Features Effective Energy Conversion

Cogeneration Opportunities in Process Industries
Na Raghu

Cogeneration is the environmentally-friendly, economically-sensible way to produce power, simultaneously saving significant amounts of money as well as reducing greenhouse gas emissions. It is a significant measure to enhance industrial competitiveness


hen we speak of boosting energy efficiency in industries, Co-generation is the buzzword being advocated as the most beneficial technology. Many industries require electricity as well as heat in the form of steam or hot water for their operations. These requirements are normally met through different energy sources. Simultaneous production of electricity and heat from a single primary energy source is termed as co-generation or combined heat and power. Cogeneration is one of the most efficient energy conversion processes with large cost saving potential which boosts competitiveness of the industries. Higher energy conversion efficiencies will also contribute to lower emission in particular CO2, the main green house gas. The power generated from cogeneration projects could be used for meeting the captive requirements and the surplus power could be exported to the grid. With the rising energy cost and unreliable grid power, there is good potential for industries to opt for cogeneration, as a cost reduction measure. As per estimates, power generation potential through cogeneration is about 15,000 MW through co-generation in core industries of our country. Significant potential exists in breweries, chlor-alkali plants, textile mills, distilleries, fertilizer plants, pulp and paper industry, solvent extraction units, rice mills, petrochemical plants, etc. The adoption of cogeneration technology in Indian industries is poor except in the sugar industries, for

various reasons such as higher capital investment, issues related to grid synchronization, technological constraints and fluctuating steam demand etc A well designed system can tackle all these hurdles. The cost involved in engineering will get paid back as Cogen yields good returns apart from undisturbed power supply. For better energy efficiency, Steam should be used at lowest pressure possible. The pressure required in many process industries are 3 to 4 bar, which achieved using pressure reducing stations, thus wasting energy. By using back pressure turbines or extraction cum condensing turbine, steam at required pressure could be extracted with out any energy wastage. This will greatly improve the system efficiency.

Heat-to-power ratio

Heat to power ratio is the ratio of thermal energy to electricity required by the industry and is expressed in different units such as Btu/kWh, kcal/kWh, lb./hr/kW, KW/KW etc. It is the most important parameters to be considered while selecting the type of cogeneration system, as it has to match with the characteristics of the cogeneration system being installed (Refer Table 1) Designing the downstream system is critical, once we decide to opt for cogeneration. Designing the steam end use equipments to operate at the lowest steam pressure possible would help in extracting maximum power from

Chemical Engineering World | 70 | APRIL 2010

To achieve higher turbine efficiency.0-10. For many applications in process industries.3-2. The table 2 gives an idea of power generation at various back pressures for the same input condition. steam temperature is important apart from lower back pressure.3 2.Steam Turbine Cogeneration Principle the turbine. this would be the case. Chemical Engineering World | 71 | APRIL 2010 . The power generation will be to the extent of steam usage. Efficiency Comparison Between Cogeneration and Separate Production of Electricity and Head Separte production of Electricity and Heat Fuel 100 Fuel 100 Power Plant Boiler Electricity 36 Heat 80 Total Efficiency : Back pressure turbine would be ideal where the steam load is steady. For smaller process boilers this would be the ideal selection.5 Power output (as% of fuel input) 14-28 22-40 24-35 34-40 33-53 Overall efficiency (%) 84-92 60-80 70-85 69-83 75-85 TECHNICAL PARAMETERS Turbine Input conditions Process Steam Pressure (Back Pressure) Power output from turbine BACK PRESSURE 3 Kg/cm2 (g) 10 TPH 33 Kg/cm2 g) 3 Kg/cm2 (g) BACK PRESSURE 4 Kg/cm2 (g) 10 TPH 33 Kg/cm2 g) 4 Kg/cm2 (g) BACK PRESSURE 5 Kg/cm2 (g) 10 TPH 33 Kg/cm2 g) 5 Kg/cm2 (g) 600 KW 540 KW 500 KW Table 2.0 1.7 1.Efficiency Comparison Between Cogeneration and Separate Production of Electricity and Head An extraction cum condensing turbine would be a better option in the case of fluctuating power and steam requirements. Any extra power demand in this case can be met through grid power supply.0-14.0 1.Power Generation at Different Back Pressures TECHNICAL PARAMETERS Steam Temperature Process Steam Kg/cm2 (g) Pressure (Back) Power output from turbine Quality of exhaust Steam 6 TPH 9 Kg/ cm2(g) 2500C 3 Kg/ cm2 (g) 145 KW Dry 1900C 6 TPH 21 Kg/ cm2(g) Saturated 3 Kg/ cm2 (g) 220 KW 7 % Wet 6 TPH 21 Kg/ cm2(g) 3300C 3 Kg/ cm2 (g) 300 KW Dry 2100C 6 TPH 33 Kg/ cm2(g) 3500C 3 Kg/ cm2 (g) 340 KW Dry 2100C 6 TPH 42 Kg /cm2(g) 4200C 3 Kg/ cm2 (g) 380 KW Dry 2300C Table 1 Heat-to-power ratios of the different cogeneration systems Steam Turbine Cogeneration Principle Boiler Steam Cycle Heat Exchanger Utilizable Heat Turbine Generator Electrical Energy Table 3 .1-2.Back Pressure Turbine    = 30+55 100 = 0. Q Steam generator Steam turbine Pel G feed water numn QH    = 36+80 200 = 0.85 Extraction-cum-Condensing Turbines Fig 2. Table 3 shows the power output for various steam temperature.0-1. without much fluctuation in demand. Super heated steam helps in better power output.Features Cogeneration System Back-pressure steam turbine Extraction-condensing steam turbine Gas turbine Combined cycle Reciprocating engine Heat-topower ratio (kWth/ kWe) 4.58 Pel Electrical output QH heat consumer Q Heat input G Generator feed water steam shaft Cogeneration Electricity Fuel 100 Cogeneration System 30 Heat 55 Total Efficiency : Fig 3 .Power output for different steam temperature Back pressure turbine Fig 1.

which can also be used for power generation. Since high pressure steam is required. Chemical Engineering World | 72 | APRIL 2010 . Manually fired boilers using wood or agro waste are not suitable for this application. where the steam demand will be fluctuating. bi- Na. Raghu. is the CEO of Technoplus Services. It is better to consider Fluidized best combustion (FBC). The pay back will be around 200 days for the above case. Gas. In case of wood or agro based residue. waste heat recovery boilers are all used in process industries. since maintaining stable steam pressure would be difficult.Extraction cum Condensing Turbines Process with fluctuating steam load Often we come across process like breweries. Cogeneration can also help in getting carbon credit and government subsidies. drum boilers are used for this application. He can be contacted info@ technoplusservices. where as the boiler operates at 9 to 10 bar.com Case study of a COGEN system in a rice mill Rice Mill (par boiling) capacity Steam required for par boiling Installed capacity of Boiler Installed capacity of turbine Back pressure Power output during normal operation Power generated per day Power cost Savings in power generation : 300 ton paddy per day : 9200 kg / hr : 12000 kg / hr : 800KW : 3. He is also a BEE Certified Energy Auditor.5 kg/cm2 : 700 KW : 16. In breweries the steam pressure used is less than 1 bar. 000/. a chipper may be installed to facilitate auto feeding of fuel. Fluctuating steam loads hampers boiler operating efficiency. agro fuel fired boilers are being used widely to save fuel cost. Sugar & Petrochemical plants and Chlor-alkali industries . Detailed steam & power balance could bring forth this hidden opportunity. The following illustration explains the steam load pattern with and without using a steam accumulator.1 / unit : Rs51. smoke tube cum water tube. identifying & implementing small or big cogeneration scheme have become most economic propositions. Chennai and is a Boiler. In India.Features STEM FLOW TO COOKERS HG/HR X 1000 Q Steam generator feed water numn Steam turbine Pel G BOILER LOAD WITHOUT ACCUMULATOR 6500 KG/HR MEASURED AVERAGE STEAM LOAD STEAM SUPPLIED FROM ACCOUMULATOR STEAM CHAROED INTO ACCUMULATOR TOTAL STEAM FLOW HG/HR X 1000 QH condenser Hours NORMAL BOILER LOAD WITH ACCUMULATOR Pel QH Q G Electrical output heat consumer Heat input Generator feed water steam shaft Fig 5 . This will help in going for power generation using cogeneration.Co-generation Boilers Hours Fig 4 . water tube. Large opportunity exist in Cement.per day With rising cost of fuel. COGEN and Heater Consultant.000 units : Rs 3. Coal and agro waste boilers.and cogeneration options need to be considered/utilized during modernisation and Debottlenecking of existing plants. The system efficiency could be improved by installing an accumulator. Co-generation Boilers Oil.

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