23 views

Uploaded by Fran De Aquino

The non existence of black holes has been predicted by the Relativistic Theory of Quantum Gravity as a consequence of the existence of negative gravitational mass evidenced in the expression of correlation between gravitational mass mg and inertial mass mi, obtained after the quantization of gravity [7]. Here, we review this theoretical discovery, which point to a revolution in fundamental physics.

save

- 7 Paradoxes We Bet You Can't Solve
- Nature Paper Claiming the Compact Object At Galactic Centre To Be A Black Hole'' and Comments by Mitra Pointing Out It Is a MECO & Not a Black Hole
- The Great Churning Part I
- Weatherall, James Owen (2013) What is a Singularity in Geometrized Newtonian Gravitation
- Bottom-Up Versus Top-Down the Plurality of Explana
- Black Hole Thermodynamics - Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia
- bryant_thegravityofthings.pdf
- Ets and Earth
- 21Ast5_lecppt_Ch18.pptx
- The Science That Made Stephen Hawking
- world-map
- Sean A. Hayward et al- Dilatonic wormholes: construction, operation, maintenance and collapse to black holes
- Joy
- Zero-Point Field for Space Travel
- 2014 15 Www.cracksat.net
- Proceedings-Vol 11 No 07-Oct-Nov-Dec-1977 (George Van Tassel)
- Being the Fittest via gravitism Part II
- physics-sports on the moon
- The Nature of Motion
- Navagraha (Nine Planets) Quiz
- world studies hybrid 2 17 15
- physics project
- Free Fall
- Extraordinary Technology 2014
- Mass in Motion
- Reginald T. Cahill- Unravelling the Dark Matter - Dark Energy Paradigm
- PHY101 Practice Final
- Anti Gravity
- 1408.3130v1
- pdf march 2016
- eBook Panduan Akademik 2015b50dcd7065eab3da7d56993a7bad9137
- bab
- Tab Excell Pour Calendrier
- vec-photos.pdf
- Losgigantes 141022150515 Conversion Gate01
- cadeias_e_teias.ppt
- Histología - Geneser 3ed
- cae-key-word-transformation-expressions.docx
- Trabajo Práctico 3.docx
- 5. Uso BZD en Trastornos Ansiosos.pptx
- Guia de Porcentajes 7º Básico Doble
- Referensi Tarif Penerjemahan Fienyx Translation
- Raid
- Honores 1 - Piccolo.pdf
- se-independiente-como-freelancer-en-30-dias.pdf
- Script Osce Topik Kulit a8
- letter c maitha leeson plan autosaved autosaved last
- Rasgos Naturalistas y Modernistas en Sin Rumbo (1885) de Eugenio Cambaceres Po
- Jurnal pendukung.docx
- Control de Procesos Industriales Con Plc
- POISSON.docx
- PR LP Tension Pneumotorax
- 51anual2011.pdf
- BALOTARIO DEL PRIMER EXAMEN DE DERECHO PROCESAL CIVIL II.docx
- NIC y NIIF
- Sk Penetapan Kkm
- Sem 2 Timetable
- Topik 2 Sistem Kardiovaskular Respiratori Dan Saraf
- Pelapukan Dan Erosi Ilovepdf Compressed
- interview-with-history.pdf
- Quantum Controller of Gravity
- Improvements in the Design of the Gravitational Motor
- Gravitational Energy Control
- The Gravitational Invisibility
- How a Massive Planet can affect Human Consciousnesses when Passing Nearby the Sun
- Electromagnetic Radiation can affect the Lift Force
- Method for Obtaining Quantum VacuumQuantum Vacuum
- The Gravitational Heat Exchanger
- Control of the Gravitational Energy by means of Sonic Waves
- The Beginning and End of Time in our Universe
- A System to Generate Intense Fluxes of Extremely-Low Frequency Radiation
- The Genesis of the Earth’s Moon
- Nuclear Fission by means of Terahertz Sonic Waves
- Gravitational Generation of Rain
- The Gravitational Scanner
- Divergence in the Stefan-Boltzmann law at High Energy Density Conditions
- The Intrinsic Magnetic Field of Magnetic Materials and Gravitomagnetization
- How a Strong Solar Coronal Mass Ejection can Eject Dust from the Moon’s Surface to the Earth’s Atmosphere
- Gravitational Tunneling Machine
- Gravitational Condensation of Atmospheric Water Vapor
- How Masers can remove the Geostationary Satellites
- The Origin of the Most Part of Water on the Earth, and the Reason why there is More Water on the Earth than on the other Terrestrial Planets
- A Solution for Reducing the Pollution of the Atmospheric Air
- Russian Sleep Weapon
- How the Thrust of Shawyer’s Thruster can be Strongly Increased
- A New Approach on the Photoelectric Effect
- How a Planet with Earth’s size can have a Gravitational Field Much Stronger than the Neptune
- A New Form of Matter-Antimatter Transformation
- Quantum Gravitational Shielding

You are on page 1of 3

Copyright © 2014 by Fran De Aquino. All Rights Reserved.

Fran De Aquino

The non existence of black holes has been predicted by the Relativistic Theory of Quantum Gravity as a consequence of the existence of negative gravitational mass evidenced in the expression of correlation between gravitational mass mg and inertial mass mi, obtained after the quantization of gravity [7]. Here, we review this theoretical discovery, which point to a revolution in fundamental physics.

Key words: Quantum Gravity, Event horizon, Black Hole Information Paradox, Black Hole.

1. Introduction After the development of the Einstein’s General Relativity Theory in 1915, Karl Schwarzschild found a solution to the Einstein field equations, which describes the gravitational field of a spherical mass [1]. This solution had a peculiarity; the gravity becomes infinity in a surface around the spherical mass, defined by the called Schwarzschild radius. This surface, called an event horizon, marks the point of no return, and defines the edge of a “hole”, which is called "black" because it absorbs all the light that hits the horizon, reflecting nothing, just like a perfect black body in thermodynamics [2, 3]. In the early 1970s, Stephen Hawking shows what can happen at the event horizon in terms of quantum mechanics. Pairs of particle-antiparticle can be created near the event horizon, with some sucked into the central singularity, while their partners escape into space. Thus, black holes leak radiation into space, slowly sucking energy from their gravitational core, and that, given enough time, black holes evaporate completely into radiation. There is, however, a bigger problem: the Hawking radiation does not carry information. The black hole information paradox was first observed by Hawking [4], when he looked at the nature of radiation emitted by black holes. He concluded that the emitted radiation does not transport the information of the matter that made the hole. Numerous efforts have been made to resolve the paradox. In the past 40 years it has been suggested that the "lost" information ends up in parallel universes where no black holes exist, or that Hawking radiation is not entirely thermal but has some quantum effects as well. The own Hawking in 2005 published a paper that suggested quantum perturbations of the event horizon of a black hole would allow information to escape. However, these theories have shown inconsistency. In 2012, it was proposed by Ahmed Almheiri, Donald Marolf, Joseph Polchinski, and James Sully [5] the existence of a black hole firewall at the event horizon. An interesting debate has erupted in the physics community recently, mainly after the publication of Hawking’s paper [6], because there are several indications that beloved theories believed to be true cannot be true all at once. In his paper, Hawking concludes: “There would be no event horizons and no firewalls.”… “The absence of event horizons means that there are no black holes - in the sense of regimes from which light can't escape to infinity.” The possibility of do not exist Black Holes it has been previously predicted by the Relativistic Theory of Quantum Gravity, as a consequence of the existence of negative gravitational mass evidenced in the expression of correlation between gravitational mass mg and inertial mass mi , which can be put in the following form [7]:

2

2 ⎧ ⎡ ⎤⎫ ⎛ W ⎞ ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ n ⎟ − 1⎥⎬ χ= = ⎨1 − 2 1 + ⎜ 2 r ⎟ ⎜ ⎢ ⎥⎪ mi 0 ⎪ ⎝ρ c ⎠ ⎦⎭ ⎣ ⎩

mg

(1)

where W is the density of energy on the particle (J / kg ) and ρ is the matter density of the particle kg m 3 ; nr is its index of refraction; mi 0 is its inertial mass at rest. Equation (1) shows that only for W = 0 the gravitational mass is equivalent to the inertial mass. Also, it shows that the gravitational mass of a particle can be reduced or made negative when the particle is subjected to high-densities of electromagnetic energy. On the other hand, the Schwzarzschilds’ equation, is given by

(

)

g=

Gmg r 2 1 − 2 Gmg rc2

(2)

The Einstein’s equivalence principle predicts that m g = m i . Therefore, the current interpretation of Eq. (2) is r = 2Gm g c 2 (Schwzarzschilds’ that, if radius),

then g → ∞ . Based on this singularity arose the concept of event horizon and Black Hole. However, we see here that, according to Eq. (1), the gravitational mass mg can be negative. This can occur, for example, in a stage

of gravitational contraction of a neutron star , when the gravitational masses of the neutrons, in the core of the star, are progressively turned negative, as a consequence of the increase of the density of magnetic energy inside the neutrons, Wn = 1 μ H2 , reciprocally produced by the spin 2 0 n magnetic fields of the own neutrons,

*

between the neutrons, during the very strong compression at which they are subjected. The neutron star's density varies from below 1×109 kg/m3 in the crust - increasing with depth – up to 8×1017 kg/m3 in the core [9]. From these values we can conclude that the neutrons of the core are much closer to each other than the neutrons of the crust † . This means that the value of Wn in the crust is much smaller than the value in the core. Therefore, the gravitational mass of the core becomes negative before the gravitational mass of the crust. This makes the gravitational contraction culminates with an explosion, due to the repulsive gravitational forces between the core and the crust. Therefore, the contraction has a limit and, consequently, the singularity ( g → ∞ ) never occur. This means that Black Hole does not exist. However, we would like to draw the attention to the possible existence of celestial bodies similar to “black holes”. These bodies would have ultra-strong electromagnetic fields. Then, according to Eq. (1) their gravitational masses would be strongly negative. Thus, when another body approaches them, the gravitational mass of the body also becomes negative due to the action of the ultra-strong magnetic field. The result is an enormous gravitational attraction between them, similar to that would be produced by a “black hole”.

3 3 r r r Hn = ⎡Mn 2π rn2 + r 2 2 ⎤ = γ n ⎡eSn 4πmn rn2 + r 2 2 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ [8], due to the decrease of the distance

(

)

(

)

There is a critical mass for the stable configuration of neutron stars. This limit has not been fully defined as yet, but it is known that it is located between 1.8M and 2.4M. Thus, if the mass of the star exceeds 2.4M , the contraction can continue.

*

The density 1×109 kg/m3 in the crust shows that the radius of a neutron in the crust has the normal value (1.4×10-15m). However, the density 8×1017 kg/m3 shows that the radius of a neutron in the core should be approximately the half of the normal value.

†

3 References

[1] Schwarzschild, K. (1916). "Über das Gravitationsfeld eines Massenpunktes nach der Einsteinschen Theorie". Sitzungsberichte der Königlich Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften 7: 189–196, and Schwarzschild, K. (1916). "Über das Gravitationsfeld eines Kugel aus inkompressibler Flüssigkeit nach der Einsteinschen Theorie". Sitzungsberichte der Königlich Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften 18: 424–434. [2] Schutz, Bernard F. (2003). Gravity from the ground up. Cambridge University Press. p. 110. [3] Davies, P. C. W. (1978). "Thermodynamics of Black Holes". Reports on Progress in Physics 41 (8): 1313–1355. [4] Hawking, S. W. (1976) Breakdown of Predictability in Gravitational Collapse, Phys. Rev. D 14, 2460.

[5] Almheiri, A., Marolf, D., Polchinski, J. and Sully,

J. (2013) Black Holes: Complementarity or Firewalls? JHEP 02 (2013) 062. [6] Hawking, S., (2014) Information Preservation and Weather Forecasting for Black, arXiv:1401.5761v1 [hep-th].

[7] De Aquino, F. (2010) Mathematical Foundations of the Relativistic Theory of Quantum Gravity, Pacific Journal of Science and Technology, 11 (1), pp. 173-232. [8] Alonso, M., and Finn, E. D., (1967) Fundamental University Physics, Addison-Wesley. Portuguese version (1972) Ed. Blucher, S. Paulo, Brazil, pp. 79-90.

[9] Miller, M. C. (2013), Astrophysical Constraints on Dense Matter in Neutron Stars, arXiv:1312.0029.

- 7 Paradoxes We Bet You Can't SolveUploaded byLie Harjono Abarya
- Nature Paper Claiming the Compact Object At Galactic Centre To Be A Black Hole'' and Comments by Mitra Pointing Out It Is a MECO & Not a Black HoleUploaded byDr Abhas Mitra
- The Great Churning Part IUploaded byAnil Thanvi
- Weatherall, James Owen (2013) What is a Singularity in Geometrized Newtonian GravitationUploaded byTommaso Cimino
- Bottom-Up Versus Top-Down the Plurality of ExplanaUploaded byEstimo
- Black Hole Thermodynamics - Wikipedia, The Free EncyclopediaUploaded byVarunGupta
- bryant_thegravityofthings.pdfUploaded bywatevaid
- Ets and EarthUploaded bywoojer
- 21Ast5_lecppt_Ch18.pptxUploaded byTony Sasser
- The Science That Made Stephen HawkingUploaded byanpyaa
- world-mapUploaded byabraca
- Sean A. Hayward et al- Dilatonic wormholes: construction, operation, maintenance and collapse to black holesUploaded byDex30KM
- JoyUploaded byΕιρήνηΔασκιωτάκη
- Zero-Point Field for Space TravelUploaded byPAWANSVP
- 2014 15 Www.cracksat.netUploaded byAnonymous AGpZYvw3x
- Proceedings-Vol 11 No 07-Oct-Nov-Dec-1977 (George Van Tassel)Uploaded byHomers Simpson
- Being the Fittest via gravitism Part IIUploaded byacinomdavid
- physics-sports on the moonUploaded byapi-255979317
- The Nature of MotionUploaded byhazem ab2009
- Navagraha (Nine Planets) QuizUploaded byvlaxmanan
- world studies hybrid 2 17 15Uploaded byapi-278004256
- physics projectUploaded byapi-244351609
- Free FallUploaded bySandi O'Hare
- Extraordinary Technology 2014Uploaded byRolling76
- Mass in MotionUploaded byGenesis Ng
- Reginald T. Cahill- Unravelling the Dark Matter - Dark Energy ParadigmUploaded byPortsnuyh
- PHY101 Practice FinalUploaded byAnonymous ODAZn6VL6
- Anti GravityUploaded byakuril
- 1408.3130v1Uploaded byBigboy777
- pdf march 2016Uploaded byapi-254980817

- Quantum Controller of GravityUploaded byFran De Aquino
- Improvements in the Design of the Gravitational MotorUploaded byFran De Aquino
- Gravitational Energy ControlUploaded byFran De Aquino
- The Gravitational InvisibilityUploaded byFran De Aquino
- How a Massive Planet can affect Human Consciousnesses when Passing Nearby the SunUploaded byFran De Aquino
- Electromagnetic Radiation can affect the Lift ForceUploaded byFran De Aquino
- Method for Obtaining Quantum VacuumQuantum VacuumUploaded byFran De Aquino
- The Gravitational Heat ExchangerUploaded byFran De Aquino
- Control of the Gravitational Energy by means of Sonic WavesUploaded byFran De Aquino
- The Beginning and End of Time in our UniverseUploaded byFran De Aquino
- A System to Generate Intense Fluxes of Extremely-Low Frequency RadiationUploaded byFran De Aquino
- The Genesis of the Earth’s MoonUploaded byFran De Aquino
- Nuclear Fission by means of Terahertz Sonic WavesUploaded byFran De Aquino
- Gravitational Generation of RainUploaded byFran De Aquino
- The Gravitational ScannerUploaded byFran De Aquino
- Divergence in the Stefan-Boltzmann law at High Energy Density ConditionsUploaded byFran De Aquino
- The Intrinsic Magnetic Field of Magnetic Materials and GravitomagnetizationUploaded byFran De Aquino
- How a Strong Solar Coronal Mass Ejection can Eject Dust from the Moon’s Surface to the Earth’s AtmosphereUploaded byFran De Aquino
- Gravitational Tunneling MachineUploaded byFran De Aquino
- Gravitational Condensation of Atmospheric Water VaporUploaded byFran De Aquino
- How Masers can remove the Geostationary SatellitesUploaded byFran De Aquino
- The Origin of the Most Part of Water on the Earth, and the Reason why there is More Water on the Earth than on the other Terrestrial PlanetsUploaded byFran De Aquino
- A Solution for Reducing the Pollution of the Atmospheric AirUploaded byFran De Aquino
- Russian Sleep WeaponUploaded byFran De Aquino
- How the Thrust of Shawyer’s Thruster can be Strongly IncreasedUploaded byFran De Aquino
- A New Approach on the Photoelectric EffectUploaded byFran De Aquino
- How a Planet with Earth’s size can have a Gravitational Field Much Stronger than the NeptuneUploaded byFran De Aquino
- A New Form of Matter-Antimatter TransformationUploaded byFran De Aquino
- Quantum Gravitational ShieldingUploaded byFran De Aquino