14 February 2008 Life Science Five Kingdoms Taxonomy is an artificial way of classifying things.

Therefore, you may find sources that give more than five kingdoms, such as six or eight. In this class, we’ll be discussing five. Monera Composed of bacteria and blue green algae (cyanobacteria) Decomposers OR producers Two types of producers 1. Photosynthetic- produce energy using light-ex. the sun - The oldest bacteria were heterotrophs. When the atmosphere cleared, the sun hit the water and photosynthetic blue green algae grew. 2. Chemosynthetic- produce energy using chemicals, such as H2S (hydrogen sulfide) -these can be a producer for ecosystems in the dark -Bob Ballard found many organisms below the point where light reaches through the surface of the ocean and the chemosynthetic producers are the base of those food pyramids near ocean vents. -These environments are very hostile compared to those on land. The temperature reaches 350 degrees and the pH reaches 0, the most acidic. This would be extremely toxic if it were on land. The pressure reaches near 14, 500 pounds of pressure per inch. Away from ocean vents, there is very little ocean life to be found. Bacteria All bacteria have a cell wall that gives them a specific shape. -Round-O-coccus -Tuberculosis is a diplococcic bacterium. -Rod-shaped-[]-bacillus -Spiral-shaped-§- spirillum - Strep-means the cells are aligned. OOOOO - Staph- common bacteria -occurs when you get a medicine-resistant strain, which is most likely to happen in a hospital, because the bacteria are exposed to antibiotics and the resistant strains have a chance to get stronger in this environment. Bacteria divide every 20 minutes. -Humans have had approximately 10,000 generations, while bacteria have nearly that many in a year. Protista -Single-celled eukaryotes. In the last ten years, red, brown, and green algae have been added to this kingdom because the reproduction of these algae is very similar to other members of the Protista kingdom. -The Protista kingdom is where locomotion, response to stimuli, sexual reproduction, and true aerobic respiration originated. Amoeba- move by pseudopodia Paramecium- move by cilia

Stentor- move by cilia Euglena- move by flagella Volvox- move by flagella. These are round, because the rounded tips of the Volvox cluster in the center, leaving the flagella sticking out. They roll when they move. If you cut a cross section from cilia and flagella, you’ll see the same 9:2 configuration of microtubules. This is dictated by a certain place in the DNA. These microtubules enable movement by the loss and gain in water pressure through the two main tubes. Red Algae- Red algae have a wide variety of photosynthetic materials instead of chlorophyll. Red algae are often found with coral and have a symbiotic relationship with the coral. They are mostly multicellular, marine algae, including many notable types of seaweed. Some secrete calcium carbonate and play a major role in building coral reefs. Some red algae are used to make products like agar and other food additives. Agar is a gelatinous substance that is used as a solid substrate to contain culture medium used in Petri dishes. Agar can be used as a laxative, a vegetarian gelatin substitute, and a thickener for soups, in jellies, ice cream and as a clarifying agent in brewing. Brown Algae- Brown algae are generally found in saltwater. They are eukaryotic algae, including many types of seaweed found in Northern Hemisphere waters. They play an important role in marine environments both as food, and for the habitats they form. They can be found in tide pools as the base of those food chains. Kelp is another type of brown algae and some varieties may reach nearly 200 feet in length. It can form underwater forests. Some types of kelp are eaten by humans, as well. Sea urchins can cause the death of kelp forests by eating the hold-tights that anchor the kelp. If this happens, the sea urchin population must be addressed and controlled. Kelp reproduces by means of flagellate spores, which are similar to sperm and eggs in humans. They have a diploid generation, which is the large plant that most people recognize. It produces spores from specialized structures, and these divide by meiosis before they are released. When they are haploid, there are equal numbers of male (similar to

sperm cells in humans) and female spores (similar to egg cells in humans). The female spores float and the male spores swim. They are dispersed via the current. Most brown algae have a life cycle which consists of an alternation between haploid and diploid plants. One product harvested from brown algae is algin. Algin is a polysaccharide derived from brown seaweed found in the North Atlantic basin. It is used in the food industry, the cosmetic industry, and in medicine and dentistry. Some products it is used in include thickeners for puddings, ice cream, jelly beans, toothpaste and floor polish. Green Algae- Green algae are the most diverse group of algae. They are primarily aquatic and eukaryotic. Green algae grow in a variety of habitats and forms. They occur in filaments, sheets, or colonies. The filament varieties are stringy. Sheets can be found on rocks or in ponds. One of the characteristics of green algae is that it is "slimy" or slippery to the touch. They don’t grow well in clear water, because they need nutrients to be able to thrive. In some areas near Hawaii, the fertilizers used for golf courses and hotels cause the green algae to flourish. These green algae block out the sun available to other life forms below the surface of the ocean, such as the red algae and coral that make up reefs. It can also interfere with the fish populations. Green algae get their color from chlorophyll, which they use to capture light energy to fuel the manufacture of sugars. Fungi -Generally eukaryotic and heterotrophic. Some fungal species are exceptions and grow as single cells. -They are characterized by a chitinous cell wall. Most species have hyphae. Some hyphae are touch-responsive and have developed as a self-protection mechanism for the fungus. -Sexual and asexual reproduction is commonly via spores. -Many fungi are invisible to the naked eye. -They are typically saprobes (get their nutrients from dead or dying things). They generally live in soil, dead matter, or as symbionts of plants, animals, or other fungi. They perform an essential role in ecosystems by decomposing matter and in nutrient cycling and exchange. -Fungi are currently being used as sources for antibiotics and various enzymes. -Examples: Yeasts Molds Food poisoning Histoplasmosis (found in the droppings of bats and birds) Athlete's foot, Jock itch, and Candida Chestnut blight Dutch elm disease Mildew Mushrooms

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