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Petroleum-Gas University of Ploiesti BULLETIN

Vol. LXII No. 2/20 0

!2 - "2

E#onomi# $#ien#es $eries

Impact of Human Resources Practices on Job Satisfaction: Evidence from Manufacturing Firms in Bangladesh
%ir %o&amme' Nurul ()sar*+ %o&amma' Ta&lil (,im**+ Nimalat&asan Balasun'aram***+ $a'ia (-&ter****
East .elta University+ 2/0/( Gos&ail'an1a+ (1ra)a'+ 2&itta1on1+ Ban1la'es&. e-mail3 mmnabsar!"ahoo#com $#&ool of Business+ In'e4en'ent University+ Bari'&ara+ Ban1la'es&. e-mail3 ta&ila,im5ya&oo.#om .e4artment of 2ommer#e+ University of 6affna+ T&irunelveli+ 6affna+ $ri Lan-a email3 )nimalat&asan5ya&oo.#om Premier University+ /(+ 7.8. Ni,am 8oa'+ Pra)arta- 2ir#le+Pan#&lais&+ 2&itta1on1+ Ban1la'es& e-mail3 sa'ia94u#5ya&oo.#o.in

$bstract
This study aims at exploring the impact of HR practices on job satisfaction in the context of Bangladesh. A total of 60 responses from 20 manufacturing firms ere collected and analy!ed objecti"ely. #t as found that HR practices ha"e significant association ith job satisfaction $%&'. #n addition( human resource planning $HR)'( and training and de"elopment $T*+' ere found to ha"e positi"e impact on job satisfaction $%&'. #t as also found that T*+ has the greatest impact on %&. Academicians( researchers( policy,ma-ers( practitioners( students( local and foreign entrepreneurs of Bangladesh and other similar countries could benefit from this paper by exploring the association bet een HR practices and job satisfaction.

%e" &ords: HR., HR )ractices( job satisfaction( manufacturing firms( Bangladesh and de"eloping
countries

JE' (lassification: ./2

Introduction
T&e im4a#t of &uman resour#e mana1ement :;8%< 4ra#ti#es 4o4ularly -no=n as ;8 4ra#ti#es on or1ani,ational 4erforman#e an' em4loyee attitu'es &as )een a lea'in1 area of resear#& in t&e 'evelo4e' =orl' for years :.elaney an' ;useli'+ >>/? ;useli'+ >>@? Aatou an' Bu'&=ar+ 2000? Petres#u an' $immons+ 200B<<. But sur4risin1ly+ very limite' num)er of stu'ies &ave )een #on'u#te' on ;8 4ra#ti#es in t&e #onteCt of 'evelo4in1 #ountries in 1eneral :$#&uler as #ite' in Bu'&=ar an' .e)ra&+ 200 + $in1+ 200"+ De1ane& an' $u+ 200B< an' Ban1la'es& in 4arti#ular :%a&moo'+ 200"<. T&is stu'y &as )een #on'u#te' to fill t&e eCistin1 resear#& 1a4 an' to eC4lore t&e relations&i4 )et=een ;8 4ra#ti#es an' Eo) satisfa#tion in t&e #onteCt of

!! .ir .ohammed *urul Absar( .ohammad Tahlil A!im( *imalathasan Balasundaram( &adia A-hter

Ban1la'es&. (#a'emi#ians+ resear#&ers+ 4oli#y-ma-ers+ 4ra#titioners+ stu'ents+ lo#al an' forei1n entre4reneurs of Ban1la'es& an' ot&er 'evelo4in1 #ountries #oul' )enefit from t&is stu'y )y eC4lorin1 t&e asso#iation )et=een ;8 4ra#ti#es an' Eo) satisfa#tion. T&is stu'y =oul' au1ment t&e #ontem4orary resear#& an' 4ra#ti#e of &uman resour#e mana1ement. Furt&ermore+ it =oul' also )e useful for t&e 'evelo4e' #ountries as t&ey fin' 'evelo4in1 #ountries :li-e Ban1la'es&< as attra#tive 4la#es for investment 'ue to t&eir lar1e mar-ets+ an' #&ea4 an' s-ille' =or-for#es :Bu'&=ar an' .e)ra& 200 <.

Research )uestions
$4e#ifi#ally+ t&is stu'y =as un'erta-en to eC4lore t&e ans=er to t&e follo=in1 resear#& Guestions :8H<3 . R)*3 Is t&ere any asso#iation )et=een ;8 4ra#ti#es an' 6o) $atisfa#tionI 2. R)+3 .o ;8 4ra#ti#es &ave any im4a#t on 6o) $atisfa#tionI

,b-ectives
T&e main 4ur4ose of t&e stu'y =as to i'entity t&e im4a#t of ;8 4ra#ti#es on Eo) satisfa#tion. In or'er to materiali,e t&is o)Ee#tive+ t&e follo=in1 s4e#ifi# o)Ee#tives =ere #onsi'ere'3 o o o To a''ress t&e asso#iation )et=een ;8 4ra#ti#es an' Eo) satisfa#tion? To i'entify t&e im4a#t of ;8 4ra#ti#es on Eo) satisfa#tion? To su11est some measures in or'er to en&an#e t&e ;8 4ra#ti#es of t&e sele#te' in'ustrial enter4rises.

'iterature Revie& and H"potheses


HR Practices
;uman resour#e mana1ement :;8%< refers to t&e 4oli#ies an' 4ra#ti#es involve' in #arryin1 out t&e J&uman resour#e:;8<K as4e#ts of a mana1ement 4osition in#lu'in1 &uman resour#e 4lannin1+ Eo) analysis+ re#ruitment+ sele#tion+ orientation+ #om4ensation+ 4erforman#e a44raisal+ trainin1 an' 'evelo4ment+ an' la)our relations :.essler+ 2000<. ;8% is #om4ose' of t&e 4oli#ies+ 4ra#ti#es+ an' systems t&at influen#e em4loyeesK )e&aviour+ attitu'e+ an' 4erforman#e :Noe+ ;ollen)e#-+ Ger&art+ an' Lri1&t+ 2000<. T&ere are four to4 mo'els of ;8% su#& as t&e Fom)run+ Ti#&y+ an' .evana %o'el of ;8%+ t&e ;arvar' %o'el of ;8%+ t&e Guest %o'el of ;8%+ an' t&e Lar=i#- %o'el of ;8% :Bratton an' Gol'+ >>><. 7ut of t&ese mo'els+ Guest %o'el of ;8% is #onsi'ere' to )e mu#& )etter t&an ot&er mo'els :(s=at&a44a+ 200B<. T&e 4resent stu'y sele#te' t&e ;8 4ra#ti#es su#& as ;8 4lannin1+ re#ruitment an' sele#tion+ trainin1 an' 'evelo4ment+ 4erforman#e a44raisal+ #om4ensation+ an' in'ustrial relations =&i#& =ere in#or4orate' )y t&e Guest %o'el+ an' t&e $o#iety of ;uman 8esour#e %ana1ement+ U$( :De1ane& an' $u+ 200B<.

Job Satisfaction
T&e most referre' 'efinition of Eo) satisfa#tion =as offere' )y Lo#-e : >0/< =&o 'efine' Eo) satisfa#tion as a 4leasin1 or 4ositive emotional state resultin1 from t&e evaluation of a 4ersonKs Eo) :;aGue an' Ta&er+ 200B<. 6o) satisfa#tion is also 'efine' as an in'ivi'ualKs 1eneral attitu'e re1ar'in1 &is or &er Eo) :8o))ins+ >>><. %ullins : >>!< mentione' t&at motivation is #losely relate' to Eo) satisfa#tion. Various fa#tors su#& as an em4loyeeK s nee's an' 'esires+ so#ial relations&i4s+ style an' Guality of mana1ement+ Eo) 'esi1n+ #om4ensation+ =or-in1 #on'itions+

#mpact of Human Resources )ractices on %ob &atisfaction0 1"idence from .anufacturing 2irms 3 !"

4er#eive' lon1 ran1e o44ortunities+ an' 4er#eive' o44ortunities else=&ere are #onsi'ere' to )e t&e 'eterminants of Eo) satisfa#tion :Byars an' 8ue+ >>0? %oor&ea' an' Griffin+ >>><. 6o) satisfa#tion &as a si1nifi#ant influen#e on em4loyeesK or1ani,ational #ommitment+ turnover+ a)senteeism+ tar'iness+ a##i'ents+ an' 1rievan#es :Byars an' 8ue+ >>0? %oor&ea' an' Griffin+ >>><. (##or'in1 to 8o))ins : >>><+ a satisfie' =or-for#e #an in#rease or1ani,ational 4ro'u#tivity t&rou1& less 'istra#tion #ause' )y a)senteeism or turnover+ fe= in#i'en#es of 'estru#tive )e&avior+ an' lo= me'i#al #osts.

HR Practices and Job Satisfaction


;8 4ra#ti#es an' Eo) satisfa#tion are stu'ie' =i'ely in 'ifferent 4arts of t&e =orl'. It is assume' t&at ;8 4ra#ti#es are #losely asso#iate' =it& Eo) satisfa#tion :Tin1+ >>0<. Be#ause many s#&olars an' 4ra#titioners )elieve t&at soun' ;8 4ra#ti#es result in )etter level of Eo) satisfa#tion =&i#& ultimately im4roves or1ani,ational 4erforman#e :(44el)aum+ Bailey+ Ber1 an' Aalle)er1+ 2000<. $teiEn :200"< foun' t&at ;8% 4ra#ti#es &a' 4ositive effe#t on Eo) satisfa#tion of t&e em4loyees of .ut#& 4u)li# se#tor =&ereas in'ivi'ual #&ara#teristi#s su#& as a1e+ 1en'er+ an' e'u#ation &a' insi1nifi#ant effe#t on Eo) satisfa#tion. Goul'-Lilliam :200!< s&o=e' t&at use of s4e#ifi# ;8 4ra#ti#es in lo#al 1overnment or1ani,ations in t&e Unite' Ain1'om :UA< =as asso#iate' =it& a 1reater 'e1ree of Eo) satisfa#tion+ =or-4la#e trust+ #ommitment+ effort+ an' 4er#eive' or1ani,ational 4erforman#e. H"pothesis *: H*: HR practices have significant association &ith -ob satisfaction # E'1ar an' Geare :200@< eCamine' t&e im4a#t of &uman resour#e mana1ement 4ra#ti#es on em4loyee attitu'es su#& as Eo) satisfa#tion+ or1ani,ational #ommitment+ an' or1ani,ational fairness in t&e #onteCt of Ne= Mealan'. T&ey i'entifie' t&at ;8% 4ra#ti#es &a' a si1nifi#ant im4a#t on or1ani,ational #ommitment+ Eo) satisfa#tion+ an' or1ani,ational fairness. In a stu'y on // em4loyees of t&ree manufa#turin1 firms in In'ia+ (1ar=ala :200B< o)serve' t&at trainin1+ one of t&e maEor ;8 4ra#ti#es+ =as 4ositively #orrelate' =it& affe#tive #ommitment. %oreover+ 7stroff : >>2< o)serve' t&at Eo) satisfa#tion influen#e' or1ani,ational 4erforman#e enormously. (lso+ Du an' E1ri :200@< foun' t&at ;8 4ra#ti#es &a' a si1nifi#ant im4a#t on t&e affe#tive #ommitment of em4loyees in 2&inese firms. (1ain+ Petres#u an' $immons :200B< stu'ie' t&e relations&i4 )et=een &uman resour#e mana1ement 4ra#ti#es an' =or-ersK Eo) satisfa#tion in t&e #onteCt of UA. T&ey foun' t&at several &uman resour#e mana1ement 4ra#ti#es raise' =or-ersK overall Eo) satisfa#tion an' t&eir satisfa#tion =it& 4ayment. H"pothesis +: H*: HR practices have significant impact on -ob satisfaction# ;8 4lannin1 is 'efine' as t&e 4ro#e'ure )y =&i#& an or1ani,ation ensures t&at it &as t&e ri1&t num)er an' -in's of &uman resour#es at t&e ri1&t 4la#e an' at t&e ri1&t time :.e#en,o an' 8o))ins+ >>><. (&ma' an' A&alil :2000< #om4are' t&e ;8 4lannin1 of t=o )an-s of Ban1la'es& - .ut#& Ban1la Ban- Lt'. an' (1rani Ban-. T&ey o)serve' t&at neit&er of t&e )an-s &a' any =ritten ;8 4lannin1. (s=at&a44a :200B< ar1ue' t&at an or1ani,ation s&oul' &ave )etter ;8 4lans to motivate its em4loyees. $oun' ;8 4lannin1 #an en&an#e Eo) satisfa#tion of t&e em4loyees )y 4rovi'in1 o44ortunities for t&e em4loyees to 4arti#i4ate in 4lannin1 t&eir o=n #areers :Leeratun1a+ 200!<. H"pothesis .: H*: HR planning positivel" influences -ob satisfaction# T&e re#ruitment an' sele#tion 4ro#ess 'etermines t&e 'e#isions as to =&i#& #an'i'ates =ill 1et em4loyment offers. T&e aim of t&is 4ra#ti#e is to im4rove t&e fit )et=een em4loyees an' t&e or1ani,ation+ teams+ an' =or- reGuirements+ an' t&us+ to #reate a )etter =or- environment :T,afrir+ 200/<. $o4&isti#ate' re#ruitment an' sele#tion system #an ensure a )etter fit )et=een t&e in'ivi'ualKs a)ilities an' t&e or1ani,ationKs reGuirement :Fernan'e,+ >>2<. ;unter an' $#&mi't : >B2< #on#lu'e' t&at em4loyment sta)ility #oul' )e a#&ieve' t&rou1& a sele#tion 4ro#e'ure )ase' on a)ility. Aatou an' Bu'&=ar :2000< in a stu'y on t&e Gree- manufa#turin1 firms foun' t&at re#ruitment an' sele#tion =as 4ositively relate' to all or1ani,ational

!@ .ir .ohammed *urul Absar( .ohammad Tahlil A!im( *imalathasan Balasundaram( &adia A-hter

4erforman#e varia)les su#& as effe#tiveness+ effi#ien#y+ innovation+ an' Guality. H"pothesis /: H*: Recruitment and selection positivel" influences -ob satisfaction# JTrainin1 an' 'evelo4mentK is #onsi'ere' to )e t&e most #ommon ;8 4ra#ti#e :T,afrir+ 200/<.KTrainin1 an' 'evelo4mentK refers to any effort to im4rove #urrent of future em4loyeesK s-ills+ a)ilities+ an' -no=le'1e :(s=at&a44a+ 200B<. JTrainin1 an' 'evelo4mentK &as a si1nifi#ant 4ositive im4a#t on em4loyeesK Eo) satisfa#tion :Gar#ia+ 200@<. T&an1 an' Buyens :200B< state' t&at trainin1 an' 'evelo4ment lea' to su4erior -no=le'1e+ s-ills+ a)ilities+ attitu'es+ an' )e&avior of em4loyees t&at ultimately en&an#e eC#ellent finan#ial an' nonfinan#ial 4erforman#e of t&e or1ani,ations. H"pothesis 0: H*: 1raining and development positivel" influences -ob satisfaction# Performan#e a44raisal is a systemati# 4ro#ess to evaluate t&e 4erforman#e of an em4loyee after a #ertain 4erio'. Performan#e a44raisal also influen#es ot&er ;8 4ra#ti#es su#& as re#ruitment an' sele#tion+ trainin1 an' 'evelo4ment+ #om4ensation+ an' em4loyee relations. (s 4erforman#e a44raisal lea's to 4ay raise+ 4romotion+ an' trainin1+ it is assume' t&at )etter 4erforman#e a44raisal #an &ave an im4a#t on em4loyee Eo) satisfa#tion. H"pothesis 2: H*: Performance appraisal positivel" influences -ob satisfaction# 2om4ensation refers to all ty4es of 4ay or re=ar's 1oin1 to em4loyees an' arisin1 from t&eir em4loyment :.essler+ 200B+ 4. !>0<. 2om4ensation is very mu#& im4ortant for em4loyees )e#ause it is one of t&e main reasons for =&i#& 4eo4le =or-. Em4loyeesK livin1 status in t&e so#iety+ satisfa#tion+ loyalty+ an' 4ro'u#tivity are also influen#e' )y t&e #om4ensation :(s=at&a44a+ 200B<. Tin1 : >>0< in a stu'y on t&e em4loyees of U$ 1overnment foun' t&at #om4ensation =as one of t&e most im4ortant 'eterminants of Eo) satisfa#tion. H"pothesis 3: H*: (ompensation positivel" influences -ob satisfaction# In'ustrial relations 4lay an im4ortant role in esta)lis&in1 an' maintainin1 in'ustrial 'emo#ra#y :%ona44a+ 200"+ 4. ><. Better in'ustrial relations #an #reate t&e a44ro4riate =or-in1 environment for all em4loyees t&at ultimately influen#es Eo) satisfa#tion :A&an an' Ta&er+ 200B<. H"pothesis 4: H*: Industrial Relations positivel" influence -ob satisfaction# %oyeen an' ;uG :200 < stu'ie' ;8% 4ra#ti#es of >2 me'ium an' lar1e )usiness enter4rises :4u)li# an' 4rivate se#tor< lo#ate' in .&a-a+ Ban1la'es&. T&ey foun' t&at only /2N of surveye' or1ani,ations &a' an ;8/In'ustrial 8elations :I8< 'e4artment. ;uman resour#e mana1ement 4ra#ti#es of ten lo#al 4rivate manufa#turin1 enter4rises liste' un'er .&a-a $to#EC#&an1e :.$E< =ere eCamine' )y (-&ter :2002<. $&e measure' #orrelation )et=een em4loyeesK o4inions re1ar'in1 ;8% 4ra#ti#es in t&eir enter4rises an' t&eir a1e+ e'u#ation+ an' eC4erien#e. %a&moo' :200"< o)serve' t&at ot&er t&an or1ani,ational #ontin1en#ies+ t&e institutional #onteCt su#& as national e'u#ation an' trainin1 system+ national in'ustrial relations system+ re1ulatory frame=or-s+ an' overall so#ietal #onteCt &a' si1nifi#ant influen#e on t&e 'evelo4ment of ;8 4ra#ti#es in Ban1la'es&. Furt&ermore+ ;8 4ra#ti#es =ere foun' to &ave a si1nifi#ant im4a#t on affe#tive #ommitment in #onteCt to Ban1la'es& :;aGue O (,im+ 200B<. ;ossain : >>@< #on'u#te' an in-'e4t& stu'y on t&e Eo) satisfa#tion of t&e em4loyees of #ommer#ial )an-s of Ban1la'es&. ()'ulla& :200>< foun' t&at Eo) satisfa#tion &a' an im4a#t on t&e 4ro'u#tivity of 1arments =or-ers of Ban1la'es&. ;ossain an' Ulla& :200>< in a #om4arative stu'y on t&e Eo) satisfa#tion of t&e em4loyees of 4u)li# an' 4rivate )an-s foun' t&at em4loyees of t&e 4rivate )an-s =ere more satisfie' =it& t&eir Eo)s t&an t&ose of t&e 4u)li# )an-s. Islam+ $a&a+ an' (&me' :2000< evaluate' t&e Eo) satisfa#tion of =omen em4loyees in #ommer#ial )an-s of Ban1la'es&. ;aGue an' Ta&er :200B< eCamine' t&e a)ility of 'ifferent #ore Eo) #&ara#teristi#s to influen#e t&e level of Eo) satisfa#tion in terms of 1en'er+ marital status+ an' a1e in t&e #onteCt of Ban1la'es&.

#mpact of Human Resources )ractices on %ob &atisfaction0 1"idence from .anufacturing 2irms 3 !/

T&us+ t&e a)ove revie= of literature s&o=s t&at t&ere &ave )een several stu'ies aroun' t&e 1lo)e fo#usin1 on ;8 4ra#ti#es an' Eo) satisfa#tion. ;o=ever+ stu'ies 4ortrayin1 t&e im4a#t of ;8 Pra#ti#es on Eo) satisfa#tion in t&e manufa#turin1 firms &ave not yet re#eive' 4ro4er attention in Ban1la'es& an' ot&er 'evelo4in1 #ountries. T&is stu'y &as )een un'erta-en to fill t&e eCistin1 resear#& 1a4.

Research 5esign and Methodolog"


T&is se#tion is 'ivi'e' into siC su)-se#tions. T&e first su)-se#tion 4resents t&e resear#& 'esi1n. In t&e se#on' su)-se#tion+ t&e resear#& a44roa#& is 'is#usse'. T&e t&ir' su)-se#tion illustrates t&e sam4lin1 'esi1n. In t&e fourt&-su)+ 'ata sour#es are mentione'. T&e fift& su)-se#tion 'e#lares t&e sele#tion of measures an' t&e 4ro4erties of instruments. T&e siCt& su)-se#tion eC4lains t&e relia)ility an' vali'ity =&ereas t&e last su)-se#tion &i1&li1&ts t&e ty4es of statisti#al te#&niGues em4loye' to test t&e &y4ot&eses.

Research 5esign
T&is stu'y is )asi#ally an eC4loratory stu'y. EC4loratory stu'ies are a valua)le means of fin'in1 out J=&at is &a44enin1? to see- ne= insi1&ts? to as- Guestions an' to assess 4&enomena in a ne= li1&tK :8o)son+ 2002<. It #an )e lin-e' to t&e a#tivities of t&e traveller or eC4lorer :('ams an' $#&vanevel't+ >> <. Its 1reat a'vanta1e is t&at it is fleCi)le an' a'a4ta)le to #&an1e :Nai4ul+ >B><.

Research $pproach
(s t&is stu'y is a )usiness an' mana1ement resear#&+ it &as #&ara#teristi#s of 4ositivist an' inter4retive a44roa#&es an' it involves t&e 'e'u#tive a44roa#& :;ussey an' ;ussey+ >>0? 8o)son+ >>!< as =ell as t&e in'u#tive a44roa#& :Easter)y-$mit&+ T&ro4e an' Lo=e :2002<. 2om)inin1 t&ese t=o resear#& a44roa#&es in same 4ie#e of resear#& is 4erfe#tly 4ossi)le an' a'vanta1eous for a resear#&.

Sampling 5esign
( sam4lin1 frame of > manufa#turin1 firms :2&itta1on1 $to#- EC#&an1e+ 2000< =as 4re4are' on t&e )asis of liste' manufa#turin1 firms un'er 2&itta1on1 $to#- EC#&an1e+ t&e 2 n' lar1est sto#- eC#&an1e of Ban1la'es&. (mon1 t&em+ 20 manufa#turin1 firms :22N of t&e 4o4ulation< =ere sele#te' ran'omly an' all res4on'ents =ere sele#te' as 4er #onvenien#e.

5ata Sources and Instrumentation


T&e stu'y =as #om4ile' =it& t&e &el4 of 4rimary 'ata an' se#on'ary 'ata. Primary 'ata =as #olle#te' t&rou1& 'ire#t 4ersonal intervie= )y means of t&e Guestionnaire. ( total of /0 em4loyees :i+e.+ t&ree em4loyees =ere sele#te' from every manufa#turin1 firm< res4on'e' t&rou1& t&e Guestionnaire. %oreover+ t&e 'es- stu'y #overe' various 4u)lis&e' an' un4u)lis&e' materials on t&e su)Ee#t. T&e Guestionnaire =as a'ministere' to em4loyees of manufa#turin1 firms in 2&itta1on1+ Ban1la'es&. ( five 4oints ratin1 s#ales of Guestionnaire from stron1ly 'isa1ree : < to stron1ly a1ree :@< =ere a'o4te' to measure t&e varia)les of ;8 Pra#ti#es. 6o) satisfa#tion =as measure' )y a one-item Guestionnaire on five-4oint Li-ert s#ale P=&ere 'isa1ree : < to stron1ly a1ree :@<Q+ t&is is t&e sin1le 1lo)al ratin1 a44roa#& :.avi'son+ >0>< as it is )elieve' to )e an easier a44roa#& to #olle#t 'ata :;aGue an' Ta&er+200B? Du an' E1ri+200@<.

Reliabilit" and 6alidit"


Before a44lyin1 statisti#al tools+ testin1 of t&e relia)ility of t&e s#ale is very mu#& im4ortant as it s&o=s t&e eCtent to =&i#& a s#ale 4ro'u#es #onsistent result if measurements =ere ma'e re4eate'ly. T&is is 'one )y 'eterminin1 t&e asso#iation in )et=een s#ores o)taine' from

!0 .ir .ohammed *urul Absar( .ohammad Tahlil A!im( *imalathasan Balasundaram( &adia A-hter

'ifferent a'ministrations of t&e s#ales. If t&e asso#iation is &i1&+ t&e s#ale yiel's #onsistent results+ t&us it is relia)le. 2ron)a#&Ks al4&a is t&e most =i'ely use' met&o'. It may )e mentione' t&at its value varies from 0 to )ut t&e satisfa#tory value is reGuire' to )e more t&an 0./ for t&e s#ale to )e relia)le :%al&otra+ 2000? 2ron)a#&+ >@ <. In t&e 4resent stu'y+ =e+ t&erefore+ use' 2ron)a#&Ks al4&a s#ale as a measure of relia)ility.
1able *# 8elia)ility value of t&e $#ale Scale . ;8 Plannin1 2. 8e#ruitment O $ele#tion !. Trainin1 O .evelo4ment ". Performan#e (44raisal @. 2om4ensation /. In'ustrial 8elations 0. 6o) $atisfa#tion $our#e3 $urvey 'ata 7o# of Items @ B @ ! @ @ (ronbach8s $lpha :R< .0>/ .0/0 .0B/ ./20 .>@" .B!! -

From t&e Ta)le- + it is seen t&at t&e relia)ility value =as estimate' to )e RS0./20-0.>@" )et=een t&e s#ale. If =e #om4are our relia)ility value =it& t&e stan'ar' value al4&a of 0./ a'vo#ate' )y 2ron)a#& : >@ <+ Nunnally O Bernstein : >>"<? an' Ba1o,,i O DiKs : >BB< =e fin' t&at t&e s#ales use' )y us are &i1&ly relia)le for 'ata analysis. Vali'ation 4ro#e'ures involve' initial #onsultation of t&e Guestionnaires. T&e eC4erts also Eu'1e' t&e fa#e an' #ontent vali'ity of t&e Guestionnaires as a'eGuate. ;en#e+ resear#&ers satisfie' t&e #ontent an' #onstru#t vali'ity.

5ata $nal"sis and Findings


In t&e 4resent stu'y+ =e analyse' our 'ata )y enter =ise met&o' in a multi4le re1ression analysis. In t&is #onteCt+ a multi4le re1ression =as 4erforme'+ )y ma-in1 use of all t&e 'is#rete varia)les :i.e.+ 'e4en'ent an' in'e4en'ent varia)les< availa)le in t&e 'ataset. T&e estimation 4ro#ess =as )ase' on 7r'inary Least $Guares :45&< Pi.e.+DS a T )CQ. For t&is 4ur4ose+ =e #onsi'er t&e follo=in1 mo'el s4e#ifi#ations+ )y ta-in1 as 'e4en'ent varia)le i.e.+ Eo) satisfa#tion :6$< )y ma-in1 ;8 4ra#ti#es as in'e4en'ent varia)les3 6$ S U7TU :;8P< TU2:8N$< TU!:TN.< TU":P(< TU@:27%< TU/:I8<Te ...... %o'el : < =&ere3 U0 + U + U2+ U!+ U"+ U@ an' U/ are t&e re1ression #o-effi#ient? 6$3 6o)$atisfa#tion? ;8P3 ;uman8esour#ePlannin1? 8N$3 8e#ruitmentan'$ele#tion? TN.3 Trainin1an'.evelo4ment? P(3 Performan#e(44raisal? 27%3 2om4ensation? 7I83 In'ustrial8elations? e3 errorterm. To test &o= =ell t&e mo'e- fit t&e 'ata an' fin'in1s+ #orrelation :r<+ 8+ 8 2 :2oeffi#ient of 'etermination<+ varian#e+ analysis of varian#e :(N7V(< an' t&e t statisti# =ere use'. 2orrelation analysis =as 4erforme' to fin' out t&e 4air =ise relations&i4 )et=een varia)les3 ;8P+ 8N$+ TN.+ P(+ 27%+ I8 an' 6$. ;en#e+ t&e results are summarise' in Ta)le-2.

#mpact of Human Resources )ractices on %ob &atisfaction0 1"idence from .anufacturing 2irms 3 !B 1able +# 2orrelations %atriC for ;8 Pra#ti#es an' 6$ 6ariables HRP R7S 0.@B@** :0.000< 0./20** :0.000< 0.002** :0.000< 0.02B** :0.000< 0.!@/** :0.000< 0./2/** :0.000< 0."22** :0.000< 0.B ** 0./!0** :0.000< 0./>>** :0.000< 0.!! ** :0.000< 0./2!** :0.000< 0.0 @** :0.000< 0./""** :0.000< 0./ @** :0.000< 0.@!!** :0.000< 0.@>"** :0.000< 0."!>** :0.000< HRP R7S 175 P$ (,M IR JS

175

P$

:0.000< 0.@"2** :0.000< 0.@>B** :0.000< 0.">!** :0.000<

(,M

IR

JS

$our#e3 $urvey 'ata? **2orrelation is si1nifi#ant at t&e 0.0 level :2-taile'<

Ta)le-2 s&o=s t&at t&e fa#tors ;8P+ 8N$+ TN.+ P(+ 27%+ an' 7I8 are in'e4en'ently 4ositively #orrelate' =it& 6$ an' also &i1&ly si1nifi#ant at N levels. T&erefore+ ;y4ot&esis of t&e 4resent stu'y =as a##e4te'. ;ere it is o)vious t&at t&e maCimum #orrelation :r S0./2/< is eCiste' )et=een ;8P an' 6$+ follo=e' )y t&e asso#iation :r S0./2!< )et=een TN. an' 6$? P( an' 6$:rS 0./ @<? an' 27% an' 6$ :r S0.@>"<. It s&oul' )e ne#essary to 1ive t&e &i1&est em4&asis on ;8P for su4er) Eo) satisfa#tion of em4loyees. Trainin1 an' 'evelo4ment is also #ru#ial for =on'erful Eo) satisfa#tion of em4loyees. (lt&ou1& t&ere &as no so influential lin- :r S0.">!< )et=een 8N$ an' 6$? an' I8 an' 6$ :rS0."!><. T&ese =ere also essential for Eo) satisfa#tion. ;8 4ra#ti#es are 4air-=ise 4ositively #orrelate' =it& one to anot&er an' also statisti#ally si1nifi#ant at P-value 0.000. (mon1 t&e siC ;8 4ra#ti#es+ t&e relations&i4 :r S0.B < )et=een 8N$ an' P( is t&e &i1&est+ follo=e' )y t&e lin- :r S0.002< )et=een ;8P an' P(. Furt&er+ a multi4le re1ression analysis =as 4erforme' to i'entify t&e 4re'i#tors of 6$ as #on#e4tuali,e' in t&e mo'el. (n enter-=ise varia)le sele#tion =as use' in t&e re1ression analysis an' ta)le-! an' ta)le-" s&o= t&e summary measure an' (N7V( of t&e mo'el .
1able .# Pre'i#tors of 6$ - mo'el summary Model R 0.020:a< R+ 0.@ B $d-usted R+ 0."/"

Pre'i#tors3 :2onstant<+ ;8P? 8N$? TN.? P(? 27%+ an' I8

!> .ir .ohammed *urul Absar( .ohammad Tahlil A!im( *imalathasan Balasundaram( &adia A-hter 1able /# (N7V( Model 8e1ression 8esi'ual Total Sum of S9uares !/.>@B !".!0@ 0 .!!! df / @! @> Mean S9uare /. /0 ./"> F >.">0 Sig# .000:a<

Pre'i#tors3 :2onstant<+ ;8P? 8N$? TN.? P(? 27%+ an' I8 .e4en'ent Varia)le3 6$

T&e ;8 4ra#ti#es :;8P? 8N$? TN.? P(? 27% an' I8< in t&e a)ove mo'el reveale' t&e a)ility to 4re'i#t 6$ :82 S 0.@ B<. In t&is mo'el value of 82 'enotes t&at @ .B 4er#ent of t&e o)serve' varia)ility in 6$ #an )e eC4laine' )y t&e ;8 4ra#ti#es namely ;8P? 8N$? TN.? P(? 27% an' I8. T&e remainin1 "B.2 4er#ent is not eC4laine' =&i#& means t&at t&e rest "B.2 4er#ent of t&e variation of 6$ is relate' to ot&er varia)les =&i#& are not 'e4i#te' in t&e mo'el. T&is varian#e is &i1&ly si1nifi#ant as in'i#ate' )y t&e F value :FS>.">0 an' P S 0.000< PFor 'etails 4lease see ta)le-"Q. (n eCamination of t&e mo'el summary 4resente' )y t&e ta)le-! in #onEun#tion =it& (N7V(+ 4resente' )y t&e ta)le-!+ in'i#ates t&at t&e mo'el eC4lains t&e most 4ossi)le #om)ination of 4re'i#tor varia)les t&at #oul' #ontri)ute to t&e relations&i4 =it& t&e 'e4en'ent varia)le.
1able 0# 2oeffi#ients for Pre'i#tors of 6$ :nstandardi;ed (oefficients < Std#Effor -./>B .0B/ .!2! . 00 . /0 .!"2 ."0" . /" -.00 .! " -.0!! . 2> .2@0 . B0 Standardi;ed (oefficients Beta .!!" .00> .!@" -.0@/ -.00" . >"

Models 2onstant ;8P 8N$ TN. P( 27% I8 $our#e3 $urvey 'ata

t -./"! .B>2 ."/> 2."/0 -.22/ -.02! .!B/

Sig .@2! .0/" ./" .0 0 .B22 .>B2 -. 02

T&e ta)le-@ s&o=s t&at ;8P an' TN. are 4ositively influen#in1 on 6$. For ;8P+ t&e value of t is .B>2:4S0.0/"+ 'fS@!<+ for TN.+ t&e value of t is 2."/0 :4S 0.0 0+ 'fS@!<. T&us+ =e a##e4t ;y4ot&esis ! an' @. But for 8N$+ P(+ 27% an' I8 =&i#& fall in t&e area of reEe#tion. T&us+ =e 'o not a##e4t t&e ;y4ot&esis "+ /+ 0 an' B. ;en#e+ it #an )e #on#lu'e' t&at ;8P an' TN. &ave si1nifi#ant im4a#t on 6$. T&erefore+ &y4ot&esis-2 is also 4artially a##e4te' .

(onclusions
From t&e #orrelation matriC+ t&e &i1&est 4ositive value of #orrelation )et=een ;8P an' 6$ #larifies t&at t&e aut&orities of sele#te' in'ustrial enter4rises are reGuire' to fo#us on ;8P for 1ettin1 fa)ulous em4loyeesK Eo) satisfa#tion follo=e' )y TN.? P(? an' 27%. It is also foun' t&at ;8P an' TN. &ave si1nifi#ant im4a#t on 6$. T&e 4resent stu'y only #olle#te' 4er#e4tual 'ata. T&e stu'y 'i' not #olle#t 'ata re1ar'in1 si,e of t&e firms+ t&e volume of t&e 4ro'u#tion+ an' t&e turnovers.

#mpact of Human Resources )ractices on %ob &atisfaction0 1"idence from .anufacturing 2irms 3 "0

Polic" Implications
(lt&ou1& t&e 4resent stu'y =as #onfine' to i'entify t&e im4a#t of ;8 4ra#tises on Eo) satisfa#tion+ it may )e a44ro4riate to state )riefly t&e 4oli#y im4li#ations for t&e stu'y. In t&is #onteCt+ t&e follo=in1 4oli#y a#tions may )e #onsi'ere' =ort&=&ile. o o o o o o o o o o o o o 7r1ani,ations s&oul' offer eCtensive trainin1 an' 'evelo4ment 4ro1rams for t&e em4loyees 7r1ani,ations s&oul' 1o for t&orou1& ;8 4lannin1. 7r1ani,ations s&oul' #arefully #on'u#t re#ruitment an' sele#tion 4ro#ess. 7r1ani,ations s&oul' intro'u#e 4ro4er 4erforman#e a44raisal systems. 7r1ani,ations s&oul' offer at least reasona)le #om4ensation to t&e em4loyees. 7r1ani,ations s&oul' maintain &ealt&y in'ustrial relations )ase' on mutual trust an' #onfi'en#e of t&e em4loyers an' em4loyees. 7r1ani,ations s&oul' 'evelo4 1oo' =or-in1 #on'ition. T&is fa#ilitates em4loyees to 'o t&eir =or- effe#tively. 7r1ani,ations s&oul' in'u#e em4loyees to 4erform =ell. T&is #an )e a#&ieve' )y 4rovi'in1 re=ar'+ motivations+ an' ot&er )enefits et#. Em4loyees s&oul' )e traine' to a'o4t ne= te#&nolo1y an' or 'evelo4 t&eir #areer. 7r1ani,ations s&oul' 4rovi'e un)iase' 4romotion. T&at is 4romotion s&oul' )e 4rovi'e' )ase' on t&e Gualifi#ation of em4loyees an' /or eC4erien#e. 7r1ani,ations s&oul' im4lement eGual em4loyment o44ortunities. T&at is em4loyees s&oul' not 'is#riminate a1ainst female+ an' minority or ol' =or-er. 7r1ani,ation s&oul' 'esi1n =or-in1 4ro#e'ure in#lu'in1 &ours =or-+ over time 4ayment an' &ourKs 4ayment. Pro4er =or-in1 environment s&oul' )e 'esi1ne'. In t&at t&e or1ani,ation s&oul' 4rovi'e a'eGuate fa#ilities em4loyees to 'o t&eir =or-s su#& as a44ro4riate eGui4ment+ =or)rea-s+ an' =or- s&arin1. 7r1ani,ation s&oul' 'esi1n 1oo' 1rievan#e 4ro#e'ure+ 'is#i4linary 4ro#e'ure an' se4aration 4ro#e'ure et#.

'imitations
$mall sam4le si,e =as one of t&e maEor limitations of t&e 4resent stu'y. T&e stu'y 'i' not #over all t&e ;8 4ra#ti#es of t&e surveye' manufa#turin1 firms.

5irections for Future Researches


$everal su11estions t&at fruitful for future resear#& emer1e' from t&is 4resent stu'y. In or'er to vali'ate t&e fin'in1s of t&is stu'y+ #ase stu'y is anot&er interestin1 a44roa#& t&at #an )e 'one )y future resear#&. (''itionally+ t&e resear#& mo'el of t&is stu'y #an )e reteste' in )usiness or1ani,ations+ so t&at t&e resear#& mo'el #an )e 1enerali,e' to ot&er e#onomi# se#tors.

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"! .ir .ohammed *urul Absar( .ohammad Tahlil A!im( *imalathasan Balasundaram( &adia A-hter

Im4a#tul 4ra#ti#ilor 4rivin' resursele umane asu4ra satisfa#Wiei la lo#ul 'e mun#X3 eCem4lul Yntre4rin'erilor 'e 4ro'u#Wie 'in Ban1la'es&
Re;umat
Acest studiu ?@i propune sA explore!e impactul practicilor pri"ind resursele umane asupra satisfacBiei la locul de muncA ?n contextul din Bangladesh. 6n total de 60 de rAspunsuri de la 20 de firme producAtoare au fost anali!ate obiecti". &,a descoperit cA practicile pri"ind resursele umane au o strCnsA legAturA cu satisfacBia la locul de muncA. Dn plus( planificarea resurselor umane( instruirea @i de!"oltarea au demonstrat cA au un impact po!iti" asupra satisfacBiei la locul de muncA. &,a descoperit( de asemenea( cA instruirea @i de!"oltarea au cel mai mare impact. Academicienii( cercetAtorii( decidenBii( practicienii( studenBii( ?ntreprin!Atorii locali @i strAini din Bangladesh @i din alte BAri similare pot beneficia de aceste re!ultate prin explorarea asocierii dintre practicile pri"ind resursele umane @i satisfacBia la locul de muncA.