actsF -s truth necessarily more di##icult, as well as stranger, than #ictionF But the conclusi.e answer to this ob(ection is the #act that 2uro!ean history in its most di##icult #orm, Ggeneral history,G is now taught in the second year in the greater !art o# the schools which o##er the sub(ect. ,he committee may be criticised #or outlining a #our yearsA course at all, on the ground that no schools can de.ote so much time to history. ,his criticism is so im!ortant that the reasons which in#luenced us to take this action should be gi.en seriatim3 <5> ome schools do o##er history in e.ery year o# the high school, either as a re1uired or as an o!tional study9 and the delineation o# what seems to us a thorough and systematic r4gime may be o# ser.ice to these schools, and to all others that desire to de.ote considerable time and energy to the sub(ect. <C> -# some schools cannot gi.e all that is here !ro!osed, that #act !resents no reason why an ade1uate course should not be outlined. $e are not seeking to induce schools to gi.e history a great amount o# attention at the ex!ense o# other sub(ects9 but a course altogether com!lete and ade1uate needs to be outlined be#ore one can rightly discuss the a.ailability o# anything else. <D> An a!!roach to an ideal course, in order o# sub(ects, method, treatment, and time, is better than one that is constructed without any re#erence to the best and most symmetrical system. <E> As a general rule, de#inite !arts o# the !lan which we here outline may be taken as a working scheme. -t is not necessary to draw u!, on an entirely new theory, a brie#er curriculum #or schools that can not take the whole o# what we here recommend9 the sim!lest and wisest !lan under such circumstances is to omit one or more o# the blocks or !eriods into which we ha.e di.ided the general #ield. -# only three years can be de.oted to historical work, three o# the !eriods outlined abo.e may be chosen, and one omitted9 such omission seems to us to be better than any condensation o# the whole. But i# any teacher desires to com!ress two o# the !eriods into a single yearAs work, one o# the #ollowing !lans may be wisely ado!ted3 <5> Combine 2nglish and American history in such a manner that the more im!ortant !rinci!les wrought out in 2nglish history, and the main #acts o# 2nglish ex!ansion, will be taught in connection with American colonial and later !olitical history. <C> ,reat 2nglish history in such a way as to include the most im!ortant elements o# mediJ.al and modern 2uro!ean history.

Why No Short Course in 'eneral History is Recommended


From the #oregoing it will be seen that the committee belie.es that history should be gi.en in #our consecuti.e years in the secondary school, and that the study should be de.elo!ed in an orderly #ashion, with reasonable regard #or chronological se1uence9 in other words, that #our years should be de.oted to the study o# the worldAs history, gi.ing the !u!il some knowledge o# the !rogress o# the race, enabling him to sur.ey a broad #ield and to see the main acts in the historical drama. $hile, o# course, three years #or such study are better than two, as two are better than one, a care#ul consideration o# the !roblem in all its as!ects has led us to the conclusion that we cannot strongly recommend as altogether ade1uate courses co.ering the whole #ield in less than #our years. $e do not recommend a short course in general history because such a course necessitates one o# two modes o# treatment, neither o# which is sound and reasonable. By one method, energy is de.oted to the dreary, and !erha!s !ro#itless, task o# memoriBing #acts, dates, names o# kings and 1ueens, and the rise and #all o# dynasties9 there is no o!!ortunity to see how #acts arose or what they e##ected, or to study the material !ro!erly, or to see the e.ents in sim!le #orm as one #ollowed u!on another, or to become ac1uainted with the historical method o# handling de#inite concrete #acts and drawing in#erences #rom them. ,he !u!il is not introduced to the #irst !rinci!les o# historical thinking9 he is not brought into sym!athy with men and ideas, or led to see the !lay o# human #orces, or gi.en such a real knowledge o# !ast times and conditions that he can realiBe that history has to do with li#e, with the thoughts, as!irations, and struggles o# men. By the second method !u!ils are led to deal with large and general ideas which are o#ten 1uite beyond their com!rehension0ideas which are general in#erences drawn by the learned historian #rom a well0stored treasure0house o# de#inite data9 they are taught to acce!t un1uestioningly broad generaliBations, the #oundations o# which they can not !ossibly examine, as they must do i# they are to know how the historical student builds his in#erences, or how one gains knowledge o# the general truths o# history. ,he #irst method is a!t to hea! meaningless data together9 #acts crowd one u!on another9 there is no mo.ing drama, but at the .ery best, !erha!s, a series o# kaleidosco!ic !ictures, in which the #igures are arranged with seeming arbitrariness. -# the second alternati.e be #ollowed, all is order and system9 the !awns o# the great game are #olks and nations9 the more e##ecti.e chessmen are world0mo.ing ideas. ,he ex!erienced college teacher knows #ull well that students entering u!on historical work will learn #acts without seeing relationshi!s9 that Gtendency G is a word o# unknown dimensions9 and that his #irst task is to lead his !u!ils to see how de#inite #acts may be grou!ed into general #acts, and how one condition o# things led to another, until they come to a realiBing sense o# the #act that history deals with dynamics, not statics, and that dri#ts, tendencies, and mo.ements are to be searched #or by the !ro!er inter!retation o# de#inite data, and the !ro!er correlation o# de#inite deeds and acts, with s!ecial re#erence to chronological se1uence. -# college students must thus be led to the com!rehension o# historical #orces and general ideas, what ho!e is there that a general history, dealing only with tendencies, will be ada!ted to high0school needsF But while we do not think that a secondary0school !u!il can be brought to handle large generaliBations, we do belie.e that, i# the time de.oted to a !eriod o# history be su##iciently long to enable him to deal with the acts o# indi.idual men and to see their work, he can be taught to grou! his #acts9 and that a !ower o# analysis and construction, a ca!acity #or seeing relationshi!s and causes, an ability to gras! a general situation and to understand how it came to be, can be de.elo!ed in him9 and that he can be brought to see that #or the historian nothing is, but e.erything is becoming. -n all such work, howe.er, the teacher must begin with ideas and #acts that are not altogether un#amiliar0with the acti.ities, the im!ulses, the concrete conduct o# men. $e do not mean by this that constitutional and social 1uestions can not be studied, that !olitical mo.ements can not be inter!reted, or that the biogra!hical system suitable #or the lower grades should be continued through the secondary course. 'n the contrary, the !u!il should be led to general #acts (ust as soon as !ossible, and should be induced to see in#erences and the meanings o# acts at the earliest !ossible moment.?E@ He must not only ha.e a well0articulated skeleton o# #acts, but he must see mo.ement, li#e, human energy. And yet the a.erage !u!il will #ollow the course o# Kulius Caesar or Augustus, when he can not understand (ust why the &oman &e!ublic was o.erthrown9 he can know much o# the work o# Constantine, when he can not a!!reciate the in#luence o# Christianity on the destinies o# &ome and the world9 he can see what Charlemagne did, when he can not com!rehend the nature or character o# the Holy

&oman 2m!ire9 he is interested in +anton and Mirabeau, when he can not realiBe the causes, characteristics, and e##ects o# the French &e.olution. -t is im!ossible #or one who knows only o# mayors, constables, and county clerks to reach out at once into a com!rehension o# the great moti.e #orces in the worldAs history. $e ask, then, #or a course in history o# such length that the !u!il may get a broad and somewhat com!rehensi.e .iew o# the general #ield, without ha.ing, on the one hand, to cram his memory with unrelated, meaningless #acts, or, on the other hand, to struggle with generaliBations and !hiloso!hical ideas beyond his ken. $e think that a course co.ering the whole #ield o# history is desirable, because it gi.es something like a !ro!er !ers!ecti.e and !ro!ortion9 because the history o# manAs acti.ities is one sub(ect, and the !resent is the !roduct o# all the !ast9 because such a study broadens the mental horiBon and gi.es breadth and culture9 because it is desirable that !u!ils should come to as #ull a realiBation as !ossible o# their !resent surroundings, by seeing the long course o# the race behind them9 because they ought to ha.e a general cons!ectus o# history, in order that more !articular studies o# nations or o# !eriods may be seen in something like actual relation with others. $e think, howe.er, that 1uite as im!ortant as !ers!ecti.e or !ro!ortion are method and training, and a com!rehension o# the essential character o# the study. -n exact accord with the !rinci!les here ad.ocated all work in natural science is now conducted3 A !u!il is taught to understand how the sim!le laws o# !hysics or chemistry are drawn u!9 he is induced to think care#ully and logically about what he sees, and about the meaning o# the rules and #undamental truths which he is studying, in order that he may learn the science by thinking in it rather than by getting a birdAs0eye .iew o# the #ield. $e do not argue that secondary !u!ils can be made constructi.e historians, that a !ower can be bred in them to seiBe #or themsel.es essential data and wea.e a new #abric, that the mysteries o# the historianAs art can be disclosed to them, or that they can be taught to !lay u!on a nationAs sto!s with an assured and cunning hand. But e.ery study has its methods, its characteristic thinking, its own essential !ur!ose9 and the !u!il must be brought into some sym!athy with the sub(ect. He must know history as history, (ust as he knows science as science. Any com!arison between history and science is a!t to be misleading. ,he method o# the one study, #or !ur!oses o# instruction at least, is not the method o# the other. $e do not su!!ose that &ichelieu or $illiam the ilent can be treated with any sort o# moral reagent or examined as a s!ecimen under any high0!ower lens. And yet in some res!ects we may learn lessons #rom methods o# scienti#ic instruction. ,he modern teacher o# botany does not endea.or to ha.e his !u!ils learn a long list o# classi#ied shrubs, to know all the #amilies and s!ecies by heart, or to make a telling syno!sis o# e.en any considerable section o# the worldAs #lora9 he examines a more limited #ield with care, and asks the students to see how seeds germinate and how !lants grow, and to study with a microsco!e a !iece o# wood #iber or the cross0section o# a seed. ,his he does in order that the !u!ils may see the real sub(ect, may know botany, and ac1uire the habit o# thinking as men o# science think9 not, let it be understood, that he may disco.er new laws o# #loral growth or de.elo! #or himsel# a single !rinci!le, rule, or system o# classi#ication. And so in history. $hile we do not urge that !u!ils be asked to extort their knowledge #rom the raw material, or to search through the documents to #ind the data which learned scholars ha.e already #ound #or them, we do ask that the old system o# classi#ication, and the old idea that one must see the whole #ield be#ore he studies a !art o# it, be altogether gi.en u!, i# an e##ort to know the outlines o# the whole means that the !u!il has not su##icient o!!ortunity to study history as history, to see how men mo.ed and acted, to know that history deals with the se1uence o# e.ents in time. ,o insist u!on a general com!rehension o# the worldAs history be#ore examining a !art with care would be 1uite as reasonable as to ask a !u!il to study the circle o# the sciences be#ore he analyBes a #lower or works an air !um!. $hile we belie.e that !u!ils can ad.antageously use the sources, chie#ly as illustrati.e material, we are not now arguing #or the source system or insisting that he should be trained to handle original material. kill in #inding #acts in documents or contem!orary narrati.es, howe.er desirable that may be, is not the sole end o# historical instruction anywhere, and abo.e all in the secondary schools. 2.en the historian is doing but a small !art o# his work when he is mousing through his material and gathering this #act and another #rom #orgotten corners. 'ne o# his most im!ortant and most di##icult tasks is to detect the real meaning o# e.ents, and so to !ut his well0tested data together that their !ro!er im!ort and their actual interrelations are brought to .iew. History, we say again, has to do with the se1uence o# e.ents in time, and what we contend #or is such a course in history as will enable one to see se1uence and mo.ement0the words are not synonymous. ,his sim!le essential o# historical work0an essential, howe.er, o#ten lost sight o# com!letely0must not be neglected. $e belie.e that the !u!il should study history, and not something else under the name o# history0neither !hiloso!hy on the one hand, nor the art o# historical in.estigation on the other. LLLLL ?E@ Let it be remembered that the course in history in the high school should ha.e #or its !ur!ose the gradual awakening and de.elo!ing o# !ower. "u!ils are o#ten !reci!itated into general history, and asked to tax their !owers o# imagination and to gras! mo.ements when they are entirely without ex!erience or training. Last Updated: July 19, 2007 2:17 PM

Ho( the )ifferent &locks or Periods *ay be Treated


-. Ancient History --. MediJ.al and Modern 2uro!ean History ---. 2nglish History -%. American History %. Ci.il Go.ernment

$e may now brie#ly consider each one o# the main di.isions o# the general #ield, and discuss the method in which it may best be handled. ,his !ortion o# our re!ort might be greatly extended, but we wish to con#ine oursel.es to a consideration o# general !ro!ositions, which are deemed im!ortant because they ha.e to do with the essential character and !ur!ose o# the study.

! Ancient History
Greek and &oman history is taught in a large number o# the secondary schools, and in some schools no other branch o# history is o##ered. ,his !re#erence is ex!lained by the e.olution o# the curriculum in which the Greek and Latin languages were long the dominant sub(ects, Greek and &oman history being thrust in at a later time as ancillary to the study o# the ancient languages. -n some schools the history remains a subordinate sub(ect, coming once or twice a week, and, e.en then, it is o#ten in the hands o# a classical instructor who is more interested in linguistics than in history and has had no training in historical method. ,he course is a!t to be con#ined to the histories o# Greece and &ome9 the 'rient is not in#re1uently omitted9 the mediJ.al relations o# &ome are usually ignored. ,he !ers!ecti.e and em!hasis within the #ield co.ered ha.e been determined by literary and linguistic, rather than by historical, considerations, with the result that the chie# attention is de.oted to the !eriods when great writers li.ed and wrote. ,oo much time, #or exam!le, is commonly gi.en to the "elo!onnesian war, while the Hellenistic !eriod is neglected. ,he history o# the early &oman &e!ublic is dwelt u!on at the ex!ense o# the 2m!ire, although .ery little is known o# the early times. -t sometimes seems as i# the ghost o# Li.y were with us yet. ,he committee thinks that the time has come when ancient history may be studied inde!endently as an interesting, instructi.e, and .aluable !art o# the history o# the human race. Classical !u!ils need such a study, not to su!!ort their classical work, but to gi.e them a wider and dee!er knowledge o# the li#e, thought, and character o# the ancient world9 and non0classical !u!ils need the work still more than the classical, #or in this study they are likely to #ind their only o!!ortunity o# coming into contact with ancient ideas. $e ask, then, that ancient history be taught as history, #or the same !ur!ose that any other branch o# history is taught0in order that !u!ils may learn the story o# human achie.ement and be trained in historical thinking. ,o bring out the .alue o# ancient history, it is es!ecially im!ortant that Greek and &oman history should not be isolated, but that there should be some re#erence to the li#e and in#luence o# other nations, and some com!rehension o# the wide #ield, which has a certain unity o# its own. ,here should be a short introductory sur.ey o# 'riental history, as an indis!ensable background #or a study o# the classical !eo!le. ,his sur.ey must be brie#, and in the o!inion o# the committee should not exceed one0eighth o# the entire time de.oted to ancient history. -t should aim to gi.e <a> an idea o# the remoteness o# these 'riental beginnings, o# the length and reach o# recorded history9 <b> a de#inite knowledge o# the names, location, and chronological succession o# the early 'riental nations9 <c> the distinguishing #eatures o# their ci.iliBations, as concretely as !ossible9 <d> the recogniBable lines o# their in#luence on later times. ,he essential #actors in this !eriod may !erha!s best be seen by concentrating attention #irst on the kingdoms o# the two great .alleys0that o# the /ile and that o# the ,igris and 2u!hrates0and by bringing in the lesser !eo!les o# the connecting regions as the great em!ires s!read northward and meet. "ersia may be taken u! a#terward, and its con1uests may ser.e as a re.iew o# the others. Although, o# course, Greek history should include a short study o# early times, and should disclose the growth o# Athens and !arta and the characteristic li#e o# the great classical !eriod, it should not, on the other hand, omit an account o# the chie# e.ents o# the Hellenistic age, but should gi.e some idea o# the con1uests o# Alexander, o# the kingdoms that arose out o# them, and o# the s!read o# Greek ci.iliBation o.er the 2ast, so im!ortant in relation to the in#luence o# Greece u!on later times. -t should also gi.e the main e.ents in the later history o# Greece, and should show the connection between Greek and &oman history. ,ime #or this sur.ey may well be sa.ed by omitting the details o# the "elo!onnesian war, which crowd so many textbooks. ,his !eriod should be used largely as connecti.e tissue, to hold Greek and &oman history together9 it should be a!!roached #irst #rom the Greek side, and a#terwards be re.iewed in connection with the &oman con1uest o# the 2ast. Care should be taken to show the o.erla!!ing o# Greek and &oman history chronologically, and to a.oid the not uncommon im!ression among !u!ils that &ome was #ounded a#ter the destruction o# Corinth. ,he treatment o# &oman history should be su##iciently #ull to corres!ond to its im!ortance. ,oo much time, as it seems to the committee, is o#ten s!ent u!on the !eriod o# the &e!ublic, es!ecially on the early years, and too little u!on that o# the 2m!ire. Ade1uate attention is not always !aid to the de.elo!ment o# &oman !ower and the ex!ansion o# &oman dominion. ome idea should be gi.en o# the organiBation o# the world0 state and o# the extension o# &oman ci.iliBation. &ecogniBing #ully the di##iculty o# this !eriod, and not seeking to #orce u!on the !u!ils general ideas that con#use them, the teacher should endea.or to make them ac1uainted, not sim!ly with em!erors and !rJtorian guards, but with the wide sway o# &ome9 and not so much with the G#allingG o# &ome, as with the im!ression le#t u!on western Christendom by the s!irit and character o# the 2ternal City. ,his, we think, can be done by the care#ul use o# concrete #acts and illustrations, not by the use o# !hiloso!hical generaliBations. "robably most o# us remember that our im!ressions #rom early study were that &ome really ga.e u! the ghost with the accession o# Augustus0is that idea due to that good re!ublican Li.y, againF And i# we studied the 2m!ire at all, we wondered why it took #our hundred years and more #or her to tread all the sli!!ery way to A.ernus, when once she had entered u!on the road. ,o get such an im!ression is to lose the truth o# &ome. ,he continuation o# ancient history into the early Middle Ages has a mani#est con.enience in a !rogramme o# two yearsA work in 2uro!ean history. -t secures an e1uitable ad(ustment o# time and a reasonable distribution o# em!hasis between the earlier and later !eriods. -# the !u!il sto!s his historical work at the end o# the #irst year, it is desirable that he should not look u!on classical history as a thing a!art, but that he should be brought to see something o# what #ollowed the so0called GFallG o# the $estern 2m!ire. Moreo.er, it is di##icult to #ind a logical sto!!ing !lace at an earlier date9 one can not end with the introduction o# Christianity, or with the Germanic in.asions, or with the rise o# Mohammedanism9 and to break o## with the year E:8 is to lea.e the !u!il in a world o# con#usion0the in.asions only begun, the church not #ully organiBed, the 2m!ire not wholly G#allen.G Hence, #rom moti.es o# clearness alone, there is a gain in carrying the !u!il on to an age o# com!arati.e order and sim!licity, such as one #inds in the time o# Charlemagne. Further study o# the Middle Ages then begins with the dissolution o# the Frankish 2m!ire and the #ormation o# new states.?;@

! "edi#val and "odern $uropean History


,his #ield co.ers a !eriod o# a thousand years, and the history o# at least #our or #i.e im!ortant nations9 it is necessarily, there#ore, a matter o# considerable di##iculty to determine the best method by which the sub(ect may be handled. $hether the whole #ield be co.ered su!er#icially, or only the main lines be treated, it is highly desirable that some unity should be disco.ered, i# !ossible, or that there should be some central line with which e.ents or mo.ements can be correlated. ,o #ind an assured !rinci!le o# unity is exceedingly di##icult, !erha!s im!ossible9 and it is .ery likely that writers will continue to disagree as to the best method o# tra.ersing this .ast area. 'ne way to get unity and continuity is to study general mo.ements alone, without endea.oring to #ollow the li#e o# any one nation9 but while this method is !ossible #or college classes it may not be #ound #easible #or secondary schools, where !u!ils ha.e greater di##iculty in com!rehending general tendencies. till, we think that certain essential characteristics o# at least the mediJ.al !eriod may !erha!s be studied. ,he !eriod extending #rom Charlemagne to the &e.i.al o# Learning has a Gstrongly marked character, almost a !ersonality o# its own9G and by a selection o# !ro!er #acts some o# the main characteristics may be brought home to the knowledge o# the high0school !u!ils. ,he teacher or text writer who attem!ts this method must naturally !roceed with great caution, getting general ideas be#ore the students by a (udicious use o# concrete #acts and illustrations, and not #ailing to gi.e some o# the more im!ortant e.ents and dates that mark the !eriod. He will !robably #ind that the most characteristic #eature o# the age is the unbroken dominance o# the &oman Church, and should there#ore bring out clearly the essential #eatures o# its organiBation, and ex!lain the methods by which it exercised control in all de!artments o# mediJ.al li#e. -# this is done, as it can and should be done, with care and im!artiality, the !u!il will recei.e a .aluable lesson in historical truth#ulness and ob(ecti.ity at the same time that he comes to a!!reciate one o# the great mo.ing #orces o# 2uro!ean history.

,his method o# treating continental history can be carried throughout the &e#ormation !eriod by remembering that while that !eriod marks the end o# the Middle Ages it also #orms the basis #or modern 2uro!ean history. ,his e!och must there#ore be taught with both !oints o# .iew in mind. ,he main as!ects o# the time must be brought broadly be#ore the !u!il, and he must be led to see that the sixteenth century is a century o# transition9 that the old order has been swe!t away9 that religious, !olitical, material, intellectual, and social li#e has been !ro#oundly a##ected, not only by the teachings o# Luther and Cal.in, but by the de.elo!ment o# the !rinting !ress, the use o# gun!owder, the .oyages o# Magellan and +rake, and the change in economic .alues. ,he wars o# religion mark the last e##orts to reestablish united Christendom9 and, although the treaty o# $est!halia <58E6> seems well within the s!here o# modern history, it may not im!ro!erly be selected as the end o# this era o# transition. From the close o# this !eriod it will be #ound .ery di##icult to treat only o# mo.ements o# a general character a##ecting the li#e o# 2uro!e. ,here is now no great institution, like the Church, which #orms the centre o# Christendom9 the di##erent nations no longer belong to a system, but act as inde!endent so.ereigns9 the de.elo!ment o# distinct national li#e is now o# !rimary concern to the historical student. But e.en in modern history the method o# treating e!ochs o# international im!ortance can be used to some extent. -n order that this may be done, it will be necessary, !robably, so to connect mo.ements or e!ochal characteristics with the history o# !articular nations that the se!arate de.elo!ment o# the 2uro!ean states may be discerned. For exam!le, the !eriod #rom 58E6 to 5:5; can be treated as the age o# Louis I-%9 while the history o# the se.enteenth0century monarchy, illustrated by the attitude and the administration o# Louis, is brought to light, the history o# western 2uro!e may be studied in its relations with France. ,he !eriod #rom 5:5; to 5:8D is the age o# colonial ex!ansion, o# ri.alry between France and 2ngland9 and it can be studied #rom either 2ngland or France as a !oint o# .iew. ,he age o# Frederick the Great <5:EH068> brings be#ore us not only the rise o# "russia and the signi#icance o# that great #act, but the theory o# enlightened des!otism, o# which Frederick was an ex!onent, and which was exem!li#ied by the work o# Catherine o# &ussia, Kose!h --, and other enlightened monarchs and ministers. For the !eriod o# the French &e.olution and the 2m!ire <5:670565;>, France again may be taken as the center #rom which to consider the international relations o# 2uro!ean states, the de.elo!ment o# the new !rinci!les o# nationality, the so.ereignty o# the !eo!le, and the liberty o# the indi.idual. From 565; to 56E6 Metternich may be regarded as the central #igure9 the reactionary characteristics o# this time will naturally be dwelt u!on, but the growth o# new !rinci!les may also be illustrated, as seen in the establishment o# inde!endence in Greece and Belgium, and in the liberal monarchy o# Louis "hili!!e. ,he system o# Metternich broke down in 56E6, and #rom that time to 56:5 study is naturally directed to the work o# Ca.our and Bismarck, to the uni#ication o# -taly and Germany, and to to!ics that may be easily considered in connection with these e.ents. -n attem!ting to gi.e the !u!il some idea o# modern 2uro!ean !olitics since the establishment o# the German 2m!ire, it may be #ound ad.isable to treat Bismarck as the central #igure down to 567H, and the 2m!eror $illiam -- as the successor o# Bismarck. -n this connection, the extra02uro!ean ambitions and achie.ements o# Germany since 56:5 will ser.e to bring out the #act that the history o# the great 2uro!ean nations is now not only the history o# 2uro!e, but the history o# Asia and A#rica as well. -n some such manner as this it may be !ossible to study the broad #ield o# 2uro!ean history with s!ecial re#erence to mo.ements or e!ochs. ,he outline is not gi.en here as a !ro!osal #or a hard and #ast system, but rather to illustrate the main !rinci!le #or which we are contending9 namely, that some !rinci!le o# unity should be disco.ered which will allow de#inite concrete treatment, a.oiding, on the one hand, !hiloso!hical generaliBation, and, on the other, tangled accounts o# detailed e.ents which are made meaningless by the absence o# !ro!er connotation. Another method o# securing unity and continuity is to select the history o# one nation, !re#erably that o# France, as a central thread, and study the de.elo!ment o# its li#e. -t may be that an understanding o# the chie# transitions in the history o# one nation #or a thousand years is all that the second0year !u!il should be asked to ac1uire, but !robably it will be 1uite !ossible #or him to ac1uire more. ,he Germanic migrations, the growth o# the church, the in.asions o# the aracens, the establishment o# the Holy &oman 2m!ire, #eudalism, the crusades, the &enaissance, the rise o# national monarchies, the religious wars, the French &e.olution and the /a!oleonic wars, the uni#ication o# Germany and -taly, the democratic mo.ements o# the !resent century0these and other im!ortant to!ics ha.e immediate relation to French history, and may well be studied in connection with it. ,his method o# treatment has been #ollowed satis#actorily in some schools. Many teachers ha.e used 2nglish history #or the !ur!ose with some success, and ha.e thus gi.en to their !u!ils no small knowledge o# what went on u!on the Continent. 2ngland, howe.er, does not ser.e this !ur!ose so well as France9 we s!eak o# this use o# 2nglish history sim!ly to show the !racticability o# the !lan. '# course, i# any one nation is chosen, the student is a!t to get an exalted idea o# the !art which that !articular nation has !layed9 and there is danger, too, o# a lack o# !ro!ortion. But consistency, sim!licity, and unity are more essential than general com!rehension9 or, it might more truly be said, general com!rehension and a!!reciation o# !ro!ortions are almost im!ossible #or boys and girls, and i# sim!licity and com!actness are wanting there is a!t to be no gras! o# #undamentals at all. -# France be taken as a center, e.ents can be studied in se1uence, the !rimary historical way o# looking at things can be culti.ated, and the concrete acts o# men can be examined and discussed. -# neither o# the methods here suggested a!!eals to the teacher, he must seemingly do one o# two things3 he must endea.or to get a .ery general .iew o# the #ield, gi.e all the main #acts and dates, and #ollow the histories o# the nations in !arallel lines9 or he must omit large !ortions o# the historical #ield altogether and content himsel# with the study o# a #ew im!ortant e!ochs. By either o# these modes o# treatment, any e##ort to uni#y is in large measure gi.en u!. ,he #irst way is not uncommonly #ollowed, but it o#ten results, as the committee thinks, in cramming the memory with indigestible #acts and in mental con#usion9 though an occasional e##ort to bind the !arallel lines together by horiBontal lines will hel! to gi.e unity and wholeness to the structure, or, to change the #igure, an occasional .iew o# a cross section will ha.e a like e##ect. ,he second method is ado!ted by some teachers, and they could with di##iculty be con.inced that it is not the best. ,hey belie.e that by the intensi.e study o# two or three e!ochs the best educational results are obtained. ,he &e#ormation, the age o# Louis I-%, the French &e.olution, and the nineteenth century might be selected as characteristic !eriods. $e do not, howe.er, urge this method u!on the schools, or insist that it is the !ro!er one. $e know that it has been success#ully used, and belie.e that under ad.antageous circumstances it will be likely to !ro.e satis#actory9 although one must regret the #ailure resulting #rom this system to gi.e anything a!!roaching a general .iew o# 2uro!ean history.

! $n%lish History
2nglish history, coming in the third year o# the school course, and com!leting the sur.ey o# 2uro!ean de.elo!ment, is exceedingly im!ortant. igni#icant as is the history o# the 2nglish nation in itsel#, the study may be made doubly use#ul i# the work is so conducted that it ser.es in some measure as a re.iew o# continental history and as a !re!aration #or American history. ,he !u!ils in our schools, as we ha.e already suggested, can ill a##ord to lose such an introduction to the study o# the history and institutions o# the =nited tates9 #or, without a knowledge o# how the 2nglish !eo!le de.elo!ed and 2nglish !rinci!les matured, they can ha.e slight a!!reciation o# what America means. 2.en the &e.olution, #or exam!le, i# studied as an isolated !henomenon, is bere#t o# hal# its meaning, to say the least, because the mo.ement that ended in the se!aration o# the colonies #rom the mother country and in the ado!tion o# the Federal Constitution, began long be#ore the colonies were #ounded, and because the +eclaration o# -nde!endence was the #ormal announcement o# democratic ideas that had their ta!root in 2nglish soil. $e belie.e that considerable, i# not the chie#, attention should be !aid to the gradual de.elo!ment o# 2nglish !olitical institutions. ,hese words may sound #orbidding, but it is to be ho!ed that the reader o# this re!ort will not imagine that we think o# !lunging the !u!il into tubbs or Hallam. $e mean sim!ly that the main #eatures, the #undamental !rinci!les and !ractices o# constitutional go.ernment, should be studied, and that the ste!s in its de.elo!ment should be marked. -t is not im!ossible to know the leading #eatures o# the work o# $illiam - and its results, the !rinci!al re#orms o# Henry --, the chie# de.elo!ments o# the thirteenth century, the actual meanings o# ,udor su!remacy, the underlying causes, !ur!oses, and results o# the "uritan &e.olution, the work o# "ym and 2liot, o# &obert $al!ole or o# 2arl Grey. 'ne might almost as well ob(ect to mathematics in the high school because 1uaternions or the integral calculus are hard and abstruse, as to com!lain o# the di##iculty o# the constitutional history o# 2ngland because, when studied !ro#oundly, it is, like e.ery other sub(ect, #ull o# !er!lexities. ,he treatment must be sim!le, direct, and #orcible, and its su!reme ob(ect must be to show the long struggle #or !olitical and ci.il !ri.ileges, and the gradual growth o# the cardinal #orms and salient ideas o# the 2nglish state. 'ne can not #orget, e.en in a high0school course, that 2ngland is the mother o# modern constitutional go.ernment9 that by the #orce o# exam!le she has become the law0gi.er o# the nations. ,he !u!il should be led to see how the state grew in !ower, how the go.ernment de.elo!ed, and how it became more and more res!onsi.e to the !o!ular will and watch#ul o# indi.idual interests. But he ought to see more than merely !olitical !rogress9 he can be made to see, at least to some small extent, how the li#e o# men broadened as the years went by, and can note some o# the many changes in habits o# li.ing and in industry. uch a reign as that o# 2liBabeth would yield but little o# its meaning i# the student should content himsel# with the hackneyed !hrase o# G,udor absolutismG <but hal# true at the best>, and did not see the social and industrial mo.ements, the great human u!rising, Gthe general awakening o# national li#e, the increase o# wealth, o# re#inement and leisure,G in that age when the Gs!here o# human interest was widened as it had ne.er been widened be#ore ... by the re.elation o# a new hea.en and a new earth.G ,he wise teacher will not neglect the collateral study o# literature, but will endea.or to show that it !artook o# the character o# its time, as the best literature is always the best ex!onent o# the age which brings it #orth. -n the study o# 2nglish institutions, it is not wise to dwell at length u!on conditions !rior to the /orman !eriod, and indeed e.en the ordinary !olitical e.ents be#ore the time o# 2gbert should be !assed o.er ra!idly. ,o the secondary !u!il the details o# what Milton called the Gbattles o# the kites and crowsG are dreary and un!ro#itable9 a!ocry!hal martyrdoms, legends o# doubt#ul authenticity, and scores o# un!ronounceable names are useless burdens to the health#ul memory o# a boy o# sixteen, whose mind !rom!tly re#uses assimilation. But the origins o# later institutions, so #ar as they a!!ear in Anglo0 axon times, are not uninteresting and may well be noticed. $hen institutions #amiliar to us in modern li#e are #airly established, the !u!ilAs interest is naturally awakened and time is rightly de.oted to their study. ,he (ury, the o##ices o# sheri## and coroner, and like matters, deser.e attention9 and !ossibly something may be done e.en with the de.elo!ment o# the common law in early 2ngland. But, in all the work, e##ort should be made to understand institutions that ha.e li.ed rather than those that ha.e !erished9 such study cannot #ail to bring home a sense o# our indebtedness to the !ast. -t is unnecessary, howe.er, to indicate here in detail how the successi.e ste!s in the de.elo!ment o# 2nglish institutions and o# 2nglish liberties may be brought out9 such a !resentation would in.ol.e a longer treatment than can be gi.en here9 but it is not out o# !lace to say that stress should be laid chie#ly u!on the im!ortant constitutional mo.ements and the establishment o# !rinci!les which mark a stage o# !rogress, and are !re!arations #or institutions, !rinci!les, and ideas, that are to #ollow. -n teaching 2nglish constitutional history, it is the institutions o# south Britain that demand chie# attention9 but in teaching the history o# the nation as a!art #rom that o# the tate, it is essential that the common !ractice o# neglecting $elsh, cottish, and -rish history be abandoned in American schools9 otherwise no idea is gained o# the com!osite nature o# the nation which has built u! the British 2m!ire, and s!read abroad the knowledge o# 2nglish institutions and the use o# the 2nglish language. 2.en in studying the early history, care should be taken to bring out the #act that there were such !eo!le as the $elsh, cots, and -rish9 and, although it is not ad.isable to consider in any detail the history o# these nations in later times, yet some o# the more im!ortant e.ents should be dwelt u!on9 the relationshi!s with south Britain should be ke!t in mind9 and such knowledge o# their de.elo!ment should be gi.en that the #inal welding o# all into a single British kingdom becomes intelligible. -t is .ery desirable that the ex!ansion and the im!erial de.elo!ment o# Britain should recei.e ade1uate notice. choolbooks rarely lay su##icient em!hasis u!on this !hase o# the sub(ect9 in them the real meaning o# the American &e.olution is usually not disclosed9 +ettingen, Fontenoy, and Minden sometimes obscure Louisburg, Muebec, and "lassey. $ithout +rake, &aleigh, Cli.e, and Gordon, 2nglish history o# the last three centuries is not 2nglish history at all. ,he colonial system also, and the general colonial !olicy o# the se.enteenth and eighteenth centuries, demand attention in American schools9 and the #oundation o# British dominion in -ndia cannot rightly be made subordinate to !arty struggles in "arliament or to ministerial successions. Finally, to trace the growth o# the British 2m!ire in the nineteenth century9 to see how the colonists o# Canada, Australia, /ew Nealand, and outh A#rica ha.e obtained and used the right o# sel#0go.ernment, and how the 2ast -ndia Com!anyAs settlements ha.e de.elo!ed into an im!erial de!endency under the British crown0these to!ics are more im!ortant than any study o# ordinary !arty !olitics within the old sea0girt realm o# 2ngland. By !aying attention to the continental relations o# 2ngland it will be !ossible to re.iew the more im!ortant mo.ements o# 2uro!ean history, and to gi.e the !u!il new .iews o# their meanings. '# course, i# these side .iews o# continental conditions are o##ered too #re1uently the class may become con#used, and lose sight e.en o# the well0worn !aths o# 2nglish constitutional !rogress. Kudicious re#erence and com!arison, howe.er, will not be distracting, but will assist the !u!ils in a!!reciating the meaning o# what was going on within the #our seas. A study o# 2nglish #eudalism will gi.e an o!!ortunity to re.iew what has been learned o# the continental characteristics o# that institution. ,he crusades can not be studied as i# &ichard - were the only king who took the cross. $ho can understand the 1uarrel between Henry - and Anselm i# he has no knowledge o# the contest between Gregory and Henry o# GermanyF Can e.en the /orman con1uest be known without some sense o# who the /orthmen were and what they had been doingF +oes one get the #orce o# the great liberal mo.ements o# the se.enteenth century without some slight com!arison between the Charleses o# 2ngland and the Louises o# FranceF Although this com!arati.e method may be o.erdone, we belie.e that care#ul and (udicious com!arisons and illustrations will !ro.e illuminating, suggesti.e, and in all ways hel!#ul.

&! American History


-# American history is studied, as the committee recommends, in the last year o# the secondary school, it should be taken u! as an ad.anced sub(ect, with the !ur!ose o# getting a clear idea o# the course o# e.ents in the building o# the American &e!ublic and the de.elo!ment o# its !olitical ideas. -ts chie# ob(ects should be to lead the !u!il to a knowledge o# the #undamentals o# the state and society o# which he is a !art, to an a!!reciation o# his duties as a citiBen, and to an intelligent, tolerant !atriotism. -t is not desirable that much time should be de.oted to the colonial history. ,he !eriod is es!ecially interesting i# .iewed as a cha!ter in the ex!ansion o# 2ngland, a cha!ter in the story o# the struggle between the nations o# western 2uro!e #or colonies, commerce, and dominion. -t must be .iewed, too, as a time when the s!irit o# sel#0su##iciency and sel#0determination was growing0a s!irit which accounts #or the &e.olution and #or the dominating .igor o# the later democracy. Attention may be !aid to the establishment o# industrial conditions and o# habits o# industrial acti.ity, as ex!laining !olitical di##erences in subse1uent times, es!ecially as ex!laining the di.ergence o# /orth and outh a#ter constitutional union had been #ormed. light notice should be taken o# military cam!aigns in any !ortion o# the study, though the im!ortance o# intercolonial wars can easily be underestimated, and the main #acts o# other wars, es!ecially, o# course, the &e.olutionary and the Ci.il war, cannot be neglected. -n the study o# American history it is es!ecially desired that the de.elo!ment o# the !olitical organiBations be clearly brought #orth. /othing should be allowed to obscure the leading #eatures o# our constitutional system. ,he !u!il must see the characteristics o# American !olitical li#e and know the #orms and methods, as well as the !rinci!les o# !olitical acti.ity. He must ha.e knowledge o# the ideals o# American li#e, and must study the !rinci!les o# American society as they ha.e ex!ressed themsel.es in institutions and embodied themsel.es in ci.ic #orms. Much has been said about the necessity o# studying the social and industrial history o# the =nited tates, and some !ractical teachers ha.e declared that chie# stress should be laid u!on social and economic #eatures?8@ o# the !ast li#e o# the !eo!le. uch a study is certainly .ery desirable9 the student should come to a realiBation o# the nature o# the !roblems o# the industrial world about him, and should see the gradual changes that ha.e been wrought as the years ha.e gone by. History should be made real to him through the study o# the daily ordinary li#e o# man, and he should be led to #eel that only a .ery small !ortion o# manAs acti.ities or stri.ings is ex!ressed by legislatures, congresses, or cabinets9 that, es!ecially under a go.ernment such as ours, the industrial conditions, the bodily needs, the social desires, the moral longings o# the !eo!le, determine ultimately, i# not immediately, the character o# the law and the nature o# the go.ernment itsel#. $e do not think, howe.er, that economic or social #acts should be em!hasiBed at the ex!ense o# go.ernmental or !olitical #acts. -t seems wise to say that the greatest aim o# education is to im!ress u!on the learner a sense o# duty and res!onsibility, and an ac1uaintance with his human obligations9 and that a mani#est #unction o# the historical instruction in the school is to gi.e to the !u!il a sense o# duty as a res!onsible member o# that organiBed society o# which he is a !art, and some a!!reciation o# its !rinci!les and its

#undamental character. -n other words, while industrial and social !hases o# !rogress should by no means be slighted, it is an absolute necessity that a course in American history should aim to gi.e a connected narrati.e o# !olitical e.ents and to record the gradual u!building o# institutions, the slow establishment o# !olitical ideals and !ractices. Fortunately, as we ha.e already suggested, many o# the most im!ortant e.ents in our social and industrial history are so intimately connected with the course o# our !olitical history that the two sub(ects seem not two but one. Changes in modes o# industry or in social conditions, im!ro.ements in methods o# labor, intellectual and moral mo.ements, ha.e mani#ested themsel.es in !olitical action, ha.e in#luenced !arty creeds, or in some other way a##ected the #orms or the conduct o# the body !olitic. -n a democratic country any im!ortant change in the li#e o# the !eo!le is o# im!ortance in !olitical history, because the !eo!le are the state. Many o# the economic and social changes, there#ore, can best be studied as they show themsel.es in organiBed e##ort or are embodied in !olitical institutions. -# one looks at !olitical acti.ities or endea.ors to understand constitutions, without knowledge o# the li.es and ho!es o# the !eo!le, the stri.ings o# trade and commerce, the in#luence o# in.entions and disco.eries, the e##ects o# immigration, he knows but little o# the whence or the how, and deals with symbols, not with things. $hile we belie.e, then, that the chie# aim should be to gi.e the !u!il knowledge o# the !rogress o# !olitical institutions, ideas, and tendencies, we belie.e also that he should know the economic !hases o# li#e9 that whene.er !ossible, attention should be directed not merely to economic and social conditions, but to economic and social de.elo!ments9 and that those economic, industrial, or social modi#ications should recei.e chie# attention which ha.e !ermanently altered social organiBation, or ha.e become imbedded in institutions, ideas, or go.ernmental #orms. $e should in our study endea.or to see the #ull im!ortance, because we see the results, o# the #act that %irginia grew tobacco and outh Carolina rice, and that the /ew 2nglanders were #ishermen and went down to the sea in shi!s9 we should try to recogniBe the meanings o# sla.ery and white ser.itude, o# cotton and the sugar trade, o# the steamboat, the railroad, the telegra!h, the rotary !ress, the sewing machine. $e should see, i# we can, how such things in#luenced human !rogress and had e##ect on the nature, organiBation, and destinies o# the American !eo!le. /ow a care#ul study like this is not !ossible #or students in their early years. -n the grades below the secondary school use may well be made o# mere descri!tions o# !ast times, o# houses and a!!arel, o# the snu##boxes, wigs, and silken hose o# our great grand#athers9 #or such !ictures hel! to awaken the imagination, to #urnish it with #ood, to bring home the idea that men and their surroundings ha.e changed, and to !re!are the mind #or the later growth o# historical !ower and ca!acities.?:@ But though the !u!il must know bygone conditions and must seek to get a .i.id !icture o# the !ast, the ultimate aim o# history is to disclose not what was, but what became. ,otally unrelated #acts are o# anti1uarian rather than o# historical interest. -n the secondary school, then, and es!ecially in the later years o# the course, attention must be !aid to mo.ements, and an e##ort must be made to culti.ate the #aculty #or drawing truth#ul generaliBations, #or seeing and com!rehending tendencies. $e ho!e that #rom this statement no one will get the idea that we are waging war on economic history, or the study o# what the Germans ha.e ha!!ily called Gculturgeschichte.G But we contend that, since there is so much to be done in a single year, there is no time #or the study o# such !ast industrial and social conditions0though they may be indeed interesting !henomena0as stand unrelated, isolated, and hence meaningless, and are !erha!s without real historical .alue. ,ime must rather be gi.en to the im!ortant, to conditions which were #ruit#ul o# results, to mo.ements, changes, and im!ulses in industrial as well as in !olitical society. /o study o# economic #orms or social !hases should hide #rom .iew the !olitical and social ideas #or which our country stands, and which ha.e been the de.elo!ments o# our history. $e ha.e entered u!on this sub(ect at some length in connection with a consideration o# American history, because many o# the statements seem im!ortant, and because much that is said, while !eculiarly a!!licable to American history, is likewise true o# other #ields. 2s!ecially in the study o# 2nglish history should e##ort be made to connect economic and intellectual conditions with the !rogress o# 2ngland, to look #or changes in the succeeding centuries, and to see how !olitical organiBation and social needs reacted one u!on the other. And yet how o#ten has $at ,ylerAs insurrection been studied as a mere u!rising o# !olitical malcontents endangering the sa#ety or the bodily ease o# young &ichard --O How o#ten has the de.astation o# the /orth been studied as i# it had a bearing only on the #ortunes o# the /orman dynastyO How o#ten ha.e in.entions and disco.eries been stated as merely isolated !henomena0such changes, #or exam!le, as that marked by the use o# !it0coal in the making o# iron, as i# they were o# only scienti#ic interestO

&! Civil 'overnment


Much time will be sa.ed and better results obtained i# history and ci.il go.ernment be studied in large measure together, as one sub(ect rather than as two distinct sub(ects. $e are sure that, in the light o# what has been said in the earlier !ortions o# this re!ort about the desirability o# school !u!ils knowing their !olitical surroundings and duties, no one will su!!ose that in what we here recommend we underestimate the .alue o# ci.il go.ernment or wish to lessen the e##ecti.eness o# the study. $hat we desire to em!hasiBe is the #act that the two sub(ects are in some res!ects one, and that there is a distinct loss o# energy in studying a small book on American history and a#terward a small book on ci.il go.ernment, or .ice .ersa, when by combining the two a substantial course may be gi.en. -n any com!lete and thorough secondary course in these sub(ects there must be, !robably, a se!arate study o# ci.il go.ernment, in which may be discussed such to!ics as munici!al go.ernment, tate institutions, the nature and origin o# ci.il society, some #undamental notions o# law and (ustice, and like matters9 and it may e.en be necessary, i# the teacher desires to gi.e a com!lete course and can command the time, to su!!lement work in American history with a #ormal study o# the Constitution and the workings o# the national go.ernment. But we re!eat that a great deal o# what is commonly called ci.il go.ernment can best be studied as a !art o# history. ,o know the !resent #orm o# our institutions well one should see whence they came and how they de.elo!ed9 but to show origins, de.elo!ments, changes, is the task o# history, and in the !ro!er study o# history one sees (ust these mo.ements and knows their results. -t would, o# course, be #oolish to say that the secondary !u!il can trace the ste!s in the de.elo!ment o# all our institutions, laws, !olitical theories, and !ractices9 but some o# them he can trace, and he should be enabled to do so in his course in American history. How it came about that we ha.e a #ederal system o# go.ernment rather than a centraliBed state9 what were the colonial beginnings o# our systems o# local go.ernment9 how the =nion itsel# grew into being9 why the Constitution !ro.ided against general warrants9 why the #irst ten amendments were ado!ted9 why the American !eo!le ob(ected to bills o# attainder and declared against them in their #undamental law0these, and a score o# other 1uestions, naturally arise in the study o# history, and an answer to them gi.es meaning to our Constitution. Moreo.er, the most #undamental ideas in the !olitical structure o# the =nited tates may best be seen in a study o# the !roblems o# history. ,he nature o# the Constitution as an instrument o# go.ernment, the relation o# the central authority to the tates, the theory o# tate so.ereignty or that o# national unity, the rise o# !arties and the growth o# !arty machinery0these sub(ects are best understood when seen in their historical settings. But in addition to this, many, i# not all, o# the !ro.isions o# the Constitution may be seen in the study o# history, not as mere descri!tions written on a !iece o# !archment, but as they are embodied in working institutions. ,he best way to understand institutions is to see them in action9 the best way to understand #orms is to see them used. By studying ci.il go.ernment in connection with history, the !u!il studies the concrete and the actual. ,he !rocess o# im!eachment, the a!!ointing !ower o# the !resident, the make0u! o# the cabinet, the !ower o# the !eaker, the organiBation o# the ,erritories, the ado!tion and !ur!ose o# the amendments, the methods o# annexing territory, the distribution o# the !owers o# go.ernment and their working relations, indeed, all the im!ortant !arts o# the Constitution that ha.e been translated into existing, acting institutions, may be studied as they ha.e acted. -# one does not !ay attention to such sub(ects as these in the study o# history, what is le#t but wars and rumors o# wars, !artisan contentions, and meaningless detailsF $e do not ad.ise that text0books on ci.il go.ernment be discarded, e.en when there is no o!!ortunity to gi.e a se!arate course in the sub(ect. 'n the contrary, such a book should always be ready #or use, in order that the teacher may !ro!erly illustrate the !ast by re#erence to the !resent. -# the !u!ils can make use o# good books on the Constitution and laws, so much the better. $hat we desire to recommend is sim!ly this, that in any school where there is no time #or sound, substantial courses in both ci.il go.ernment and history, the history be taught in such a way that the !u!il will gain a knowledge o# the essentials o# the !olitical system which is the !roduct o# that history9 and that, where there is time #or se!arate courses, they be taught, not as isolated, but as interrelated and interde!endent sub(ects. Bisho! tubbs in a memorable sentence has said, G,he roots o# the !resent lie dee! in the !ast, and nothing in the !ast is dead to the man who would learn how the !resent comes to be what it is.G ,hough we must not distort the !ast in an e##ort to gi.e meaning to the !resent, yet we can #ully understand the !resent only by a study o# the !ast9 and the !ast, on the other hand, is a!!reciated only by those who know the !resent. ?;@ uch a sur.ey o# the beginnings o# the Middle Ages must needs be 1uite brie#, and should be con#ined to the !rimary #eatures o# the !eriod0to the barbarian in.asions, the rise o# the Christian church and o# Mohammedan ci.iliBation, the !ersistence o# the 2m!ire in the 2ast, and the growth o# Frankish !ower to its culmination under Charlemagne. ,his !ractice o# combining ancient and mediJ.al history has been #ollowed in a number o# schools, and the results ha.e been satis#actory. ?8@ ,here is a marked di##erence between studying economic history and studying economic #eatures or conditions. ?:@ $e recogniBe #ully the historical .alue o# many things that seem at #irst sight unim!ortant. $hen, #or exam!le, we are told that the old Federalists wore wigs and the &e!ublicans did not, we recogniBe a #act that marks a change and symboliBes !olitical creeds and !arty di##erences. ,aine says that about the twentieth year o# 2liBabethAs reign the nobles ga.e u! the shield and two0handed sword #or the ra!ier, Ga little, almost im!erce!tible #act,G he remarks, Gyet .ast, #or it is like the change which sixty years ago made us gi.e u! the sword at court, to lea.e our arms swinging about in our black coats.G Last Updated: July 19, 2007 1:46 PM

*ethods of +nstruction
-n the early !art o# this re!ort, attention is called to the #act that there seems to be some agreement among teachers o# history concerning the methods o# teaching9 and we ha.e attributed this agreement in some measure to the recommendation o# the Madison Con#erence, whose re!ort has been widely read and used throughout the country. +oubtless there are many other reasons #or the im!ro.ement o# the last ten years, chie# among which is the increased su!!ly o# well0trained teachers. ,here has been also a new recognition o# the !ur!ose o# history teaching, a growing realiBation on the !art o# teachers o# why they teach the sub(ect and o# what they ho!e to accom!lish. -# one has distinctly in his mind the end that he seeks to gain, he will be likely to disco.er suitable means and methods o# teaching. More im!ortant, there#ore, than method, is ob(ect9 means are .alueless to one who has no end to be attained. ,he teacher who is seeking means and methods should #irst in1uire whether he is sure that he knows what he wishes to accom!lish. -t is unnecessary #or us to go into this sub(ect at .ery great length. -# teachers ha.e been stimulated by the re!ort o# the Madison con#erence, and ha.e learned to obtain #rom it what is ada!ted to their wants, and to disregard what seems to them to be unsuited to their needs, they can continue to #ollow it. -n s!ite o# the six years o# ex!erience that ha.e ela!sed since that re!ort was !ublished, this committee will !erha!s be no wiser in its recommendations and suggestions9 and i# there is now a mani#est dri#t toward what we may be su##ered to call Gad.ancedG methods, the best !lan may be to lea.e well enough alone, with the #irm assurance that the best methods will be widely used only when there is a #ull realiBation o# the !ur!oses and the nature o# the study. $hile discussing the .alue o# historical work, we ha.e necessarily considered the aims and ob(ects o# instruction. ,he chie# !ur!ose is not to #ill the boyAs head with a mass o# material, which he may !erchance !ut #orth again when a college examiner demands its !roduction. $ithout underestimating the .alue o# historical knowledge, and de!recating nothing more than a readiness to argue and contend about the meaning o# #acts that ha.e not been established, we contend that the accumulation o# #acts is not the sole, or !erha!s not the leading, !ur!ose o# studying history. ?6@ /o other sub(ect in the high0school curriculum is stigmatiBed as an in#ormation study sim!ly, rather than an educational study. /ot e.en arithmetic0beyond decimals and !ercentage0is looked u!on as .aluable #or the stubble that it stores away in the head, where the brain has not been called into acti.ity or taught to use the material which it is asked to retain. But #or some unaccountable reason, it has been held that boys and girls must not think about historical material, or be taught to reason or be led to a!!roach e.ents with the historical s!irit. ,he scienti#ic s!irit can be awakened and methods o# scienti#ic thinking culti.ated9 !ower in handling language and an ability #or gras!ing grammatical distinctions can be de.elo!ed9 e.en the literary sense can be #ostered and !romoted9 but the historical sense, the beginnings o# historical thinking, it is sometimes gra.ely said, cannot be ex!ected9 all that one can do is to gi.e in#ormation, in the ho!e that in some distant day !leasant and hel!#ul reactions will take !lace within the brain. Fortunately, the number o# !ersons who argue in this way has decreased and is decreasing, and we may well lea.e those that remain to the intelligent teachers o# history throughout the land, who are awake to the !ossibilities o# their sub(ect, and who see the boys and girls growing in !ower and e##iciency under their hands.?7@ "u!ils who can study !hysics and geometry, or read CiceroAs orations, must be !resumed to ha.e !owers o# logic and ca!acity to #ollow argument. ,eachers o# 2nglish !ut into their !u!ilsA hands such master!ieces as BurkeAs G !eech on Conciliation with AmericaG and $ebsterAs G&e!ly to Hayne.G -t is certainly unwise to use such material #or 2nglish work i# it is im!ossible #or boys and girls o# sixteen to understand what these statesmen were talking about, or to see the #orce o# their arguments9 #or, i# language is conceded to be a .ehicle o# ideas, it cannot be studied as a thing a!art, without re#erence to its content. And i# Burke and Cicero and "atrick Henry and +aniel $ebster can be understood in language work, it seems reasonable to hold that they can be understood in history work, and hence that !u!ils may #airly be asked to think o# what they see and read. -t is not our !ur!ose to gi.e minute and !articular directions concerning methods o# historical instruction. A short list o# books #rom which teachers may obtain hel!#ul suggestions #or classroom work will be #ound in A!!endix %-- to this re!ort. -n dra#ting the recommendations which #ollow here, we ha.e had in mind only certain general methods which we think s!ecially use#ul #or bringing out the educational .alue o# the study. -. $e belie.e that in most cases the teacher should use a text0book. -# the book is !re!ared by a !ractical teacher and a scholar, it is !robably the !roduct o# much toil, which has been de.oted to a consideration o# !ro!ortion and order as well as to accuracy, and it is there#ore likely to un#old the sub(ect more systematically than a teacher can !ossibly do unless he has wide training, long ex!erience, and, in addition, daily o!!ortunity care#ully to examine the #ield and to search out the nature o# the !roblems that he is called u!on to discuss. $ithout the use o# a text it is di##icult to hold the !u!ils to a de#inite line o# work9 there is danger o# incoherence and con#usion. $hile, there#ore, we strongly ad.ise the use o# material outside o# the text, we #eel that the use o# the to!ical method alone will in the great ma(ority o# instances result in the !u!ilsA ha.ing unconnected in#ormation. ,hey will lose sight o# the main current9 and it is the current and not the eddies which they should watch. -n some classes, es!ecially in the more ad.anced grades, it may be !ossible to use more than one textbook. GBy !re!aring in di##erent books, or, by using more than one book on a lesson, !u!ils will ac1uire the habit o# com!arison, and the no less im!ortant habit o# doubting whether any one book co.ers the ground.G?5H@ -n an attem!t to disco.er the truth they may be led to study more widely #or themsel.es, and will surely #ind that there are sources o# in#ormation outside o# the !rinted !age. ,he use o# more than one text will, howe.er, o#ten !resent many !ractical di##iculties to the teacher9 and this will surely be the case unless he has the time and o!!ortunity to master all the texts himsel# and to examine outside material with care. -n most schools there is a decided ad.antage in ha.ing one line along which the class may mo.e. '#ten it may !ro.e hel!#ul to use su!!lementary texts, in order to am!li#y and modi#y the regular class0book9 this may be done by the teacher when com!arison by the class might !ro.e distracting. ?55@ --. Material outside o# the textbook should be used in all branches o# historical study and in e.ery year o# the secondary course. Li#e and interest may in this way be gi.en to the work9 !u!ils may be introduced to good literature and be taught to handle books. ,his collateral material may be used in .arious ways, and o# course much more should be ex!ected o# the later classes than o# the earlier9 indeed, there should be a

consistent !ur!ose to de.elo! gradually and systematically this !ower o# using books. '#ten, es!ecially in the earlier years, the teacher will read to the class !assages #rom entertaining histories. )ounger !u!ils without !re.ious training should not be ex!ected to #ind the books that treat o# certain to!ics, or to know how to #ind the !ortions desired. Let the !u!il learn how to understand and use !ages be#ore he uses books9 and let him learn how to use one or two books be#ore he is set to rummaging in a library. For exam!le, a class in the #irst year o# the secondary school may be asked to tell what is said o# Marathon in Bots#ordAs History o# Greece, !age 5C5. A twel#th0grade class, !ro!erly trained, may be asked to com!are LeckyAs account o# the tam! Act with Bancro#tAs, or to #ind out what they can in the books o# the library concerning the de#ects o# the Articles o# Con#ederation. ---. omething in the way o# written work should be done in e.ery year o# the secondary school. -t is unnecessary to caution teachers against re1uiring the sort o# work in the early years that may reasonably be ex!ected in the later !art o# the course. )ounger !u!ils, who ha.e had little or no training in doing written work o# this character, might be re1uired sim!ly to condense and !ut into their own language a #ew !ages o# Grote or Mommsen, or to write out in sim!le #orm some abstract o# ,hucydidesAs account o# the #ate o# the icilian ex!edition, or o# HerodotusAs descri!tion o# the battle o# ,hermo!ylJ, or to do similar tasks. -n the later years more di##icult tasks may be assigned, demanding the use o# se.eral books and the wea.ing together o# .arious narrati.es or o!inions. -t may be said by some !ersons that such work as this is #or the 2nglish teacher, not #or the history teacher9 but it can hardly be asserted that skill in the use o# historical books, !ractice in ac1uiring historical in#ormation, and the ability to !ut #orth in oneAs own language what has been read, are not ob(ects o# historical training. -%. -t may at times !ro.e hel!#ul to ha.e written recitations or tests. ,eachers ha.e o#ten #ound that this method secures accuracy and de#initeness o# statement. ome !u!ils who ha.e di##iculty in organiBing and arranging the in#ormation which they !ossess, and who conse1uently are not so success#ul as others in oral recitations, o#ten succeed admirably in written exercises, and by their success are stimulated and encouraged to do thought#ul and systematic work. %. Many teachers ha.e been aided in their work by re1uiring the class to kee! notebooks, and the committee #a.ors the ado!tion o# this system, which has !ro.ed so ser.iceable in the study o# the sciences. ,hese books may contain analyses o# the text, notes on outside matter !resented in class, a list o# books with which the !u!il has himsel# become ac1uainted, and !erha!s also some condensations o# his reading. An analytical arrangement o# the more im!ortant to!ics that are discussed in the course o# the study may also be !laced in the notebook. ,his !lan will hel! the student to see the di##erent lines o# de.elo!ment and change. For exam!le, under the head o# G la.ery,G short statements may be inserted o# the #acts that ha.e been learned #rom the text. By so doing the !u!il will ha.e at the end o# his work a condensed narrati.e o# the introduction, growth, and e##ect o# sla.ery, and will be led to see the continuity o# the sla.ery 1uestion as he would !robably be unable to see it by any other means. %-. Fortunately it is unnecessary in these latter days to call the teacherAs attention to the use o# ma!s, and to the idea that geogra!hy and history are inextricably interwo.en. Most text0books now ha.e a number o# ma!s, all o# which, howe.er, are by no means #aultless. Good wall0ma!s may be obtained at reasonable !rices9 and e.ery school should ha.e at least one good historical atlas. ,he class should use !hysical ma!s, as well as those showing !olitical and national di.isions, #or o#ten the sim!lest and most e.ident #acts with which the !u!il is well ac1uainted need to be #orced shar!ly u!on his attention in connection with history. ,he /ile, the 2u!hrates, the ,iber, the &hine, the ,hames, the Mississi!!i, the Al!s, the "yrenees, the Alleghanies0their .ery names call u! to the mind o# the historical scholar troo!s o# #acts and #orces a##ecting the !rogress o# the race and molding the destinies o# nations. ,he !u!ils should not lose sight o# the !hysical causes that ha.e acted in history any more than they should ignore the human causes9 and they must remember that, although history deals with the succession o# e.ents, there is always a !lace relation as well as a time relation. As new meaning is gi.en to geogra!hy when !hysical conditions are seen in relation with human li#e, so reality is added to historical occurrences and new interest is awakened in historical #acts by the study o# the theatre within which men acted and notable e.ents took !lace. GGrou!ings o# historical #igures and scenes around geogra!hical centers make these centers instinct with li#e and motion, while the centers themsel.es, binding the #igures and scenes together, gi.e them a new !ermanence and solidity.G ?5C@ ,he care#ul study o# !hysical geogra!hy and o# historical geogra!hy is o# .alue, there#ore, not only in bringing out the nature or the true im!ort o# #acts, but in hel!ing the !u!ils to retain in#ormation because they see natural causes and relations, and because e.ents are thus made to a!!ear de#inite and actual. -# these methods are to be #ollowed0as they must be i# history is to be a study o# high educational .alue0books #or re#erence and reading are as necessary as is a!!aratus #or e##icient work in !hysics or chemistry. /ot many years ago all sub(ects exce!t Gnatural !hiloso!hyG were taught without the hel! o# any material sa.e a text0book #or each !u!il, and !erha!s a #ew dusty cyclo!aedias o#ten de#tly concealed in a closet behind the teacherAs desk. Great changes ha.e been made9 nearly all schools now ha.e some books, but e.en at the !resent time it is easier to get #i.e thousand dollars #or !hysical and chemical laboratories than #i.e hundred dollars #or re#erence books9 and e.en when libraries ha.e been !ro.ided, their material is sometimes not wisely chosen, and they are o#ten allowed to #all behind by a #ailure to !urchase new and use#ul literature as it comes out. ,he library should be the center and soul o# all study in history and literature9 no .ital work can be carried on without books to which !u!ils may ha.e ready and constant access. $ithout these o!!ortunities historical work is likely to be arid, i# not un!ro#itable9 there cannot be collateral reading, or written work o# the most .aluable sort, or study o# the sources, or knowledge o# illustrati.e material. 2.en a small ex!enditure o# money may change the dull routine o# historical study into a .oyage o# !leasurable disco.ery, awakening the interest, the enthusiasm, and the whole mental !ower o# the !u!ils. /o school is so !oor that something cannot be done in the way o# collecting material. ,he #irst necessity o# a school library is that it be accessible. -t should be in the school building, o!en during the whole o# school hours and as much longer as !ossible. -t should be #urnished with working tables and !ro.ided with good light, and so arranged that it ser.es, not as something hel!#ul outside the school, but as the source and centre o# ins!iration, to which the class0room work is contributory. ,he books should be #reely used9 #or a library is no longer considered a !lace #or the !reser.ation and concealment o# books, but a center #rom which they may be !ut into circulation and where the best #acilities are o##ered #or ac1uiring in#ormation. ,he 1uestion as to whether the books should be le#t in o!en shel.es or handed out by an attendant must be decided, o# course, by the school authorities, in light o# all the circumstances9 but it must be remembered that the o!!ortunity to touch and handle the .olumes, to glance at their !ages, to disco.er the sub(ects o# which they treat0to look, as it were, into their #aces0is o# great .alue, and that more can be learned by a #ew minutes o# #amiliar intercourse with a book in the hand than by many in1uiries o# an attendant or by anxious searchings in a catalogue. ,he #ewer the barriers and obstacles in the way the better will be the results, and the more will the !u!il be tem!ted to re#er to the authorities or to read the great masters in history and literature0an ac1uaintance with whose words, thoughts, and sentiments constitutes in itsel# no small !art o# education. -n em!loying the library #or historical !ur!oses, care should be taken to teach the !u!ils how to use intelligently tables o# contents and indexes, and also how to turn to their account the library catalogues and the indexes to general and !eriodical literature. ,he teacher will remember that the habit o# re#erring to authorities to settle doubt#ul !oints or to disco.er additional e.idence is a most im!ortant !art, not only o# historical training but o# the out#it o# an educated !erson, and that wide reading should bring breadth o# .iew and also a broadening and dee!ening o# the (udgment. ,he well0e1ui!!ed library should contain3 <5> good historical atlases and atlases o# modern geogra!hy9 <C> one or two historical handbooks, or dictionaries o# dates9 <D> an am!le su!!ly o# secondary histories, such as those o# Holm, Mommsen, Lecky, "arkman9 with these may be classed, as es!ecially use#ul, good, interesting biogra!hies, such as +odgeAs Alexander the Great, tanho!eAs "itt9 <E> there should certainly be some collections o# sources, many o# which are now accessible9 and some o# the recent lea#lets and collections o# extracts o# !rimary and secondary material will be #ound o# ser.ice9 <;> a good encyclo!edia and one or two annual com!endiums, such as the .arious !olitical almanacs. ?6@ History, unlike some other sub(ects in the curriculum, is a sub(ect to be studied #or its own sake and not merely #or disci!linary !ur!oses. ,he in#ormation obtained by the study is a continuous source o# !leasure and !ro#it. Moreo.er, no sub(ect can ha.e the best !edagogical results i# its acknowledged !ur!ose is not to ac1uire knowledge but to get training. ,he mind naturally seiBes and uses in#ormation which is at once interesting and use#ul9 abo.e all, it gras!s that which is interesting because it is use#ul. By what is said in the text, we wish to em!hasiBe the disci!linary .alue o# the study, but not to belittle its .alue #or in#ormation and culture. ?7@ $e may (ustly contend that an e##ort to store #acts in !u!ilsA heads o#ten de#eats its own ends. College !ro#essors who ha.e looked o.er entrance examination !a!ers #or many years, as most members o# this committee ha.e done, are struck by the mar.elous accumulation o# misin#ormation which has been ac1uired and held with calm belie# and !lacid assurance. $e may seriously in1uire whether instruction in method o# looking at #acts and training in thinking about them would not lea.e a greater residuum o# actual in#ormation. ?5H@ &e!ort o# the Committee ?o# ,en@ <$ashington, 567D>, 567. ?55@ A#ter this !ortion o# the re!ort dealing with methods was read at the meeting o# the American Historical Association, in 5676, one teacher ex!ressed the o!inion that the re!ort did not su##iciently em!hasiBe the oral recitations9 another, that we did not su##iciently em!hasiBe written work9 another, that we did not su##iciently em!hasiBe the .alue o# more than one text0book. $e do not wish to underestimate any means which any teacher #inds suited to his needs and !roducti.e o# good results. ,eachers must o# course use their own discretion as to how #ar .arious methods may be #ollowed9 but we think that all o# the ideas and !lans here suggested will !ro.e hel!#ul. ?5C@ Hinsdale, How to Study and Teach History, 77.

Sources
,he use o# sources in secondary work is now a matter o# so much im!ortance that it seems to demand s!ecial and distinct treatment. $e belie.e in the !ro!er use o# sources #or !ro!er !u!ils, with !ro!er guarantees that there shall also be secured a clear outline .iew o# the whole sub(ect studied9 but we #ind oursel.es unable to a!!ro.e a method o# teaching, sometimes called the Gsource method,G in which !u!ils ha.e in their hands little more than a series o# extracts, #or the most !art brie#, and not .ery closely related. ,he di##iculty with this system is, that while it suggests the basis o# original record u!on which all history rests, on the other hand it ex!ects .aluable generaliBations #rom insu##icient bases. $ithin the co.ers o# one book it is im!ossible to bring together one hundredth !art o# the material which any care#ul historical writer would examine #or himsel# be#ore coming to a conclusion9 and it is not to be ex!ected that inex!erienced and immature minds can #orm correct notions without some systematic sur.ey o# the #ield. -ndeed, the attem!ts to teach history wholly #rom the sources ignore the #act that the actual knowledge o# the #acts o# history in the minds o# the most highly trained teachers o# history comes largely #rom secondary books9 it is only in limited #ields where a large mass o# material can be examined and si#ted, that historians and teachers can sa#ely rely #or their in#ormation entirely on sources, and e.en there they #ind it use#ul to re#er to the secondary work o# other writers #or new !oints o# .iew. ,he #irst essential, then, #or any !ractical use o# sources by !u!ils is that their work shall be done in connection with a good text0book, in which the se1uence and relation o# e.ents can be made clear. ,he aim o# historical study in the secondary school, let it be re!eated, is the training o# !u!ils, not so much in the art o# historical in.estigation as in that o# thinking historically. "u!ils should be led to gras! #acts and to see them in relations, #or one who has been taught to establish certain #acts with unerring accuracy may still be unable to understand the historical signi#icance o# those #acts. -n the second !lace, we disclaim any con#idence in Gin.estigationG by !u!ils, i# by in.estigation is meant a mental !rocess o# the same order as that o# the !racticed historian and the s!ecial student o# a limited #ield, or o# the teacher !re!aring material #or his classes. -n our (udgment sources are not intended to be either the sole or the !rinci!al materials #or school study. ,here is, indeed, a close analogy between the !ro!osed !rocesses o# historical study and those o# the study o# natural science. -n !hysics, #or exam!le, it has been thought ex!edient to re1uire a well0ordered text0book in connection with a series o# ex!eriments9 yet !hysics cannot be e##iciently taught unless the !u!il has some contact with materials, not because they #orm the only #oundation o# his knowledge, but because he learns to look #or himsel#, and to understand that the knowledge which he recei.es at second0hand must be based u!on !atient in.estigation by somebody else. By the study o# !ro!erly selected materials the !u!il realiBes that historical characters were li.ing !ersons, and he learns to distinguish between them and the x and y o# algebra or the #ormulas o# !hysics. $hen one reads the lo.ing letter written #rom be#ore Antioch by Count te!hen o# Blois some eight hundred years ago,?5D@ in which he charges his wi#e to do right and to remember her duty to her children and her .assals, one realiBes that the Crusaders were real men, imbued with many o# the !ur!oses, ho!es, and sentiments with which men o# the !resent day are mo.ed and in#luenced. ,he use o# sources which we ad.ocate is, there#ore, a limited contact with a limited body o# materials, an examination o# which may show the child the nature o# the historical !rocess, and at the same time may make the !eo!le and e.ents o# bygone times more real to him. $e belie.e that some ac1uaintance with sources .italiBes the sub(ect, and thus makes it easier #or the teacher and more stimulating #or the !u!il. But all sources are not o# e1ual .alue #or this !ur!ose9 some o# those which are .ery im!ortant #or more mature students are too dry and unattracti.e to be use#ul #or younger !ersons. Kohn AdamsAs G+iscourses o# +a.ilaG is a source, though thought exceedingly dull e.en in his generation. Abigail AdamsAs letters to her husband, com!laining o# the #all o# continental currency, are e1ually .aluable as sources, and much more interesting.

ince discrimination in the selection o# sources is o# so much im!ortance, the #irst criterion is that authorities be chosen whose authenticity is beyond dis!ute. -t is not worth while to introduce children to the contro.ersies o.er the .oyages o# Kohn and ebastian Cabot9 or to the arguments #or and against the truth#ulness o# Kohn mithAs account o# his rescue by "ocahontas9 or to the authorshi! o# the letters #ound in the saddlebags o# Charles -. ,here is no di##iculty in obtaining an abundance o# suggesti.e sources, about the .alue o# which historians will agree and around which no interminable contro.ersy is waging. "ains should also be taken to recommend the sources that may reasonably be brought within the knowledge o# !u!ils9 it is o# no use to re#er to rarities or to texts long out o# !rint. -n the next !lace, #ew documents, in the usual signi#icance o# that term, are .ery use#ul in the schoolroom. A ca!itulary o# Charlemagne, Magna Charta, a colonial charter, or the Constitution o# the =nited tates may with care#ul ex!lanation be made clear, but it is di##icult to make them attracti.e. ,he growth o# a nation, the enlargement o# its !olitical ideas, may be measurable by young intellects, but not the registration o# that growth in great !olitical documents. And yet e.en documents may be occasionally used. ,here seems to be no good reason #or merely reading about the +eclaration o# -nde!endence without seeing the !rinted instrument itsel#, or talking about the 'rdinance o# 5:6: or the "roclamation o# 2manci!ation without knowledge o# the texts. ,here is, howe.er, a large body o# material o# another kind which is as trustworthy as constitutional documents and is much more attracti.e. uch are books o# tra.els, which #rom Herodotus down to Kames Bryce ha.e been one o# the most entertaining and suggesti.e sources on the social and intellectual !henomena o# history. '# e1ual interest, and !erha!s o# greater .alue, are the actual (ournals and letters o# !ersons contem!orary with the e.ents which they describe. uch are CiceroAs 2!istles, LutherAs Letters, "e!ysA +iary, Brad#ordAs History, and the more intimate writings o# statesmen like Henry %--- o# 2ngland and Henry -% o# France, Frederick the Great, Franklin, $ashington, and Gladstone. ,hese are un#ailing sources o# historical in#ormation, and they gi.e in addition a !ersonal and human interest to the sub(ects which they illustrate. -n dealing with young minds which are ra!idly o!ening, it is o# s!ecial im!ortance to choose books or extracts which ha.e a literary .alue. ,he annals o# the race are #ounded on #irst0hand accounts o# historical e.ents, many o# which are written in such a #ashion as to be worth reading aside #rom their historical .alue. uch are, #or exam!le, 2inhardAs Li#e o# Charlemagne9 the nai.e accounts o# the #oundation o# the wiss &e!ublic in 5C7C9 the (ournals o# the early .oyagers to the $estern world9 the table talk o# Bismarck9 the #arewell letters o# Kohn Brown9 and the memoranda o# LincolnAs #ew brie# s!eeches. uch material used in schools gi.es !art o# the training and en(oyment to be had #rom good literature, and at the same time #urnishes illustrations that make the text0book o# history s!arkle with human li#e. -n connection with to!ical work, the !u!ils may with s!ecial ad.antage make use o# the sources. ,o the child such work is as #resh as though it had ne.er been undertaken by any other mind. -n com!aring the statements o# .arious sources and arri.ing at a conclusion #rom taking them together, the !u!il gets a .aluable training o# (udgment. He must not su!!ose that he is making a history, or that his results are com!arable with those o# the trained historian9 but he may ha.e an intellectual en(oyment o# the same kind as that o# the historical writer. ,he committee is #ully aware o# the di##iculty o# carrying on such methods as are here suggested9 they re1uire ad.antageous circumstances and material which is easily handled and with which the teacher has decided #amiliarity. As has been !ointed out abo.e, written work must not be the only or e.en the !rinci!al em!loyment o# the !u!il, but in the !re!aration o# written to!ics much may be gained by dealing with sources, i# a su##icient .ariety is a.ailable. $here.er written work is re1uired, there#ore, it is desirable to ha.e some sources, to be used not merely #or hel! in writing but #or re#erence. -n this way the !u!il may get an idea o# the di##iculties o# ascertaining historical truth, and o# the necessity #or im!artiality and accuracy. Besides the sources which ha.e come down to us in written #orm and are re!roduced u!on the !rinted !age, there is another im!ortant class o# historical materials which is o# great assistance in gi.ing reality to the !ast0namely, actual concrete remains, such as exist in the #orm o# old buildings, monuments, and the contents o# museums. Many schools ha.e direct access to interesting sur.i.als o# this sort, while the .arious !rocesses o# !ictorial re!roduction ha.e !laced abundant stores o# such material within reach o# e.ery teacher. ,he excellent illustrations o# many recent text0books may be su!!lemented by s!ecial albums, such as are used in French and German schools, and by the schoolAs own collections o# engra.ings and !hotogra!hs cut #rom magaBines or !rocured #rom dealers. ?5E@ ome schools ha.e also !ro.ided sets o# lantern slides. '# course, in order to entitle such illustrations to serious use and to the rank o# historical sources they must be real !ictures0actual re!roductions o# buildings, statues, contem!orary !ortraits, .iews o# !laces, etc.0 and not in.entions o# modern artists. -t is easy to make too much o# illustrations and thus reduce history to a series o# dissol.ing .iews9 but many excellent teachers ha.e #ound the (udicious use o# !ictures hel!#ul in the extreme, not merely in arousing interest in the !ictures1ue as!ects o# the sub(ect, but in culti.ating the historical imagination and in gi.ing de#initeness and .i.idness to the !u!ilAs general ideas o# the !ast. An a!!eal to the eye is o# great assistance in bringing out the characteristic di##erences between !ast and !resent, and thus in checking that tendency to !ro(ect the !resent into the !ast which is one o# the most serious obstacles to sound .iews o# history. ,he chie# danger in the use o# !ictorial material lies in gi.ing too much o# it instead o# dwelling at length on a #ew care#ully chosen exam!les. ,o sum u! this !art o# the sub(ect, the committee looks u!on sources as ad(uncts to good textbook work, as something which may be used #or a !art o# the collateral reading and may also #orm the basis o# some o# the written work. uch use o# material, with !ro!er discrimination in choosing the sources, will add to the !leasure o# the !u!il, and will by shar!ness o# outline #ix in his mind e.ents and !ersonalities that will sli! away i# he uses the text0books alone. ?5D@ ,ranslated in Letters of the Crusaders <=ni.ersity o# "ennsyl.ania ,ranslations and &e!rints>, -, E. ?5E@ elections #rom the "erry !rints, and the chea! series o# !hotogra!hic re!roductions issued by .arious American houses, are always a.ailable at a .ery moderate !rice, and ha.e #ound a !lace in many schools. Good ty!es o# inex!ensi.e #oreign albums are eemannAs Kunsthistorische Bilderbogen and the Albums Historiques of Parmentier <"aris, Hachette>. HolBel in %ienna !ublishes LanglAs Bilder zur eschichte, a set o# sixty0two wall !ictures o# the great structures o# all ages.

+ntensi,e Study
,hat we ha.e not dwelt at any length u!on the desirability o# de.oting time to what is termed by the Madison Con#erence Gintensi.e studyG is because we do not see how in many schools su##icient time can be gi.en to such work, and not because we ad.ise against the ado!tion o# that !lan o# work i# there is time and o!!ortunity in the school course. -ndeed, we belie.e that the care#ul examination o# a .ery limited !eriod is highly bene#icial. By intensi.e study we do not mean original work in the sense in which the word GoriginalG is used in ad.anced college classes9 we mean sim!ly the care#ul and somewhat !rolonged study o# a short !eriod. ,he shorter the !eriod and the longer the time de.oted to it the more intensi.e the study will be. "erha!s in the courses in 2nglish and American history time may be #ound to study one or two !eriods with s!ecial care and attention, so that the !u!il may ha.e exce!tional o!!ortunities to read the best secondary authorities, and e.en to examine !rimary material. For exam!le, in 2nglish history it may !ro.e !ossible to gi.e two or three weeks instead o# two or three days to a study o# the im!ortant e.ents and meanings o# the Commonwealth, or to the ideas and !rogress o# the whole "uritan mo.ement. -n American history it may be wise to study #or a considerable time such sub(ects as the causes o# the &e.olution, or the Con#ederation and the #ormation o# the Constitution, or the chie# e.ents o# the decade #rom 56;H to 568H. $hen this !lan o# selecting a !eriod or a to!ic #or intensi.e examination is !ossible, the !u!ils can gain great ad.antage by the o!!ortunity o# del.ing dee!er into the sub(ect than is !ossible when all !arts o# the work are studied with e1ual thoroughness or su!er#iciality9 they can read more in the secondary material, can get a !ee! at the sources, and thus come to a #uller a!!reciation o# what history is and how it is written. 'nly when good working #acilities are at hand, howe.er, and the teacher, knowing the material, has time to guide his !u!ils and gi.e them constant aid and attention, will this !lan !ro.e .ery hel!#ul.

The Need of Trained Teachers


-# history is to take and hold its !ro!er !lace in the school curriculum, it must be in the hands o# teachers who are thoroughly e1ui!!ed #or the task o# bringing out its educational .alue. -t is still not .ery unusual to #ind that history is taught, i# such a word is a!!ro!riate, by those who ha.e made no !re!aration, and that classes are sometimes managed0we hesitate to say instructed0by !ersons who do not !ro#ess either to be !re!ared or to take interest in the sub(ect. -n one good school, #or exam!le, history a short time ago was turned o.er to the !ro#essor o# athletics, not because he knew history, but a!!arently in order to #ill u! his time. -n another school a teacher was seen at work who e.idently did not ha.e the #irst 1uali#ications #or the task9 when the examiner in1uired why this teacher was asked to teach history when she knew no history, the answer was that she did not know anything else. As long as other sub(ects in the course are gi.en to s!ecialists, while history is distributed here and there to #ill u! interstices, there can be no great ho!e #or its ad.ancement. Fortunately, howe.er, this condition o# things is disa!!earing as history gradually #inds its way to a !lace beside such sub(ects as Latin and mathematics, which claim a !rescri!ti.e right to #irst consideration. +oubtless to teach history !ro!erly is a di##icult task. -t re1uires not only wide in#ormation and accurate knowledge, but a ca!acity to awaken enthusiasm and to bring out the inner meanings o# a great sub(ect. Accuracy and de#initeness must be inculcated in the !u!il, and he must be led to think care#ully and soberly9 but he must also be tem!ted to range beyond the limits o# the text and to gi.e rein to his imagination. "u!ils o#ten com!lain that, while in other studies a lesson can be thoroughly mastered, in history e.ery to!ic seems exhaustless. ,eachers are constantly con#ronted with (ust this di##iculty. o many !roblems arise and demand attention9 so di##icult is it to hold the !u!il to de#inite #acts, and yet hel! him to see that he is studying a scene in the great drama o# human li#e which has its !er!etual exits and entrances9 so hard a task is it to stimulate the imagination while one is seeking to culti.ate the reason and the (udgment, that the highest teaching !ower is necessary to com!lete success. ,he #irst re1uisite #or good teaching is knowledge. ,he teacherAs duty is not sim!ly to see that the !u!ils ha.e learned a gi.en amount, or that they understand the lesson, as one uses the word GunderstandG when s!eaking o# a demonstration in geometry or an ex!eriment in !hysics. His task is to bring out the real meaning and im!ort o# what is learned by adding illustrations, showing causes, and suggesting results, to select the im!ortant and to !ass o.er the unim!ortant, to em!hasiBe essentials, and to enlarge u!on signi#icant #acts and ideas. A !erson with a meager in#ormation cannot ha.e a wide outlook9 he can not see the relati.e im!ortance o# things unless he actually knows them in their relations. But knowledge o# #acts alone is not enough. -n historical work !u!ils and teacher are constantly engaged in using books. ,hese books the teacher must know9 he must know the !eriods which they co.er, their methods o# treatment, their trustworthiness, their attracti.eness, their general utility #or the !ur!oses o# young students. He must ha.e skill in handling books and in gleaning #rom them the in#ormation which he is seeking, because it is (ust this skill which he is trying to gi.e to his !u!ils. /o one would seriously think o# !utting in charge o# a class in manual training a !erson who had himsel# ne.er sho.ed a !lane or measured a board. ,o turn o.er a class in history to be instructed by a !erson who is not ac1uainted with the tools o# the trade and has had no !ractice in mani!ulating them is an e1ual absurdity. A success#ul teacher must ha.e more than mere accurate in#ormation and !ro#essional knowledge. He needs to ha.e a li.ing sym!athy with the tale which he tells. He must know how to bring out the dramatic as!ects o# his story. He must know how to awaken the interest and attention o# his !u!ils, who will always be alert and eager i# they #eel that they are learning o# the actual struggles and con#licts o# men who had like !assions with oursel.es. ,hough stores o# dates and names must be at the teacherAs command, these are not enough. He must ha.e had his own imagination #ired and his enthusiasm kindled9 he must know the sources o# historical knowledge and the s!rings o# historical ins!iration9 he must know the literature o# history and be able to direct his !u!ils to stirring !assages in the great historical masters9 he must know how to illumine and brighten the !age by readings #rom literature and by illustrations #rom art. G-t were #ar better,G says "ro#essor +icey, Gas things now stand, to be charged with heresy, or e.en to be #ound guilty o# !etty larceny, than to #all under the sus!icion o# lacking historical0mindedness, or o# 1uestioning the uni.ersal .alidity o# the historical method.G ,o culti.ate historical0mindedness, to teach !u!ils to think historically and to a!!roach #acts with the historical s!irit0this is the chie# ob(ect o# instruction in any #ield o# history. But unless the teacher has had !ractice in dealing with #acts, unless he has ac1uired !ers!ecti.e, unless he has become historical0minded and knows himsel# what the historical method is, he can not instruct his !u!ils. ,hese characteristics cannot be absorbed #rom a text0book in an hour or two be#ore the recitation9 they are the !roducts o# time and toil. "ossibly the day is #ar distant when all teachers in this country will be !re!ared #or their duties by a long course o# training such as is re1uired o# a teacher in 2uro!ean schools9 but there are a #ew e.idences that this time is slowly a!!roaching. Beyond all 1uestion, some o# the best teachers in our secondary schools are almost wholly sel#0trained9 some o# them are not college graduates. But these exce!tions do not !ro.e that ad.anced collegiate training and instruction are undesirable. -n teaching a .ital sub(ect like history, much de!ends u!on the !ersonality o# the teacher, u!on his #orce, insight, tact, sym!athy, u!on 1ualities that cannot be im!arted by the uni.ersity courses or by !rolonged research. ,hough all this be true, e.ery teacher should ha.e had some instruction in methods o# teaching, and should ha.e learned #rom !rece!t what are the essentials o# historical study and historical thinking9 and0what is o# much greater im!ortance0he should ha.e so worked that he knows himsel# what historical #acts are and how they are to be inter!reted and arranged. ,he highly success#ul teacher in any #ield o# work needs to be a student as well as a teacher, to be in touch with the sub(ect as a growing, de.elo!ing, and enlarging #ield o# human knowledge.

College -ntrance Re.uirements /012


Any consideration o# college entrance re1uirements !resents many di##iculties9 but !robably no #ield o# work o##ers greater !roblems than does that o# history, because the schools ha.e no common understanding as to the amount o# history that should be o##ered in the curriculum, and because the uni.ersities di##er materially in their re1uirements. ,he #irst #undamental #act to be remembered is that a .ery large !ercentage o# secondary !u!ils do not go to college, and that in a .ery great ma(ority o# schools the courses must be ada!ted !rimarily #or the !u!ils who #inish their study with the secondary school. -t is o#ten asserted that the course which #its !u!ils #or college is e1ually well ada!ted to the uses o# those who do not go to college. $e do not care to argue this 1uestion, although we doubt .ery much i# it be true that the re1uirements laid down #or entrance to college, re1uirements which still bear the mark o# the old r4gime, are likely to #urnish the best e1ui!ment #or the work and !lay o# e.ery0day li#e. $hether this be true or not, it is certainly wrong

to sha!e secondary courses !rimarily with a .iew to college needs. -n the great ma(ority o# schools the curriculum must be !re!ared with the !ur!ose o# de.elo!ing boys and girls into young men and women, not with the !ur!ose o# #itting them to meet entrance examinations or o# #illing them with in#ormation which some #aculty thinks desirable as a #orerunner o# college work. Many o# the academies and some o# the high schools can without much trouble meet the arti#icial re1uirements o# the colleges9 but a great ma(ority o# the high schools and some o# the academies ha.e great di##iculty, and it is an almost im!ossible task so to arrange the !rogramme that !u!ils can be #itted #or more than one institution.?58@ For this reason we welcome the e##orts o# the committee o# the /ational 2ducational Association to sim!li#y and uni#y college entrance re1uirements. $e belie.e, howe.er, that the #irst re1uisite o# a success#ul accom!lishment o# this task is a recognition o# the #act that the great ma(ority o# schools are not #itting schools #or college9 and it seems to us that any rigid and inelastic r4gime which does not take into consideration the #act that schools are working in many di##erent en.ironments and are sub(ect to di##erent limitations and conditions can not be .ery widely acce!ted or !ro.e use#ul #or any length o# time. $e .enture to suggest, there#ore, that in any e##ort to sim!li#y the situation by relie.ing the schools #rom the burden o# trying to meet college re1uirements two things are essential. 'ne is, that the #undamental sco!e and !ur!ose o# the ma(or !art o# the secondary schools be regarded9 the other, that such elasticity be allowed that schools may #it !u!ils #or college and yet ada!t themsel.es to some extent to local en.ironment and local needs. ?5:@ $e #eel (usti#ied, there#ore, as students and teachers, in marking out what we think is the best curriculum in history, in discussing the educational .alue o# the study, in em!hasiBing the thought that history is !eculiarly a!!ro!riate in a secondary course, which is #ashioned with the thought o# !re!aring boys and girls #or the duties o# daily li#e and intelligent citiBenshi!, and in dwelling u!on methods #or bringing out the !edagogical e##ect o# historical work. -t seems to us that, in consideration o# the .alue and im!ortance o# historical work, and in light o# the #act that so many thousands o# !u!ils are now engaged in historical study, the colleges should be ready to admit to their list o# re1uirements a liberal amount o# history9 but we do not #eel that we should seek to lay down hard0and0#ast entrance re1uirements in history and ask the colleges or the committee o# the /ational 2ducational Association to declare in #a.or o# an in#lexible r4gime. For con.enience o# statement we ha.e ado!ted, in the recommendations which #ollow, the term Gunit.G By one unit we mean either one year o# historical work wherein the study is gi.en #i.e times !er week, or two years o# historical work wherein the study is gi.en three times !er week. $e ha.e thought it best to take into consideration the #act that di##erent colleges ha.e now not only di##erent re1uirements, but also entirely di##erent methods o# #raming and !ro!osing re1uirements. -t has not seemed wise, there#ore, to outline historical courses on the su!!osition that all colleges would at once con#orm to a uni#orm arrangement. 5. -# a college or a scienti#ic school has a system o# com!lete o!tions in college entrance re1uirements0that is, i# it acce!ts a gi.en number o# yearsA work, or units, without !rescribing s!eci#ic sub(ects o# study <as at Leland tan#ord =ni.ersity>0we recommend that #our units in history be acce!ted as an e1ui.alent #or a like amount o# work in other sub(ects. Likewise, that one, two, or three units in history be acce!ted. C. -# a college or a scienti#ic school re1uires a list o# certain !rescribed studies, and also demands additional sub(ects to be chosen out o# an o!tional list <as at Har.ard =ni.ersity>, we recommend that one unit o# history be !laced on the list o# de#initely !rescribed studies, and that one, two, or three units o# history be !laced among the o!tional studies. D. -# a college or a scienti#ic school has rigid re1uirements without o!tions <as at )ale College and the he##ield cienti#ic chool>, we recommend that at least one unit o# history be re1uired #or entrance. ,hese recommendations do not seem to us unreasonable, and we do not belie.e that their ado!tion would im!ose any burden u!on college or !re!aratory schools. -# the traditional re1uirements in other sub(ects need to be diminished in order to allow one unit o# history in any r4gime o# rigid re1uirements, we do not think that such diminution is unwise in light o# the #act that history is now generally studied, and that the training obtained #rom historical work is an essential o# good secondary education. -t will be seen #rom the statement which #ollows <under E>, that we do not recommend any !articular #ield or !eriod o# history as !re#erable to all others #or the !ur!ose o# such re1uirements9 to constitute this unit any one o# the !eriods or blocks o# history !re.iously mentioned may be selected. E. $here a college has se.eral distinct courses leading to di##erent degrees, and has di##erent grou!s o# !re!aratory studies, each grou! !re!aring #or one o# the college courses <as at the =ni.ersity o# Michigan>, the use to be made o# history re1uires more detailed ex!osition. -n one o# these !re!aratory courses the ancient languages recei.e chie# attention9 in a second, a modern language is substituted #or one o# the ancient languages9 in a third, the chie# energy is de.oted to natural sciences9 in a #ourth, main stress is laid u!on history and 2nglish language and literature. ,he general recommendations gi.en abo.e will aid somewhat in outlining !re!aratory courses in history when such de#inite routes #or admission to college are marked out3 A. $e belie.e that in each !re!aratory course there should be at least one unit o# history. ,his recommendation means that classical students should ha.e at least one #ull year o# historical work. A course which !ur!orts to deal with the GhumanitiesG can not a##ord to be without one yearAs work in a study whose sole theme is humanity. $hen #our years are gi.en to Latin, two or more to Greek, two or three to mathematics, one, or !erchance two, to science, some room should be #ound #or history, e.en i# the time gi.en to other studies be diminished. -# we take #or granted the #act that the great ma(ority o# secondary !u!ils do not go to college, can we declare that they should go out into li#e with no knowledge o# the humanities sa.e that ac1uired by the study o# the Greek and Latin tonguesF ,o decide what #ield o# history should be chosen is a matter o# considerable di##iculty. $e belie.e it desirable that !u!ils should know the li#e and thought o# Greece and &ome and the de.elo!ment o# their ci.iliBation9 that they should study the great #acts o# 2uro!ean history a#ter the down#all o# the &oman 2m!ire9 that they should ha.e some knowledge o# how 2ngland grew to be a great em!ire and 2nglish liberty de.elo!ed9 and that they should come to know their own !olitical surroundings by studying American history and go.ernment. $e hesitate, there#ore, to recommend that any one !articular #ield be chosen to the exclusion o# the rest9 and yet we think that #ar better educational results can be secured by de.oting a year to a limited !eriod than by attem!ting to co.er the history o# the world in that length o# time. $e belie.e that it is more im!ortant that !u!ils should ac1uire knowledge o# what history is and how it should be studied than that they should co.er any !articular #ield. "erha!s it is not im!ossible, in connection with the study o# Greek and Latin, to !ay such attention to the growth o# Greece and &ome that the !u!ils may be led to an a!!reciation o# the character and essential nature o# ancient ci.iliBation. ,his is one o# the great ends o# historical work9 and i# the humanities can thus be humaniBed, there will be less need o# !rescribing Greek or &oman history as a distinct sub(ect #or classical students,?56@ and some other historical #ield may then be chosen. $e can not be sure, howe.er, that such methods o# teaching the classics will !re.ail, and we must content oursel.es with recommending one o# the #our blocks or !eriods which are marked out in the earlier !ortions o# this !a!er, without designating any !articular one. B. ,he secondary course, sometimes called the Latin course, in which a modern language takes the !lace o# Greek, !resents nearly the same !roblems as the classical course. -t does not a##ord much time #or the study o# history. $e there#ore recommend that some one o# the #our blocks mentioned abo.e be selected. C. -n the scienti#ic secondary course more o!!ortunity #or historical study is o#ten allowed, and here two units o# history may be gi.en. At least one o# them will naturally be a modern #ield, and yet it may be said that it is highly desirable that scienti#ic !u!ils should by the study o# ancient history obtain something o# the culture which is not wrongly su!!osed to come #rom the study o# classical ci.iliBation. +. ,he #ourth secondary course, commonly called the 2nglish course, should ha.e history #or its backbone, inasmuch as it is a study !eculiarly ca!able o# being continued throughout the #our years, and o# o##ering that o!!ortunity #or continuous de.elo!ment which the classical !u!il obtains #rom the !rolonged study o# Latin. $e strongly ad.ise that sustained e##ort be de.oted to history in order that this course may ha.e a certain consistency and unity. ,here are already schools that o##er history #or #our years, and gi.e #our #ull units, consisting substantially o# the #our blocks we ha.e outlined. -# the #our #ull units can not be gi.en, it may be well to o##er history only three times a week in one o# the #our years. -# only three years can be de.oted to the study, one o# the #our blocks must, as we ha.e already said, be omitted, or two #ields must be com!ressed in some such manner as that suggested in the earlier !ortion o# this re!ort. ,he general recommendations under this head may then be summed u! as #ollows3 <a> For the classical course, one unit o# history, to consist o# one o# the #our blocks !re.iously mentioned9 <b> #or the Latin course, the same9 <c> #or the scienti#ic course, two units consisting o# any two o# the blocks9 <d> #or the 2nglish course, three units consisting o# any three o# the blocks, or consisting o# two blocks and a combination o# two others. $e strongly recommend that #our years o# history be gi.en in this course, in order to make history one o# the central sub(ects. -t should be said in conclusion that, in demanding but one unit o# history as the minimum re1uirement #or entrance to a college or a scienti#ic school, the committee does not wish to be understood as ex!ressing its a!!ro.al o# this amount as an ade1uate course in history #or secondary schools. -n this !ortion o# the re!ort we ha.e been obliged to work within the limits o# the systems o# entrance re1uirements that now !re.ail, and to #rame recommendations that may be ada!ted to existing conditions9 but we do not belie.e that a single unit o# history constitutes a su##icient course, .iewed with re#erence either to the relati.e im!ortance o# the sub(ect or to the !ossibility o# realiBing the aims o# historical instruction within the time that would thus be at the teacherAs dis!osal. ,he arguments #or the necessity o# a com!rehensi.e and substantial course in history ha.e been !resented at length in the earlier sections o# this re!ort9 and, though it may not at !resent be #easible #or e.ery college to re1uire more than one unit o# history, the committee belie.es that two units should constitute the minimum amount o##ered in any school, and it maintains that a still more extended course in history has claims 1uite e1ual to those that may be urged on behal# o# any other study in the secondary curriculum. ?5;@ -n 5678 the /ational 2ducational Association a!!ointed a committee to consider the sub(ect o# college entrance re1uirements and to re!ort a scheme o# uni#orm re1uirements. At the re1uest o# that committee the American Historical Association a!!ointed the Committee o# e.en to dra#t a scheme o# college entrance re1uirements in history. ,he !ortion o# our re!ort that here #ollows was !re!ared with that !ur!ose in mind, and substantially similar recommendations ha.e already been made to u!erintendent /ightingale, as chairman o# the committee o# the /ational 2ducational Association. ?58@ For exam!le, in a catalogue o# a good high school0a school rather large than small, and well e1ui!!ed with teachers0we #ind these ty!ical statements, that a !u!il may !re!are in that school #or one o# se.eral uni.ersities, but that at the beginning o# the second year he should know what he intends to do9 and that a #ailure to choose accurately in any one semester in.ol.es the loss o# a year. ?5:@ -t does not seem wise, e.en i# it be !ossible, to outline the same rigid entrance re1uirements #or the =ni.ersity o# Cali#ornia, =ni.ersity o# Pansas, =ni.ersity o# /orth Carolina, )ale, Har.ard, ,ulane, and a hundred others. ,his !olicy would mean that secondary schools e.erywhere throughout the country must disregard local conditions and yield to an outside #orce. ?56@ ,hat the desirability o# such a method is recogniBed by many classical teachers is shown, #or exam!le, by the !a!er by "ro#essor Cli##ord Moore on GHow to enrich the classical course,G !ublished in the School !e"iew, e!tember 5676.

-ntrance -xaminations
'ne sub(ect connected with college entrance re1uirements has !eculiar im!ortance in connection with the study o# history, namely, that o# entrance examinations. Higher institutions that admit students on the basis o# certi#icates need ha.e no administrati.e di##iculty in gi.ing large recognition to history as a !re!aratory sub(ect, but in colleges and uni.ersities that can be entered only a#ter !assing examinations the !roblem is somewhat di##erent. As has been em!hasiBed elsewhere in this re!ort, the utility o# historical study lies not only in the ac1uisition o# certain im!ortant #acts, but in great measure in its indirect results in training the !owers o# discrimination and (udgment9 it will o#ten ha!!en that !u!ils who ha.e !ro#ited largely #rom their study o# history will, es!ecially a#ter two or three years ha.e ela!sed, show sur!rising lacunJ in their stores o# historical in#ormation. $hile a course in history should be !rogressi.e and build steadily u!on what has gone be#ore, one stage does not de!end so immediately u!on the !receding, and in.ol.e so !ersistent a re.iew o# earlier work, as is the case in language and mathematics9 and besides, growth in !ower o# historical thinking is much harder to measure than !rogress in mathematical knowledge or in linguistic #acility. ,hese di##iculties are !resent in some degree, e.en when the candidate is examined on work done in history in the last year o# the secondary school9 but they become exceedingly serious when the sub(ect has been studied some years be#ore, or when the course in history co.ers two, three, or #our years o# the !eriod o# secondary instruction. ,he remedy, in our o!inion, lies, not in the exclusion or unnatural restriction o# history as a sub(ect #or entrance, but in the re#orm o# methods o# examination in history9 i# the !resent system o# entrance examination does not0and it generally does not0!ro!erly test the 1uali#ications o# candidates in history, it is time to consider how it may be changed. Certainly nothing has done more to discredit history as a sub(ect #or college entrance than the setting o# !a!ers which demand no more !re!aration than a #ew weeksA cram. ,he suggestions which #ollow are o##ered in the ho!e, not that they will a##ord a #inal solution o# the !roblem, but that they may !ro.e hel!#ul in bringing about a more (ust and ade1uate system o# examinations in history. ,he com!lete ado!tion o# them will naturally in.ol.e a larger allotment o# time to history than is now gi.en in examination schedules, and will im!ose a hea.ier burden u!on those to whose lot the reading o# !a!ers in history #alls9 but it is not likely that the demands on time and energy will !ro.e greater than in other well0 recogniBed admission sub(ects, and it is not unreasonable to ex!ect college authorities to make suitable !ro.ision in these regards. ,he main element in entrance examinations in history must !robably continue to be the written !a!er, but this should be set with the idea o# testing to some extent the candidateAs ability to use historical material, as well as his knowledge o# im!ortant #acts. ,he in#ormation 1uestions should not demand the sim!le re!roduction o# the statement o# the text, but should in large measure be so #ramed as to re1uire the grou!ing o# #acts in a di##erent #orm #rom that #ollowed in the books recommended #or !re!aration. ,here should also be 1uestions in.ol.ing some !ower o# discrimination and some use o# legitimate com!arison on the !art o# the candidate. -t is not to be ex!ected that skill in utiliBing historical material will be !resent in a high degree in the candidate #or admission to college, but the student who has learned how to handle books and to extract in#ormation #rom them in the course o# his secondary studies has the right, and the ability, to make this knowledge count #or something toward college entrance. As suitable tests we may suggest comment on care#ully chosen brie# extracts #rom sim!le sources or modern works, analysis or discussion o# more extended !assages, su!!lemented !erha!s by outline ma!s or concrete illustrations0anything, in short, that will show the studentAs ca!acity o# taking u! a #resh 1uestion in a way that indicates some de.elo!ment o# the historical sense. /aturally, attainments in this direction will be ex!ected chie#ly o# those who !resent history as an additional o!tion. +oubtless to many these tests will a!!ear su##icient9 but it must always be borne in mind that a written !a!er, e.en when the 1uestions ha.e been !re!ared with great care, can not yield such decisi.e results in history as it can, #or exam!le, in a sub(ect like 2nglish com!osition. ,he examiner should always ha.e an o!!ortunity0and !articularly in doubt#ul cases0o# su!!lementing by other means the in#ormation gained #rom the !a!er. 'ne excellent ad(unct is the submission by the candidate o# written work done in connection with his study o# history in school. ,his may include notebooks, abstracts o# reading, and !re!ared !a!ers, none o# which, howe.er, should be acce!ted without !ro!er guarantees o# authenticity and inde!endent !re!aration. Another su!!lementary test, which is largely used in 2uro!ean examinations and has commended itsel# to the ex!erience o# many American examiners, consists o# a brie# oral con#erence with the candidate. ,his should be 1uite in#ormal in character, and should aim to disco.er, i# !ossible, something concerning the !ersonality o# the candidate and the nature o# his historical training, rather than to elicit brie# answers to a #ew arbitrarily chosen 1uestions.

,he #ollowing analytical statement will show at a glance our recommendation concerning the organiBation o# the history course.

(our )ears* Course in History


#irst year 0 Ancient history to 6HH A. +. Second year 0 MediJ.al and modern 2uro!ean history. Third year 0 2nglish history. #ourth year 0 American history and ci.il go.ernment.

Three )ear*s Course in History


A! Any three o# the abo.e blocks.

+! #irst or second year 0 Ancient history to 6HH A. +. Second or third year 0 2nglish history, with s!ecial re#erence to the chie# e.ents in the history o# Continental 2uro!e. Third or fourth year 0 American history and ci.il go.ernment.

C! #irst or second year 0 Ancient history to 6HH A. +. Second or third year 0 MediJ.al and modern 2uro!ean history. Third or fourth year 0 American history, with a consideration o# the chie# e.ents in the history o# 2ngland.

,! #irst year 0 Ancient history to 6HH A. +. Second year 0 2nglish history, with re#erence to the chie# e.ents in later mediJ.al history <three times !er week>. Third year 0 2nglish history, with re#erence to the chie# e.ents in modern 2uro!ean history <three times !er week>. #ourth year 0 American history and ci.il go.ernment.

$! #irst year 0 Ancient history to 6HH A. +. Second year 0 MediJ.al and modern 2uro!ean history. Third year 0 American history, with s!ecial re#erence to the de.elo!ment o# 2nglish !olitical !rinci!les and 2nglish ex!ansion in connection with American colonial history <three times !er week>. #ourth year 0 American history and ci.il go.ernment <three times !er week>.

Appendixes
344endix +: The Present Condition of History in 3merican Secondary Schools
At the .ery outset o# its work, the committee, belie.ing that recommendations must !roceed #rom a knowledge o# the conditions and results in the schools, undertook to learn as #ar as !ossible what was actually being done by the secondary schools in the country in the sub(ect o# history. A circular was accordingly !re!ared in elaborate #orm in the ho!e that the answers to the 1uestions thus !ro!osed would gi.e the committee a basis o# #act. ,hese circulars were not sent broadcast9 in each state, so #ar as !ossible, some !erson ac1uainted with the educational work o# that state sent us a short list o# ty!ical schools, large, middle0 siBed, and small, !ublic and !ri.ate, and we thus made u! a list o# about three hundred schools which would re#lect the conditions o# the whole country. From most o# the schools thus a!!roached answers were recei.ed, !erha!s two hundred and sixty in all. '# these, two hundred and ten were su##iciently #ull on most !oints to admit o# some sort o# tabulation #rom which general tendencies might be !ercei.ed. -n going o.er the returns di##iculties were encountered. /otwithstanding the combined e##orts o# the committee some o# the 1uestions were not so #ramed as to bring out !recisely what was wanted. Accordingly, toward the end o# the in.estigation a considerable number o# the schools which had re!lied to the #irst circular were asked to send answers to a second much brie#er and sim!ler set o# 1uestions, intended !rinci!ally to make clear the !ractice and o!inion o# educators on the !oints that had !ro.ed the most di##icult #or the committee. A co!y o# this circular will be #ound at the end o# this a!!endix. As is usual in in1uiries by corres!ondence, the returns show more certainly what schools do not do than what they do9 the negati.e e.idence is con.incing that the schools ha.e a great .ariety o# !rogrammes and methods, but it is hard to be sure that any considerable number ha.e the same system or attach the same meaning to such terms as Gcollateral reading,G Gto!ics,G Guse o# ma!s,G Gnotebooks,G etc. ,he general in#erences #rom the circulars, howe.er, agree with the results o# many !ersonal con#erences with teachers, by showing that a large number o# schools set themsel.es earnestly to the task o# teaching history9 that a large number make a su##icient time allowance to deser.e good results9 and that the general notions as to methods are on the same lines throughout the country. uch generaliBations as the committee thinks itsel# (usti#ied in making on 1uestion o# details, #rom the returns to the two circulars, su!!lemented by its !ri.ate in#ormation, may be brie#ly stated as #ollows3

1! Choice of Sub-ects
,he sub(ects in the order o# their #re1uency are <5> 2nglish and American history, taught in more than hal# the schools9 <C> Ggeneral history,G taught in almost exactly hal# the schools9 <D> Greek and &oman history, taught in about hal# the schools9 <E> 2uro!ean history, taught in about one0third o# the schools, the three #orms0mediJ.al, modern, and French history0being about. e1ually common. -n a .ery #ew schools the history o# the tate in which they are situated is a sub(ect. ,he #a.orite to!ics are, there#ore, 2nglish and American history, usually both taught in the same school9 Greek and &oman history, usually both taught in the same school9 and some #orm o# a broader history, commonly the so0called Ggeneral history.G 'n the sub(ect o# general history there a!!ears to be wide di.ergence o# !ractice as well as o# o!inion. -n the Middle tates, most o# the schools re!orting ha.e a one0year course, as ha.e also a considerable number in the $est9 in /ew 2ngland, !re!onderance o# sentiment is against such a course. -n some cases the course takes the #orm o# mediJ.al history alone, in some cases that o# French history as a groundwork0the system recommended by the Madison Con#erence9 in most instances the course is a!!arently a general sur.ey based on one text0book, with little or no collateral reading or illustrati.e work.

.! /rder of Sub-ects
,he committee has taken !ains to ascertain the more common !re#erences as to the succession o# historical sub(ects, and #inds that in general #our di##erent systems ha.e been #ollowed3 <5> About one0third o# the schools #ollow the chronological method, taking u! in succession ancient history, general history, and modern history in some #orm, usually 2nglish or American or both9 that is, they use general history as a bridge between ancient times and our modern nations. <C> A much smaller number o# schools, !erha!s a se.enth o# the whole, !re#er the order, general, ancient, and modern9 that is, #irst o# all a sur.ey o# the whole #ield, and then more detailed study, #irst o# the ancient !eriod, then o# the modern. ,his method is a!!arently less common in /ew 2ngland than in the $est. <D> ,he third method begins with American, or sometimes with 2nglish history, and then takes general history, bringing in ancient history last. About one0#i#th o# the schools re!orting use this system, which is least common in the Middle tates, and which would seem to be de.ised to bring ancient history into a !lace con.enient #or college examinations. <E> A #ourth method, which !re.ails in more than a 1uarter o# the schools, is that o# beginning with American, #ollowing with ancient history, and ending with a general course9 that is, they !roceed #rom the !articular to the general. ,o make the generaliBation in broader #orm, the returns #rom a body o# schools most interested in the sub(ect o# history show that one0hal# !re#er to begin high0school work with the history nearest to the !u!ils in ex!erience, and then to take u! wider choices, while one0third ha.e the chronological system, and the remainder begin with the general sur.ey o# the whole #ield.

0! Separate Colle%e Courses


,he re!ort o# the Committee o# ,en bore .ery strongly against establishing courses in any one sub(ect #or the bene#it o# only those !u!ils who ex!ect to go to college9 and that recommendation exactly coincides with the actual ex!erience o# the schools so #ar as the study o# history is concerned. ,hree0#ourths o# them ad.ocate, and !robably !ractice, the system o# ha.ing the same teaching #or both classes o# !u!ils. ,his generaliBation a!!lies also to /ew 2ngland, although in that section there is a large number o# s!ecial !re!aratory schools.

1! Time 'iven to History


'ne o# the arguments #re1uently urged against insisting on a good secondary course in history is that there is no time #or it. ,he committee there#ore has taken some trouble to ascertain the time allowance now made in .arious schools, asking in the second circular the s!eci#ic 1uestion3 G$hat is the maximum number o# exercises in history in your whole curriculum <allowing #orty weeks as a school year>, o!en to a !u!il who chooses that course which has most history in itFG ,here seems no reason to doubt the sincerity and accuracy o# the re!lies to this 1uestion, although the results are sur!rising. 'nly one0se.enth o# the schools o##er less than CHH exercises in one or another o# their curricula. "robably there are courses, as the classical or the scienti#ic, in which this maximum number o# exercises is not attainable by any one !u!il, e.en although the #acilities o# the school !ermit the o##ering o# detached !arts o# a good course. ,hree0#ourths o# the :H schools scattered throughout the country which re!ort on this 1uestion o##er more than EHH exercises9 that is, the e1ui.alent o# #i.e exercises a week during two years. ,he Middle and $estern tates are rather more ali.e than /ew 2ngland to the im!ortance o# history9 and some schools both in the 2ast and $est allow as much as 6HH exercises. -t is there#ore sa#e to assume that good secondary schools can so arrange their schedules as to make a !ro!er time allowance #or history.

2! Text3+oo4s

Pnowledge as to the actual methods !ursued in schools is di##icult to gain #rom written circulars, because so much de!ends u!on the understanding and use o# terms9 but the ex!erience o# the members o# the committee gained by association with secondary teachers, and in many cases by actual !ersonal knowledge o# their work, su!!lements and corrects such generaliBations as may be made #rom the returns to our circulars. ,he text0books used are legion, and without mentioning titles, it is the (udgment o# the committee that, although the old0#ashioned and discarded books are now disa!!earing, the #a.orite text0books seem still to be the brie#er ones. Few schools a!!ear to select a book with a good round amount o# reading matter9 hence, unless su!!lemented by other work, the text0books used are likely to #urnish an insu##icient mental !abulum. ome s!eci#ic in#ormation has been obtained about the o!inion o# selected teachers as to the wisdom o# using more than one kind o# textbook in the same class. '!inion seems about e.enly di.ided, with a !re!onderance against the !ractice.

5! Collateral Readin%
'n the 1uestion o# su!!lementing text0books with additional reading o# some sort there seems little di##erence o# o!inion. 'nly one !rinci!al known to the committee ad.ocates the extensi.e use o# the text0book with little or no additional work9 about one0hal# the selected !rinci!als #a.or a large amount o# collateral reading9 the other hal# !re#er more searching text0book work and less reading. -n .iew o# this .ery distinct !re#erence, it is sur!rising to #ind how #ew o# the schools really seem #itted out with good collections o# standard secondary writers, suitable either #or reading or #or written work. 2.en schools with considerable libraries a!!ear unable to kee! u! with the new general books, which would be so use#ul to !u!ils. "erha!s this lack o# material accounts #or the #acts that .ery #ew schools <most o# them in the Middle tates> actually re1uire as many as three hundred !ages o# collateral reading in connection with a course o# #i.e hours !er week #or a year, and that three0#ourths o# the schools ha.e no s!eci#ied re1uirements. A!!arently !u!ils are in.ited to browse, but there is no system o# en#orcing the reading. "erha!s some o# these schools may, without s!eci#ying a #ixed number o# !ages, re1uire results which may be gained #rom any one o# se.eral books9 but it seems a #air in#erence #rom the re!lies that as yet the schools ha.e not #ully introduced the system o# collateral reading, and that many o# them ha.e not the necessary library.

6! 7ritten 7or4
From the re!lies recei.ed, written work seems to be reasonably well established9 .ery #ew schools re!ort that they re1uire none. -nmost cases this work makes u! less than one0third o# the time s!ent by the !u!ils in a course. A great .ariety o# written exercises are in use, and the schools seem eager to #urther the method9 but in many schools it a!!ears not to be a .ery exacting !art o# the historical work. Many teachers are struck with the e##ect o# written work in training the memory and the !owers o# selection and in de.elo!ing a ca!acity #or indi.idual thought. ,hey see also that accuracy o# arrangement and the !ower o# analysis are induced, as well as an ac1uaintance with the material, and an ability to learn #acts and to state them cogently. ,he criticisms most o#ten !assed u!on such work are three3 that it runs to routine and co!ying9 that it consumes too much time9 and that Git kills o## good teachers.G -t a!!ears, howe.er, that these disad.antages ha.e not been su##icient to cause the gi.ing u! o# the system, which in a considerable body o# schools is now #airly established.

8! 8se of Sources
,he re!orts o# more than sixty !rinci!als on the sub(ect o# using historical sources either as collateral reading or as material #or written work, show that this system has little hold in the Middle tates, much in /ew 2ngland, and some in the $est. /early hal# the !rinci!als do not #a.or it, and some who like it ha.e not su##icient books. ,he ob(ections a!!ear to be, #irst, that it is a time0consuming method9 second, that it throws u!on the !u!ils an undue res!onsibility beyond their years and understanding9 and third, that it is Gan attem!t to #oist u!on the !re!aratory student the work o# the uni.ersity s!ecialist.G ,he arguments used in #a.or o# the method are that it teaches the habit o# getting at the bottom o# a 1uestion9 that it induces methods o# correct note taking and record9 that it trains indi.idual (udgment9 and that it G.italiBesG history and leads to greater interest and Beal. From the re!lies it seems doubt#ul whether all the teachers know what is meant by Gsources,G or understand where to sto! in using them in connection with busy school work.

9! Teachers
'ne 1uestion asked o# the selected !rinci!als was3 GAre your teachers o# history es!ecially !re!ared #or that work, as your teachers o# languages or science are ex!ected to be !re!aredFG ,o this 1uestion one0#ourth #rankly answered that they had no teachers o# history who had been es!ecially !re!ared. About another #ourth !ut !art o# their history work into the hands o# untrained teachers. omething more than hal# gi.e no work exce!t to those who ha.e s!ecial !re!aration. ,he Middle and $estern tates ha.e in this res!ect a great ad.antage o.er /ew 2ngland, where the idea that none but !ersons who know history can teach history seems slow o# in#iltration.

19! Colle%e Re:uirements


-t is not the #unction o# this committee to make u! a college entrance system, but rather to suggest a !lan o# study #or the schools, and the committee has abstained #rom recommending any distinct system or method. As a means o# collecting in#ormation it asked #or the o!inions o# teachers as to a !lan which has become known through the country. 'ne o# the s!eci#ic 1uestions asked was there#ore as to the state o# mind toward Gthe recommendation o# the /ew )ork Con#erence o# 5678,G which was substantially as #ollows3 <a> Minimum time, two years, three exercises !er week <or one year, #i.e exercises !er week>. <b> A good text0book. <c> Collateral reading. <d> $ritten work <a notebook, to be certi#ied by the teacher>. <e> "resumably two sub(ects, as Greek and &oman, or 2nglish and American. ,his recommendation has the 1uali#ied, or slightly 1uali#ied, a!!ro.al o# a little more than hal# the !rinci!als re!lying, and seems to meet with little ob(ection in /ew 2ngland, where .arious colleges ha.e indeed ado!ted it. ,he criticisms are most numerous #rom the $est, but about hal# the ob(ectors take exce!tion only to the time re1uirement9 they urge that the colleges ought to re1uire more sub(ects, or at least that the minimum time ought to be enlarged. Four !ersons ob(ect to the collateral reading0none #rom /ew 2ngland. ,o written work there is little or no s!eci#ic ob(ection. ,he most #re1uent criticism is as to the notebook re1uirement. 'n that !oint one0ninth o# the answers !rotest. A small number ob(ect to the choice o# sub(ects stated by the con#erence. ,o sum u! the returns on this 1uestion, the serious ob(ections raised are not against a wider allowance o# history, but against details, o# which the notebook suggestion is the !oint most criticiBed.

Summary
-n this attem!t to state in a #ew words the !ractices and !re#erences o# the three thousand secondary schools in the country, the committee has a.ailed itsel#, #irst, o# the ex!erience o# its own members, #our o# whom ha.e been teachers in secondary schools9 second, o# the ac1uaintance o# the members o# the committee with teachers, schools, and conditions in the .arious !arts o# the country9 third, o# answers to the circulars sent to schools, stated by educational authorities to be re!resentati.e, some o# which are .ery large and strong, some smaller, and some weak. -n the C8H schools re!lying out o# this category, an attem!t has been made to disco.er the !ractice in teaching history9 and a second in1uiry has been sent out to a body o# schools which #rom their answers to the #irst circulars seemed in a !osition to #urnish re!resentati.e in#ormation. -# the committee has mis(udged what the schools are doing and may be ex!ected to do, it has not been #rom lack o# e##ort, or #rom !reconce!tions as to what the schools ought to do, but #rom the im!ossibility o# generaliBing where the !ractices o# the schools are so .aried.

Circulars
-t has not seemed necessary to re!rint the #irst circular o# in1uiry9 but we add a co!y o# the second circular, since it was directed to the 1uestions which in the course o# the in.estigation seemed .ital. My +ear ir3 ome time ago you were good enough, at the re1uest o# this committee, to #ill out a circular o# in1uiry as to the teaching o# history in your school. $e beg to thank you #or your courtesy, and to ex!ress our sense o# the hel!#ulness o# your answers. -n attem!ting to collect the answers #rom .arious sources, and to arri.e at a (ust estimate o# what the schools are doing and can do, we need de#inite statements on a #ew !oints, in a #orm #or com!arison9 and we there#ore ask you to add to the obligation under which you ha.e !laced the committee and all those interested in the !ro!er teaching o# history, by brie#ly stating your !ractice and your !re#erences with regard to the sub(ects mentioned below. ,he committee will #eel .ery grate#ul #or suggestions o# any di##iculties which you #oresee in the new methods which ha.e recently been brought #orward. $e want to know both sides, so that we may make no recommendations which will not commend themsel.es to intelligent teachers. -n order to be a.ailable, your answer should reach the secretary o# the committee by +ecember 5:. "lease answer on this sheet or otherwise, numbering the answers in se1uence. )our answer is not to be made !ublic9 and e.en the brie#est re!lies will be much a!!reciated, i# time !resses. 5. Courses 0 $hat is your !ractice and what is your o!inion on ha.ing a se!arate course in history #or those only who ex!ect to go to college, and another course #or othersF C. $rder of courses 0 $hat do you consider the best order in which to take u! the #i.e sub(ects most #re1uently o##ered, .iB, American, 2nglish, General, Greek, &omanF D. eneral history 0 $hat is your !ractice and what is your o!inion as to a one yearAs course <o# #i.e exercises a week> in Ggeneral historyGF E. Time gi"en to history 0 $hat is the maximum number o# exercises in history in your whole curriculum <allowing #orty weeks as a school year>, o!en to a !u!il who chooses that course which has most history in itF ;. Te%t&boo's 0 $hat is your !ractice and your o!inion as to using more than one kind o# text0books in the same class F 8. Collateral reading 0 $hich o# the #ollowing systems do you !re#er3 im!ly a text0book drilled o.er and o.er9 or a text0book thoroughly taught, with some collateral reading9 or a text0book care#ully read as a backbone, with much collateral readingF How many !ages o# collateral reading do you actually re1uire in a course o# #i.e hours a week #or a yearF :. (ritten wor' 0 +o your !u!ils do substantial and systematic written work throughout their history courses0su##icient to make u! say a third o# their history workF $hat ad.antages and disad.antages do you notice in written workF 6. Sources 0 +o you use sources #or any !ur!ose0either as collateral reading or as material #or written workF $hat do you consider the ad.antages and disad.antages o# the methodF 7. Teachers 0 Are your teachers o# history es!ecially !re!ared #or that work, as your teachers o# languages or science are ex!ected to be !re!aredF 5H. College requirements 0 $hat is your (udgment o# the recommendation o# the /ew )ork con#erence o# 5678 #or a uni#orm entrance re1uirementF -t is substantially as #ollows3

a. Minimum time two years, three exercises a week <or one year, #i.e exercises a week>. b. A good text0book. c. Collateral reading. d. $ritten work <a notebook to be certi#ied by the teacher>. e. "resumably two sub(ects, as Greek and &oman, or 2nglish and American.

$xhibits

,he #ollowing courses o# study are actually #ollowed out. ,he #irst <A> is the course o# an 2astern high school9 the second, o# a $estern high school. ,hey are o##ered here sim!ly as exhibits, showing how !ractical teachers in the secondary schools ha.e arranged their !rogrammes so as to gi.e time #or long and continuous courses in history. ,he committee does not o##er them as models to which the schools are asked to con#orm, but as suggestions that are .aluable because now carried into o!eration.

344endix ++: Study of History &elo( the Secondary School /02


+y ;ucy "! Salmon
,he 1uestion o# instruction in history in the grades below the high school is one that concerns the !resent condition o# such instruction and also one o# an ideal condition toward which it may be !ossible to work. An in1uiry ?C@ in regard to history in the !ublic schools o# the di##erent states leads to the conclusion that the instruction at !resent gi.en in this sub(ect lea.es much to be desired. A su!er#icial examination o# the re!lies recei.ed shows that only one0hal# o# the states ha.e a uni#orm course in history and that e.en in those states ha.ing such a course adherence to it is sometimes o!tional with the schools.?D@ -t is not !ossible to discuss here the ad.antages o# uni#orm curricula within limited areas, but it may be noted that !rogress in education has in.ariably #ollowed the ado!tion o# such a uni#orm course, and that those nations that ha.e uni#ormity to0day ha.e, as a rule, the best systems o# education. $ith two exce!tions, the ten states o# the =nion that ha.e no uni#orm course o# instruction are among the most backward in America in all matters o# !ublic education. ,he second noteworthy #act is the absence in nearly all o# the states o# a clear and de#inite understanding o# the !lace o# history in the curriculum. History is generally taught Gbecause e.ery one ought to know something o# the history o# his own country,G yet no ex!lanation is gi.en #or this assertion, and there is o#ten no a!!reciation o# the educational .alue o# historical study. Any course o# instruction lea.es something to be desired i# it does not show ob.ious reasons #or its existence. ,he corres!onding noteworthy #act is that, i# a de#inite reason #or the study o# history is !resented, it is the #actitious one o# !atriotism. ?E@ ,he idea that the chie# ob(ect in teaching history is to teach !atriotism is so thoroughly ingrained, not only in America but in other countries,?;@that it is extremely di##icult to combat it. )et it must be e.ident that the !atriotism thus ad.ocated is more or less a s!urious one, a !atriotism that would seek to !resent distorted ideas o# the !ast with the idea o# glori#ying one country at the !ossible ex!ense o# truth. -# the #acts o# the Franco0"russian war should be used both in France and in Germany to inculcate this kind o# !atriotism, diametrically o!!osite results would be reached9 i# the American &e.olution is to teach this !atriotism both in 2ngland and in America, one nation or the other must be illogical9 i# the /orthern and the outhern states o# America should use the #acts o# the ci.il war to !romote either a national or a sectional !atriotism o# this character, those #acts would ha.e to be !er.erted. ,hat the ultimate ob(ect o# history, as o# all sciences, is the search #or truth, and that that search entails the res!onsibility o# abiding by the results when #ound, is yet to be learned by many o# our teachers o# history. ,he !resent condition o# instruction in history in the schools is o!en to criticism #or another reason. ,he curriculum has in many cases not been the result o# educational ex!erience or a !roduct o# educational theory. ,his #act ex!lains in large measure the !re.ailing desire to use history as a .ehicle #or teaching !atriotism. -t !robably does not admit o# 1uestion that the curriculum o# the !ublic schools must and should be enacted by the tate legislatures, but it is e1ually true that behind these legislatures should be organiBed bodies o# com!etent ad.isers, to whose decisions on educational matters the tate legislatures should gi.e the weight o# their authority rather than themsel.es assume the initiati.e. Another result o# the condition (ust mentioned is the tendency to attem!t only the teaching o# =nited tates history. ,he makers o# our !rogrammes ha.e encouraged the !ublic to belie.e that the history o# the =nited tates is the only history worth studying, in that it is as a rule the only history !rescribed9 it is studied in the se.enth grade #rom 5E7C to 5:67, and in the eighth grade #rom 5:67 to the !resent. -n at least ele.en o# the tates the history o# the tate is also !rescribed9 and in only #i.e does the curriculum contain any suggestion as to teaching the history o# other countries. ,heir argument <in which much truth lies> is the double one o# sentiment and o# utility9 o# sentiment because we should kee! an unbroken connection with our !ast9 o# utility because citiBenshi! should be based on an intelligent understanding o# !ast as well as o# !resent !olitical conditions. )et there are gra.e ob(ections to this exclusi.e study o# the history o# the =nited tates. uch study must be, #irst o# all, insu##icient. -t gi.es but a war!ed, narrow, circumscribed .iew o# history9 it is history detached #rom its natural #oundation02uro!ean history9 it is history sus!ended in mid0air9 it is history that has no natural beginning a!art #rom its connection with 2uro!ean history. -t is indeed di##icult to decide where the history o# America should begin0i# with the !eriod o# disco.ery and ex!loration, then it is in reality 2uro!ean history9 i# with the !eriod o# coloniBation, then it is rather 2nglish history9 i# with the ado!tion o# the Constitution, then it is the history o# a youth a#ter he has attained his ma(ority but whose !ast is in obli.ion. -# it is true that the history o# 2ngland is the only history studied in the elementary and the higher grade board schools o# 2ngland, it is also true that the history o# 2ngland is so intimately connected with that o# the Continent that some knowledge o# general 2uro!ean history must o# necessity be ac1uired through this study o# a limited #ield. )et it is also true that the teaching o# history in 2ngland is #ar in#erior to that in Germany and in France, and no small element in this in#eriority is the limitation o# the course to the history o# 2ngland. -# the instruction in history in France and in Germany is con#essedly su!erior to that gi.en in other countries, it is in no small !art due to the breadth o# .iew gained through the care#ul study o# the history o# other nations. ,he social unit, the !olitical unit, the ecclesiastical unit, is constantly enlarging, and the educational curriculum must widen its boundaries i# it is to kee! !ace with the e.olution in other directions. But di##icult as it is to #ind substantial reasons #or the exclusi.e study o# =nited tates history as a whole, it is still more di##icult to #ind them #or the study o# the history o# the indi.idual tates. ,his history, !rescribed by at least ele.en o# the tate legislatures, is an e.idence o# misdirected !atriotism and also !robably a result o# the !edagogical cry that swe!t the country a #ew years ago, G#rom the known to the unknown.G But the demand #or tate history rests on no substantial basis either historical or !edagogical. 2.ery tate in the =nion has arti#icial boundary lines determined by !ro.incial grants or by legislati.e acts according to !arallels o# latitude and longitude, and to attem!t to endow these arti#icially created tates with the attributes o# organic tates is to distort historical truth. -t is e1ually true that the demand that a study should !roceed G#rom the known to the unknown,G may in.ol.e a #allacy, that what lies nearest may sometimes be most obscure, and what is remote in time or !lace be most easily understood. -t must be understood that this criticism is not one o# the study o# American history, but o# its exclusi.e study and o# the reasons so o#ten assigned #or this study. Any study o# American history must be worse than barren that demands the memoriBing o# a text0book, but that lea.es a boy in ignorance as to what are the #undamental #acts in American history9 that insists u!on detailed in#ormation in regard to the cam!aigns o# the &e.olutionary war, but that has im!lanted no notion o# !ersonal res!onsibility to the Go.ernment established through that war. -n many tates, where the #oreign element is large, there is absolute ignorance o# the nature o# re!ublican institutions. -n others, where the nati.e0born element !redominates, there is o#ten no a!!reciation either o# the duties or o# the !ri.ileges or o# the o!!ortunities o# citiBenshi!. History as taught in either o# these classes o# tates is o!en to the same criticism as is historical instruction in the 2uro!ean schools, where the history o# the !ast is taught without re#erence to the conditions o# the !resent. ,hese gra.e #aults must be a.oided in American schools by the insistence at all times u!on the #act that Ggood citiBenshi! must be the religion o# the common schools.G ?8@ 'ther de#ects in the study o# history in the grades are a!!arent. ,he history o# the =nited tates is studied during the last two years o# the grammar grade, when the boy or girl is #rom twel.e to #ourteen years old. ,his means that .aluable time has been lost, that long be#ore this age the interest o# the child should ha.e been awakened and held by the !ictures o# the !ast. Again there is little e.idence to show that history is united either with geogra!hy or literature. -n se.eral o# the states history is not begun until geogra!hy is #inished, and in others history is absolutely di.orced #rom the instruction in 2nglish. ,ext0books are used without collateral reading, and sometimes the sub(ect is di.ided by administrations, sometimes by !ages.?:@ -n one tate the work in history is gi.en during the #irst three years in the #orm o# stories, and the instructions !ublished #or the ensuing #our years are to re!eat the !re.ious stories. -n another tate ci.ics alternates with !hysiology. -n a!!arently but #our o# the tates has there been any consultation whate.er with com!etent ad.isers in historical instruction regarding the course in history to be !rescribed #or the grades. 2xamination, there#ore, seems to show that the !resent condition o# instruction in history in the grades below the high school is de#ecti.e in that uni#ormity is so seldom #ound9 that there is no de#inite, well0de#ined ob(ect in teaching history9 that when an ob(ect is !resented, it is generally the #actitious one o# !atriotism9 that as a rule the course is not !rescribed by ex!erts either in history or in education9 that only =nited tates history and tate history are taught9 that history is not studied in connection with other sub(ects in the curriculum9 that a sla.ish use is too o#ten made o# the text0book ?6@9 that a mechanical di.ision o# the sub(ect matter by !ages or by administrations is o#ten ado!ted, and that all instruction in this sub(ect is de#erred until so late in the course. /o criticism o# existing institutions is (usti#ied unless it carries with it a recommendation o# changes that will !ossibly bring im!ro.ement. -n addition to the study that has been made o# what is actually done in some o# the best American schools, a care#ul study has been made o# the !rogrammes o# the work in history in the schools o# 2ngland, France, and Germany, and many o# these schools ha.e been !ersonally .isited. -t is belie.ed that the #ollowing scheme o# work in history can not only be (usti#ied by a!!eal to educational theory, but that it can also be de#ended as !ractical inasmuch as it is already carried out either wholly or in !art in many schools. 'rade ! 0 tories #rom the -liad, the 'dyssey, the Qneid, the agas, the /ibelungen Lied, the stories o# Ping Arthur, &oland, Hiawatha.

'rade &! 0 Biogra!hies o# characters !rominent in history3 Greece0Lycurgus, olon, +arius, Miltiades, Leonidas, "ericles, ocrates, Alexander, +emosthenes, "lutarch9 &ome0&omulus, %irginia, Horatius, Cincinnatus, &egulus, Hannibal, Cato, "om!ey, Caesar, Agricola9 Germany0Arminius, Alaric, Charlemagne, Henry -%, Frederick Barbarossa, Gutenberg, Charles %, Luther, Frederick the Great, Bismarck9 France0 Clo.is, Charlemagne, Louis -I, Koan o# Arc, Bayard, "alissy, Francis -, Henry -%, &ichelieu, /a!oleon9 2ngland0Al#red, $illiam -, &ichard -, $arwick, 2liBabeth, idney, &aleigh, Cromwell, "itt, Cli.e, /elson, te!henson, Gladstone9 outhern 2uro!e0Mohammed, Francis o# Assisi, Loyola, "rince Henry, -sabella, Columbus, LorenBo deAMedici, Michel Angelo, Galileo, Garibaldi9 /orthern 2uro!e0&obert Bruce, $illiam o# 'range, Henry Hudson, Gusta.us Adol!hus, &embrandt, "eter the Great, Possuth9 America0Kohn mith, Miles tandish, $illiam "enn, La alle, "atrick Henry, Franklin, $ashington, +aniel Boone, Lincoln, Lee. ,hese names are suggested, not as a #inal selection to be rigorously ado!ted, but as indicating one way o# arousing interest and o# con.eying historical in#ormation at the age when ideas o# time and !lace relations are only im!er#ectly de.elo!ed, but when interest in indi.iduals is keen and acti.e. ,he list may be changed in toto, but the !rinci!le still be retained. ,he !lan #or these two years <Grade --- and Grade -%> im!lies that the ob(ect is to arouse interest9 that the method used is to be wholly the oral one9 that the stories are to be united with lessons gi.en in language and in geogra!hy9 that the selection o# myths and stories should aim to gi.e uni.ersal rather than !articular notions9 and that the teacher should ha.e a su##icient ac1uaintance with history and literature to be able to decide wisely concerning the selection to be made. 'rade &! 0 Greek and &oman history to 6HH A. +. circa. 'rade & ! 0 MediJ.al and modern 2uro!ean history, #rom the close o# the #irst !eriod to the !resent time. 'rade & ! 0 2nglish history. 'rade & ! 0 American history.

,he reasons #or recommending the order o# sub(ects to be taken u! #rom Grade % through Grade %--- are the same as those gi.en by the committee in the main body o# the re!ort and need not be re!eated here. ,he reasons #or recommending the !reliminary sur.ey o# 2uro!ean history be#ore taking u! the same !eriod in the high school are that the underlying !rinci!le is similar to one that is in success#ul o!eration in Germany0educational !rinci!les disco.ered by one grou! o# instructors and success#ully !ut into !ractice by them can be ada!ted to meet the needs o# other grou!s o# instructors without the necessity o# redisco.ery9 that it gi.es a good basis #or high0school work, since it #ollows the law Gthat one obtains knowledge by adding to the ideas which one already has0new ideas organically related to the old9G that the substitution o# a brie# course in 2uro!ean history #or a !ortion o# the American history now taught will conduce to a better a!!reciation o# the im!ortant #acts in American history, and that as a result the !u!il will ha.e a better understanding o# the history o# America a#ter one year o# s!ecial study gi.en to it than he now has a#ter two yearsA study without this !reliminary ac1uaintance with 2uro!ean history9 that it gi.es an outlook into the world o# history and o# literature to those who cannot com!lete a high0school course, and thus gi.es them resources within themsel.es that must be o# .alue in their #uture li.es9 that it would do something to make #ruit#ul what is now too o#ten a barren waste0the curriculum o# the !rimary and the grammar grades9 that its ado!tion would do something to raise the educational and !ro#essional 1uali#ications o# teachers, since the knowledge re1uired to carry it out would be more extensi.e than that demanded by the !resent curriculum9 that through it something would be done to uni#y the sub(ects in the curriculum, which is now too o#ten .ague and #ormless9 that since many schools in America now ha.e a course similar to the one here ad.ocated, it is a !ractical one. ,he !lan o# work in history here !resented is suggested, not as being absolutely ideal in itsel#, but as one that more nearly a!!roximates that ideal than the one o#ten #ound in the !ublic schools9 it is suggested with #ull realiBation o# the #act that it !robably can not be at once ado!ted in extenso by a single school9 it is recommended because o# the belie# that it is better to ha.e an ideal toward which to work than to remain content with unsatis#actory conditions.?7@ ?5@ ,his re!ort has been !re!ared by the writer while in "aris, and it has not recei.ed the bene#it o# criticism #rom the other members o# the committee. ,he writer there#ore desires to assume the !ersonal res!onsibility o# the recommendations included in it. ?Back to text@ ?C@ ,he in1uiry was addressed to the su!erintendents o# !ublic instruction, and the result was as #ollows3 tates ha.ing a uni#orm course in history tates ha.ing such a course in !re!aration CC E

tates ha.ing no uni#orm course -nde#inite re!lies /o re!ly

5H E ; 12

?Back to text@ ?D@ G/o school in the commonwealth <Massachusetts> is re1uired to !ursue this course o# study. - do not know o# any school that adheres to it in all its details.G 0 F. A. Hill, ecretary o# the tate board o# education ?Back to text@ ?E@ GPindle the #ires o# !atriotism and #eed them constantly.G 0 /e.ada. ?Back to text@ G+e.elo! !atriotism.G 0 Colorado. ,he ob(ect Gis to make our boys and girls true !atriots.G 0 /orth Carolina. ?;@ -n France the 1uestion was asked o# the candidates #or the modern baccalaureate, Kuly, 567:, G$hat !ur!ose does the teaching o# history ser.eFG and eighty !er cent answered, Gto !romote !atriotism.G 0 Langlois and eignobos, )ntroduction au% *tudes Historiques , C66, C67. ?Back to text@ ,he theories o# the em!eror o# Germany are well known, and it is !erha!s ine.itable, in .iew o# the long struggle o# Germany #or nationality, that the teaching o# history in Germany should be more or less colored by a desire to em!hasiBe the !rogress the em!ire has made in this direction. ?8@ Much o# this work o# inculcating right ideas o# !ersonal res!onsibility may be done incidentally in connection with other !arts o# the !rogramme. $ashingtonAs Birthday, LincolnAs Birthday, +ecoration +ay, election day, general exercises, debating clubs, work in 2nglish, and a score o# other occasions, !resent constant o!!ortunity #or gi.ing incidental and yet serious in#ormation in regard to American a##airs and #or awakening an interest in them. ?Back to text@ ?:@ -n one tate the text0book used during the eighth year is di.ided into ten !arts o# about thirty !ages each, and one !art is assigned #or each month. ?Back to text@ ?6@ -n 567D, eighty0two schools in /ew Ha.en County, Conn., were asked3 G-s the memoriter method usedFG ,hirty0se.en schools answered G)es,G thirty0nine G/o,G and six, G-n !art.G 'ne teacher in another county was Gnot !articular about the words o# the text i# the !u!ils ga.e words as good.G ?Back to text@ ?7@ Lack o# s!ace !re.ents the elaboration o# the !rinci!les suggested in this re!ort. A more detailed !resentation o# them may be #ound in GHistory in 2lementary chools,G *ducational !e"iew, A!ril, 56759 G=nity in College 2ntrance History,G *ducational !e"iew , e!tember, 56789 and GHistory in the German Gymnasia,G A!!endix ---, below. ?Back to text@

344endix +++: History in the 'erman 'ymnasia/02


+y ;ucy "! Salmon
,he !a!er is largely based on a !ersonal .isit extending o.er three monthsA time and including DC gymnasia in 56 di##erent !laces9 in CD o# these gymnasia :H classes in history were heard, ha.ing an aggregate attendance o# about 5,;HH boys. -t was the !lan to select !laces di##ering widely in conditions, #rom small !ro.incial towns to large commercial and educational centers, and also those re!resenting 1uite di.erse !olitical and religious interests. -n some cases all the gymnasia in the city were .isited9 in some the work in e.ery class in history was seen9 in others the same class was seen in se.eral successi.e lessons in history9 the work o# one class was .isited in history and in other sub(ects, and also all o# the classes in history taught by one instructor9 the same instructor was heard in other sub(ects as well, and di##erent sections o# the same class taught by di##erent instructors0e.ery !ossible combination was made as regards town, school, instructor, and class. ,his has been su!!lemented by a care#ul study o# the school laws and !rogrammes o# the twenty0six tates making u! the German 2m!ire, including those o# the twel.e !ro.inces that #orm the Pingdom o# "russia. 2xce!t #or incurring the charge o# generaliBing #rom one !articular, a .isit to one school and the study o# one !rogramme would ha.e su##iced. ,here are indeed .ariations in detail, but the #undamental !rinci!les in the arrangement o# the work in history are the same0a uni#ormity that is es!ecially noteworthy in .iew o# the contrast it !resents to our own system, or lack o# system. ,he result o# this study gi.es a com!osite !hotogra!h o# the work in history in the schools #or boys, which bears a striking likeness to each o# the indi.idual !arts making u! the !hotogra!h. ,he reign o# Louis "hili!!e began without glory and ended without honor9 but #or one thing it is entitled to the grate#ul remembrance not alone o# France, but o# America as well. -n 56D5 M. Cousin, holding a go.ernment commission, .isited the schools o# "russia, axony, and Frank#ort, and on his return !ublished those celebrated re!orts which #or the #irst time made the German system o# education #amiliar in France and subse1uently in this country. From that time to the !resent our interest in German education has been a growing one. -t has, howe.er, been naturally the German uni.ersities whose organiBation Americans ha.e studied0the German schools ha.e less o#ten been .isited, and their !lace in the educational system is less clearly seen. Kust what this !art is, howe.er, must be brie#ly recalled in order to understand the !lace in the curriculum occu!ied by history. ,he German gymnasium, whether the gymnasium !ro!er with its course based on the classics and mathematics, the real gymnasium which omits Greek #rom its curriculum, or the oberrealschule which omits both Latin and Greek, the German school, whate.er its .ariety, takes the boy when nine years old, and at eighteen sends him to the uni.ersity, the higher technical schools, or into business li#e with a well0rounded symmetrical education. ,his symmetrical education is made !ossible through the care#ul construction o# the school curriculum. ,he curriculum is a sacred thing, not lightly #ormed or to be tam!ered with when made, #or into it goes the best trained and most ex!ert educational ser.ice that the tate can command. ,he curriculum in e.ery tate is the same in the same class o# schools, and the uni#ormity among the twenty0six di##erent tate systems is #ar greater than among the #orty0#i.e tates o# America. -t may or it may not be due to the conscious in#luence o# Herbart0in many !laces there is a !ositi.e disclaimer o# all such in#luence0but, whate.er the cause, the result is e.erywhere a curriculum that gi.es a com!act, articulated, organic system in strong contrast to our own. ,he result may be in !art attributed, in s!ite o# disclaimers, to the in#luence o# Herbart, and in !art to the #act that the Germans, as indi.iduals, are less !rone than the Americans to #ly o## on tangents o# their own, and conse1uently ha.e a ca!acity #or working together that shows itsel# as strongly in educational as in munici!al a##airs. ,he curriculum is a unit9 it is com!lete in itsel#, but it re!resents at the same time one stage in the de.elo!ment o# the educational system. ,his #act must ne.er be lost sight o#, or the corres!onding #act that the American !rogramme o# studies !resents an absolute contrast to the German Lehr!lan. ,he American !rogramme is o#ten regarded as a con.enient .ehicle #or con.eying the instruction desired by interested !arties. +oes a tate legislature belie.e that the schools exist #or the !ur!ose o# im!lanting !atriotism, they are #orthwith commanded to teach American history9 i# a grou! o# business men belie.e that the schools should ha.e a bread0and0butter aim, stenogra!hy and ty!ewriting are made com!ulsory9 i# one branch o# the church considers that the schools exist #or the !ur!ose o# teaching religion, the study o# the catechism is demanded9 i# an association deems that it is the #irst duty o# the schools to inculcate the !rinci!les ad.ocated by that association, it asks #or the study o# !hysiology with s!ecial re#erence to the in(urious e##ects o# alcoholic drinks. ,he American !rogramme re!resents the idiosyncrasies o# indi.iduals, not the wisdom o# the many. -t must there#ore be seen that the !lace occu!ied by history in the German gymnasia, unlike its !lace in the American schools, is gi.en it because the most eminent educators o# Germany ha.e agreed u!on the !lace it ought to ha.e in the educational system. $hat, then, are the characteristic #eatures o# history instruction in Germany, es!ecially those that di##er #rom instruction in history in AmericaF +r. Holmes was wont to say that it was necessary, to begin a boyAs education with the education o# his grand#ather. -n a similar way, any discussion o# history in the German schools must begin with the German boy0 a boy much like other boys, but li.ing in a military atmos!here, where obedience is the #irst law o# men, as order is hea.enAs #irst law elsewhere0a boy who, #rom his earliest recollections, is taught that e.ery one obeys some one else0 GChildren obey their !arents, the wi#e obeys her husband, the husband obeys the king, the king obeys GodG0a boy who is taught res!ect #or authority, but a boy who is also taught that sel#0 control and sel#0knowledge are as much a !art and an ob(ect o# education as is the training o# the mind. =ntil the boy is ready #or the uni.ersity0that is, until he is 56 or 57 years old0he is a minor9 he is so regarded by his instructors and he so regards himsel#. He is under a constant su!er.ision that, to the American boy, would be intolerable9 he is in the gymnasium to be taught, and it is not ex!ected that be#ore lea.ing the gymnasium he should ex!ress his !ersonal o!inion on any sub(ect under consideration.?C@ -nstruction thus seems to be #reed #rom some o# the 1uestions o# disci!line that accom!any instruction here, and the instructor is unham!ered by the a!!arent necessity o# sacri#icing legitimate drill to the immediate ob(ect o# maintaining a s!ecious interest. ,he German instructor thus #inds at hand a military system that is o# hel! in the method o# instruction, and he also #inds a !rogramme o# studies arranged by ex!ert educators and una##ected by !olitical or religious considerations9 a !rogramme the keynote o# which is concentration0concentration o# work, concentration o# thought, concentration o# time. ,he !art, then, that history !lays in the curriculum is not an inde!endent one, but one correlated with other sub(ects. )et the !lace that each sub(ect has in this articulated system is clearly understood and de#ined. -n historical instruction, according to the educational laws o# axony, a knowledge o# the e!och0making e.ents in the history o# the world, and o# their mutual relation, origin, and de.elo!ment, is to be s!ecially sought. ,he "russian !rogramme o# 566C states the ob(ect to be Gto arouse in the !u!ils res!ect #or the moral greatness o# men and nations, to make them conscious o# their own im!er#ect insight, and to gi.e them the ability to read understandingly the greatest historical classics.G ,his !osition "russia has modi#ied by the !rogramme o# 567C into one in.ol.ing s!ecial em!hasis on the de.elo!ment o# "russiaAs greatness and the centering o# the new national li#e about her9 but her #ormer !osition is the one rather held by the other German tates. History is thus to be an organic !art o# the school curriculum, but it is also to ha.e a distinct de#inite aim o# its own. ,hat aim is to be the !lacing o# high ideals be#ore the boy, the de.elo!ment o# his moral character through the study o# these ideals9 it is to be a !art o# Gliberal culture and is to ser.e as a means o# intellectual training.G ,he work in history in the gymnasium itsel# must Abe considered under the two heads, sub(ect0matter and method. As regards sub(ect matter, the nine years may be di.ided into three grou!s, the #irst grou! com!rising the #irst two years, the second the #ollowing #our years, and the third the last three years. +uring the #irst two years the boy, then nine or ten years old, is gi.en the legends #rom classical and German mythology. ,he next #our years #orm a second grou!. ,he boy during this !eriod is #rom ele.en to #ourteen years old, and he begins a systematic study o# Greek and &oman history, #ollowed by a study o# mediae.al and modern history, o#ten with s!ecial re#erence to the history o# Germany. ,he last three, when the boy is #rom #i#teen to eighteen years old, #orm the third grou!, and in this grou! he has a second course in classical, mediae.al, and modern history. ,his, then, gi.es us the three concentric circles o# historical instruction o# Germany. +uring the #irst circle o# two years no attem!t is made to gi.e #ormal instruction in chronological se1uence9 the work is introductory to that o# the subse1uent course, and it is intended by it to bring be#ore the imagination o# the boy in a series o# .i.id !ictures the deeds o# great heroes, to #ill his thoughts with them, and thus to lay the #oundation #or the later more connected historical instruction.?D@ ,his systematic instruction begins with the third year in the gymnasium, and during the remainder o# his course the work in history and geogra!hy #orms the two regular concentric circles. ,he ob(ect in the #irst o# these is to gi.e a connected account o# the origin and de.elo!ment o# the great e.ents in the worldAs history, and es!ecially o# the relation o# Germany to these e.ents. ?E@ ,he work o# the #our years, there#ore, begins at the beginning, and com!rises a study #or one year o# Greek and &oman history, with the addition o# the little necessarily !ertaining to it #rom the history o# the 'riental !eo!les. ,he next two years0that is, the boyAs #ourth and #i#th years in school0are gi.en to medie.al and early modern history9 but mediae.al history is treated as !redominantly German, and the theory that the history o# the Middle Ages is, in reality, a history o# Germany is commonly acce!ted. $ith the close o# the Middle Ages the !oint o# .iew is changed somewhat, since modern history can not be treated #rom the distincti.ely German stand!oint, as can the !re.ious !eriod. But i# modern history can not be treated as world history, it is, at least, always regarded and treated #rom the 2uro!ean stand!oint.?;@ 2s!ecially during the last o# the #our years is the material handled #rom the general 2uro!ean, not #rom the s!ecial German or "russian, !oint o# .iew.?8@ +uring the second circle o# systematic study, or the third circle, i# the introductory work is considered, the boy, at the age o# #i#teen, begins Gthe second wandering through the broad #ield o# history,G but with the ob(ect o# laying the #oundations dee!er, o# gi.ing a broader outlook, o# understanding !resent conditions through their de.elo!ment in the !ast, o# building u!on the lo.e o# the #atherland that has been awakened in the earliest years a sense o# !ersonal res!onsibility to it, o# ins!iring high ideals and creating ethical standards. ?:@ "ro#essor Kager has well !ointed out ?6@ that e.ery age has its s!ecial #a.orite ideas and !re.ailing interests, and that these necessarily a##ect the historical instruction in the higher schools. ?7@ ,o0day such interest is social and economic, and it is, there#ore, to be ex!ected that social and economic 1uestions shall be treated with a certain !artiality, and this is es!ecially seen during the second re.iew o# historical e.ents.

$hat is the di##erence in the !oint o# .iew in the three sur.eys o# historyF -t may !erha!s be said that in the #irst circle heroes, in the second, states0!articularly the German state0in the third circle, the world, #orm the ob(ecti.e !oints. High ideals o# action are the end sought in the #irst circle, a connected account o# the great e.ents in the worldAs history that o# the second, a knowledge o# the ci.iliBing in#luences that ha.e !re.ailed in the worldAs history that o# the third. -# the center o# each circle is sometimes Germany, and i# it is a !art o# the im!erial theory that the radii o# the circle should begin at the circum#erence and .erge toward the center, it is more o#ten #ound in !ractice that the center #orms only a starting !oint #or the construction o# the radii di.erging to the circum#erence. 2s!ecially in German witBerland is an a!!reciation #ound o# the #act that it is unwise to distort history in order to magni#y witBerland or to #oster an exaggerated !atriotism. -n Germany itsel#, while there is ac1uiescence in the im!erial theory that the culti.ation o# the national s!irit should be a s!ecial aim o# historical instruction, there is also a recognition o# the #act, as "ro#essor &ussell has !ointed out, that the theory is !edagogically shortsighted, Gthat !atriotism should be more than mere enthusiasm, more enduring than the #rothy exuberance o# s!irits that arises #rom the contem!lation o# great deeds9 that lo.e o# country and o# king de!ends u!on a #irm and unchangeable character.G?5H@ -# edan day is obser.ed as an e.ent marking a .ictory o.er a ri.al !ower, rather than as a day that means the uni#ication o# Germany, it is because that e.ent is, as yet, necessarily regarded at short range9 i# the day is uni.ersally celebrated throughout the German schools9 it is because the consciousness is yet strong that it was the "russian schoolmaster that won Alsace and Lorraine. ,hat exalted !atriotism that calls the whole world akin does not immediately #ollow a trium!hant national .ictory, but Germany will soon look at those e.ents o# German history that concern her immediate !resent in their true !ers!ecti.e. $hat has the boy gained as a result o# this three#old di.ision o# sub(ect0matter into concentric circlesF Com!ulsory education kee!s him in school until he is 5E years old0that is, until he has com!leted the introductory work and the #irst circle o# systematic study o# history. -# circumstances then com!el him to lea.e the gymnasium, as EH !er cent o# the German boys are obliged to do,?55@ he has in hand such an outline o# the great e.ents in the worldAs history as ought to sa.e him #rom !remature or hasty (udgments. But i# he com!letes the gymnasial course he has gained not only this, but he has learned something o# the dee!er meaning o# history. He has a knowledge o# the art and literature o# Greece that has rounded out his !artial knowledge o# these sub(ects gained through the Greek classics he has read9 he understands the organiBation o# the go.ernment o# the &omans and what has been contributed to the ci.iliBation o# the world by that eminently !ractical !eo!le9 the Middle Ages are not to him +ark ages, #or he understands the !lace in that !eriod occu!ied by the Holy &oman 2m!ire9 modern history means to him not the unrelated history o# Germany alone, but it means the study o# new conditions made !ossible through the disco.ery o# America and the industrial de.elo!ment o# the #i#teenth and sixteenth centuries9 he com!ares the centraliBation o# !ower under Louis I-% with the low, inorganic #orm o# !olitical li#e in Germany during the corres!onding !eriod, and learns the odds against which Germany has struggled in reaching her !resent !osition. He has, #rom the time he was 7 years old, had constantly !ut be#ore him #or nine years these de.elo!ments, and has been made to realiBe Gthat mankind is an ethical whole.G ,he method has been called one o# concentric circles, but is rather one o# an e.er0ascending s!iral, #rom the a!ex o# which an outlook o.er the !ast is obtained. ,o change the #igure, the three sur.eys are the three readings through which any legislati.e measure must !ass be#ore it becomes an act accom!lished. As the three readings ha.e gi.en am!le time #or discussion, #or si#ting essentials #rom nonessentials, #or !resenting all !ossible arguments #or and against a !ro!osed measure, so the three sur.eys must lea.e in the boyAs mind a residuum o# all that is best in the worldAs history, and this residuum becomes his abiding !ossession. ,he 1uestion naturally arises as to how #ar, in the selection o# the sub(ect0matter, the !sychological condition o# the boy is considered, and how #ar both matter and treatment are ada!ted to this condition. -t must ha.e been in#erred, #rom what has already been said, that this !sychological condition has not only ne.er been lost sight o#, but that it has been made the basis o# arrangement at e.ery ste! o# the way. ,,he !rimary condition o# historical !erce!tion is the readiness to think or to #eel the !ast as !resent,G says "ro#essor Kager.?5C@ ,his ability to #eel the !ast, the de.elo!ment o# the historical imagination, is the ob(ect o# the instruction in the #irst !art o# the course. +uring the second di.ision o# the course, Gthe instruction as a whole,G says "ro#essor Kager, Gmust gi.e the boy #orce#ul suggestions, strong im!ulses9 must work #rom di##erent sides #or the one end o# gi.ing a check and a counter!oise to the distracting, sel#0willed, and disintegrating tendencies that beset this time o# li#e.G ?5D@ $ith the broadening out o# the boyAs sym!athies and interests, he is brought, during the latter !art o# his course, #ace to #ace with those com!lex 1uestions o# !resent interest #or the consideration o# which there is needed a mind stored with knowledge, and the boy learns Ga res!ect #or knowledge #or the knowledgeAs own sake.?5E@ ,he im!ortance that is attached to historical instruction is e.ident not only #rom the care with which the course o# study is !lanned, but #rom the time allotted to it. ,his is an a.erage o# three hours !er week, including the time gi.en geogra!hy, during the entire nine yearsA course, a total o# twenty0se.en hours during the course, or one0ninth o# the entire time throughout the course is gi.en to these sub(ects. ?5;@ But it must not be in#erred that the historical instruction the boy recei.es is con#ined to the three hours !er week o# #ormal instruction in this line. 2xtreme s!ecialiBation has no !lace in a German gymnasium. -nstead o# each !erson imagining that he has !reem!ted a !ortion, large or small, o# the #ield o# knowledge, and kee!ing (ealous watch lest someone else tres!ass on his !reser.es, each instructor seeks to bind his sub(ect with e.ery other. -n the hours allotted to religion the boys read #rom the Greek /ew ,estament9 and 'riental history, as well as church history, is taught, though these are in the history classes !ro!er. Herodotus and Li.y are not regarded as mere .ehicles #or teaching Greek and Latin construction, but are taught as Greek and &oman history, and much o# 2nglish and French history is taught through these languages. But e.en this correlation o# history with e.ery other sub(ect is not all. 'ne may study the !rogrammes and .isit classes, and yet not understand or see clearly all o# the in#luences at work that make #or history. Ma!s, charts, collections o# !ictures #reely used9 busts o# all the authors read in the school9 1uotations #rom great men inscribed on the walls o# class rooms9 the memoriBing o# historical !oems and !assages #rom historical dramas9 the obser.ance o# national and historic holidays9 most o# all, #re1uent excursions to !oints o# historical interest0all this is history, all these are in#luences that make history unconsciously grow into the boy and become a !art o# his .ery sel#. History is de.elo!ed in him, he is de.elo!ed through it. ,he sub(ect o# method o# instruction must not be omitted, although it will demand but a brie# consideration. ,he method is in essence the same throughout the course. -n the #irst !art it is story0telling, !ure and sim!le9 in the second !art it is !ure narration9 in the third !art it becomes more #ormal and resembles somewhat a college lecture. +uring the #irst o# the hour the class is 1uestioned on what has been narrated during the !re.ious lesson9 then comes the narration o# #resh material, and, with the younger boys, the hour is closed. with 1uestions on what has (ust been narrated. ,he theory is that the boy learns best #rom the li.ing .oice, that thus his interest is aroused and maintained, and that history in this way becomes to him a li.ing, li#e gi.ing !resence. ,he work o# the teacher is su!!lemented by the use o# a text0book <Leit#aden>, but this contains only the barest outline o# the e.ents and is in no sense a text0book in the American usage o# the term. ,he instructor can not ex!ect that the boy will s!end more than #i#teen or twenty minutes in !re!aration o# his history work, and there#ore he is !ractically restricted to the use o# the narrati.e method. -t is the German theory that an excessi.e amount o# outside study should not be demanded or gi.en9 that it is best #or the boys to get as much education #rom each other as !ossible9 that, since one !lans to become a lawyer, another a !hysician, a third a business man, and a #ourth a teacher, each should talk o.er with the other his !lans #or the #uture, and thus become educated in ways not reached by the school. ,he narrati.e method does not lend itsel# easily, es!ecially in the higher grades, to securing some o# the best results that are secured in the best American schools. -t must seem to Americans to #ail in de.elo!ing the !ower o# inde!endent (udgment, and to a##ord no o!!ortunity #or the exercise o# that #aculty known in the child as curiosity and in the man as research. ,he boy absorbs and assimilates, but the creati.e #aculty lies dormant. ,hat this should be so, howe.er, is a !art o# the German theory o# education. But the German method does secure certain admirable ends. 'n the !ositi.e side it results in concentration o# attention, alertness o# mind, 1uickness o# a!!rehension, and an en.iable ability to gras! the salient #eatures o# a sub(ect considered as a whole. ,he double and tri!le course gi.es constant o!!ortunity #or com!arison, es!ecially during the last sur.ey, and this basis #or com!arison and the constant ad.antage taken o# it are one o# the most .aluable !arts o# the method. 'n its negati.e side the German method has the ad.antage that it lea.es little room #or crudity o# o!inion or #or generaliBations #rom insu##icient data. ,he study o# history in the German gymnasia thus shows se.en distincti.e #eatures3 First, the entire #ield o# history is co.ered in three distinct sur.eys9 second, the work in history is correlated with e.ery other sub(ect in the curriculum and in a sense becomes its uni#ying #orce9 third, am!le time is gi.en #or its consideration, and it recei.es the same serious treatment as do other sub(ects in the course9 #ourth, the di.ision o# material and the method o# treatment are based on the boyAs !sychological de.elo!ment9 #i#th, the narrati.e method o# instruction gi.es the boy a .i.id im!ression o# reality o# the !ast9 sixth, the course is com!lete in itsel#, and at the same time it #orms an ideal !re!aration #or uni.ersity work9 se.enth, e.ery teacher o# history is an absolute master o# the sub(ect taught. $hat are the lessons to be learned by Americans #rom this examination o# historical instruction in the German gymnasiaF ,he #irst great lesson we should all do well to heed is this3 ,hat the course in history ser.es the double !ur!ose o# being com!lete in itsel# and o# being an ideal !re!aration #or uni.ersity work. ,he course is com!lete in itsel#9 because, i# the boy does not go beyond the gymnasium, or i# he lea.es at the end o# the sixth year in school, he has gained a wide outlook into the #uture because o# this thorough study o# the !ast9 he has gained a !ro!er historical !ers!ecti.e and he has learned that Ghinter dem Gebirge sind auch Leute.G He has resources within himsel# that must contribute not only to the u!building o# his own character, but that must redound to the ad.antage o# the community in which his lot is cast. How great an ad.antage this broad outlook is can be seen by com!aring the course in history in the gymnasia with that o# the normal schools, where only German history is taught. 'ne can but #eel that the young men who are to be the teachers in the .olksschule are losing much, that the .olksschule are losing much through them, when the historical horiBon is bounded by Germany. uch minds must, in middle li#e, be stunted and dwar#ed because in early years they ha.e lacked that mental and s!iritual ins!iration that the study o# the largest li#e must gi.e. 21ually stunted and dwar#ed must be the minds o# our own American boys and girls when they lea.e school at the end o# the grammar grade with a knowledge, insu##icient at best, o# only American history. -t must indeed be said that he who knows only American history does not at all know that history. G,he !ro#ounder our study o# oursel.es,G says "ro#essor loane, Gthe stronger will grow our con.iction o# the organic relation between our own history and that o# the world.G?58@ American history is in the air0a balloon sailing in midhea.en0unless it is anchored #ast to 2uro!ean history. -t is no more true to say that American history begins in 5E7C than it is true to say that a manAs li#e begins when he goes into business #or himsel#. 2nglish history does not begin with the reign o# $illiam ---, or French history with the ,hird &e!ublic, or German history with the establishment o# the !resent 2m!ire. A new stage o# de.elo!ment in each country is marked by these e.ents, and the de.elo!ment o# 2uro!e on the /ew $orld soil is but a corres!onding one. America, like 2uro!e, is the heir o# all the ages, and the American boy has the right to enter into his inheritance. ,he great demand in industrial li#e to0day is #or such a change in methods o# work as will ha.e regard to the e##ects o# work on the laborer rather than the results on the !roduct. ,o the attainment o# this end the work o# $illiam Morris and o# Kohn &uskin has been directed, and to the attainment o# a similar end must the work o# educators tend. How disastrous this restricted .iew o# the !ast may be on our !olitical, industrial, and educational growth is easily imagined when it is recalled that it was estimated, in 5668, that 6H !er cent o# the !u!ils in the !ublic schools ne.er reach the high school.?5:@ '# those who !ass through the high school but a small !ro!ortion enter college. But it is not only !ossible, it is more than !robable, that e.en this small !ercentage who go through the high school, or through college, will com!lete their school or college li#e knowing nothing o# historical conditions or de.elo!ments. A man with this lack o# !re!aration may enter Congress and legislate on #inancial matters in absolute ignorance o# the history o# #inance9 he legislates on labor 1uestions with no knowledge o# the agrarian di##iculties o# &ome, the !easantsA rebellions o# the Middle Ages, or the national worksho!s o# Louis Blanc. He legislates gold0standard educators out o# o##ice at the $est, and sil.er ad.ocates out o# o##ice in the 2ast, not knowing that #or #our hundred years Luther and the $artburg ha.e stood #or inde!endence o# (udgment and the search #or truth. /ot only is he lacking in the actual knowledge that history a##ords, but he lacks still more that mental training that history gi.es in analysis, com!arison, classi#ication9 in holding the (udgment in sus!ense until all sides o# a 1uestion ha.e been !resented. ,he German boy is gi.en both a body o# #acts and a mental training that ought to kee! him #rom su!er#icial (udgments or hasty conclusions. But the s!ecial ob(ect o# the German gymnasial course is to !re!are #or the uni.ersity.?56@ And here, in the case o# the boy who enters the uni.ersity, as in the case o# the boy who does not, the German arrangement o# historical work seems su!erior to our own. ,he uni.ersity knows !recisely what work in history has been done, and there#ore it can assume this admirable !re!aration and sha!e its ad.anced courses accordingly. But the American uni.ersity or college makes its entrance re1uirement in history in de#erence to the anti1uated idea that !re!aration in history should be the one that will most assist the study o# Latin and Greek, and that e.ery boy should know something o# the history o# his own country. ,he boy there#ore studies American history in the grammar grades, and Greek and &oman history in the high school0an arrangement o# studies radically wrong, because #alse chronologically and #alse in !rinci!le. 'n such a basis it is im!ossible to build u! a systematic course o# history in the college or the uni.ersity without doing in the college a !art o# the work that should ha.e been done be#ore entrance. G,he larger uni.ersities,G says "ro#essor loane, in s!eaking o# American institutions, Gha.e an im!osing array o# historical chairs, but they do not demand as a condition o# entrance to their lecture rooms a thorough knowledge o# general history.G?57@ College students e.erywhere must #eel the irrele.ancy as well as the inade1uacy o# their work in history be#ore entering college, when considered as a !re!aration #or that college work. ,his conclusion must #ollow3 ,he work in history in American schools will ne.er be on a rational basis until, as in Germany, it recogniBes the double !ur!ose that history in these schools is to ser.e9 until it is so organiBed as to gi.e the boy or girl who does not go to college a well0rounded conce!tion o# the e!och0making e.ents in the worldAs history9 until it !lans its college entrance re1uirements in history with re#erence to the college work in history9 until it makes the course o# history in the schools identical #or those who do, and #or those who do not, go to college9 until it correlates the work done in history with the work o# e.ery other sub(ect in the school curriculum. ?5@ ,his !a!er, !re!ared #or the committee, was read at the annual meeting o# the American Historical Association held at Cle.eland, 'hio, +ecember C60DH, 567:, and a#terwards !rinted in the 567: !e+ort and in the *ducational !e"iew . ?C@ ,he director o# one gymnasium said3 G'ur boys are not encouraged to s!eculate about what historians themsel.es do not know.G Another remarked3 G-t is inconcei.able that boys in the gymnasium should discuss !olitical 1uestions about which mature men disagree.G - did not hear a boy asked his o!inion on any sub(ect in the class room, or a sin gle boy ask a 1uestion9 e.erything was a!!arently gi.en and acce!ted on authority. ?D@ Prussian Lehr+lan, 567C, R :. ?E@ ,ie Schulordnung fur die humanistischen ?;@ - 'skar Kager. ?8@ -bid., E7. ?:@ ,as hohere Schulwesen im Konigreiche Sachsen , 56679 Lehr+lane and Lehraufgaben fur die hoheren Schulen , Berlin, 567C. eschichte, 6C06D. ymnasien im Konigreich Bayern , 5675, R 5E.

?6@ eschichte, :E. ?7@ ,his is illustrated by the interest taken during the sixteenth and se.enteenth centuries in dogmatic religious 1uestions9 at the close o# the eighteenth century, in literary and aesthetic sub(ects9 during the early !art o# the !resent century, the time o# the !redominance o# the Hegelian !hiloso!hy, in the !hiloso!hy o# history. ,he history o# each !eriod shows more or less clearly the !re.ailing interests o# the age when it was written. ?5H@ GHistory and Geogra!hy in the Higher chools o# Germany,G The School !e"iew, May, 567:. ?55@ The School !e"iew- $ctober, 567:. ?5C@ eschichte, 7. ?5D@ -bid., C6. ?5E@ -bid., 8:. ?5;@ ,he #ollowing list will indicate the amount o# time allotted to history in the di##erent gymnasia0

Altenburg, Friedrichs0Gymnasium

C:

Berlin, PSnigstSdtisches Gymnasium

C8

Bonn, 'berrealschule

DC

Bremen, Gymnasium

DE

Brunswick, Gymnasium Martino0Patharineum

C8

Frank#urt, Goethe Gymnasium

DH

Freiburg, 'berrealschule

C:

Hamburg, Gelehrtenschule des Kohanneums

C6

Heidelberg, Gymnasium

CE

Kena,Gymnasium Carolo0Alexandrinum

C6

Landeshut, &ealgymnasium

C5

Lei!Big, /icolai0Gymnasium

DH

Magdeburg, Guericke0'berrealschule

DH

Munich, PTnigliches Maximilians0Gymnasium

C;

/eu0 trelitB, Gymnasium Carolinian

C;

'ldenburg,GrossherBTgliches Gymnasium

C:

&udolstadt, FUrstliches Gymnasium

C8

trassburg, "rotestantisches Gymnasium

C;

tuttgart, 2berhard0Ludwigs0Gymnasium

C;

$eimar, $ilhelm02rnstisches Gymnasium

C6

-t is thus seen that while the general a.erage is C: hours, 55 gymnasia ha.e C: or more hours, while only 7 ha.e less. ?58@ GHistory and +emocracy,G American Historical !e"iew , -, CC. ?5:@ F. /. ,hor!e, ,he tudy o# History in American Colleges, CDC, CDD. ?56@ G-# one seeks to set #orth in a word the real s!eci#ic !ur!ose o# gymnasial training, it is clearly to !re!are #or the uni.ersity.G0'skar Kager, ?57@ GHistory and +emocracy,G American Historical !e"iew , -, 56. eschichte, E.

344endix +V: History in "rench 5yc6es /02


+y Charles H! Has4ins
-n France, as elsewhere, history is a com!arati.ely recent addition to the sub(ects o# the secondary curriculum. Long taught sim!ly as an unim!ortant ad(unct o# the ancient languages, it is only in the course o# the !resent century, and largely #or the !ur!ose o# stimulating !atriotism, that it has gained the right to an inde!endent !lace in secondary schools. ,he desire to de.elo! !atriotic emotion by #amiliarity with the nationAs !ast still occu!ies in France, as in Germany, an im!ortant !lace in the minds o# secondary teachers9 but a broader conce!tion o# the aims o# historical study has s!read in recent years and #ound its ex!ression in the

o##icial instructions issued in connection with the course o# study. History, they declare, contributes to the education o# the mind by exercising the memory, de.elo!ing the imagination, and training the (udgment. -t contributes to moral education by culti.ating the lo.e o# truth and !re!aring youth #or their ci.ic duties. G,o gi.e the !u!il an exact idea o# the successi.e ci.iliBations o# the world and de#inite knowledge o# the #ormation and growth o# France9 to show him the action o# the world on our country and o# our country on the world9 to teach him to render to all !eo!les their (ust dues, to widen the horiBon o# his mind, and #inally to lea.e him in !ossession, not only o# an understanding o# the !resent condition o# his country and o# the world, but also o# a clear notion o# his duties as a Frenchman and as a man0such is the #unction o# history in education.G?C@ ,he French system o# !ublic secondary instruction com!rises two ty!es o# schools0the lyc4es, schools maintained and directed by the central go.ernment, o# which there are now about 5HH distributed throughout France9 and the collVges, local high schools, which recei.e some assistance #rom the general treasury, and are usually less com!letely e1ui!!ed than the lyc4es. For the !ur!oses o# the !resent re!ort, howe.er, the two institutions may be classed together, as the !rogramme o# studies is the same in both. ,he regular course o# the lyc4e co.ers ten years, but as the studies o# the #irst three years are identical with those o# the elementary schools, the !u!il does not enter the lyc4e !ro!er until he arri.es at the class o# the sixiVme, where he begins Latin i# a classical student, or German i# he be a Gmodern.G ,his stage is ordinarily reached at the age o# 55, so that the boy who s!ends se.en years in the lyc4e will com!lete the course and !resent himsel# #or his bachelorAs examination at 56. ,o state the matter in American terms, the French boy s!ends in the lyc4e the !eriod that the American boy s!ends in the high school, !lus the last year or two years o# the grammar grade and the #irst year or two o# college, but he reaches the close o# his lyc4e course about two years earlier than the American youth comes to the corres!onding !oint in his education.?D@ ,hroughout the whole course o# the lyc4e, as well as in the three !reliminary years, an hour and a hal# a week is de.oted to history and an hour to the related sub(ect o# geogra!hy, exce!t in the last year, where #rom two to #our hours are gi.en to history. ,he total number o# hours .aries #rom #i#teen to twenty0two, according to year and course, decreasing in the later years o# the classical course, but remaining undiminished in the modern, so that the !ro!ortion o# time de.oted to history, which is but : 5WC !er cent in the lower years, rises to twenty or e.en more in the last year. ,he total number o# hours o# history #or the entire ten years is sixteen and one0hal# #or classical and literary and thirteen and one0hal# #or scienti#ic students. -n the elementary classes the historical instruction is necessarily o# all in#ormal character, and consists o# biogra!hical narration in the #irst year, #ollowed by a two yearsA sur.ey o# the history o# France studied biogra!hically. ,hen with the grammar di.ision o# the lyc4e begins the systematic and continuous study o# the worldAs history. ,hree years are de.oted to the history o# the 'rient, Greece, and &ome, and the remaining #our years are occu!ied with the history o# mediJ.al and modern 2uro!e, studied with s!ecial re#erence to France and di.ided into the #ollowing yearly blocks3 D:; to 5C:H, 5C:H to 585H, 585H to 5:67, and 5:67 to the !resent. ,his is the !rogramme #or classical students. For the GmodernG course, which is one year shorter, 'riental and Greek history are combined in one year, and in the last year additional instruction is o##ered in. the general history o# art and ci.iliBation and in the elements o# ci.il go.ernment and !olitical economy. ,he most im!ortant #eature o# this !rogramme is that it a##ords a com!rehensi.e sur.ey o# the worldAs history in its chronological de.elo!ment #rom the earliest !eriod down to the !resent. -n contrast to the two Gconcentric circlesG o# the German gymnasium the !u!il is taken o.er the #ield but once, so that a #uller treatment is !ossible in any one year9 but the thorough re.iew o# the German system is lost, much to the detriment o# the sub(ects studied early in the course. -n other res!ects the general distribution o# time is much the same as in the "russian !rogramme, exce!t that in the one case it is France, in the other Germany and "russia, that #orms the center o# study in mediJ.al and modern times. ,he existing arrangement seems on the whole to be !o!ular in France, though some !re#er the German Gcircles,G and others demand #or history, a!t some stage in the course, the !re!onderant !lace that rhetoric and !hiloso!hy now ha.e in the last two years, urging that in no other way can the disci!linary .alue o# history be realiBed, as a counter!oise to the #ormal studies o# language and mathematics, and the only study which, by dealing with concrete social #acts, brings the !u!il into !ro!er relations with his ci.ic en.ironment. Besides !rescribing the general character o# the course in history, the o##icial !rogramme contains an outline o# the to!ics to be studied in each class, accom!anied by brie# suggestions as to the mode o# treatment. ,he !lan o# each yearAs work is drawn u! with considerable care, but it is designed to ser.e as a guide to the teacher rather than narrowly to control him. $hile there has been a noticeable im!ro.ement in the course o# study in history since the middle o# the century, the methods o# instruction are still largely tinged with the s!irit o# #ormalism and routine inherited #rom the econd 2m!ire. ,he lyc4e is still a semi0military institution, which has much o# the a!!earance o# barracks, and calls its !u!ils to class by the beating o# a drum9 and while !ro#essors are now #ree to dress and wear their beards as they choose, they ha.e not all gras!ed the #ull conse1uences o# the idea that the !u!il is to be trained as a citiBen and not as a sub(ect. -ndeed, !edagogical !roblems in general ha.e recei.ed com!arati.ely slight attention in France, and 1uestions o# what to teach and how to teach in history ha.e been .ery little considered. A common !ractice is to dictate a brie# summary o# the hourAs work, ex!and this into a lecture while the !u!ils take notes, and 1uestion them at the beginning o# the next hour on the lecture and some !ages o# the text0book. ,he !ro#essor s!eaks #rom a raised !lat#orm, and the small blackboard is reser.ed #or his !ersonal use only. ,he scholars usually show interest, and they may be e.en re1uired to !re!are su!!lementary !a!ers, but their attitude is largely !assi.e, and the system lacks the ad.antages o# the steady German drill on hard #acts or the #reer use o# material characteristic o# good American teaching. ,hese conditions are, howe.er, beginning to !ass away as the !ro#essors who ha.e grown old under the dictation system gi.e !lace to younger men. -t is coming to be realiBed that the !u!il should get his #undamental #acts #rom a text rather than #rom the instructorAs lecture, and that the time s!ent in the class0room need not be wholly gi.en u! to the alternate re!etition o# statements by teacher and !u!il. -n addition to the text0book, classes may now ha.e at their dis!osal excellent illustrati.e matter, such as is contained in the Albums histori1ues o# the Middle Ages, edited by "armentier, and the Lectures Histori1ues ?E@ designed #or su!!lementary reading. -n one way and another #resh li#e is being in#used into the study o# history, and in some schools remarkable results ha.e already been attained in securing the !u!ilsA acti.e !artici!ation in the work. ?;@ ,he !ro#essors o# history and geogra!hy in lyc4es0the sub(ects are usually combined0are a!!ointed on the basis o# a com!etiti.e examination. A#ter ha.ing taken his baccalaureate degree the candidate must continue his work #or two years, studying Latin, Greek, and French, as well as his s!ecialty, until he recei.es the licence. ,hen comes a #urther year s!ent largely in the writing o# a thesis, #ollowed by a yearAs strenuous !re!aration #or the #inal test, the agr4gation, #or which the com!etition is .ery keen. As the examination bears u!on the candidateAs ability to !resent a sub(ect be#ore classes, as well as u!on his knowledge o# history and geogra!hy, the !reliminary courses include not only lectures and seminaries, but numerous !ractical exercises in teaching, under the su!er.ision and criticism o# !ro#essors and #ellow0students. ,he necessary !re!aration o# a teacher o# history accordingly consists o# a substantial classical education as a #oundation and a !eriod o# s!ecial study o# at least #our years s!ent at one o# the uni.ersities or at the Xcole /ormale u!4rieure, the whole tested by a rigid examination. uch, in brie# outline, are the general #eatures o# historical instruction in the secondary schools o# France. ,he French ha.e realiBed the im!ortance o# history as an essential element in the secondary curriculum, they ha.e made !ro.ision #or its systematic and continuous study throughout the whole o# the school course, and they ha.e established a system which assures the selection o# well0trained teachers. -n these res!ects we can !ro#it by their exam!le9 but at !resent we ha.e little to learn #rom their methods o# instruction beyond the suggestions that may be deri.ed #rom their clear and well0ordered text0books ?8@ and #rom the arrangement o# to!ics in the !rogramme, which Matthew Arnold declared no educated man could read Gwithout !ro#it0without being reminded o# ga!s in his knowledge and stimulated to #ill them.G ?:@ $e must, howe.er, remember that it is only in recent years that historical studies e.en in the uni.ersities ha.e been !laced u!on a substantial basis in France, so that it is too soon to ex!ect the best results in secondary teaching. Already there are indications that as the !ossibilities o# historical instruction become more generally recogniBed and the im!ro.ements in higher education make themsel.es more widely #elt in the schools, it may be well worth the while o# American teachers to watch the !rogress o# historical studies in France9 #or in s!ite o# all the di##erences in conditions in the two countries the #undamental !roblem o# the secondary teacher o# history is the same in France as in America, namely, how to make the study o# history tell most e##ecti.ely #or the general culture and the ci.ic training o# the #uture citiBens o# a great democracy. -n sol.ing this !roblem we shall need all the ex!erience o# both sides o# the Atlantic.

<otes
5. ,he #ollowing re!ort does not !ro#ess to re!resent the results o# a detailed examination o# a considerable number o# schools. ,he in#ormation u!on which it is based has been gathered in the course o# two .isits to France, !artly #rom o##icial !rogrammes and other !rinted sources, !artly #rom obser.ation o# classes in lyc4es and courses #or the training o# teachers, and !artly #rom con.ersation with French !ro#essors who !ossess s!ecial #amiliarity with the conditions in secondary schools. - regret that the number o# classes .isited was not larger9 but there is great uni#ormity o# system and administration in French education, and 5 am in#ormed by com!etent authority that wider obser.ation would not ha.e materially modi#ied the account here gi.en. ,he o##icial !rogrammes and instructions are !ublished by +elalain at "aris. ,he brie# a!!endix on G,he secondary teaching o# history in FranceG in the -ntroduction to the tudy o# History by Langlois and eignobos is excellent, and many o# the suggestions will be #ound .aluable outside o# France as well. AltamiraAs discussion o# history in secondary schools in his 2nseYanBa de la Historia <cha!ters 6 and 7> has much to say o# France. ?Back to ,ext@ C. La.isse, A !ro!os de nos 4coles, 659 instructions concernant lAenseignement secondaire classi1ue, xl.ii05. ,he !ortion o# these instructions which relates to history was !re!ared by La.isse, and may be #ound, somewhat abridged, in his A !ro!os de nos 4coles, ::05H:. ?Back to ,ext@ D. -n what is said abo.e, and in this account generally, the institutions #or boys are taken as the ty!e. ,he secondary schools #or girls ha.e a course o# #i.e years, di.ided into two G!eriods,G and history has an allotment o# two hours a week throughout. -n the #irst !eriod, #or !u!ils between 5C and 5;, the !rogramme co.ers the history o# France, with Gsummary notions o# general history.G -n the second !eriod a sur.ey o# the history o# ci.iliBation is gi.en. $hile in general the same methods o# instruction !re.ail in both classes o# schools, their a!!lication to girlsA schools is necessarily conditioned y the more general character o# the course in history and the absence o# classical studies #rom the curriculum. ?Back to ,ext@ E. ,hese are !ublished by Hachette. ,he three .olumes #or the ancient !eriod consist o# an interesting series o# sketches o# 2gy!tian and Assyrian li#e #rom the com!etent hand o# Mas!ero, and excellent accounts o# the !ublic and !ri.ate li#e o# the Greeks and &omans y Guiraud. ,he latter .olumes are made u! o# well0chosen selections #rom modern historians, grou!ed according to the !rogramme. ,he extracts #rom sources contained in the earlier editions ha.e now been omitted, as they did not seem ada!ted to this stage o# the !u!ilAs de.elo!ment. ?Back to ,ext@ ;. ee in the &e.ue =ni.ersitaire, Kune 5;, 5678, the exam!les !rinted by eignobos o# written work done in a small college in the west o# France, and notably the care#ul and intelligent com!arisons o# .arious ancient and modern institutions. ?Back to ,ext@ 8. ,he "r4cis de lAhistoire moderne o# Michelet, once so !o!ular, has gone out o# use, and the #amous school histories o# +uray are !assing. A scholarly series is a!!earing under the editorshi! o# Monod9 the .olume by B4mont and Monod on the Middle Ages is excellent, though somewhat beyond the gras! o# the boys o# 5E #or whom it was written. ,he text0books o# eignobos on the 'rient, Greece, and none, !ublished by Colin, are .ery suggesti.e, and deser.e to be better known in America9 see !articularly the u!!lements Z lAusage des !ro#esseurs, issued in connection with the .olumes on the 'rient and Greece. ?Back to ,ext@ :. A French 2ton and chools and =ni.ersities in France <edition o# 567C>, D:;. ?Back to ,ext@

344endix V: History in -nglish Secondary Schools


+y 'eor%e ;! (ox ,he well0known chaotic character o# the 2nglish system o# education makes it di##icult to gi.e a satis#actory account o# 0the sco!e and methods o# teaching history in 2nglish secondary schools. ,here is great lack o# system and o# uni#ormity o# method. -n France and Germany, order and symmetry !re.ail in the educational system, as it is controlled and determined by the tate. A reasonable uni#ormity there#ore results, and whate.er assertions can be sa#ely made about a #ew re!resentati.e schools are likely to be true o# most o# the schools. -n 2ngland, on the contrary, the secondary schools are almost entirely under !ri.ate control, and are generally #ree #rom tate su!er.ision. -ndeed, the secondary school su!!orted wholly or !artly by !ublic taxation and under the control o# the tate and local go.ernments, like the high school in the =nited tates or the lycee in France or the gymnasium in Germany, does not exist in Great Britain, although some secondary0school sub(ects are taught in the higher grade board schools and the e.ening continuation schools. $hen 2nglish secondary schools are discussed in this re!ort, the ex!ression is to be understood as re#erring chie#ly to the so0called !ublic schools o# 2ngland, o# which $inchester, 2ton, Harrow, and &ugby are the #amiliar ty!e. ,hese institutions are, in most cases, endowed schools, controlled by a board o# go.ernors, in which the course o# study and the methods o# teaching are determined by the head master. ,he !u!ils, when they enter these schools, are0usually between 5C and 58 years o# age, and they ha.e recei.ed their !re.ious education either #rom !ri.ate tutors, in local grammar schools, or, more commonly, in small boarding schools, scattered o.er 2ngland, called !re!aratory schools, which are !ri.ate .enture schools0that is, are owned by !ri.ate indi.iduals. -n these schools they ha.e usually studied the elementary 2nglish history and, to some degree, Greek and &oman history in the same way. ,here is another reason, also, why it is not easy to gi.e an exact account o# the teaching o# history in the 2nglish secondary schools. ,hat is, because o# the di##iculty which the .isitor has in seeing the teacher actually at work in his class room. ,he .isitor to French or German schools, i# he has the !ro!er authoriBation #rom the tate authority, #inds at once ready entrance to e.ery class0room. But no such Go!en sesameG makes easy the !athway o# the .isitor to the 2nglish secondary schools. ,here seems to be an unwritten law that an 2nglish masterAs #orm room is his castle, and it is not an easy thing to see the actual work o# teaching. ,he writer o# this re!ort saw less than a doBen recitations in history in 2nglish schools, and the statements which are made are based on such limited ins!ection, the !erusal o# courses o# study and examination !a!ers, and on con.ersation with di##erent teachers o# history. $hile the course o# study and methods are largely determined by the head master, he is limited in. , his decisions by the re1uirements o# the higher educational institutions, #or which most o# the !u!ils are !re!aring. ,he 2nglish !ublic school is commonly di.ided into two de!artments0the classical side and the modern side0which corres!ond, roughly, to the classical and scienti#ic courses in our schools. ,he ultimate aim o# the boy on the classical side is entrance to the uni.ersities o# 'x#ord or Cambridge. ,he goal o# the boy on the modern side can not be so de#initely stated, but it is either business li#e, the engineering and scienti#ic !ro#essions, or the army colleges. ,his last class, who intend to be o##icers in, the army, are a considerable !ro!ortion in the boys on the modern side, and their needs are es!ecially recogniBed by a subdi.ision in the later years o# this course called Gthe army class.G ,he limitations which are likely to go.ern the course o# study o# the army class are the re1uirements im!osed by the Go.ernment #or admission to the military colleges o# $oolwich and andhurst, one o# which educates o##icers #or the artillery and engineering, the other #or the in#antry and ca.alry branches o# the ser.ice. Among these re1uirements 2nglish history only #inds a !lace as an o!tional sub(ect, #or which the maximum allowance is C,HHH marks in a total o# 5E,HHH. $hile in the secondary schools o# 2ngland the tate has no direct in#luence in determining the course o# study, the in#luence o# the uni.ersities in this res!ect is most im!ortant and e##ecti.e. ,his in#luence is most directly exerted through what is known as the 'x#ord and Cambridge schools examination board, which is made u! o# re!resentati.es o# both uni.ersities. ,his board conducts examinations at the close o# the school

year at most o# the leading schools in 2ngland and issues certi#icates o# !ro#iciency to those who ha.e success#ully !assed the examinations. ,hese higher certi#icates gi.e exem!tion, under certain conditions, #rom the earlier examinations in the uni.ersity course, known as G mallsG at 'x#ord and G,he Little0goG at Cambridge. ,he sub(ects o# the examination are classi#ied in #our grou!s3 <5> A language grou!, including #our sub(ects0Greek, Latin, French, German9 <C> a mathematics grou!, di.ided into two sub(ects9 <D> an 2nglish grou!, di.ided into scri!ture knowledge, 2nglish, and history, and <E> a science grou!, di.ided into six sub(ects. A candidate is

usually

re1uired to !ass in #our sub(ects in not less than three grou!s. -# he o##ers history, he may choose between Greek, &oman, and 2nglish history. ,he whole #ield o# each countryAs

history is not necessarily included. '#ten a !eriod co.ering less than three centuries is !rescribed, together with a s!ecial knowledge o# a smaller !eriod included within it. -n 567: the general !eriod in Greek history was to DCD B.C., while the s!ecial !eriod extended #rom EHD B.C. to D8C B.C. -n &oman, history the general !eriod was #rom :C B.C. to 56H A.+., while s!ecial knowledge was re1uired o# the !eriod #rom 5E A.+. to 78 A.+. -n 2nglish history the examination co.ered #rom 5E6; to 588H, with a s!ecial knowledge o# the !eriod #rom 5;;; to 58HD. ,hese s!eci#ic instructions as to !eriods to be studied are changed e.ery two or three years, but seldom is a !eriod o# 2nglish history !rescribed later than 565;. ,he two !oints. to be noted in these re1uirements are, #irst, that the shorter !eriod #or study is included in the longer !eriod, and, second, that in each sub(ect the examination co.ers only a !ortion o# the nationAs history. ,he colleges at both the uni.ersities o# 'x#ord and Cambridge also endea.or to strengthen the instruction o# history at the schools by establishing history scholarshi!s, which yield #rom [C;H to [EHH a year to the success#ul candidates. ,hese scholarshi!s are either o##ered by single colleges or by two or three colleges combined. As is well known, this is a method characteristic o# the 2nglish uni.ersities #or !romoting interest in any branch o# learning, and ser.es to introduce into the schools a tendency to ha.e a !romising !u!il in the u!!er classes s!ecialiBe u!on some sub(ect #or which he has a strong bent. ,he two most !rominent o# the 'x#ord colleges in awarding history scholarshi! are Balliol and /ew College who hold the same examination #or the award o# history scholarshi!. ,he examination #or this !ur!ose held on /o.ember 58, 567:, consisted o# <5> an essay written in the examination on some historical sub(ect9 <C> two language !a!ers showing candidateAs knowledge o# Latin, Greek, French, or German9 <D> a general !a!er9 <E> two !a!ers either in ancient history or in mediae.al history <including 2nglish history>, or in the history o# the sixteenth, se.enteenth, and eighteenth centuries <including 2nglish history>, at the o!tion o# the candidate. ,he regulations !rescribed that the knowledge re1uired #or the general !a!er could be obtained #rom such books as the #ollowing3 GuiBotAs Ci"ilization in *uro+e, HallamAs .iddle Ages <cha!ter -I>, BagehotAs *nglish Constitution, MaineAs Ancient Law, MacaulayAs *ssays , and $alkerAs Political *conomy. ,hese books, naturally, a success#ul candidate would be ex!ected to ha.e read thoroughly, although one o# the Balliol examiners told me that it was not wholly ac1uaintance with books but signs o# !romise shown by the candidate that determined the award. Most stress is laid u!on the essay and general !a!ers, which test natural ability. -t should be said that these scholarshi!s at 'x#ord are o!en to all candidates who ha.e not been in residence more than eight terms, or two years9 so that a candidate #resh #rom a !ublic school may com!ete #or a scholarshi! with students who ha.e been #or more than a year at the uni.ersity. But still a #ew boys in the highest #orms o# the best schools will usually be #ound in training #or these scholarshi!s. ,hey will recei.e es!ecial attention in history work #rom one o# the masters, will be excused #rom some other sub(ects in order to gi.e time to collateral reading, in which they are tested #rom time to time by the s!ecial master. ,he certi#icate examination and the scholarshi! examination illustrate the two classes o# !u!ils whose wants are considered in the colleges and schools o# 2ngland, .iB, the a.erage !u!il and the !u!il o# unusual ability in any direction. Because o# this distinction there exist, side by side, at the uni.ersities, the !ass and the honor examinations. '# course the needs o# the latter class are not considered exce!t in the higher #orms o# the school, but there they are .ery distinctly considered. mall classes o# able !u!ils recei.e s!ecial instruction to #it them #or the scholarshi! contests in di##erent sub(ects. ,he eagerness to win these scholarshi!s and thus to gain distinction #orms a !ower#ul incenti.e to earnest and wide reading in history, although, in the o!inion o# some critics, the scholarshi! system is one o# the bane#ul #eatures o# 2nglish education. ,hese two classes o# !u!ils must be borne in mind in considering the teaching o# history in 2nglish schools. $ith regard to the #ield o# history that is co.ered in the schools, the course o# study in most schools includes, on the classical side at least, Greek history, &oman history, and 2nglish history. -n most cases the !u!ils will gi.e at0least one hour a week to history throughout the course, #rom the age o# 5C to 57. A boy who has !assed through all the #orms o# the secondary school will .ery likely ha.e taken u! these sub(ects twice, #irst in an elementary way with a brie# text0book, such as GardinerAs $utlines of *nglish History or &ansomeAs smaller book9 then, at a later stage o# the course, comes a more thorough treatment o# the sub(ect, with a more extensi.e text0book and !ossibly collateral reading. '# course the chie# ob(ect o# the elementary course should be not only learning o# the main #acts o# history, but also an awakening o# interest in the sub(ect, which creates a thirst #or indi.idual study. $hether these ends are realiBed de!ends .ery much u!on the character o# the teaching and the enthusiasm o# the teacher. Haileybury College, in Hert#ordshire, one o# the youngest and less known !ublic schools, has won es!ecial distinction in this res!ect through two o# the masters who are keenly interested in teaching the worldAs li#e o# the !ast. ,he lecture room is #itted with all necessary a!!liances #or using the stereo!ticon in the daytime. ,housands o# slides ha.e been made by these masters #rom !hotogra!hs o# !laces, costumes, relics, armor, wea!ons, etc., and authentic illustrations in books, such as those in GardinerAs History of *ngland or the illustrated edition o# Green. ,hus the imagination o# the boys is stimulated and the !ast is made to li.e be#ore their eyes. ,wo dangers o# this method they seem to ha.e a.oided at Haileybury. 'ne is the dis!osition o# a li.e boy Gto take ad.antage o# the darkness necessitated by the use o# the lantern to riot or to slee!9G the other is to look u!on it as a !leasant di.ersion and amusement #or the hour only, lea.ing no !ermanent absor!tion o# knowledge in the. !u!ilAs mind. At Haileybury the !u!ils are re1uired to hand in re!orts o# the lectures, and their knowledge is tested by "i"a "oce 1uestioning. ,he same method is utiliBed with the higher #orms, where the history o# the French &e.olution is illustrated with contem!orary !ortraits and caricatures thrown u!on the screen. - doubt i# in any school in the world so extensi.e and e##icient use o# the stereo!ticon in history teaching is made as at the old college o# the 2ast -ndia Com!any, now a !ublic school, where Malthus was a teacher and Kohn Lawrence #ought many a battle with his #ists. - ha.e s!oken o# the limited #ields o# history !rescribed by the 'x#ord and Cambridge certi#icate examinations, but the schools naturally do not limit their courses o# study by their re1uirements. -n a number o# them a !rescribed cycle o# history is laid down. ,his system is cham!ioned by some masters and condemned by others. A s!ecimen o# such a cycle may be taken #rom the calendar #or 5678 o# $inchester College, the oldest !ublic school in 2ngland, #ounded in 5D6:. ,he #all term at $inchester is known as the short hal#, the winter term as common time, and the term #ollowing 2aster to August 5 as cloister time. Common time and cloister time together #orm the long hal#. ,he highest class is known as the sixth book, #or which there was the history cycle co.ering #our years. Long hal#3 HallamAs Middle Ages. hort hal#3 Greek history to ED; B.C. Long hal#3 ,he &eign o# Henry %---. hort hal#3 &oman history, 5DD0D5 B.C. Long hal#3 ,he &eign o# Charles -. hort hal#3 &oman history, D5 B.C.0DH; A.+. Long hal#3 2nglish history, 5C5;05DC:. hort hal#3 BryceAs Holy &oman 2m!ire. -t is hard to make out much orderly se1uence or deliberate teaching !ur!ose in such an arrangement, and it would seem that a !u!il #ollowing such an order would get a con#used im!ression o# the course o# the worldAs history. But !robably, like many other things in the 2nglish school curriculum, it is a traditional growth and not #ounded on any distinct !edagogical !ur!ose. Much easier to understand is the cycle #or the other classes in the school as #ollows 56780 hort hal#3 Greek history a#ter EDC B.C. 567:0Common time3 &oman history to CHH B.C. Cloister time3 &oman history a#ter CHH B.C. hort hal#3 tudentAs Gibbon to Kustinian. 56760Common time3 tudentAs Gibbon #rom Mahomet. Cloister time3 2nglish history, ,udor !eriod hort hal#3 2nglish history, tuart !eriod. 56770Common time3 Greek history to EDC B.C. -t has been said that the #ields o# history usually co.ered in the 2nglish !ublic schools are Greek, &oman, and 2nglish history. -t should be added that in many schools there is considerable teaching o# Biblical history under the head o# scri!ture knowledge, as well as the outline history o# the 2nglish church. 2uro!ean history, exce!t where it is in close contact with 2nglish history, is not #ormally and generally recogniBed in the school curriculum. 'ccasionally a school will be #ound where the enthusiastic interest o# a master has secured #or his #orm some recognition o# a !articular !eriod o# 2uro!ean history a!art #rom 2nglish history. ,o what extent this casual and incidental teaching o# history goes on de!ends u!on the enthusiastic Beal o# the master and the dis!osition o# the head0master to encourage or discourage it. -n the year 567D07E the u!!er bench o# the ixth at &ugby took eebohmAs *ra of the Protestant !eformation, and !art o# 'manAs The ,ar' Ages. -ndeed, in this somewhat irregular way, the !u!ils learn considerable history outside o# the stated and #ormal curriculum. ,he #orm masters in the higher #orms on the classical side o#ten lay stress u!on the writings o# Li.y, Cicero, ,acitus, and ,hucydides as history, as well as literature or !hilology. At Harrow, under Mr. Bowen, the master o# the modern side, the books read are o#ten distinctly o# a historical character. Books like Lazare Hoche, Cam+agne de !ussie , Charles /)), and Beres#ord0$ebbAs erman Historical !eading Boo' , are cases in !oint. ,hey are studied not only #rom a language !oint o# .iew, but also with regard to the study o# history. ,his incidental teaching o# history in some schools takes the !lace o# !ractice in writing Greek or Latin .erse, and is known as .erse e1ui.alent. -n 567:, at &ugby, the boys o# some o# the #orms who were excused #rom .erse0making were com!elled to take as .erse e1ui.alent the three #ollowing books in the Lent term, eeleyAs ,he 2x!ansion o# 2ngland9 in the summer term, as a!!ro!riate to the +iamond Kubilee, McCarthyAs Short History of $ur $wn Times , and during the winter term, Bosworth0 mithAs !ome and Carthage. -n one exercise a week the class is tested on its knowledge o# about thirty !ages o# the text0book, with comment by the teacher, and at the end o# the term an examination is held on the work which has been co.ered. At 2ton a similar system !re.ails, under the name o# Gextras,G which, according to the syllabus, !ro.ided an interesting study o# some historical and !olitical 1uestions. $ith regard to 2nglish history, - #ound that com!arati.ely little attention was !aid to the history o# Great Britain during the !resent century, or, to s!eak more accurately, since the !assing o# the &e#orm Bill in 56DC. ,his is un#ortunate, and is hardly in accord with the Kubilee s!irit in 567:, which gloried in the %ictorian era. %erily, the social and constitutional !rogress o# 2ngland during the !resent century makes it one o# its most interesting and im!ortant e!ochs, es!ecially with regard to colonial ex!ansion and social betterment. )et the !u!il at the 2nglish secondary school does not recei.e much instruction in this im!ortant era o# the nation. /one o# the 'x#ord and Cambridge examination !a!ers that - ha.e examined since 567H s!eci#y any !eriod o# 2nglish history later than 565;. ,he same is true o# the examination !a!ers o# a number o# schools in which little was #ound touching u!on the %ictorian era, sa.e in the case o# Mal.ern and Cli#ton, two o# the newest schools. $hen - asked #or an ex!lanation o# this #act, one re!ly gi.en was that a care#ul study o# the !eriod would rake u! burning 1uestions, on which #amily and inherited !re(udices were .ery strong. For this reason it was thought best to a.oid anything that would lead to wrangling dis!utation. "ossibly it may be due to the same insu##icient reason that the study o# what is called in this country ci.il go.ernment is almost entirely neglected in 2nglish secondary schools. -t is not mentioned in their courses o# study, and the only instance in which - #ound it !ursued as an inde!endent study was at Haileybury, where a small class was taught by one o# the teachers o# history already mentioned, who was using with his #orm Miss BucklandAs little !rimer, $ur 0ational )nstitutions. ,his seems to be a .ery serious de#ect o# the secondary school course in 2ngland, as com!ared with Germany, France, or the =nited tates. -n su!!ort o# this statement - may 1uote #rom a striking address on i?5@ G,he teaching o# ci.ic duty,G by an 2nglishman #or whom citiBens o# the =nited tates ha.e a high regard, the Hon. Kames Bryce3 GBoys lea.e our so0called secondary schools at 58, 5:, and 56, lea.e e.en some o# the greatest and most costly schools in the country, ha.ing recei.ed no regular instruction in the !rinci!les and working o# the British constitution, much less in their own system o# local go.ernment, wherein many o# them as local magnates are soon called u!on to take !art.G "ro#essor BryceAs noble !lea was deli.ered to an audience o# elementary schoolmasters, but it is a trum!et call to !ublic schoolmasters, as well as to the audience be#ore which it was s!oken. ,he admirable syllabus on G,he li#e and duties o# the citiBen,G which is !rescribed by the national educational de!artment in the 2.ening Continuation chool Code, might well be #ollowed in the great !ublic schools. ,he time allowance #or the regular teaching o# history in most 2nglish schools shows less consideration #or the sub(ect than in France or Germany. -n #ew schools are more than two hours !er week gi.en to class0 room work in history9 but at least one hour a week is gi.en to history in each year o# the school course, which in the case o# most !ublic schools co.ers #i.e or six years. ,he order o# teaching the di##erent !eriods o# history .aries .ery much, and as in the cycles #rom $inchester, already 1uoted, seems not to ha.e been arranged on any distinct !edagogical !lan. ,he subordinate !osition o# history in the school courses is indicated not only by the small time allotment, but also by the #act that not until recently was this sub(ect taught by s!ecialists, .iB, by men who had been s!ecially trained in the sub(ect o# history and had de.oted themsel.es .ery largely to teaching that sub(ect. ,he s!irit o# the 2nglish secondary school is against s!ecialiBation in teaching, exce!t in the case o# science, modern languages, and mathematics. ,he #orm master usually teaches Latin, Greek, scri!ture, 2nglish, and history, while in the latter sub(ect he has had no es!ecial training. A welcome re#orm in this res!ect has already begun, which it is to be ho!ed will !robably gain ground and im!ro.e the history teaching in the schools. e.eral o# the larger schools ha.e now on their sta## a history master, who has won distinction in the honor school o# history at 'x#ord, and will naturally bring to the teaching o# this im!ortant sub(ect the enthusiasm and skill which are likely to win a larger recognition #or this sub(ect in the school curriculum in the #uture. -t is also to be ho!ed that it may win indi.idual recognition and a !lace on the !rinted course o# study, and not, as is o#ten the case at !resent, be classed under 2nglish with 2nglish literature. ,hen the searcher a#ter knowledge will be able to tell more easily what is the a.erage time allotment #or history, and this worthy sub(ect will gain something in estimation by being classed by itsel#, se!arate #rom other 2nglish branches.

As to methods o# teaching history, the system in the lower #orm generally consists o# the thorough study o# a reliable, but not elaborate, text0book. ,he work o# the !u!il is more o#ten tested by written work than by oral 1uestioning. ,he custom o# G#luentG recitations on an assigned to!ic, which - ha.e seen admirably carried on in German gymnasia, is not at all common in 2nglish schools. Certainly one o# the .aluable bene#its o# studying history ought to be the de.elo!ment o# the !ower o# oral ex!ression, which such methods !romote. 21ually .aluable also is the mental disci!line and acuteness to be deri.ed #rom ra!id and incisi.e 1uestioning and !rom!t answers, a system o# cross0examination, which is sometimes known in this country under the !hrase G1uiB.G ,he absence o# this system o# #luent recitation o# historical #acts is !robably due to the !re(udice so common in 2ngland against #luency o# s!eech as a !ossible indication o# su!er#iciality or lack o# scholarshi!. ,he system o# teaching known in the =nited tates as the Glibrary method,G or the Glaboratory method,G .iB, the use o# se.eral books in the study o# a list o# to!ics, is seldom #ound exce!t in the highest #orms where !u!ils are making s!ecial !re!aration #or the history0scholarshi! examinations at the uni.ersities. At this stage o# the course the text0book work is su!!lemented by lectures by the teacher, so that the !u!ils attain #acility in taking notes, and by collateral reading, so that they learn

how. to consult with !ermanent !ro#it the books in a library. -n this way, to use +r. ArnoldAs !hrase, Gthey learn how to read.G ,hey thus

become ac1uainted with the methods which will be o# great ser.ice to them when they go in #or honors in the chool o# History at 'x#ord or the Historical ,ri!os at Cambridge. ,his !ower o# going to the heart o# a book and securing a de!osit o# its contents in their minds is a characteristic o# the best boys in the sixth at a great !ublic school9 #or hard and thorough reading is the essential condition o# success in winning a school exhibition or an entrance college scholarshi!, which are the intellectual honors crowning an able boyAs career at school. uch reading, howe.er, is generally con#ined to secondary histories. ,he earnest use o# the sources with secondary0school !u!ils is .ery rare in 2ngland, and not much used with the a.erage student at the uni.ersities. 2ssay writing on historical sub(ects is .ery commonly #ollowed in the higher #orms with success and !ro#it, not only #or its own sake as a means o# culture, but also as a means o# !re!aratory training #or this work in the uni.ersity, inasmuch as in the honor school o# history at 'x#ord one o# the most im!ortant and .aluable means o# training is the essay work with the tutor. -n conclusion, it would hardly be !ro!er #or a .isitor with so limited an ex!erience o# the actual teaching o# history in 2nglish schools, to gi.e a general (udgment as to the 1uality o# the teaching o# this im!ortant sub(ect in the great !ublic schools. He may be !ermitted to 1uote instead the !ublic testimony on this !oint o# three 2nglishmen who are com!etent (udges. ,he #irst is "ro#essor Bryce, who in the article already re#erred to, says3 GHistory is o# all sub(ects which schools attem!t to handle !erha!s the worst taught.G ,he second is an eminent teacher and writer o# history and an old !ublic0school boy. He says, G,he teaching o# history in the 2nglish !ublic schools is not nearly so e##icient as teaching in other branches o# knowledge.G ,he third is the editor o# the London 1ournal of *ducation and master o# the modern side in the Merchant ,aylorAs school. His words in the issue o# February, 5677, are3 G-t is generally admitted that the teaching o# history is exceedingly bad in our schools0with, o# course, marked. exce!tions.G econdary education is at !resent the burning 1uestion among educators in 2ngland, and a great change in the relation o# the schools to the Go.ernment draweth nigh. +oubtless the next #ew years will see a general im!ro.ement in history teaching, es!ecially i# the classicists will be willing to surrender to the historians a little o# the time allotment which they now demand #or the ancient languages. )et, with all the de#iciencies o# the !resent situation, the writer, in his admiration #or the work o# the 2nglish !ublic school, #eels it but (ust to say that the history teaching re#lects the general characteristics o# the whole school system0 thoroughness and .irility.
ii

?5@ Contem+orary !e"iew, Kuly, 567D, 8E, !. 5E. #orum, Kuly, 567D, 56, !. ;;C.

344endix V+: History in Canadian Secondary Schools

iii

[1]

+y 'eor%e "! 7ron% -n Canada there has been no really great crisis like that o# the &e.olution or o# the ci.il war in the =nited tates to intensi#y historical interest. Many a citiBen o# Canada is not sure whether the old land o# his ancestor, or the new one o# his birth or ado!tion is his real country. He still belongs to both, and his !atriotic interest is widely di##used. "erha!s, as a result, he is more cosmo!olitan, but he is usually wanting in that almost #ierce lo.e #or his countryAs !ast which in the =nited tates is so keen a stimulus to historical study. A natural situation in Canada inimical to history has not been im!ro.ed by enlightened !olicy. ,he Canadian uni.ersities, like the cotch, ha.e, until recently, 1uite neglected history. ,he sub(ect had only a minor !lace on the curriculum and no ade1uate training in historical method was #urnished. Ha!!ily a marked change has taken !lace. -n the two largest Canadian uni.ersities <the =ni.ersity o# ,oronto and McGill =ni.ersity> history now occu!ies a res!ectable !lace, though it still recei.es #ar less attention than uni.ersities o# similar im!ortance gi.e it in the =nited tates. ,here is no uni#orm educational system in Canada9 the go.ernment o# each "ro.ince is charged with education as is that o# each tate in the =nited tates. ,he Federal Go.ernment in Canada has not e.en that shadowy o.ersight o# education that is im!lied in the =nited tates by the existence o# a Federal Commissioner o# 2ducation. /early #i.e o# the six millions o# !eo!le in Canada are in the "ro.inces o# 'ntario and Muebec. -n Muebec the schools are chie#ly French, and are largely under the control o# the &oman Catholic Church. 'b.iously the "ro.ince o# 'ntario must be the !rinci!al #ield o# our in1uiries. ,his "ro.ince, containing nearly hal# o# the !o!ulation o# Canada, owes the #irst organiBation o# its go.ernment to the American &e.olution. ,housands o# Loyalists, who re#used to consent to the se.erance o#. the American colonies #rom Great Britain, #ound a re#uge in what is now 'ntario. Many o# them belonged to the educated classes, and had a Beal #or education similar to that o# the /ew 2ngland !ioneers. ,he early go.ernors, too, were on the whole enlightened men, who #or many years wielded a !ower almost des!otic. 2xtensi.e lands were set a!art #or educational !ur!oses. For a long time the Anglican Church struggled to control tate0 aided education. he #ailed in the end. &oman Catholics still ha.e se!arate schools su!!orted by the rates le.ied on the tax!ayers adhering to that church, but the remainder o# the tate system is now com!letely seculariBed. ,he secondary schools are numerous, and are sometimes #ound in .illages o# less than 5,HHH inhabitants. ,he tate uni.ersity #or a long time charged an annual #ee o# only [5H. -t is now but [EH, so that a college course is within the reach o# a large number. -t is becoming not uncommon #or a #armerAs son to take a degree in the uni.ersity be#ore settling down u!on the #arm. =ntil within the last ten years classics and mathematics claimed chie# attention. /ow modern languages are on about the same #ooting with them, the relati.e standard in mathematics being !robably the highest o# all the sub(ects. History has a #airly good !lace in the lower #orms, but an unim!ortant one in the work #or the college0entrance examination, being worth only one0third o# the .alue o# Greek or Latin, and one0sixth o# that o# mathematics. ,he curriculum in the secondary schools o# 'ntario is limited to the history o# ancient Greece and &ome, o# 2ngland, and o# Canada. -n some o# the smaller !ro.inces an outline o# general history is included. History is com!ulsory in e.ery year o# the course, which usually extends o.er about #our years. -n some schools #i.e hours a week are gi.en to history9 the a.erage would be about three hours. ,he larger schools with #i.e or more teachers ha.e usually a s!ecialist de.oted to history alone. -n some o# the smaller schools any member o# the sta## may ha.e a class in history thrust u!on him. Let me summariBe brie#ly my criticisms and suggestions3 5. ,he ade1uate training o# the teacher was #or a long time neglected. ,here has been a two0#old reason #or this. 'n the one hand the real di##iculties both o# teaching and o# learning history ha.e been underestimated. &oederer, the minister o# the #irst /a!oleon, banished the teaching o# history #rom the French schools on the ground that the sub(ect could easily be learned without being taught. ,his .iew is still wides!read. -n Canada it has hardly yet been realiBed that the truths o# history are subtle and may easily be missed, and that to teach it there must be added to a thought#ul study o# the #acts a .igorous and disci!lined imagination and the !ower o# arranging com!lex material e##ecti.ely. Because the teaching was usually bad, !u!ils came to regard history as a dreary and !ain#ul study. ,he other cause o# the insu##icient training o# teachers o# history has been the de#ecti.e work o# the uni.ersities, already re#erred to. ,he education de!artment #or 'ntario has been 1uick to utiliBe #or the schools the better work which the colleges are now doing in history. ,here is a system o# s!ecialist certi#icates #or teachers. ,o teach classics, mathematics, etc., a high s!ecialistic 1uali#ication had long been re1uired.

For a long time any one was allowed to

teach history, but now a s!ecialist in history must !ass examinations hardly less di##icult than those #or an honor degree in modern history at 'x#ord. ,he im!ro.ement o# the teaching o# history, as a result o# this !olicy, will !robably soon be .ery marked. '# course it will still ha!!en in the smaller schools that history will be taught by masters with no s!ecial 1uali#ications, #or these schools can not ha.e a master de.oted exclusi.ely to history. ,he !oint gained, howe.er, is that history is now on the same #ooting as other de!artments with regard to s!ecialistic training. C. ,he curriculum is de#ecti.e. ,he history o# Greece and &ome to the Augustan age, and that o# 2ngland and Canada, do not #orm a well0balanced course o# historical study. -t lea.es untouched, almost, the great e!ochs o# continental 2uro!e, and makes it !ossible #or a student to go u! to the uni.ersity ha.ing scarcely heard o# t. Bernard, Charles %, Frederick the Great, or Mirabeau. -n Canada, a !art o# the British 2m!ire, !u!ils know nothing o# other !ortions o# the same 2m!ire0-ndia or Australia, and as #ar as - can learn, the history o# the =nited tates is not taught in any Canadian school. ,he curriculum suggested in the #oregoing re!ort is hardly suitable #or Canada, but that !ortion o# it which relates to the history o# continental 2uro!e might well be ado!ted in the Canadian schools. D. ,he time gi.en to history is usually, though not always, inade1uate. /ew sub(ects are making claims, sometimes extra.agant, u!on the time o# the schools. -n a large secondary school in ,oronto, the time a.ailable weekly was di.ided into thirty0#i.e !eriods. '# these the !hysical sciences claimed at #irst twenty0two, much to the amusement o# the other de!artments. History with no technical language, a!!ears to be easier than chemistry, and it may !lausibly be urged that it should take a minor !lace u!on the time table. Friends o# history ought to insist that an extension o# the curriculum should go hand in hand with an extension o# the time #or instruction. -t should be laid down as a general rule that the teaching must co.er the whole ground o# the curriculum. ,he !u!ils usually remember what they read in the text0book only when they hear it talked about in the class. E. ,he text0books are in#erior in 1uality. ,he education de!artment re1uires the same text0book to be used in all the schools. For 2nglish history the highest classes use GreenAs G hort History o# the 2nglish "eo!leG0by #ar the best book on the list, but, in my o!inion not a good text0book. ,he other books are, on the whole, colorless com!ilations, Gcon#used in arrangement,G as one teacher writes me, Gbad in diction, and with no sense o# !ro!ortion.G ,hese de#ects are not !eculiar to the books used in Canada. ,o !ick out the salient #eatures o# a nationAs history and to describe them with both scienti#ic !recision and literary charm are tasks re1uiring rare gi#ts. =ntil our best minds turn to the unattracti.e but use#ul task o# writing history text0books, we shall not ha.e what we need. 'ne may say in closing that though history has not as yet really #lourished in the Canadian schools, its status is steadily im!ro.ing. ,he key o# the situation is really with the colleges. ,hese train the teacher, and an able teacher !ro!erly trained will gi.e dignity to and win a !lace #or the sub(ect. $ith such teachers the dreary history lesson has been trans#ormed in some !laces in Canada into au animated lecture. /early e.ery school has a library0o#ten .ery incom!lete, o# course. A good teacher and a good library #or his own needs, to which the !u!ils may also be re#erred0these will be the two best agents #or im!ro.ing the status o# history. -t is still true that the sub(ect is o#ten neglected, and - see no ho!e that a uni#orm standard can be ado!ted in all the secondary schools. ,hose with a small sta## sometimes try to co.er as many sub(ects as do the larger schools, and the teaching o# some branches must be slighted. 'ne e##ecti.e way o# increasing the attention to history in the work #or college entrance would be to establish com!etiti.e scholarshi!s at matriculation #or excellence in history. uch scholarshi!s ha.e done much #or Greek, Latin, and modern languages. ,hey ha.e not yet been o##ered in connection with history, and naturally. the best !u!ils bend their energies to the sub(ects that ha.e the !ros!ect o# reward.

344endix V++: Some &ooks and 3rticles on the Teaching of History


,he #ollowing titles ha.e been selected #rom the .ast number o# books and articles relating to history and its teaching, in the ho!e that they may !ro.e hel!#ul to teachers who may not already be ac1uainted with them. Longer lists will be #ound in Channing and HartAs uide to the Study of American History, section 5;, and at the beginning o# the .arious cha!ters o# HinsdaleAs How to Study and Teach History. For discussions that ha.e a!!eared since the !ublication o# these works, see !articularly the *ducational !e"iew , the School !e"iew, and the Proceedings o# the /ational 2ducational Association, the Association o# Colleges and "re!aratory chools in the Middle tates and Maryland, the similar Association in /ew 2ngland, and o# the /ew 2ngland History ,eachersA Association. Mr. K. -. $yer, o# the library o# the =ni.ersity o# /ebraska, has com!iled #or the American Historical Association an extensi.e \\Bibliogra!hy o# the tudy and ,eaching o# History, which it is ho!ed will soon be !ublished. ,he !rices 1uoted below are taken #rom the !ublishersA catalogues9 in the case o# works in #oreign languages they do not include the cost o# binding.

1! +oo4s =ith =hich $very Teacher of History Should +e Ac:uainted!


Charles >endall Adams, A .anual of Historical Literature . ,hird edition. /ew )ork, Har!ers, 5667. [C.;H. Contains an introduction on the study o# history, Gbrie# descri!tions o# the most im!ortant histories in 2nglish, French, and German,G and suggestions as to courses o# reading on !articular countries or !eriods. ,he work needs re.ision. onnenscheinAs Bibliogra!hy o# History <re!rinted #rom his Best Books and &eaderAs Guide, London, 567:, Es. 8d.>, is more recent, and in some res!ects more hel!#ul. The American Historical Revie=. /ew )ork, Macmillan, 1uarterly since 567;. [D a year <#ree to members o# the American Historical Association>. 2.ery !rogressi.e teacher o# history should kee! abreast o# current !ublications on historical to!ics. ,he most con.enient method is by means o# the book re.iews and notes in the American Historical &e.iew.

$d=ard Channin% and Albert +ushnell Hart, uide to the Study of American History. Boston, Ginn, 5678. [C. -ncludes a consideration o# methods and materials, a bibliogra!hy o# American history, and a series o# to!ical re#erences. 2s!ecially intended #or the teacher o# American History. +ur4e Aaron Hinsdale, How to tudy and ,each History, with "articular &e#erence to the History o# the =nited tates. <-nternational 2ducation eries.> /ew )ork, A!!leton, 567E. [5.;H. G/o e##ort is made to tell the teacher (ust what be shall teach or (ust how he shall teach it. ,he aim is rather to state the uses o# history, to de#ine in a general way its #ield, to !resent and to illustrate criteria #or the choice o# #acts, to em!hasiBe the organiBation o# #acts with re#erence to the three !rinci!les o# association, to indicate sources o# in#ormation, to describe the 1uali#ications o# the teacher, and, #inally, to illustrate causation and the grou!ing o# #acts by drawing the outlines o# some im!ortant cha!ters o# American history.G ,he book is written !articularly #or the use o# teachers in elementary and secondary schools, and contains numerous re#erences to books and articles on the sub(ect. Charles &ictor ;an%lois and Charles Sei%nobos, )ntroduction to the Study of History. ,ranslated by G. G. Berry, with a !re#ace by F. )ork "owell. /ew )ork, Holt, 5676. [C.C;. ,he best brie# treatise on the methods o# historical in.estigation. A!!endix - treats brie#ly o# history in French secondary schools. Report of the Committee ?of Ten@ on Secondary School Studies 2 $ashington Bureau o# 2ducation, 567D. /ow out o# !rint in this #orm. Also re!rinted by the American Book Com!any, /ew )ork, 567E. DH cents. "!. 58C0CHD contain the re!ort o# the Madison Con#erence on history, ci.il go.ernment, and !olitical economy9 !!. 56;0CHH are de.oted to Gmethods o# historical teaching.G

.! /ther <ote=orthy +oo4s on Historical "ethods!


"ary Sheldon +arnes, Studies in Historical .ethod. Boston, Heath, 5678. 7H cents. G$ritten es!ecially #or the teacher who wishes to s!ecialiBe his work9G !articularly suggesti.e in regard to childrenAs ideas o# history. Contains brie# bibliogra!hies9 sources, !!. 605H9 hel!s #or the study o# current history, !!. 5E05;9 bibliogra!hical aids, ma!s and atlases, chronologies, !!. DE0D:9 works on method, !!. 5D705EE. Aohann 'ustav ,roysen, 'utline o# the "rinci!les o# History. ,ranslated by 2. Ben(amin Andrews. Boston, Ginn, 567D. [5. A !hiloso!hical discussion o# the nature o# history. $d=ard A! (reeman, .ethods of Historical Study. London and /ew )ork, Macmillan, 5668. -nteresting lectures on .arious as!ects o# historical study in general. '! Stanley Hall, editor. .ethods of Teaching History , econd edition. Boston, Heath, 566;. [5.;H. A series o# !a!ers by teachers o# history on .arious as!ects o# historical study, !articularly as seen in colleges and uni.ersities. /ow somewhat out o# date9 a third edition is !ro!osed. 7illiam Harrison "ace. .ethod in History. Boston, Ginn, 567:. [5. ,reats o# the GorganiBation o# historical material,G !articularly as illustrated by American history.

0! Ten 8seful Articles on "ethods of Teachin% History in Secondary Schools!


,his short list contains only articles which deal directly and in a, hel!#ul way with !roblems o# teaching9 articles on the nature o# historical study in general, on the !lace o# history in schools, or on the arrangement o# the curriculum in history are not included. "ary Sheldon +arnes. ,he ,eaching o# Local History. -n 2ducational &e.iew <+ecember, 567;>, I, E650E66. A more s!ecial article on the same theme is that o# R! '! Th=aites, G,he tudy o# Local History in the $isconsin chools,G (isconsin 1ournal of *ducation </o.ember, 5666>, I%---, E8;0E:8. Aames +ryce , G,he ,eachings o# Ci.ic +utyG in #orum <Kuly, 567D>, I%, ;;C0;889 and Contem+orary !e"iew <Kuly, 567D>, LI-%, 5E0C6. Albert +ushnell Hart , GHow to ,each History in econdary chools,G Syracuse Academy < e!tember, 'ctober, 566:>, 55, C;80C8;, DH80D5;. &e!rinted in his Studies in American *ducation </ew )ork, Longmans, 567;>, 7505C5. Ray 'reene Hulin%, GHistory in econdary 2ducation,G *ducational !e"iew <May, Kune, 567E>, %--, EE60E;79 %---, ED0;D. A! 7! "acdonald, GCi.ics by the "arliamentary Method,G Syracuse Academy <May, 567C>, %--, C5:0CC:. G"ractical Methods o# ,eaching History.G *ducational !e"iew <A!ril, 5676>, I%, D5D0DDH. &e!ort to the /ew 2ngland History ,eachersA Association, with discussion, by "resident 2liot. "rinted also in the !egister and !e+ort o# the First Annual Meeting o# the Association, Boston, 567:. G&e!ort o# the Con#erence on 2ntrance &e1uirements in History <to the /ew 2ngland Association o# Colleges and "re!aratory chools>,G School !e"iew <'ctober, 567;>, ---, E870E6;. For discussion o# this re!ort, see School !e"iew <+ecember, 567;>, ---, ;7:08D59 *ducational !e"iew <+ecember, 567;>, I, E5:0EC7. Aames $! Russell, GHistory and Geogra!hy in the Higher chools o# Germany,G School !e"iew <May, 'ctober, 567:>, %. C;:0C86, ;D70;E:. Also #orms !art o# his 5677>, C750D55. Anna +oynton Thompson, G uggestions to ,eachers,G in ChanningAs Students3 History of the 4nited States </ew )ork, Macmillan, 5676>, erman Higher Schools </ew )ork, Longmans,

;ucy "! Salmon, G,he ,eaching o# History in Academies and Colleges,G Syracuse Academy < e!tember, 567H>, %. C6D0C7C. &e!rinted in (oman and the Higher *ducation </ew )ork, Har!ers, 567D>, 5D505;C.

1! &aluable 7or4s in (orei%n ;an%ua%es!


Rafael Altamira, La *nsenanza de la Historia. econd edition, Madrid, uare., 567;. [C. Largely a descri!tion o# the secondary and higher instruction in history in 2uro!e and America. $rnst +ernheim, Lehrbuch der historischen Methode. econd edition. Lei!Big, +uncker and Humblot, 567E. [D9 bound, [D.;H. An admirable manual, discussing the nature o# historical science, its relations to other sub(ects, and the !rinci!les o# historical criticism and inter!retation. 2xcellent bibliogra!hies. /s4ar Aa%er, ,ida'ti' and .ethodi' des eschichtsunterrichts . Munich, Beck, 567;. :; cents. <&e!rinted #rom BaumeisterAs Handbuch der *rziehungs und 4nterrichtslehre fur hohere Schulen .> Gi.es a detailed ex!osition o# the methods o# instruction in the .arious classes o# the German gymnasium. Charles &ictor ;an%lois, .anuel de Bibliogra+hie Historique . "art -. "aris, Hachette, 5678. 8H cents. ,he best account o# the bibliogra!hical tools o# the historian. $rnest ;avisse. A +ro+os de nos *coles . "aris, Colin, 567;. :H cents. M. La.isse is an exceedingly stimulating writer on history and its teaching, but un#ortunately his essays are scattered in .arious !ublications. ,his .olume includes <!!. ::05H:> his re!ort o# 567H on methods o# teaching history in secondary schools.

17 3rticles on the Teaching of History Written from the Point of Vie( of -nglish Schools7
Alice Andre=s, G,eaching Modern History to enior Classes,G in (or' and Play in irl3s Schools <London and /ew )ork, Longmans, 5677>, 5CE05;6. [C.C;. /scar +ro=nin%, G,he ,eaching o# History in chools,G in !oyal Historical Society Transactions , new series, -%, 8706E. R! (! Charles, GHistory ,eaching in chools,G in London 1ournal of *ducation <Kune, 567;>, I%--, D:7. A! H! 'arlic4 , A 0ew .anual of .ethod . London and /ew )ork, Longmans, 5678. [5.CH. Cha!ter I--- deals with history. R! Somervell, GModern History,G in ". A. BarnettAs Teaching and $rganization <London and /ew )ork, Longmans, 567:>,58505:7. [C. C! H! Spence, A! ;! Smith, G,he ,eaching o# Modern History,G in *ssays on Secondary *ducation, edited by Christo!her Cookson <'x#ord, Clarendon "ress, 5676>,585057;. A! 7ells, The Teaching of History in Schools . <A lecture deli.ered at the =ni.ersity 2xtension ummer Meeting in 'x#ord.> London, Methuen, 567C. 8 d. H! ;! 7ithers, GAncient History,G in ". A. BarnettAs Teaching and $rganization <London and /ew )ork, Longmans, 567:>, 56H0576.

344endix V++: *a4s and 3tlases


-ntelligent and e##ecti.e teaching o# history demands at e.ery stage a well0chosen su!!ly o# ma!s and atlases. Besides a set o# !olitical and !hysical ma!s o# the continents, such as are now #ound in almost e.ery school, there are needed ma!s in greater detail, both !olitical and, !hysical, o# the !rinci!al countries whose history is studied in the school, as well as sets o# historical wall ma!s, indexed historical atlases, and a good modern re#erence atlas o# the world.?5@ mall outline ma!s in the !ossession o# each !u!il may also be used to ad.antage.?C@ ,his committee does not #eel itsel# called u!on to gi.e a com!lete annotated catalogue o# the ma!s and atlases a.ailable #or use in secondary schools9 but it seems to be within its !ro.ince to suggest what may be regarded as the minimum geogra!hical e1ui!ment #or treating the .arious !eriods o# history which ha.e been outlined in the body o# the re!ort. ,he !rices are 1uoted #rom !ublishersA !rice lists9 in case o# #oreign works they do not include the duty, when im!orted by an indi.idual.

1! Ancient History
,he best wall ma!s #or the study o# ancient geogra!hy are the (and'arten zur alten eschichte , !re!ared under the direction o# Heinrich Pie!ert and !ublished in Berlin by +. &eimer. ,he American agents are &and, Mc/ally ] Co., Chicago. ,he American !rices #or indi.idual ma!s, mounted on common rollers, run #rom [8 to [69 the #ull set in a case, with s!ring rollers, costs [66. -n Germany single ma!s .ary in !rice #rom 5; to CC marks, according to ma! and mounting, and the cost o# a set, without a case, is corres!ondingly less. ,he #ull set is desirable9 the ma!s o# Greece, -taly, and the &oman 2m!ire are indis!ensable. ,he school should also !ossess good !hysical wall ma!s o# Greece, -taly, and the Mediterranean lands as a whole. ,he best desk atlas o# ancient history is, also0 Pie!ert, Atlas Antiquus2 Twel"e .a+s of the Ancient (orld2 American edition, Boston, B. H. anborn ] Co., 567C. [C. 'thers are0 inn 5 Co23S Classical Atlas2 Boards, [5.EH9 cloth, [C.DH Longmans3 Classical Atlas2 [C. At least one such atlas should always be at hand, and it may o#ten be !ossible to re1uire !u!ils to !rocure co!ies #or themsel.es. A more elaborate work is0 !runer0 ieglin, Atlas Antiquus. Gotha, "erthes. -n !arts, CH marks9 se!arate ma!s, 6H !#ennigs each. For ma!s illustrating the early Middle Ages, see the #ollowing section. ome o# the collections there mentioned also co.er ancient history. ,he #irst !art o# MacCounAs Historical eogra+hy Charts of *uro+e is entitled GAncient and Classical,G and is sold se!arately <Boston, il.er, Burdett ] Co., [5;>.

.! "edieval and "odern History


,he #irst essential #or the teaching o# mediae.al and modern history is a large ma! o# 2uro!e. 'rdinary ma!s are a!t to be too small to render much ser.ice in historical instruction. -# the school can ha.e but one large ma! it should be !hysical, since the detail o# the modern !olitical ma! obscures the #undamental geogra!hical #eatures and con#uses the !u!il with modern boundary lines. ?D@ ,his should be su!!lemented by a series o# historical wall ma!s, o# which the most scholarly is the Historischer (andatlas o# !runer0Bretschneider, a set o# ten ma!s, 8C by ;C inches, co.ering the !eriod #rom A.+. D;H to 565;. <Gotha, "erthes, 567E9 in loose sheets, ;8 marks9 mounted in a !ort#olio, 7H marks.> ,he mediae.al and modern section o# the Historical eogra+hy Charts of *uro+e, !re!ared by ,ownsend MacCoun <Boston, il.er, Burdett ]

Co., [5;>, consists o# nineteen loose ma!s on manila !a!er, co.ering the !eriod #rom A. +. ;C8 to 567E. Modern ma!s o# indi.idual 2uro!ean countries are also hel!#ul, and, #or the recent !eriod, ma!s o# the other continents are necessary. For s!ecial sub(ects and battle#ields, single sheets. o# the .arious go.ernment sur.eys will be #ound use#ul, and can be had through any #oreign bookseller. ,he best small atlas o# 2uro!ean history is3 F. $. "utBger, Historischer Schul&Atlas zur Alten- .ittleren und 0euen eschichte . ,wenty0second edition, Biele#eld and Lei!Big, %elhagen and Plasing, 567:. C marks9 bound, C marks :H !#ennigs. -t contains 8: large and :5 small ma!s, but has no index o# !laces. 'ther small atlases are the #ollowing3 C. Colbeck, The Public Schools Historical Atlas . Fourth edition. London and /ew )ork, Longmans, 567E. [5.;H. 'ne hundred and one ma!s and !lans, and an index o# !laces. Begins with the #ourth century A. +.9 as the ma!s are #or the most !art re!roduced #rom the 2!ochs o# Modern History, they are not .ery well distributed o.er the !eriod. Pie!ert And $ol#, Historischer Schul&Atlas zur Alten- .ittleren und 0eueren eschichte2 e.enth edition. Berlin, +. &eimer, 5678. Bound, D marks 8H !#ennigs. ,hirty0six ma!s. &obert Henlo!en Labberton, Historical Atlas- 6788 B2 C2 to 977: A2 ,2 Boston, il.er, Burdett ] Co., 5668. [5.C;. ixty0#our !ages o# ma!s. ,he school library should also !ossess one o# the #ollowing excellent historical atlases, each o# which co.ers ancient as well as mediae.al and modern history3 Gusta. +roysen, Allgemeiner Historischer Handatlas2 Biele#eld and Lei!Big, %elhagen and Plasing, 5668. CH marks9 bound, C; marks. 2ighty0eight !ages o# ma!s, with descri!ti.e text. FranB chrader, Atlas de eogra+hie Historique2 "aris, Hachette, 5678. Bound, D; #rancs. Fi#ty0#i.e double0!age !lates and a large number o# sketch ma!s, with descri!ti.e text and an index o# !laces. =n#ortunately, the only 2nglish atlas o# the ty!e o# chrader and +roysen, the Historical Atlas o# Modern 2uro!e, now a!!earing at the Clarendon "ress under the editorshi! o# &eginald Lane "oole <to be com!leted in thirty !arts, at Ds. 8d. each>, is much more ex!ensi.e, and co.ers only the mediae.al and modern !eriods. FreemanAs Historical Geogra!hy o# 2uro!e <one .olume o# text and one o# ma!s, London and /ew )ork, Longmans, 5665> is now out o# !rint. till greater detail will be #ound in0 !runer0Menice, Handatlas ;ur eschichte ,es .ittelalters 4nd ,er 0euern ;eit2 Gotha, "erthes, 566H. -n !arts, 6; marks 8H !#ennigs. Any ma! may be had se!arately at 5 mark CH !#ennigs.

0! $n%lish History
,he study o# 2nglish history re1uires, in the #irst !lace, large wall ma!s, !olitical and !hysical, o# the British -sles, and also0 amuel &awson Gardiner, School Atlas of *nglish History <London and /ew )ork, Longmans, 5675, [5.;H>. For the !ro!er com!rehension o# the continental and im!erial as!ects o# 2nglish history there is also needed much o# the e1ui!ment necessary #or the study o# general mediae.al and modern history. ,his is the case !articularly as regards wall ma!s9 smaller ma!s o# 2uro!e and the colonies are largely re!resented in GardinerAs admirable Atlas.

1! American History
-n#ormation concerning the most ser.iceable ma!s #or use in connection with classes in American history will be #ound in Channing and HartAs uide to American History, section C5, and in the List o# the "ublications o# the =nited tates Geological ur.ey, which will be #urnished on a!!lication to the +irector o# that ur.ey, $ashington, +.C. chools should always !ossess a good general ma! o# /orth America, and a large ma! o# the =nited tates, such as that !ublished by the =nited tates Land '##ice <!rice, unmounted, [5.C;>. Also use#ul is Albert Bushnell HartAs *+och .a+s )llustrating American History </ew )ork, Longmans, 5675, ;H cents9 re!rinted #rom the 2!ochs o# American History>. ,he =nited tates Geological ur.ey !ublishes #or its own use a three0sheet, and a reduced one0sheet, !hysical ma! o# the =nited tates, gi.ing only ri.ers, lakes, and contours, without !olitical boundaries or names. ,his ma! may sometimes be obtained by s!ecial arrangement with the ur.ey, and it is almost indis!ensable, since the modern ma! with its tate boundaries gi.es a wrong historical im!ression. ,hese ma!s may best be su!!lemented by the .arious !hysiogra!hic ma!s issued by the =nited tates Geological ur.ey, and es!ecially by the detailed to!ogra!hic ma!s o# small areas, sold in sheets at ; cents each <and in lots o# a hundred or more co!ies, whether o# the same sheet or di##erent sheets, at C cents each, a list may be obtained on a!!lication>, and by sets o# historical ma!s which the teacher may !re!are on outlines, such as those mentioned in the note on !age ;8H. ,ownsend MacCoun also has a series o# Historical Charts of the 4nited States <Boston, il.er, Burdett ] Co., [5;>. ?5@ Ma!s on lantern slides are much chea!er than wall ma!s, and may easily he ,!re!ared or modi#ied to illustrate any desired sub(ect. A collection o# ma! slides su##icient #or all the needs o# secondary instruction in history may be obtained #or [5; or [CH, or e.en less. ?Back to text@ ?C@ uch are the 'utline Ma!s and "rogressi.e 'utline Ma!s !ublished by +. C. Heath ] Co., Boston9 the suggesti.e &elie# "ractice Ma!s o# $illiam Be.erly Harrison, /ew )ork9 the 'utline Ma!s o# &and, Mc/ally ] Co., Chicago9 and the detailed sheets issued by the =nited tates Geological ur.ey. ?Back to text@ ?D@ "hysical #eatures are con.eniently brought out in exaggerated #orm by the relie# ma!s !re!ared by Giuse!!e &oggero, and !ublished by G. B. "ara.ia ] Co., ,urin, &ome, and Florence. ,he set includes ma!s o# -taly, !ain, France, candina.ia, Germany, the British -sles, and the Balkan "eninsula, .arying in siBe #rom06 I 5H to 5H I 5C inches9 the !rice o# each ma! is C lire, or, including !acking and !ostage <but not the duty, when im!orted by an indi.idual> about ;H cents. ?Back to text@

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i ii iii

?5@ ,his short article on GHistory in the Canadian choolsG was written, at the re1uest o# the committee, by "ro#essor $rong, !ro#essor o# history in the =ni.ersity o# ,oronto. /o study o# Canadian schools has been made by the committee.