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"Modern approaches to management are nothing more than a synthesis of the more traditional approaches of the Scientific Management

and Human Relations schools of thought."

Table of Contents
Introduction: ................................................................................................................................................. 3 Scientific management: ................................................................................................................................ 3 Disadvantages of scientific management: ................................................................................................. 6 Human relationship school: .......................................................................................................................... 6 The illumination experiment: .................................................................................................................... 6 The relay assembly test room: .................................................................................................................. 7 Interviewing program: .............................................................................................................................. 7 The bank wiring observation room: .......................................................................................................... 7 Maslow theory on human relation: .......................................................................................................... 7 Theory X and Y: ......................................................................................................................................... 8 Modern approaches to management: .......................................................................................................... 8 Open systems:........................................................................................................................................... 9 Contingency thinking: ............................................................................................................................... 9 Lessons from the Japanese management style (theory z):..................................................................... 10 Key factors of Japanese industries according to OUCHI: .................................................................... 10 Examples ..................................................................................................................................................... 10 Example 1: ............................................................................................................................................... 10 Example 2: ............................................................................................................................................... 11 Conclusion: .................................................................................................................................................. 11 References: ................................................................................................................................................. 12

Introduction:
The 21st century have made the century of social science. Basically what are social sciences who make the century of social science? The authoritative answer of this question was enclosed in an idea of scientific management. Before apply of scientific management in any organization we need to understand the human behaviour and organization then we can handle the human contact with scientific logics. We can define the scientific management in common words as the thought of scientific management is that any organization or firms should be managed by others who be familiar with additional information than they perform. Simple definition of scientific management is proper systematic method of deciding the one best way for a job to be done and specified the human skills needed to perform it. (buchanan, 1997). This essay is a comparison of modern theories and traditional theories of scientific management and human relationship. In this essay i will go in huge details investigation of these two approaches of management. Scientific management is developed by Fredrick WINSLOW TAYLOR in (1880s and 1890). . He is father of scientific management. Human relations approach which is introduced by ELTON MAYO. The main outline of this essay will described the first traditional theory of scientific management and human relation than comparison with modern theory of scientific management and human relationship. After describing the theories i shall relate with modern companies strategies. In last i shall go to conclusion in which i shall try to describe the all possible facts of these theories. How are these theories affecting the modern companies works and employees relationships?

Scientific management:
FEDRICK TAYLOR introduces the theory of scientific management in (1880s and 1890) Taylor was extensively regarded as the Father of Scientific Management and therefore the term Taylorism being introduced. He write first book on scientific management in 1911. Its known as principle of scientific management. After this book, Frank and Lillian Gilbreth started research on scientific management. They wanted more develop this theory. They are follower of Fredrick Taylor. Both have major piece of inputs into study of scientific management. The Fredrick Taylor was a mechanical engineer. He worked at Midvale steel companies in Pennsylvania. He discussed in this theory that scientific management can improve the company productivity significantly between company employees. He thinks that through the scientific management we can cut down the tasks and increase the productivity. So it develops to find the one best way which can help us to perform the jobs on workplace and simplifying the jobs. Before scientific management mostly skilled people learned their jobs with long methods. They have no

technical thinking in their skills and they cannot take decisions own they think that how they will perform their jobs. No, anybody tell them that what is the best way to do a job. Taylor described the three elements which should achieve (efficiency, standardization and discipline) all mangers decision should base on these three factors. (buchanan, 1997) Officially scientific management is the management idea which concerned with physical efficiency of an individual worker.1 But Ritzer.G says about the scientific management that it is a proper method of nonhuman technology which has complete command on workers.2 So following this statement we can find the effectiveness of scientific management. Before, Taylor mostly business used the thumb rule management system. When Taylor deliberated the Bethlehem steel company he decided that this thumb rule management system is not good and unproductive it should need to change. He wanted to replace the thumb rule system with time a motion studies. Following the taylor its a best method for workers to carry out a task. Taylor wanted to create division of worker on the basis of skilled workers. They should specialist in one segment of work and they did work continually. This procedure will create the better productivity result and in the end present the superior quality. Actually Taylor move towards to making an excellent formation for an organization was foundation in which he wanted improvement and motivate the staff like base floor. In simple word he wanted to improve the first line management. In other side Max Weber and Henri Fayol wanted improvement on top side. They aimed to improvement the top level chain of command. They wanted to change the top level management. Henri fayol is a founder of five functions of mangers (planning, organizing, commanding, coordinating and controlling). He wrote theory in Taylor time period. (coulter, 2009) In time and motion experiment Taylor found the new way of loading iron pig on railroad car. Following the new redesigned loading way Taylor decreased the workers movement and increases the efficiency. Their output increased from 12.5 to 47.5 tons a day. Taylor defined the workers as they are nothings without the motivating. Therefore he invented the plan of a fair days wages which is based on a fair days work. This idea was known as name of theory X. This plan invented by Douglas McGregor in the 1900s. I can summarise the Taylor theory in three points which are: Scientifically study of each part of work and find the best method of work Secondly give advice to human resources management that selection of any member should scientifically and then train, teach and develop the worker for specific task.
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http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/scientific-management.html

Ritzer.G (unknown), The Mcdonaldization of Society, pp. 34.

In Production Company manager should clear that all workers are working properly and following the principles of science. Which have developed by mangers? in last he described that mangers and worker should be equal in all works. (Bartol & Martin, 1998).

In this time of period Frank Gilberth also defined the idea of Taylor. He worked in a construction area so he did his experiment on bricklayers. Dissimilarly, Taylor who decisive mainly of his thought on time and motion. So Gilberth determined to focus at how the time and motion study could decrease the workers movement. For this experiment, he used the electric lamp for photographic of workers movements. After analyze of this photographic and action he created the wire models of the actions of workers. At the end these development made them more efficient. Their output increased from 120 bricks to 350 bricks an hour. One more person, together with Gilbreth, who furthered Taylors first ideas, was Henry Gantt. He took the negative feature of Taylors information and decided to humanize. In his point of view scientific management is a physiological requirement of an every employee. He presented the three points on scientific management. Which 3are:

Best identified way at there- in this means he used Taylors idea of one best way for a task but he did not described the completely of this fact and Therefore not deskilling employees as a large amount. In second point he took the idea of Gantts wages plan. Gantt said that mangers should pay wages as standard days wage and extra bonus on employee performance. Gantt chart- he developed a plan that could be used by employees and managers to co-ordinate tasks.4 Criticism on Taylor theory: Today, taylor theory are criticising because it developed in period of industrial reorganisation. Actually taylor main plan focused on worker efficiency and increase the production level in smallest amount of time. Basically taylor main idea improve the

Huczynski. A,(unknown), Organizational Behaviour, pp. 426

management functions and worker relations for develop the industrial competence and profit. Disadvantages of scientific management: In scientific management workers were treated as machine not behaves like a human. Worker felt sick with job because there are spoiling the social life and regards. Management fixed in specific management they did not care the worker skills and did not provide the chance to show their ability in other department. Workers were not allowed to show their creativity in any field of work.5

Human relationship school:


Human relationship can define in easy words as company employees and management relations. Human relation define that employees did not motivate only with economically support they also need social food like respect, praise, a belonging and feeling of achievement. These ranges of factors are basic needs of human.6 ELTON MAYO, who pays main, rolled in research of human relation in 1924 to 1927. He did experiment on hawthorne workers of western electric company in Chicago America. He expressed in it that Human relation in scientific management main purpose for increased the production of company through inspired the workers and human relations movement. There are four main phases of this experiment: The illumination experiment The relay assembly test room The interviewing programme The bank wiring observation room The illumination experiment: In this phase of experiment workers were divided in two groups. One group did work in better lighting and group two did work in bad light of connection. He asked to increase the productivity. The result of this test was unsure as production in experimental group. At
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http://www.authorstream.com/Presentation/aSGuest18591-188366-principles-management-2449617education-ppt-powerpoint/
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http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1O18-humanrelationstheory.html

the end result was same both are increasing the productivity. Its mean that if workers are motivated than they can work in bad light.

The relay assembly test room:


In this relay assembly test room experiment work was so boring and recurring. In this assembling relay they placed together a number of small parts. In this phase test six womens were moved from this unique department to separate place. In this special place they were given breaks and allow them for talks each other. Researchers were observed the every activity and observed who any one behaved as a controller. The controller asked the workers previous to any change. This experiment phase was separated in different 13 periods. In these periods workers were focusing on control the work and between these timing they were also doing brakes and refreshment. After these changing, observer found out that friendly talking with each others and refreshment between works could increase the productivity and increased the worker intention on work. Interviewing program: In this experiment phase researcher conducted the 20,000 interviews. Researcher wanted to find out the employees behaviour against the management staff and their general circumstances of work like that working environment. After these interviews management found out the workers complaints frequently is a sign of some centre trouble on the work, at house or in the individual history. The bank wiring observation room: In this phase of experiment, there were 14 persons a group working in bank wiring room, this experiment has similarity with relay assembly group experiment. But there was supervision same, there was increase the productivity. At the end, researcher found that there was no reason and cause connection which are effect the productivity its totally depended on worker attitude and group leader in work circumstance.

Maslow theory on human relation:

Theory X and Y:

Mc.Gregor found the theory x and y in 1960. He was an American psycho logistic. He wrote a book human side of enterprise in which he told about the human nature on work place. Basically theory x describe the human nature so lazy and they avoid their work when it is possible. In other side theory y tell information against the theory x in which he expressed that people are creative and they enjoy the work.

Modern approaches to management:


Elements of different viewpoint, humanistic perspective evolved into the modern approaches to management. Basically, researcher target the humanistic perspective in traditionally approaches. In modern approaches contain the three theories which are:

Open systems Contingency thinking Lessons from the Japanese management style (theory z)

Open systems:
In open system they interacting the people groups who have same target and purpose. In easy words we can say that open system interact the other system and surrounding environment. Its mean that open system gets contribution from atmosphere and release the output in series with joint efforts. Human living organism is an example of open system. Similarly companies use the open system like that they use the inputs as labour, money, equipment and resources to make goods and create service. They make subsystems for got the company goals.

Daniel katz and Robert kahn observing the organization as open system. For example surrounding power like that consumer and competitors wield substantial power on organizations, importance the necessary relationship between a corporation and environment.

Contingency thinking:
In 1967, this approach is founded by the two American academics Lawrence and lorsch. This approach also targets the environment. Less changeable environments need a lower degree of demarcation but they need a higher degree of addition. There are harder to solve the disagreement. Where the environment is unsure, the addition function lead to be approved out the middle and low level mangers. There is a surrounding is steady, addition tend to be attained at the top end of the management hierarchy.

Lessons from the Japanese management style (theory z):


MC.GREGOR who presented the theory x and y in theory x he told the negative point of worker and theory y was totally different from theory x. Theory y showed the positive point of view of workers. After some time US researchers start research on Japanese management style because they were more successful in company management. They find out many articles and book which are showed the Japanese success. This theory z was introduced into the lexicon.
Key factors of Japanese industries according to OUCHI:

They provide permanent (lifetime) employment to skilled workers and promotion. In 55 age, core worker got retirement. They have great value of trust and loyalty between workers and management. They shared the all company decision at all level. There have strong sense of responsibilities for success of organization. Organization effort slightly than individual success is encouraged. Japanese organization has main objective to increase the organization ability to coordinate with workers. They did not focus on technology for increase the productivity level.

Examples
Example 1:
In real time these theories are applying in Amazon. Amozan have large warehouse where company get from different countries and sorted there then distributes in consumers after demand. In warehouse they watched the employees with cameras. Everybody follow the rules and regulation. Before joining the company train the employees according to the rules and regulations there are follow the taylor theory. In other side American fast food restaurants (McDonalds) is also a big example of user scientific management in 21st century. This company business has spread in our entire

world. In all McDonald branches followed the FORDIST management style. They design their all food chain as style that employee take only two steps for complete the order. There are also using the gilbreth studies as he rid out the extra steps in assembling line.

Example 2:
Today human relation theory narrates to retails companies. Mostly retail companies use this approach. Because it help the companies to observe the employees how worker sense about their job. This strategy is used by primarily retail companies. They got the feedback of employees because it is fairly a significant part as this looks at the opinions of workers. In retail companies, managers move towards employees and talk about the tasks which they are carry out. Manger give them briefing on new method of work which can do task more easily. This behaviour of mangers provides them more satisfaction. Worker feels more secure and they feel more important to the company.

Conclusion:
In these theories scientific management, human relations and modern approaches are relating with each and others. Following these facts and figure are showing that these theories are paying important role in business management from 19th century to still in 21 century. But i my point of view modern theories are nothing without the traditional theories Because modern theories are also effecting with traditional theories. But in other sides modern theories are targeting the human nature and try to satisfying them they are not focusing the productivity. Traditional theories were focused only the productivity we say in simple words that they think humans are machine. In modern theories Japanese style of management is excellent because they are focusing the only company coordination with employees. Basically traditional theories are applicable in creative work but the modern theories can applicable in creativity work like fashion designing and civil engineering work. But if we do complete analysis to these theories we reach a result these modern approaches are nothing more than a synthesis because in modern world already using the scientific management and human relation theories and they are successful in it.

References:
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Kathryn, M. Bartol, David. C and, Martin,(1998), Management, Mcgraw-hill Professional. Human relation theory, (2006), a dictionary of business and management.available at:http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1O18-humanrelationstheory.html. (access at 12th
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Scientific management,(--), definition,business dictionary. Available :http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/scientific-management.html (accessed at 2nd may 2011) at

Ritzer.G, (2007), The Mcdonaldization of Society, pp. 34. Huczynski. A,(unknown), Organizational Behaviour, pp. 426.

Warriors.E, (2009), principle of management, authorstream. Available at:http://www.authorstream.com/Presentation/aSGuest18591-188366-principles-management-2449617education-ppt-powerpoint/ (accessed at 15 may 2011)