mix design

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

7 views

mix design

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

- high performance concrete seminar report
- Dear Miss Pia Bahr
- White Cement
- jciee16.pdf
- Concrete Basics Portland Cement Association
- Partially Process Steel Slag Used as Cement Replacement in Self Compacting Concrete
- Concrete Basics Portland Cement Association (PCA).Htm
- blended cement.pdf
- gonen 1
- Concrete Comp Design
- SAIL DSP GTS Vol II.168-399
- 05-01slagexpanded-fr1.pdf
- Aqua Curtain
- Mix Design of High Strength Concrete
- Astm c478m
- Rate Analysis of Power Plant
- 2013 SMCB SMCB Annual Report 2013
- Unit 4
- Calorimeter C 1679
- +jeje reviewer02.ppt

You are on page 1of 9

Amarjit Singh, University of Hawaii at Manoa, USA

Kamal Gautam, University of Hawaii at Manoa, USA

30th Conference on OUR WORLD IN CONCRETE & STRUCTURES: 23 - 24 August 2005,

Singapore

The online version of this article can be found at:

http://cipremier.com/100030048

Thisarticleisbroughttoyouwiththesupportof

SingaporeConcreteInstitute

www.scinst.org.sg

AllRightsreservedforCIPremierPTELTD

YouarenotAllowedtoredistributeorresalethearticleinanyformatwithoutwrittenapprovalof

CIPremierPTELTD

VisitOurWebsiteformoreinformation

www.cipremier.com

2

1. Introduction

Mix design is a process of specifying the mixture of ingredients required to meet anticipated

properties of fresh and hardened concrete. Concrete mix design is a well established practice around the

world. All developed countries, as well as many developing countries, have standardized their concrete

mix design methods. These methods are mostly based on empirical relations, charts, graphs, and tables

developed as outcomes of extensive experiments and investigations of locally available materials. All of

those standards and methods follow the same basic trial and error principles.

Some of the prevalent concrete mix design methods are: a) ACI Mix Design Method, b) USBR Mix

design practice, c) British Mix design Method, and d) ISI Recommended guidelines. The scope of this

study is to compare ACI and ISI recommended mix design guidelines. A major part of concrete used in

rural and semi-urban areas in India falls in the range of 15 - 20 MPa [1]. Similarly, concrete of strengths

up to 40 MPa are widely used in USA. Therefore, similar ranges of concrete strengths are widely

applicable in both India and USA. The scope of this paper is limited to absolute volume and concrete mix

design for compressive strengths less than 6000 psi (~40 MPa). In order to compare the two methods,

calculation processes are briefly summarized, flow charts are made to illustrate the design steps, and

sample tests are performed with the two techniques to produce 20, 30, and 40 MPa concrete. Basic data

used in both methods is illustrated in Table 1.

Table 1: Basic data used in the ISI and ACI Mix Design Methods

Parameter ISI Method ACI Method

Characteristic compressive strength at 28 days yes yes

Standard deviation of compressive strength yes yes

Degree of workability Compacting factor Slump

Type and maximum size of aggregates yes yes

Nominal maximum size of coarse aggregates (NMSA) yes yes

Dry rodded unit weight of coarse aggregates (DRUW) no yes

Fine aggregates (sand) Grading zone Fineness modulus (FM)

Specific gravity of cement, coarse and fine aggregates yes yes

Water absorption and moisture content adjustment yes yes

Type of construction yes yes

Exposure condition no yes

Air/Non-air entrainment no yes

2. The ISI method:

The Indian Standards Institution (ISI) has recommended guidelines for concrete mix design based on

cement and other materials locally available in India [2, 3].These guidelines are applicable for normal

concrete (less than 60 MPa) mix design. Use of gap graded aggregates, various admixtures, and

pozzolana is beyond the scope of IS 10262-1982 [2]. The design steps for mix proportioning as

recommended in IS 10262-1982, is presented in the form of a schematic flow chart, Figure 1. The steps

are outlined below:

1. The target average compressive strength (

ck

f ) at 28 days is determined by using equation 1:

=

ck

f st f

ck

+ (1)

where,

ck

f =characteristic compressive strength at 28 days,

s =standard deviation of compressive strength,

t =a statistic, depending upon the accepted proportion of low results and the number of tests.

2. The water cement (w/c) ratio is chosen from an empirical relationship (a graph) for the given 28-day

target mean strength. The w/c ratio is checked against the limiting w/c ratio to satisfy the durability

requirements.

3. Air content, amount of entrapped air in fresh concrete, as percentage of volume of concrete, is

estimated based on the nominal maximum size of aggregate (NMSA).

3

Figure1: Design flow chart of ISI method

Sand

adjust

Sp.gravity

of agg. &

cement

C. agg.

content

B C

Water

content

Check w/c is

satisfactory

Absorpt-

ion &

moisture

B

Target

strength

Cement

content

Batch volume

Volume of all

items

Moisture

content

adjustment

W/C

ratio

Air

content

Standard

Deviation

Design

strength

Check minimum

cement content

Type of

aggregate

Sand

grading

zone

A

Sand

content

Water

adjust

C

Satisf-

actory

NMSA

Comp-

acting

factor

A

4

4. Initially, water content, as mass (kg) per unit volume (m

3

) of concrete, is selected based on the NMSA

and the target strength. Then, the initially determined water content is adjusted for workability

conditions depending upon the compacting factor and types of aggregates.

5. Sand content, as percentage of total aggregate volume, is selected based on the NMSA and the

target strength. Then, the initially determined sand content is adjusted for workability conditions

depending on the sand grading zone, w/c ratio, and type of aggregates.

6. The cement content is calculated from the w/c ratio and the water content. The cement content, thus

calculated, is then checked against the minimum cement content to satisfy the durability requirement.

7. With the quantities of water and cement per unit volume of concrete and the percentage of sand in

the total aggregate already determined, the coarse and fine aggregate contents per unit volume of

concrete are calculated from the following equations, respectively:

) 1 ( 1000 p S

S

C

W V C

ca

c

a

(

+ = ....(2)

fa

c

a

pS

S

C

W V f

(

+ = 1000 ...(3)

where,

a

C =total mass of coarse aggregate, [kg per m

3

of concrete],

a

f = total mass of fine aggregate, [kg per m

3

of concrete],

V =absolute volume of fresh concrete, equal to gross volume minus the volume of entrapped air,

W =mass of water (kg) per m

3

of concrete,

C =mass of cement (kg) per m

3

of concrete,

c

S =specific gravity of cement,

p =ratio of fine aggregate to total aggregate by absolute volume,

fa

S =specific gravities of saturated surface dry fine aggregate,

ca

S =specific gravities of saturated surface dry coarse aggregate.

8. Finally, water content is adjusted based on the absorption and the current moisture content to

generate equivalent of saturated surface dry condition of the aggregates.

3. ACI Method:

In 1991, the American Concrete Institute (ACI) published its guidelines for normal, heavyweight and

mass concrete mix design [4]. The Absolute Volume Method of mix design as described by the ACI

Method [5] is revisited, and the design steps for mix proportioning as recommended by ACI Committee

211, is presented in the form of a schematic flow chart, Figure 2. The steps are discussed below:

1. The required (target) average compressive strength (

cr

f ' ) at 28 days for mix design is determined by

adding up an empirical factor ( k ) to the design compressive strength ( f ' ) as per equation 4:

k f f

c cr

+ ' = ' ....(4)

2. The W/C ratio is selected based on the target strength and the type of concrete (air-entrained or non

air-entrained).

3. Air content, as percentage of the concrete volume, is estimated depending upon the air-entrained or

non-air-entrained type of concrete, exposure conditions, and NMSA.

4. Slump, as measure of workability, is selected depending upon the type of structure and complexity of

the pouring conditions.

5. Water content is determined based on the NMSA, type of concrete (air-entrained or non-air-

entrained), and specified slump. Then it is adjusted for the types of aggregates.

6. Cement content, is calculated based on the w/c ratio and the water content.

7. Coarse aggregates content, as dry rodded bulk (percentage) of concrete unit volume, is determined

based on the NMSA, and the fineness modulus of sand.

5

Figure 2: Design flow chart of ACI method

Fineness

modulus

& DRUW

Air

content

Types of

aggregate

Water

content

Slump C. agg.

content

Standard

Deviation

Design

strength

Air entrai-

nment

Satisf-

actory

NMSA

Type of

constr-

uction

Target

strength

W/C

ratio

Cement

Content

Sp.gravity

of agg &

cement

Volume of all

items

Batch Volume

Exposure

condition

Volume

of sand

Moisture

Content

Adjustment

Absorpt-

ion and

moisture Check minimum

cement content

6

8. Once the water content, cement content, air content, and the coarse aggregate content per unit

volume of the concrete is determined, the fine aggregate (F

agg

) is calculated by subtracting the

absolute volume of the known ingredients from unit volume of the fresh concrete (in this case 1 m

3

)

as following:

Y F

agg

=1 ... ..(5)

where,

Y =sum of all other ingredients (air, water, cement and coarse aggregates) in cubic meter calculated

for 1 m

3

of concrete.

9. Finally, water content is adjusted based on the absorption and the current moisture content of the

coarse and fine aggregates, in account of saturated surface dry condition of the aggregates.

4. Similarities of ISI and ACI Mix Design Process

Both of the methods are based on the empirical relations. These relations are derived from extensive

experiments done in each of the countries with the locally available materials. Thus, both methods

extensively use tables and graphs during the design process and follow logical determination of the

ingredients by establishing the targeted strength for trial batch. Such trial batch strength is derived from

the required design strength of the structural concrete and the statistical analysis to ensure that the mix

design meets or exceeds the design strength. This is related to statistics of the quality control. Once the

target mix design strength is established, both methods advance the process with the determination of

w/c ratio.

It is common in both cases that the cement content is calculated based on the relationships of two

parameters: the w/c ratio and the cement content both derived separately and independently. Both of

these parameters are checked against the limiting values in order to ensure the durability conditions.

5. Differences of ISI and ACI Mix Design Process

Differences are manifest throughout the mix design process. The following highlight the major

differences:

Target strength: The ISI method uses equation (1) and the ACI method uses equation (2) to

determine the target average compressive strength. Although both methods utilize the standard deviation

to calculate the target strength, there is a difference in the technique of calculation. When sufficient data

are not available to establish standard deviation, the ACI method has recommended empirical values to

determine the target strength, whereas the ISI method has suggested the value of standard deviation.

Measure of workability: The ISI Method uses the compacting factor as a measure of workability,

whereas ACI uses the slump.

W/C Ratio: In the ACI method, w/c ratio is determined in combination with the target strength and the

type of concrete (air/non-air entrainment). Although, the ISI discusses the air entrainment, the selection

of w/c ratio in the ISI Method is a sole function of target strength.

Water content: The ISI method determines the water content based on target strength, type of

aggregates, NMSA and compacting factor. In the case of the ACI method, water content is dependent on

air-entrainment, types of aggregates, slump, and NMSA. In the case of the ACI method, water content

can be determined independent of target strength, whereas in the ISI method, target strength influences

the water content.

Coarse and fine aggregate content: In the ACI method, coarse aggregate content is determined

without knowing the absolute volume of fine aggregates. Contrary to the ACI method, the ISI method first

determines the fine aggregate content, as percentage of total aggregate by absolute volume; the coarse

aggregate content is determined next once the proportion of all other ingredients are known. In the ISI

method, specific sand grading zones are used as a governing parameter for sand content determination,

whereas the fineness modulus is used in the ACI method for selecting the bulk volume of dry rodded

coarse aggregate. The ISI method does not utilize the fineness modulus and dry rodded unit weight of

aggregates.

6. Numerical Example of the Mix design

In order to compare the two design techniques, calculations were performed using the procedures

prescribed by both methods for design strengths of 20 MPa, 30 MPa, and 40 MPa. The mix proportions

are presented in Table 2.

7

Table 2: Design mix calculated for 1 m

3

of fresh concrete

Ingredients, 20 MPa 30 MPa 40 MPa

ISI ACI ISI ACI ISI ACI

Water, kg 162 173 164 175 160 176

Cement, kg 403 361 518 451 618 488

Fine aggregate, kg 555 905 524 823 358 790

Coarse aggregate,

kg 1302 958 1230 959 1322 959

W/c ratio 0.401 0.479 0.317 0.388 0.259 0.361

The calculations indicate that although the design strength (characteristic strength) is the same, the

proportion of the ingredients for ISI and ACI mixes are different. Although, the water content results are

quite close, the w/c ratios are different, and therefore, the cement content is different between the ISI and

ACI results. The calculations show that ISI uses higher cement content than ACI, although both methods

tend to increase the cement quantity as the desired strength increases. The high cement content of the

ISI method may be owing to the relatively low quality of Indian cement in earlier decades when the codes

were produced. Another reason for the high content may be the fineness of Indian cement, 225 m

2

/kg,

compared to American cement, 300-500 m

2

/kg [6, 7].

Both methods indicate that fine aggregate content tends to decrease as the desired strength

increases. The coarse aggregate content does not seem to change in the case of the ACI method,

whereas this tendency is not stable in the case of the ISI method. The w/c ratio is higher in the ACI mix

than ISI.

7. Experimental Results

Concrete cylinders of 4 | and 8 height size were prepared and tested according to ASTM standards

for 7 days and 14 days. Three samples were cast in each case. The tests were done using local

materials in Hawaii, such as Hawaiian cement (Type I-II), Halawa aggregates (3/4), and #4 Halawa sand

(fineness modulus 2.93). During the sample preparation it was observed that the workability was

consistently higher in the ACI method. The strength results are presented in Table 3.

Table 3: Tabulation of experimental results

Target Strength

ISI, MPa ACI, MPa

7-Day 14-day 28-day* 7-Day 14-day 28-day*

20 MPa

31 40 45 24 27 31

31 36 41 24 29 33

31 36 41 24 27 31

30 MPa

21 30 34 33 38 43

24 32 36 33 38 43

22 29 33 33 39 44

40 MPa

35 34 39 35 41 47

31 33 38 33 40 46

33 35 40 34 41 47

* 28-day strength is projected from 14-day strength: 28-day strength =14-day strength0.887

8. Analysis of the Experimental Results

The test results indicate that the ISI 20 MPa design has significantly higher strength than anticipated.

For example, anticipated 7-day test results of ISI 20 MPa should be in the range of 75% of 20 MPa, i.e.,

15 MPa; instead, the test results of ISI 20 MPa were 31 MPa, which is more than double the anticipated

strength. The 7-day test results for ISI 30 MPa and ISI 40 MPa were within the expected range. The 40

MPa results show that the ISI technique makes for slower strength gain compared to the ACI, in spite of

increased cement use, and may not meet the strength requirements, as well.

Basic statistical analysis, such as deviation measurement and correlation analysis were undertaken

for 28-day compressive strength results. A summary of the analysis is presented in Table 4.

8

Table 4: Analysis of 28-day compressive strength

Target Strength

MPa

(1)

Average Strength, MPa Strength Deviation,

MPa

Correlation coefficient, r

ISI

(2)

ACI

(3)

ISI

(4)

ACI

(5)

ISI

(1) vs. (2)

ACI

(1) vs. (3)

20 42.42 31.44 22.42 11.44

-0.48

0.94 30 34.47 43.56 4.47 13.56

40 38.64 46.21 -1.36 6.21

9. Conclusions

Based on the analysis of the pilot tests, the following conclusions can be drawn:

1. The ISI technique performs better for lower strengths than higher strengths.

2. Whereas, the ISI technique meets the strength criteria for 20 MPa, the actual strength achieved is

almost double. This appears to indicate a waste of materials, since such a high strength is not

required. It may be that the high strength obtained is specified to offset hand mix conditions in rural

and remote India.

3. The correlation between desired strength and actual strength is r =0.94 for ACI and r =- 0.48 for ISI.

This indicates a higher correlation between designed and actual strength for ACI, indicating not only

that it is a more consistent and reliable technique, but that the ISI technique may give the inverse of

what is desired.

4. The ACI method is more likely to meet 30 MPa and 40 MPa design strengths.

5. Higher strength fluctuations for ISI are evidenced by fluctuations ranging from -1.36 MPa to 22.42

MPa compared to ACI ranging from 6.21 MPa to 11.44 MPa. This indicates that the ACI technique is

more reliable.

6. The fines content in ACI is higher, which makes for higher workability. Presumably, It also

contributes to increased strength as the voids are filled, especially as observed in the 30 and 40 MPa

test cases. In the case of ISI, fine aggregate content is reduced as the design strength requirement

goes up. Therefore, voids are likely to be higher for higher strengths, thus leading to decreased

strength in such cases.

7. The cement content for higher strengths in ISI increases at the expense of fine aggregates, making

for an overall lower fines to coarse ratio, which possibly affects the strength achievement.

The conclusions are based only on a limited number of trial batches. Results may vary for larger number

of samples and with the use of different quality of cement, sand and coarse aggregates.

10. Acknowledgements:

The authors thank Mr. Timothy S. Folks, Manager of Technical Services, Hawaiian Cement /

Hawaiian Laboratories, for use of their concrete lab facility.

11. References:

1. Kumar, P. and Kaushik S. K., 2003, Some trends in the use of concrete: Indian scenario, The Indian

Concrete J ournal, December 2003, pp.1503-1508.

2. Indian Standard, Recommended guidelines for concrete mix design, IS 10262-1982, 1983, Indian

Standard Institution, New Delhi, India.

3. Handbook on concrete mixes (based on Indian Standards), 1983 (SP: 23-1982), Bureau of Indian

Standards, New Delhi, India

4. ACI Committee 211, 1991 (re-approved in 2002), Standard practice for selecting proportions for

normal, heavyweight and mass concrete. American Concrete Institute, USA.

5. Kosmatka S. H., Kerkhoff B. and Panarese W. C., 2002, Design and control of concrete mixtures,

Portland Cement Association, Skokie, Illinois, USA.

6. Indian Standard, Ordinary Portland cement, 33 grade- specification, IS 269:1989, 1990 (third print

2000), Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi, India.

7. Portland Cement, U. S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration,

www.fhwa.dot.gov/infrastructure/materialsgrp/cement.html, accessed on J uly 5, 2005.

- high performance concrete seminar reportUploaded bychandukalia
- Dear Miss Pia BahrUploaded byFaxnodarash Samradin
- White CementUploaded byVarun Reddy Kamireddy
- jciee16.pdfUploaded byyinglv
- Concrete Basics Portland Cement AssociationUploaded byDeep Debnath
- Partially Process Steel Slag Used as Cement Replacement in Self Compacting ConcreteUploaded byIAEME Publication
- Concrete Basics Portland Cement Association (PCA).HtmUploaded byPankaj Debnath
- blended cement.pdfUploaded byanbumani123
- gonen 1Uploaded byCivil House
- Concrete Comp DesignUploaded byarifi_civil
- SAIL DSP GTS Vol II.168-399Uploaded byKoushik Dey
- 05-01slagexpanded-fr1.pdfUploaded byrushabhbholo
- Aqua CurtainUploaded bythanhnguyentan
- Mix Design of High Strength ConcreteUploaded byvempadareddy
- Astm c478mUploaded byNelson Hernandez
- Rate Analysis of Power PlantUploaded byGopal Sudhir
- 2013 SMCB SMCB Annual Report 2013Uploaded byFendy Wahyu
- Unit 4Uploaded byHidayat Karya
- Calorimeter C 1679Uploaded byOscar Herny
- +jeje reviewer02.pptUploaded byJosh Joshua
- The-Little-Green-Book-of-Concrete.pdfUploaded byObayuwana Osamede Edmond
- Class 9 Cement Concrete 1Uploaded byYash Dhabalia
- cementUploaded byBhawani Pratap Singh Panwar
- 4.pdfUploaded byNigerian Journal of Technological Development
- 6 Inch InertiaUploaded byRagunath Karthick
- Environmental criteria for cement based products executive summary.pdfUploaded byyinglv
- 1-s2.0-S135983681300067X-main.pdfUploaded byZrar Isqeli
- 31.docxUploaded byparas rahangdale
- M-15.Uploaded byAnkush Patial
- specification sheetUploaded byedohartanto

- Not_0072018_2162018 (1)Uploaded byakash nair
- Backfilling UpdateUploaded byakash nair
- Total Pipe QtyUploaded byakash nair
- Customer Guide Lines TSC Ver 4 0Uploaded byakash nair
- Al Futtaim Credit Shield InsuranceUploaded byakash nair
- rl_989_18Uploaded byakash nair
- PlatinumCredit_FraudProtectionUploaded byakash nair
- 40Uploaded byakash nair
- Not_0072018_2152018 (1)Uploaded byakash nair
- pipebed.pdfUploaded byUmar Kida
- AmericaUploaded byakash nair
- GermanyUploaded byakash nair
- IndiaUploaded byakash nair
- Gravity SlopeUploaded byakash nair
- Report ErrorUploaded byakash nair
- Ss SupportUploaded byakash nair
- SS LENGTHUploaded byakash nair
- 03.12.17 ANADHNUploaded byakash nair
- Deepika Calendar2018Uploaded byakash nair
- NABARD Recruitment to the Post of Assistant Manager in Grade a RDBSUploaded byTopRankers
- Not_0152017_5452017Uploaded byakash nair
- Brochure Outriggers ATLASUploaded byakash nair
- EHV Handbook ENG LowResUploaded bySharique T. Baig
- Fire Fighting LineUploaded byakash nair
- ImageUploaded byakash nair
- Copy of AC 198 Insp Request KamUploaded byakash nair
- FOLLOW THE BELOW FONT FOR BOTH ENGLISH AND ARABIC.docxUploaded byakash nair
- sample.xlsxUploaded byakash nair
- Job ResponsibilityUploaded byakash nair

- Hypo SludgeUploaded byCindy Jones
- Syllabus Civil Qaqc Course Sdlinc 9600162099Uploaded bySridurgha Lakshmi Inc SDLINC NDT QA QC INSTITUTE
- aashto28thedstdUploaded byHarry Immanuel
- Appendix - 1800 - III (Sfgop-tcipc)Uploaded bykvijayasok
- Balanced Growth a Strategic Imperative for Indian Cement IndustryUploaded byAjo2000
- Pile Geotechnical &Structural Design Using SPT Values BY WWW.CIVILAX.COMUploaded byCivilax.com
- Flow ChartUploaded byFarah Saeki
- Testing of Asphalt Concrete MixturesUploaded byNana Supriatna
- Plate 2 (Dead Load)Uploaded byZajay Dela Cruz Gamit
- G+7 Watersupply,septic ankUploaded bySantosh Chowdary
- Study of ACI and DOE Mix Design Methods for High Strength Concrete using Crushed and Uncrushed AggregateUploaded byInternational Journal for Scientific Research and Development - IJSRD
- concrete-pumping.pdfUploaded byIrham M AF
- Bauder_InvertedRoofHotmelt_Bakor-JVPM-JFRI200-AP1-Bakor-Bl.pdfUploaded bydaminda
- Recent Advances in Repair ConcreteUploaded byKhairuddin Ismail
- SACOPUploaded byMohammad Jaradeh
- RPA 99-2001Uploaded byisma15000
- Dg Khan cement-Internship ReportUploaded byShahid Hussain
- Test RequirementsUploaded byYen Ling Ng
- PU-300Uploaded bymarklester
- Masterflow 870Uploaded byMohiuddin Muhin
- Sika 1Uploaded byM S Alkausar Siregar
- Technical Guidelines Information for Stone Construction in UKUploaded byGupta Abhinav
- Quasi-static and Pseudo-dynamic Testing of Unbonded Post-tensioned Rocking Bridge Piers With External Replaceable DissipatersUploaded byHersil Sh
- catalogue.pdfUploaded bymawcrower
- Final Invoice for Epoxy & Screeding WorksUploaded byarchie_728
- CBLM Fabricating FormworksUploaded byGlenn F. Salandanan
- AdmixturesUploaded bymansoor azam
- cracksil_rev 00.pdfUploaded byvahab_shaik
- Spellnumber10m Bulo-nawoyUploaded byBeverly Nicole Dugao Cuti
- Skh3 CA 50 004 a4 Calculation of Deg RoomUploaded byPutu Aditya Setiawan

## Much more than documents.

Discover everything Scribd has to offer, including books and audiobooks from major publishers.

Cancel anytime.