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K. Sathya Prakash Ksp-acu@acu.ltindia.

com Issue # EE 02 Not necessarily a speed variation is must for such an application, If the speed is other than top rated speed, it is oin to ive cost !enefits. "o#er the speed more the !enefits.

Nevertheless, Simpler less expensive solutions such as changing pulleys, modifications of the fan blades or a new fan, may be more effective in some cases, where Variable Speed is not required to be adjusted.
Ie . If a fan of 1000 RPM, has to be made to run at 500 RPM Constantly, then in that case , one can adopt the cost effective methods. But, if a fan of 1000 RPM, is re uire to run at any speed set!point bet"een 10# to 100# speed, one has to $o for %&'(s )nly. *he follo"in$ topics illustrate the +ner$y &avin$ Phenomenon, "hile usin$ the %&'(s.

$oncept of varia!le speed drives

DC motors & AC induction motors
Any variable speed electrical drive system comprises of the following components ! An electronic actuator " the controller. ! A driving electrical machines " motor. ! A driven machine #load$ " pump, fan, blower, compressor% &he tas' of a variable speed electrical drive is to convert the electrical power supplied by the mains into mechanical power with a minimum loss. &o achieve an optimum technological process, the drive must be variable in speed. &his will steplessly adjust the speed of the driven machine. &his is ensured by the low loss control using solid state Technology in electronic controllers. &he controllers are connected to mains supply and the electrical machine as shown in figure

&he solid " state devices, which convert the A( supply to )( supply were first used as variable speed devices, in )( technology. *sing these devices the armature voltage of a )( motor and therefore the speed can be adjusted, almost without losses and over a wide range of speed . *sing these features the drive can be designed which start smoothly and jer'"free. &his helps to maintain the desired selected speed, independently of the load and operate with good dynamic response

*he 'C drive needs special consideration in some applications. ,or e-ample in ha.ardous atmosphere, vibrations and hi$her speeds the usa$e of /C motor "ith s uirrel!Ca$e rotor is advanta$eous. *he use of fre uency inverters 0VFD's1 to supply to /C Motors resulted in a ne" orientation of electrical po"er for handlin$ variable speeds operation is sho"n in fi$ure 1

+very standard /C motor can be fitted "ith a variable speed drive usin$ a fre uency inverter. ,re uency and volta$e of the sin$le ! phase or three ! phase mains are varied by the fre uency inverter, such that the motor can be operated "ith varyin$ speeds over lar$e ran$e settin$s. *he operatin$ mode of any motor connected to these variable speed drives can be classified in ,our 2uadrants, dependin$ upon the *or ue and &peed of the drive in fi$ure above Four Quadrant Operation :
A +our"quadrant diagram can represent mode of operation of variable speed drive. ,n -uadrant . the speed and torque can be represented positive or forward direction. &his is consistent with a motor driving a load ta'ing power from the mains. Similarly in -uadrant /, both speed and torque are in negative or reverse direction.

*his Corresponds to a motor turnin$ in the reverse direction, drivin$ a load and a$ain ta3in$ po"er from the mains. In 2uadrants 4 and 5, the speed and tor ue are in mutually ! opposed directions, that is to say, the tor ue of the motor is opposin$ its rotation, $ivin$ a bra3in$ effect. It follo"s,then, that mechanical and 3inetic ener$y of the load is bein$ converted into electrical ener$y. *he motor is behavin$ as a $enerator and the system as a "hole is deliverin$ po"er into the mains.
&his behavior is 'nown as %e eneration. &fter going, through the mode of operation of VS)s, let us briefly discuss about the various loading patterns. &he characteristics of the load are particularly important in the trouble "+ree operation of VS)s. 0oad refers essentially to the torque output and the corresponding speed required. 0oads can be broadly classified as follows

(onstant torque Variable torque (onstant power

(1NS&AN& &12-*3 01A)

(onstant torque load are those for which the output power requirement may vary with speed of operation, but the torque does not vary. (onveyors, rotary 'ilns and constant " displacement pumps are typical examples of constant torque loads. VA2,A403 &12-*3 01A) Variable torque loads are those for which the torque required varies with speed of operation. (entrifugal pumps and fans are typical examples of variable torque loads # torque varies as the square of the speeds $. (1NS&AN& 51632 01A) (onstant power loads are those for which the torque requirements are typically changed inversely with speed. 6inders, coilers are typically the examples of constant power loads.

*he lar$est potential for ener$y savin$s "ith variable speeds drive are $enerally in variable tor ue applications. ,or e-ample, centrifu$al pumps and fans, "here the po"er re uirements chan$es as the cubes of speed. Constant tor ue loads are suitable for %&' application.
&he latest industrial trend is to use A( drives for variable speed application. As already discussed, to vary the speed of an A( motor and at the same time retain its torque producing capability a power source is required. &his power source has to provide variable voltage and frequency output in such a way that, in most of the operating area the V 7 f ratio is maintained constant. &his can be achieved through an A( drive which gives variable frequency and variable voltage as out put by ta'ing fixed voltage as input. &he principle involved in this technique is first to convert the fixed frequency, fixed voltage A( supply into a variable or constant )( voltage. &his is then into the A( supply of desired frequency 8 amplitude. &he criteria for the selection of A( inverter drive are essentially the same as for a )( variable speed drive. &he latest developments in technology and successful development of electronic drives #A( drives$ for cage motors have resulted in the following benefits .$ 9$ /$ :$ ;$ Availability of full load torque from standstill Absence of torque fluctuations at low speed. Ability to hold a set speed, regardless of load torque variation Ability to control the rate of increase 8 decrease of speed )ynamic response.


otor :

An A( induction motor essentially consists of two parts namely a stationary part called the <stator< and a rotating part called <rotor'. &he rotor is placed inside the stator and is supported on both sides. 3nergy is supplied to the windings placed in the stator slots. 3nergy is transferred to the rotor windings through electromagnetic induction and hence such motors are called <induction motors<. (hree Phase Induction )otor $onstruction* &he stator consists of three"phase winding which are placed in the slots of a laminated stator core. &he rotor core is a laminated steel cylinder, having slots in which conductors are cast or wound. &he rotor bars are shortened at the both ends by rotor end"rings.

6hen a three"phase supply is connected across the stator windings, a rotating magnetic field, constant in magnitude but rotating at synchronous speed, Ns, is produced. &he speed of the rotating field so produced depends upon the supply frequency and the number of poles for which the winding is made. &he direction of the rotating magnetic field produced by the stator depends upon the supply phase sequence. &his field induces an electromotive force #emf$ in the rotor conductors which in turn produces the current flow. &hus magneti=ing the rotor. )ue to the tendency of the rotor magnetic field to be aligned with the stator field, the rotor develops the torque in the same direction and it starts

rotating. &he speed of the rotor however is less than synchronous speed Ns #the speed of rotating magnetic field developed by the stator$. ,f the rotor runs exactly at the synchronous speed induced emf in the rotor will be =ero. >ence there will be no rotor current and rotor torque. &he synchronous speed is a function of the no of poles of the motor and supply frequency. &his is given by Ns ? .9@ A frequency #f$ 7 number of poles #5$ >ence the speed of an A( motor is a function of frequency and the number of motor poles. &he speed of the rotor relative to that of the stator"rotating field is called as <S0,5<. &his slip is the difference between the synchronous speed, Ns and actual speed N and is denoted by S. &his is generally expressed as a fraction of the synchronous speed. &hus slip is S ? #Ns"N$ 7 Ns where N" is actual rotor speed, Ns " Synchronous speed &he primary function of the motor is to provide torque, which ma'es the shaft 7 loads to rotate at the required speed. .$ 9$ /$ :$ &he <torque< of an induction motor depends upon the flux in the air gap. +urther, flux is directly proportional to V 7 f.... where V is supply voltage and f is the supply frequency. ,t can therefore be said that, the torque & is directly proportional to flux 8 flux is directly proportional to V 7 f. &hus the torque producing capability of the motor at the rated 7 required speeds can be retained constant, by maintaining the voltage v7s frequency ratio constant. (onclusively one can say that to vary the speed of an induction motor the frequency of the supply going to the motor should be varied. ,n order to maintain the torque producing capability the voltage applied to the motor needs to changed in the same proportion as that of frequency.

Varia"le Fre#uenc$ Dri%es :

&he primary functions of a variable speed A( drive, is to convert electrical power to the usable form for controlling speed, torque and direction of rotation of A( motor &he A( drive system basically splits into two sections Po#er electronics* ,n the power circuit the three phase incoming A( power is rectified to )( and then inverted to A( of desired frequency 8 voltage. &his consists of surge suppresser circuit, line communicated converter #controlled or uncontrolled rectifier$, pre"charging unit, )( lin' capacitor unit with bleeder resistor inverter, etc. $ontrol circuitry* &he control circuitry monitors 8 controls the whole wor'ing of the drive. ,t regulates the output voltage, process the feedbac', the fault and interloc's the inverter by tripping it in case of any fault. &he mode of operation of A( drives are mainly classified into two types $onstant + , f and +ector control.

Ad%anta&es o' %aria"le 're#uenc$ dri%es:

-eature Soft starting .enefits 2educed impact on electrical networ' means no penalties from utility 2educed stress on motor, coupling and load, giving extended life time *nlimited number of starts per hour 5recise speed and torque control 4etter product quality improved cost of ownership 4etter protection of motor #e.g. stall protection and load$ (onsistent product quality, despite input power variations and sudden load changes

6ide speed control range

,mproved efficiency compared to traditional flow control methods e.g. damper control, throttling lower maintenance

>igh reliability and availability

2educed downtime ,mproved process availability

0ow audible noise

,mproved wor'ing environment for operators )esired torque during bra'ing, therefore better product quality improved bra'ing characteristics >igher efficiency

(apability for speed reversal 7 regenerative bra'ing

+lux optimisation #motor flux automatically adapted to load$

,mproved motor efficiency 2educed motor noise

5ower loss ride through

2educed number of drive trips 4etter process availability

Automatic start #drive can catch a spinning load$

2educed waiting time 2educed downtime

3nergy saving

A( drives can be retroffied to standard induction motors, to provide substantial energy savings

(peed control o' Induction

otor :

&he power supply to the induction motor is through the stator winding terminal. &he speed control of the induction motor is possible at the stator winding terminal, by appropriately changing the electrical supply voltage, frequency or the internal winding. &he rotor circuit windings available in a slipring induction motor, allows an additional means to control the speed. &his method of varying the motor speed by adding resistance in the rotor circuit is 'nown as rotor resistance control # 22( $. &he operating principle of 22( is explained as follows ,n the rotor resistance control method, the speed variation in a motor can be achieved by altering the slip the motor can operate. &his method is applicable for slipring induction motors, as it involves addition of the external resistance in the rotor circuit of the motor #as shown in fig $.&he principle employed in the rotor resistance control is changing the internal motor circuit parameters, by adding external rotor resistance. &his in turn changes the torque"speed characteristics of the motor.

+igure" Slipring induction motor " with external rotor resistors

7ith increasin$ resistance, the slope of the motor curve decreases, shiftin$ the stable operatin$ point for the $iven load curve to a point "ith hi$her slip. *hus the speed control is achieved in the rotor resistance control.0 *his is represented in the fi$. belo"1

+igure" Slipring induction motor " with external rotor resistors &he above graph shows the variations of the torque with slip, the other factors remaining constant. &he change in slip is attained by changing the value of rotor resistances. ,n the graph, the curves A, 4, ( 8 ) have rotor resistances 2a, 2b, 2c 8 2d respectively. &he relative values of resistanceBs is as follows %d/%c/%!/%a. ,t is observed that a significant amount of input power has to be dissipated in the external resistors. &his power lost due to the increase in slip is called as slip po#er. &he ratio of slip power to total power input changes with speed. 2otor 2esistance (ontroller #22($ 2otor 2esistance (ontroller #22($ is a method of speed control applicable to the slip"ring induction motor only.

&dvanta es of %%$*
No harmonic eneration* *nli'e A( drives 8 S52S, 22( has no adverse effect, such as harmonics generation which affects the distribution networ'. &m!ient conditions* 22( has no electronic components li'e that of other electronic variable speed drives. >ence, they can be installed in even adverse environments.

0isadvanta es of %%$*
)*ternal coolin&: / portion of the input po"er has to be dissipated in the e-ternal rotor resistors. *hese resistors re uire coolin$ fans to dissipate the heat $enerated by them. *he coolin$ fans form an additional load. (peed ad+ustment: In this methods the speed ad8ustment is in steps or "ith very poor re$ulations aintenance: *his method of control has lot of contractors 9 orther movin$ parts, "hich re uires re$ular maintenance. )ner&$ sa%in& concept & 'an cur%es 7e all 3no" that lot of ener$y is "asted in fan:pump:blo"er applications if not properly desi$ned. 7hen "e use conventional motor control system, in "hich /C motor is run at full ;

speed, the flo" of $ases:air :li uid is re$ulated usin$ the damper :throttle control. In this process , substantial ener$y is lost in the damper:throttle. *his "aste of ener$y can be as hi$h as 45 to 60 # of motor ratin$. /l"ays $o for reliable v:f , variable speed drives to control the speed of fan:pump:blo"er, "hich in turn "ill automatically control the flo". <ence you can eliminate the need of damper:throttle. =our pay bac3 period can be even less than one year.

)''ect o' ,armonic Distortion on an induction motor :

>armonic )istortion is a 'ind of pollution in electrical supply. &he distortion is caused by different <Non 0inear 0oad< connected to electrical supply. &he harmonic frequencies are exact multiples of the fundamental supply frequency. &ypically the harmonics which are generated by/ phase C"pulse rectifiers in the common A( or )( drives just include the harmonics numbers ;, D, .., ./, .D, .E, 9/ 8 9; etc. >armonic currents affect the circuit components which are direct on the line supplying the drive, such as transformers, cables and circuit brea'ers.

*he most sensitive are transformers, because the losses in "indin$s and cores are hi$her "ith hi$her amount of harmonic currents. If the non!linear load percenta$e of the total transformer load is $oin$ to be more than 50#, it is important to chec3 the transformers loadability.

Distorted wave composed by the superposition of a 60 Hz fundamental and small third harmonic and fifth harmonics.
>armonic voltage affect all equipment which are connected to the supply. 6ays to reduce harmonic distortion *se 56F A( drive (hoose drive with effective )( 0ine +iltering


,f possible use .9"pulse 2ectifier in the )rive ,nstall the cabling and earthing properly ,nstall Shunt +ilters or >armonic &raps

Formula 'or calculatin&

otor Capacit$
0inear motion #>ori=ontal motion$

2otary motion

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L &0$

5o 5a Nl NF Vl 6 IF Il I0

@ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @

2unning power G'6H 2equired power for accel G'6H 0oad speed Gr7mH Fotor shaft speed Gr7mH 0oad velocity of load Gm7min.H Fachine efficiency +riction factor 6eight of load G'gH Fotor inertia G'g ! m9H 0oad inertia G'g ! m9H 0oad inertia G'g ! m9H #2eflected to motor shaft$

&l &0

@ @ @ @ @ @ @

0oad torque GN ! mH 0oad torque GN ! mH #2eflected to motor shaft$

&F ta td

Fotor rated torqueGN.mH Acceleration time GsecH )ecceleration tiem GsecH @.K " ..9 @.. " @.9 #9@@V class$ @.@; " @.. #:@@ V class$
6ith the expansion of the field of application of drives, the demands for ma'ing drives more compact and lower in cost are becoming stronger. Among the above, the issue of cooling is especially important in counteracting the increase of heating density accompanying downsi=ing and is becoming difficult to accommodate by normal conventional methods. 6ith regard to

this issue, we will describe the building"in of quality and the the prior verification activities which are performed at the initial stages of development by the effective utili=ation of (A)7(A3 tools.

7hen an induction motor is driven by a P7M /C drive, a sur$e volta$e may occur at the motor terminals due to the characteristics of the drives output volta$e 0dv:dt1. Bar$e sur$e volta$es can brea3 do"n the motor insulation and cause premature motor failure. *he article attempts to discuss this phenomenon in both a theoretical and practical "ay.

.. 6hat is VVV+ A( drive M VVV+ A( drive is the power electronic controller used to control the speed of /ph A( motors #synchronous or inducution$ by varying the frequency and the voltage applied to the motor terminals. Voltage and frequency relationship is decided based on the motor name plate data and the load characteristics. 9. 6hat is the typical power circuit configuration of VVV+ A( driveM


&ypical power circuit configuration involves /5h. diode rectifier at the input, which converts the A( input to )( voltage. 0( or ( filter reduces the ripple in the )( voltage. /5h ,N4& A( drive stage converts this )( voltage into variable voltage variable frequency output as per the desired pattern /. 6hat are the different types of VVV+ A( driveM VVV+ A( drive are generally classified into three types based on the type of control philosophy adopted for motor control Scalar control756F control. Sensorless vector control. Vector control #with sensor$ or +lux vector control. :. 6hat is scalar controlM ,n scalar control, relationship between voltage and frequency of the A( voltage applied to the motor terminals is predetermined by the user. &his relationship is marginally altered in scalar drives sometimes, to improve the performance of the drive. Scalar controlled inverters can have only speed control and these are ideal for group7multi motor drives. ;. 6hat is vector control or flux vector controlM 6hat are the typical applicationsM ,n Vector (ontrol motor, current is controlled with two independent components i.e., torque component and flux component. &hese components are computed based on the rotor position, rotor speed and motor parameters. Fotor speed is controlled rather than output frequency. 2elationship between voltage and frequency is decided by operating conditions. Vector controlled inverters invariably use encoders for rotor speed and position feedbac'. As flux and torque components of current are decoupled, fast dynamic response is obtained. ,t is possible to get more than rated torque at =ero speed also. Vector control can be achieved for single motor only. Vector control inverters are used for applications demanding =ero speed regulation, wide speed control range and excellent dynamic response. 3x. 5aper machine drives, film line drives. C. 6hat is Sensorless Vector (ontrolM ,n sensorless vector control, motor speed is estimated based on the measured motor terminal parameters and hence speed sensor is avoided. 4ased on motor parameters and computed rotor speed, flux and torque component of motor current are computed. As flux and torque component of current are independently controlled, fast dynamic response is achieved. Speed regulation is better than scalar drives and typical value is L7@.;O. &his speed regulation is typically achieved in the range . ;@. >igh starting torque #P.;@O$ is also achieved by this control. D. 6hat is 56F (ontrolM 5ulse 6idth Fodulation #56F$ is the method of control where variable voltage #A(7)($ is achieved from a fixed )( voltage using switching devices. )( voltage is applied for sometime in the cycle and in the remaining period, no voltage is applied to the load. 4y adjusting the duty ratio, #ratio of on period to cycle time$ output voltage is adjusted between =ero and rated voltage K. 6hat is applied motor rating as specified by inverter specificationM Applied motor rating specifies the maximum rating of the :"pole motor that can be connected to the inverter to obtain its rated output power at the rated speed. ,t is necessary that the rated input voltage of the inverter and motor are matched or else specified out power may not be achieved. E. 6hat is rated QVA output capacityM ,t is the apparent power that can be delivered continuously by the inverter at the rated frequency. &his is calculated as GS-2&#/$ x rated output voltage x rated currentH7.@@@. .@. 6hat is rated output voltageM


2ated output voltage is the fundamental rms value of the output terminal voltage at rated input and output conditions. ... 6hat is the output rated currentM )utput rated current is the rms current the inverter can continuously supply irrespective of the output fre uency. .9. 6hat is the rated input voltage 8 frequencyM ,t is the rated supply voltage and frequency for which invertor delivers its rated output. ./. 6hat is input voltage variation and frequency variationM ,nput voltage and frequency variation range specifies the range wherein the inverter can deliver the rated current without affecting the life of the equipment. 1ther specifications as output power, voltage etc., may not be met during the variation. .:. 6hat is the power factor as claimed by manufacturersM ,nput power factor can be specified in two ways i.e., displacement power factor and harmonic power factor. ,f diode rectifier is used displacement between the fundamental voltage and current is nearly =ero and hence displacement power factor is approximately ..@. >armonic power factor in the ratio of input effective power and input apparent power. &his depends on output speed and load conditions. ,t is normally specified at rated input and output conditions. 5ower factor depends on the power circuit configuration. .;. 6hat is input QVA capacityM ,t is the input apparent power drawn by the inverter at the rated output conditions. .C. 6hat is the frequency 7 speed rangeM +requency7speed range is the ratio of minimum and maximum frequency7speed in the defined operating condition. 3x.. .@ speed range with constant torque. .D. 6hat is frequency stabilityM +requency stability specifies the variation in output frequency with the defined temperature variation 'eeping frequency reference constant. 3x. L7"@.;O of max frequency for 9;R (. L7".@R (. .K. 6hat is inverter efficiencyM ,nverter efficiency is the ratio of the output power to the input power of inverter at rated output conditions i.e., with rated voltage, rated current 8 rated power factor at the output of inverter. .E. 6hat is A( 2eactor70ine (ho'eM A( 2eactor is used when supply line has to be isolated from commutation notches caused by the inverter and to reduce the rectifier pea' current. 9@. 6hat is noise filterM

Coise filter is the element involvin$ inductor and noise capacitor to suppress hi$h fre uency volta$es, "hich can cause interference to sensitive electronic e uipment.


)FF)C/ OF F0)Q1)2C3 VA0IA/IO2 O2

O/O0 C4A0AC/)0I(/IC(

Motors are normally desi$ned to operate at a fre uency ran$e of D:!5# from desi$ned fre uency. Runnin$ a motor at a lo" fre uency results in reduction of the output po"er.But the effect of lo" fre uency is not very $reat since there is no mar3ed chan$e in po"er factor. *he losses due to fre uency variations are mainly due to hysteresis 9 eddy current losses.<ysteresis losses are directly proportional to the fre uency 9 eddy current losses are directly proportional to the s uare of the fre uency Copper losses in the motor are unaffected , but friction 9 "inda$e losses increase. /s such, efficiency of the motor is reduced sli$htly.

)FF)C/ OF VO5/A6) VA0IA/IO2 O2

$haracteristics Starting 8 Faxm 2unning &orque O Slip +ull 0oad Speed 3fficiency +ull 0oad /7: 0oad .79 0oad 5ower +actor +ull 0oad /7: 0oad .79 0oad +ull 0oad (urrent Starting (urrent &emperature 2ise " +ull 0oad Faxm 1verload (apacity

O/O0 C4A0AC/)0I(/IC(
+olta e

1202 L::O "/@O L..;O Small L ".@@; to ".@9O ".@D to ".9O "@.@; to "@..;O "@.. to "@./O "@..; to "@.:O "..O L9;O "; to "C deg ( L::O

1102 L9.O ".DO L.O L.@@; to .@.O No (hange ".@. to ".@9O "@.@/O "@.@:O "@.@; to "@.CO "DO L.@ to L.9O "/ to ": deg ( L9.O

302 ".EO L9/O "..;O ".@9O No (hange L.@. to L.@9O L@.@.O L.@9 to L./O L@.: to L @.@;O L..O ".@ to ".9O LC to LD deg ( ".EO

402 "/CO L;CO "9.;O .@:O L.@@; to L.@9O L.@D to L.9O L.@/ to @..O L@.@D to L@.9;O L@..9 to L@./;O L9@O "9;O L.@ to L.9 deg ( "/CO