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TEXTUAL CRITICISM and its Dangers (Collated from Waymarks 1-44)

Textual Criticism is sometimes referred to as LOWER CRITICIS ! See my "otes o" #I$#ER CRITICIS &ottom of t%is 'a(e! at t%e

)T%e doctri"e of &i&lical 'reser*atio" lies at t%e *ery %eart of t%e +i&le text de&ate! T%e +i&le ca""ot &e treated as a"y ot%er &ook! It is $od,s su'er"aturally (i*e" Word! $od (a*e it a"d $od 'romised to 'reser*e it! T%e u"derlyi"( t%esis- t%ou(%- of moder" textual criticism is t%at t%e +i&le &ecame corru'ted t%rou(% t%e ce"turies a"d it is t%e task of textual criticism to restore it i" its ori(i"al 'urity! .romi"e"t textual critic Co"sta"ti"e Tisc%e"dorf looked u'o" %is task as ,t%e stru((le to re(ai" t%e ori(i"al form of t%e /e0 Testame"t, ( et1(er- T%e Text of t%e /e0 Testame"t'!123)! #is error! Like t%at of ot%er 14t% Ce"tury textual critics- 0as i" faili"( to reco("i1e $od,s 'romise of 'reser*atio"! #ad %e &elie*ed t%e +i&le,s o0" testimo"y- %e 0ould %a*e k"o0" &y fait% t%at t%e /e0 Testame"t did "ot "eed to &e reco*ered &ecause it 0as "ot lost5 I %a*e studied ma"y &ooks descri&i"( moder" textual criticism! OST O6 T#E .RESER89TIO/5)- 7a*id Cloud, O Timothy- 8ol!13- Issue 4- 1444! 7O /OT E8E/ E/TIO/ 7I8I/E

7a*id Cloud o&ser*ed t%at all t%e sta"dard 0orks %e %ad read o" textual criticism (%e lists t0el*e) focus strictly u'o" ma" a"d %is 'u"y efforts co"cer"i"( t%e +i&le! T%ey do "ot 'roceed u'o" t%e 'ri"ci'le t%at t%e +i&le is su'er"aturally (i*e" a"d 'reser*ed! To 0%ic% t%is 0riter co"curs- %a*i"( read most of t%e same &ooks! We ur(e &elie*ers to &e0are of +i&le teac%ers a"d ex'ositors 0%o make muc% of textual criticism! +e0are of t%ose 0%o tell you t%at t%e critical text (i*es more accurate readi"(s! Critical texts (used for all moder" *ersio"s) are t%e i"*e"tio" of Roma"ists - t%e fou"ders of Textual Criticism (Wilki"so": Our +i&le 8i"dicated: '!1;<)! T%e c%a"(es made i" t%e text are /OT t%e result of su'erior moder" sc%olars%i'!

THE PERVERSITY OF TEXTUAL CRITICISM )Textual Criticism %as lo"( 'layed a 'er*erse little (ame 0it% 0%at t%ey are o"ly too a0are is su&sta"tial 're-<=;97 e*ide"ce for t%e Traditio"al Text! To t%em- t%e Traditio"al a>ority is al0ays t%at of a deri*ed text (sim'ly &ecause t%ey say so5)! I" t%e early ce"turies it is "e*er allo0ed to sta"d o" its o0"! T%us- t%e 're-<=; 97 e*ide"ce 0%ic% is 'lai"ly t%ere- a"d 0it"esses stro"(ly to t%e Traditio"al Text- is "ot a 0it"ess at all- &ut rat%er t%e sources from 0%ic% t%e Traditio"al Text came (if t%at makes se"se5)! T%is is %o0 ?t%e critics@ (ot a0ay 0it% sayi"(A ,t%ere are "o disti"cti*e +y1a"ti"e readi"(s &efore <=;97-, 6or &y t%eir circular reaso"i"(- if a"y readi"(s of t%e +y1a"ti"e ma>ority are s%o0" to &e early &y t%eir a(reeme"t 0it% ot%er early sourced- t%e" t%ey are "o lo"(er ,disti"cti*ely, +y1a"ti"e &ut rat%er- deri*ed from t%ose sources! #ere t%e" is t%e 'loy t%ey %a*e used i" attem'ti"( to rule out of court all early e*ide"ce for t%e 7octri"al Text of t%e 9ut%ori1ed 8ersio"! +ut- I say ,attem'ti"(,- for i" t%e face of su&sta"tial e*ide"ce t%ey %a*e &ee" forced to a seco"d li"e of defe"ceA ,Well- t%ere may &e +y1a"ti"e readi"(s &efore <=;- &ut t%ere is "o +y1a"ti"e Text,5 To 0%ic% 0e 0ould "aturally re'ly t%at- (i*e" t%e lar(e "um&er of +y1a"ti"e readi"(s- %o0 ca" you %a*e o"e 0it%out t%e ot%erB I t%i"k you 0ill see from t%e summaries i" t%e "ext sectio"- %o0 0ickedly dis%o"est t%is li"e of ar(ume"t is! T%ere- i" ma"y %u"dreds of 'laces- 0e %a*e called u'o" t%e early 0it"esses to *ote &et0ee" t%e Traditio"al Text a"d t%at of 9le'%-+ ?t%e t0o Romis% ma"uscri'ts@! T%e results are co"*i"ci"(: &ut it must also &e said- t%at t%e ot%er side %as lear"ed %o0 to &e *ery ade't at ,mo*i"( t%e (oal 'osts, )! Early Manuscripts and the Authorized Version; 'C: D! oorma"! oorma" 'oi"ts out t%at t%e critics are 0ell a0are t%at t%e ma"uscri'ts o" 0%ic% t%e 98 is &ased %a*e a 'edi(ree earlier t%a" t%e 4t% C! 97! T%ey 'rete"ded t%at a com'osite text %ad &ee" i"*e"ted i" t%e 4t% C! to accou"t for t%e 'redomi"a"ce of t%e 98-style +i&le t%at 0as i" existe"ce at t%at time! T%is 98- style +i&le- 0%ic% t%e critics la&elled ,+y1a"ti"e, 0as so u"i*ersally reco("ised &y t%ose early &elie*ers t%at it could "ot %a*e &e(u" its existe"ce sudde"ly i" t%e 4t% c! &ut must %a*e &ee" i" circulatio" a lo"(- lo"( time &efore t%at! Co"cer"i"( t%e t0o Romis% mss- ot%er0ise k"o0" as t%e Si"aiticus a"d t%e 8atica"us- "o sc%olar %as &ee" allo0ed

to exami"e t%e latter! It is ke't u"der lock a"d key i" t%e 8atica"! /o &elie*er %as e*er &ee" allo0ed to study it! T%e Si"aiticus- 0%ic% may &e see" i" a (lass case at t%e +ritis% useum- %as &ee" exami"ed &y a "um&er of sc%olars a"d all co"fess to t%e multitudi"ous alteratio"s t%at %a*e &ee" made o" its 'a(es! T%ese re'rese"t t%e flo0 of false ma"uscri'ts u'o" 0%ic% all t%e moder" *ersio"s are &ased! (T%e 'er*erse /ED8 sta"ds o" its o0")! T%e 'ure flo0 of ma"uscri'ts com'rises t%e ma>ority of mss! 6rom t%ese %a*e come 'ure tra"slatio"s suc% as t%e 98 a"d corres'o"di"( *ersio"s i" ot%er la"(ua(es! We %a*e to make u' our mi"ds 0%ere 0e sta"d o" t%e issue! 7o 0e 'refer a corru't &i&le to a 'ure +i&leB 7o 0e follo0 me" 0%o 'romote moder" *ersio"s or do 0e liste" to t%ose to t%ose 0%o reco("ise t%e 98 as &ei"( 0%olly t%e 0ord of $od i" t%e E"(lis% la"(ua(eB 7oes $od raise u' me" to &e teac%ers of %is Word k"o0i"( t%at t%ey 0ill &e fore*er fi"di"( fault 0it% itB If a"y s%ould &e deluded i"to t%i"ki"( t%at textual critics are $O7LF sc%olars- readi"( t%eir 0orks 0ill s%o0 t%at t%ey are "eit%er (odly "or sc%olars! I (i*e t%e follo0i"( 'iece of i"formatio"- take" from t%e i"ter"et! I &elie*e it dis'lays a *ie0 0%ic% is %eld commo"ly &y moder"-day critics!

)Git s%ould &e "oted t%at 2 .eter 0as 0ritte" 'seudo"ymously ,arou"d t%e tur" of t%e 1st Ce"tury, ( New Jerome Biblical ommentary- edited &y +ro0"- 6it1myer- a"d ur'%y- E"(le0ood Cliffs- /D- 144;- 'a(e1;1C) or e*e" 0ell i"to t%e seco"d ce"tury)! -'ut o" t%e ,"et, &y R / Cramer! /ot ,it is t%ou(%tG,- or ,o"e t%eory isG, &ut it W9S 0ritte" 'seudo"omously! T%at is Huite do(matic! T%e de&ate t%at ra(ed earlier o*er t%e aut%ors%i' of 2 .eter is e"ded! T%e me" i" t%e k"o0 %a*e made a 'ro"ou"ceme"t! .eter "e*er 0rote .eter! If t%ere 0ere "o i"ter"al e*ide"ce as to aut%ors%i' (as 0it% #e&re0s) 0e mi(%t >ust 0o"der 0%o did 0rite it- &ut t%e" 0e read *erse o"e- Simo" .eter- a ser*a"t a"d a" a'ostle of Desus C%rist- to t%em t%at %a*e o&tai"ed like 'recious fait% 0it% us t%rou(% t%e ri(%teous"ess of $od a"d our Sa*iour Desus C%rist! If t%e critic is correct- a"d if my &elief i" *er&al i"s'iratio" is sou"d- t%e" $od i"s'ired a lie! +ut critics do "ot &elie*e i" a"y ki"d if &i&lical i"s'iratio"- as ca" &e see" i" t%e stateme"t made a&o*e! T%ey &elie*e t%at t%e /e0 Testame"t 0as com'osed from stories 'assed o" &y 0ord of mout%! T%ey &elie*e t%e t%eories of t%eolo(y 0ere de*elo'ed after a'ostolic times a"d t%e &i&le stories 0ere ada'ted to fit t%eir t%eolo(ical *ie0s! So a ma" mi(%t 0rite 'rete"di"( %e 0as .eter &ecause t%is is 0%at t%ey t%i"k .eter mi(%t %a*e 0a"ted to 0rite if %e %ad &ee" a&le! If 0e do "ot %a*e a +ook t%at is (i*e" &y i"s'iratio" of $od- t%e" all 0e %a*e i"deed is a &ook of fa&les a"d myt%olo(y! T%ese critics (i*e t%eir li*es to 0%at t%ey re(ard as little &etter t%a" fairy stories! T%ey are o''osed to t%e idea of su'er"atural o*erruli"( i" t%e affairs of me"- 'articularly i" relatio" to t%e formatio" of Scri'ture! T%ey do "ot &elie*e i" miracles! Some of t%em %a*e attacked t%e deity of C%rist! T%ey are "ot +i&le &elie*ers! O" t%at (rou"d alo"e t%ey are "ot to &e trusted! I %a*e read a (reat ma"y of t%eir &ooks (I %a*e more t%a" 4;; &ooks deali"( 0it% +i&le criticism a"d related su&>ects)- a"d I fi"d certai" 0ords a"d '%rases lar(ely missi"( from t%eir 0orks (u"less t%ey are used i" a dero(atory ma""er)! Words like sal*atio"- &ei"( &or" a(ai"- t%e 0ork of t%e #oly S'irit- i"s'ired of $od: s'iritual 0ords a"d '%rases are lacki"(! T%eir 0orks are "ot sc%olarly! T%ere is as muc% sc%olars%i' &e%i"d textual criticism as t%ere is &e%i"d t%e t%eory of e*olutio"! #o0 ca" true sc%olars%i' &e fou"d i" t%at 0%ic% attacks t%e t%i"(s t%at $od %as esta&lis%edB .rofessi"( t%emsel*es to &e 0ise t%ey &ecame fools! Dos% c7o0ell i" %is &ook E*ide"ce t%at 7ema"ds a 8erdict 8ol!2 s%o0s u' t%e s%allo0"ess of t%eir sc%olars%i'! #e 0rote- )T%e a"ti-su'er"aturalist &ases %is t%i"ki"( o" t%e 'resu''ositio" t%at $od %as "ot i"ter*e"ed i" %istory! T%erefore %e re>ects e*ide"ce i"dicati"( t%e su'er"atural "o matter %o0 co"*i"ci"(!) .!13! #ere is a"ot%er lie take" from t%e i"ter"et!

)T%e /e0 Ei"( Dames 8ersio" ?/ED8@ 0ill al0ays corres'o"d exactly 0it% t%e ED8- &ecause t%e /ED8 is "ot a moder" tra"slatio"! It is o"ly a moder"-E"(lis% re0ordi"( of t%e ori(i"al ED8- mi"us t%e 9'ocry'%a!

(T%e a'ocry'%a 0as i"cluded i" t%e ori(i"al ED8) I%tt'AJJ000!&i&letexts!comJk>*-tr!%tmK We 'resume R / Cramer re(ards %imself as a" aut%ority i" %is su&>ect- seei"( t%at %e 'uts t%is i"formatio" o" t%e i"ter"et! We 'resume %e %as i"*esti(ated t%e e*ide"ce- i!e!- %e %as actually com'ared t%e /ED8 0it% t%e 98 +i&le! If so %e %as 0ilfully o*erlooked a lar(e "um&er of discre'a"cies! Some are listed &elo0A9cts 4A2C 9cts LA4 Rom!1A2= Rom!4A2= 2 Cor!2A1C #oly c%ild &e0itc%ed c%a"(ed deli*ered for corru't c%a"(ed to )) )) )) )) #oly ser*a"t asto"is%ed exc%a"(ed deli*ered &ecause of 'eddli"(

T%ese are "ot i"sta"ces 0%ere 0ords %a*e &ee" moder"ised! T%ey are differe"t 0ords! I (i*e t%ese fe0 exam'les to s%o0 t%at Cramer,s stateme"t is "ot true! ore serious is t%e fact t%at 0%ole '%rases are omitted! 9"d s%all make %im of Huick u"dersta"di"( Isaia% 11A<<- a"d +ut %e s%all a''ear to your >oy- Isaia% 33A=- are missi"( from t%e /ED8 0it% ma"y more 0ell attested *erses! T%e 9'ocry'%a 0as i"cluded i" t%e first editio"- 1311 of t%e 98 +i&le u"der duress! T%e tra"slators did "ot 0a"t it! T%ey sa"d0ic%ed it &et0ee" t%e t0o testame"ts &ut it is i"terlaced i" Romis% *ersio"s! T%e seco"d editio" omitted it a"d it %as &ee" out of all re'uta&le 'u&licatio"s of t%e 98 +i&le e*er si"ce!

UNCRITICAL NATURE OF TEXTUAL CRITICISM T%e follo0i"( 'ara(ra'% is take" from #O OEO.9T#F W%at are 0e s0allo0i"(B I Huote it %ere &ecause it re*eals a similar attitude t%at ma"y take to0ards moder" *ersio"s! T%e aut%or- Ste'%e" Ra"som- is Huoti"( 7o"ald $ould- t%e former editor of /e0 Scie"tist 0%o 0ar"s of t%e da"(ers 0e i"*ite &y ado'ti"( laisse1faire reaso"i"( i" relatio" to %omoeo'at%y!

)W%y "ot make t%e most of 0%at t%e "o"-co"formists %a*e to offer a"d ?re>ect@ u"c%arita&le lo(icB T%ere is- I su((est- a 'o0erful reaso" for re>ecti"( t%is su'erficially attracti*e o'tio"! Trut% is a fu"dame"tal *alue! If 0e acce't u"critical t%i"ki"( i" o"e area of our li*es for t%e sake of co"*e"ie"ce or &ecause of t%e 'o'ular a''eal of a seducti*e myt% a"d t%e s%ort-term comfort to &e (ai"ed &y &elie*i"( i" t%e u"&elie*a&le- or &ecause t%e false a"s0er lets us 'rete"d 0e are com'letely co'i"( 0it% a 'ai"ful 'ro&lem 0e %a*e",t truly tackled- t%e" 0e are all t%e more likely to ado't t%e same strate(y i" ot%er situatio"s- from deali"( 0it% t%e family- to ma"a(i"( t%e "atio"al eco"omy- a"d from c%airi"( t%e 'aris% cou"cil to %a"dli"( t%e arse"als of "uclear 0ea'o"s! T%e result is likely to &e u"%a''y a"d sta"ds a dece"t c%a"ce of 'ro*i"( a disaster! Irratio"al &eliefs are al0ays da"(erously corru'ti"(- e*e" 0%e" t%ey o"ly relate to t%e cause a"d cure of 'iles!) #omeo'at%y %as &ee" s%o0" to %a*e its roots i" t%e occult! T%ose follo0i"( t%is 'ractice 0ill i"e*ita&ly %a*e t%eir mi"ds 0ar'ed a(ai"st s'iritual *alues a"d t%eir mi"ds 0ill &ecome closed to t%e trut%! T%e same u"critical t%i"ki"( %as &ee" a''lied to t%e su&>ect of moder" *ersio"s! 9lo"( 0it% alter"ati*e medici"e 0e %a*e t%e alter"ati*e &i&le! T%e o"ly cry t%at matters is t%at it )0orks)! T%e alter"ati*e &i&le is said to &e easier to u"dersta"d- a"d t%erefore &etter! Sources do "ot matter- t%ou(% t%ey are s%o0" to &e corru't! T%e moder" alter"ati*e &i&le must &e (ood- t%ey say- &ecause sc%olars 'roduced it!

+ut sc%olars ca" &e most u"sc%olarly i" t%eir 0ork as 0as #a%"ema"" t%e fat%er of %omoeo'at%y! #e 0as a *ery cle*er ma"! #e 0as also a freemaso" a"d da&&led i" t%e occult! Westcott a"d #ort- 0%o )fat%ered) t%e R8 0ere also sc%olars 0%o a''lied u"sc%olarly 'ri"ci'les to t%eir 0ork! T%ey co"cocted t%eories co"cer"i"( t%e ori(i" of t%e Recei*ed Text t%at %a*e "o fou"datio" i" %istory a"d %a*e su&seHue"tly &ee" s%o0" u' as false! T%ey also da&&led i" t%e occult! T%ose 0%o i"sist i" 'romoti"( t%e critical text-t%e $reek text t%at ser*es t%e moder" *ersio"s-are freHue"tly fou"d to &e *ery u"critical to0ards t%at same text! T%ey close t%eir mi"ds to its (lari"( i"co"siste"cies! O"e ma>or i"co"siste"cy &ei"( t%e %u(e co"flict &et0ee" t%e t0o leadi"( mss of t%e critical text- t%e Codex 8atica"us a"d t%e Codex Si"aiticus! T%ey differ i" %u"dreds of 'laces! T%ey close t%eir mi"ds also to t%e c%aracter of t%e so-called sc%olars of t%e critical text! 9lmost to a ma" t%ey %a*e &ee" s%o0" u' as a'ostates 0%o de"y t%e trut%s of t%e 0ord of $od! T%ey close t%eir mi"ds to t%e met%ods used &y t%ese Textual Critics! T%ey are (o*er"ed &y o'i"io"s rat%er t%a" facts! T%eir o'i"io" is t%at t%e +i&le is "o differe"t from a"y ot%er &ook a"d t%eir met%ods of deduci"( 0%at 0as i" )t%e ori(i"al) ca" &e a''lied to a"y &ook! THE CRITICAL TEXT AT THE END OF THE 19TH CENTURY /estle,s Text /estle 'roduced %is $reek /e0 Testame"t i" 1L4L! Westcott a"d #ort %ad already 'roduced t%eirs! D/7 %ad already 'roduced %is tra"slatio" from a *ariety of $reek texts accordi"( to %is 0%im! /estle,s text (1Ct% ed!1441) 0as used to 'roduce t%e /!T! of t%e RS8 i" 1443! T%e ,#ere,s #o'e Desus Cares for you Roma" Road Editio" of t%e /e0 Testame"t /e0 9merica" Sta"dard- 143;, used t%e 2<rd ed! Of /estle,s Text! /ot all moder" *ersio"s follo0 /estle of course! T%e RS8 Cat%olic Editio"- 144<- is &ased o" t%e M+S <rd ed! $reek Text- "o0 re'laced &y t%e 4t% ed! W%ic% is ide"tical to t%e /estle-9la"d 2Ct% ed! $reek Text! Co"fusedB 7oes",t Sata" i"te"d you to &eB /o0 some facts a&out /estle %imself! 6irstly- i" commo" 0it% all textual critics- %e did "ot &elie*e i" *er&al i"s'iratio"! #e 0rote of ,t%e 'ossi&ility t%at 0%at t%e aut%or 0roteG! Was "ot 0%at %e t%ou(%t or i"te"ded to &e read,! (I"troductio" to t%e Textual Criticism of t%e /e0 Testame"t- '2<: Williams a"d /or(ate: 14;1)! #e did "ot t%i"k t%at $od 0a"ted to 'reser*e #is 0ord &eyo"d 9'ostolic days- for- 0riti"( of t%e disa''eara"ce of t%e ori(i"al ma"uscri'ts %e 0rote- ,T%eir disa''eara"ce is readily u"derstood 0%e" 0e co"sider t%at t%e (reater 'ortio" of t%e /e0 Testame"t- *i1! t%e e'istles- are occasio"al 0riti"(s "e*er i"te"ded for 'u&licatio"- 0%ile ot%ers 0ere mea"t to %a*e o"ly a limited circulatio",! I&id! '1=3) So t%e &ook 0e call t%e #oly +i&le is "ot really $od,s &ook a"y0ay! /estle t%ou(%t t%at $od "e*er i"te"ded t%e C%urc% to %a*e a"y settled- e"duri"( +ook! T%is (i*es me" lice"ce to mess arou"d 0it% it >ust as t%ey fa"cy! Certai" me" cre't i" u"a0ares! Fou reco("ise t%em today 0%e" t%ey 'ro"ou"ce from t%e 'latform,T%e /estle Text re"ders it!G, /estle tau(%t t%at t%e /T is to &e re(arded as "o differe"t to a"y ot%er 0ork of literature! #e 0rote- ,t%e task a"d t%e met%od ?of textual criticism@ are t%e same for all literary 'roductio"s!, T%us a"y eleme"t of fait% is re>ected to(et%er 0it% di*i"e i"ter*e"tio" i" t%e (i*i"( of Scri'ture a"d its 'reser*atio"! #e (oes o"- ,t%e task is to ex%i&it 0%at t%e ori(i"al 0riter i"te"ded to commu"icate to %is readers!, (I&id!'1=3)! /ote )i"te"ded)5 T%e co"cer" is "ot 0it% 0%at 0as actually 0ritte" &ut 0%at t%e critics t%i"k t%e 0riter i"te"ded to 0rite if o"ly %e could %a*e ex'ressed %imself satisfactorily! T%at is t%e %istory of textual criticism! ost alteratio"s to Scri'ture 0ere made i" t%e 2"d a"d <rd ce"turies 97 &y %eretics suc% as Ori(e" 0%o t%ou(%t t%ey k"e0 &etter t%a" t%e 0riters of #oly Scri'ture 0%at s%ould actually &y o" t%e sacred 'a(e! oder" critics "o0 s'e"d t%eir time s%uffli"( t%rou(% a fe0 a"cie"t ma"uscri'ts looki"( for c%a"(es t%at 0ill su&sta"tiate t%eir 0ar'ed *ie0s of JScri'ture! We 'oi"t out t%at t%e *ast ma>ority of ma"uscri'ts su''ort t%e text of t%e 98!

T%at moder" critics &elie*e t%at t%e /T 0riters "eeded to &e corrected from time to time is see" 0%e" $ 7 6ee 0rote- ,6or t%e early C%ristia"s- it 0as 'recisely &ecause t%e mea"i"( 0as so im'orta"t t%at t%ey exercised a certai" amou"t of freedom i" maki"( t%e mea"i"( clear!, (Studies i" t%e T%eory a"d et%od of /T Textual Criticism: 144<:'14=)! W%at a 0icked smear5 We %a*e a" alle(ed exam'le i" k!1A1! T%e critics tell us t%at ark actually 0rote ,It is 0ritte" i" t%e 'ro'%et!, 9"d t%e" %e Huotes alac%i a"d Isaia%- "ot a''reciati"( t%at t%ey 0ere t0o se'arate 'ro'%ets! Early C%ristia"s realisi"( ark,s &lu"der altered t%e readi"( to t%e form fou"d i" t%e 98- as it is 0ritte" i" t%e 'ro'%ets! If t%at s%ould &e true t%e" o&*iously "eit%er form ca" &e $od-&reat%ed Scri'ture for $od ca""ot i"s'ire error a"d $od does "ot i"s'ire alteratio"s to #is 0ord! THE CRITICAL TEXT AT THE END OF THE !TH CENTURY T%ere are esse"tially t0o $reek texts u'o" 0%ic% t% /T mat &e tra"slated! O"e is t%e Recei*ed Text from 0%ic% t%e 98 %as &ee" tra"slated a"d t%e ot%er is 0%at is curre"tly descri&ed as M+S$/T4! T%is is t%e M"ited +i&le Societies $reek /e0 Testame"t 6ourt% Editio"! It is re(arded as ide"tical to t%e /estle-9la"d $reek /e0 Testame"t 2Ct% Editi"( a"d %as come to &e ado'ted as t%e Sta"dard $reek /e0 Testame"t u'o" 0%ic% all moder" tra"slatio"s are &ased! It is called a Critical Text &ecause it is &ased o" t%e 0orks of moder" textual critics 0%o re(ard t%e Recei*ed Text as u"critical- i!e! t%ere 0as little discer"me"t as to t%e ,&est, mss! to &e used! a"y of our &ret%re"0%e" referri"( to t%e Critical Text- do "ot k"o0 0%at t%at text is! +asically it is t%e WestcottJ#ort text from 0%ic% s'ra"( t%e R8- a"d is 0%ic% %as e*ol*ed i"to t%e M+S$/T4 0%ic% its com'ilers co"fess to &e *irtually ide"tical to t%e WJ# text! T%e M+S 0as formed i" 14== u"der t%e ma"a(eme"t of /I79- a "otorious a'ostate a"d e"emy of t%e 0ord of $od! T%e first M+S$/T 0as 'roduced i" 1433! T%e seco"d editio" came out i" 143L 0it% Carlo arti"i of t%e .o"tifical +i&lical I"stitute o" t%e editorial committee! arti"i is ti''ed to &e t%e "ext 'o'e! 6rom t%is time all $/Ts- a"d t%erefore all "e0 tra"slatio"s- %a*e &ee" domi"ated &y Rome! It is t%e 'ur'ose of Rome to destroy fait% i" t%e #oly +i&le! T%ose 0%o use t%e moder" *ersio"s a"d ca" see "ot%i"( 0ro"( i" t%em "eed to look to t%eir o0" sal*atio"! T%e M+S$/T uses a rati"( system i" its a''aratus to i"dicate t%e de(ree of 'resumed relia&ility of its text a"d *aria"t readi"(s! T%ey areAN9OT%e text is certai"! N+OT%e text is almost certai"! NCOT%e editors %ad difficulty i" decidi"( 0%ic% *aria"t to 'lace i" t%e text! N7OT%e editors %ad (reat difficulty arri*i"( at a decisio"! W%at t%is mea"s is t%at e*ery time t%ere is a differe"t readi"( a*aila&le- it is eit%er 'laced i" t%e text if re(arded as ?9@- or 'laced as a foot"ote if re(arded as N+O- NCO or N7O! W%at is "ot so clear is t%at readi"(s 'eculiar to t%e Recei*ed Text are discou"ted e"tirely! T%at is- *erses fou"d o"ly i" t%e 98 %a*e &ee" a&a"do"ed as "ot 0ort% co"sideri"( at all! We are "ot sur'rised to lear" t%at t%e N9O *aria"ts are 'redomi"a"tly from t%e 8atica"usJSi"aiticus mss! T%e text itself is *irtually t%e same as WP#,s 14t% C! text! It is >ust t%at t%ere are "o0 far more N9O,s (i*e" i" t%e a''aratus! T%is mea"s t%at alt%ou(% *ery little alle(ed im'ro*eme"t i" t%e text %as actually &ee" made &y t%e critics i" t%e last 1;; yeas- t%ey are "o0 fully 'ersuaded t%at t%ey %a*e &ee" ri(%t all alo"(! Ee"t Clarke- i" %is &ook Textual O'timism: 9 CritiHue of t%e M"ited +i&le Societies, $reek /e0 Testame"t: S%effield 9cademic .ress- 144C! reali1es t%at t%ese critics %a*e (o"e too far! If t%ey &ecome too o'timistic a&out t%e text- t%ey 'ut t%emsel*es out of 0ork: furt%er re*isio"s &ecome u""ecessary! #e ur(es t%at t%ere must still &e dou&ts a&out t%e $reek /T e*e" after 1;; 'lus years! +ut 0e say t%at &elie*ers %a*e %ad "o dou&ts for t%e last 2;;; years! T%ese are more of Clarke,s o&ser*atio"sA-

T%e /T text "eeds to &e u'dated re(ularly- ,.ro(ress i" t%e study of t%e /e0 Testame"t textual criticism i"e*ita&ly makes it "ecessary to &ri"( 'ri"ted editio"s of t%e /T u' to date at re(ular i"ter*als! It is t%erefore "ot sur'risi"( t%at /estle,s Text %as u"der(o"e t0e"tysix re*isio"s si"ce 1L4L!, t%e idea of a settled 0ord of $od is "ot acce'ta&le to critics! T%ey certai"ly do &elie*e i" a" e*ol*i"( &i&le! IS THE "IN# $AMES VERSION PERFECT% W%e" a salesma" dis'ara(es %is 0ares- 0e t%i"k %is &usi"ess must &e i" trou&le- or 'er%a's %e is (oi"( to c%a"(e %is li"e! .e"fold of .e"fold +ook a"d +i&le #ouse fi"ds fault 0it% t%e #oly +i&le i" a leaflet titled !s the "in# James Version $er%ect& Is %is attack o" t%e 9ut%ori1ed 8ersio" &ecause %e "o0 sells t%e 'er*erted /ED8- 0e askB W%at else dri*es a ma" to attack t%e 0ord of $odB r .e"fold %as for ma"y years sold o"ly t%e 9ut%ori1ed 8ersio" of t%e #oly +i&le- to(et%er 0it% a ra"(e of &ooks defe"di"( t%e 98 +i&le! #e 'u&lis%ed a leaflet i" 1444 0it% t%e title The N'!'V' and ('N'B' )hoc*in# + E,pos-. i" 0%ic% %e used t%e 98 +i&le as a sta"dard &y 0%ic% to >ud(e t%e /I8 a"d t%e $/+! 6urt%ermore- i" t%is leaflet %e (a*e )Se*e" Reaso"s for Eee'i"( to t%e 9ut%ori1ed 8ersio")! T%e first reaso" is )Its /e0 Testame"t is &ased o" 0%at is "o0 called t%e Textus Rece'tus (sometimes called a>ority- Traditio"al or +y1a"ti"e Text)! T%is text is &acked u' &y 4=Q of all $reek ma"uscri'ts! It is accurate a"d %as &ee" fait%fully 'reser*ed!) r .e"fold "o0 de"ies t%is &ut %as"Rt (i*e" a"y e*ide"ce 0%y %e "o0 t%i"ks t%is to &e false! T%e seco"d reaso" )it is a formal eHui*ale"ce tra"slatio"- as "ear 0ord for 0ord as 'ossi&le)! So 0e 'lai"ly s%all fi"d "ot%i"( &etter! T%irdly- )It 0as tra"slated &y a committee of s'iritual sc%olars of u"'aralleled lear"i"()! T%at mea"s e*e" yet u"sur'assed- i"cludi"( t%e /ED8 committee! 6ourt%ly- )It em'%asises t%e deity a"d Lords%i' of C%rist! 6ift%ly- )It is free from doctri"al error)! Sixt%ly- )It %as "o *erses or 'assa(es missi"()! So 0%at is t%is "o"se"se of looki"( for ot%er ma"uscri'ts- if 0e %a*e it all a"d it is accurateB We "ote t%at t%e /ED8 su&tly Huestio"s t%e aut%e"ticity of forty-fi*e *erses i" its mar(i"! Se*e"t%ly- )It is easier to memorise- a"d easier to read t%a" t%e /I8)! I" %is curre"t attack o" t%e 98 %e 'oi"ts out 0%at %e t%i"ks are mistakes i" t%e +i&le! #e refers to t%e +i&le as t%e )ED8)! #e mocks t%ose 0%o &elie*e t%is +i&le to &e 0%olly t%e 0ord of $od- descri&i"( t%em as )ED8 o"lyites)! If r .e"fold i"sists t%at %e is "ot referri"( to t%e #oly +i&le &ut to a *ersio" of it- %e falls foul of t%e trade descri'tio"s act- for %e %as sold 98 +i&les 0it% t%e 0ords )#oly +i&le) stam'ed u'o" t%e co*er! T%e 0ords )#oly +i&le) im'ly t%at 0it%i" t%e co*ers of t%e &ook is to &e fou"d t%e 0%ole 0ord of $od 0it%out error- 0it%out loss a"d 0it%out additio"! T%is is t%e *ie0 %eld for %u"dreds of years- "o0 u"der attack i" t%ese closi"( days of $odRs (race! I" order to attack t%e #oly +i&le- .e"fold descri&es a" 9merica" (rou' t%at %e %as stum&led u'o"- )mai"ly i"de'e"de"t +a'tists from t%e MS9- ?0%o@ %a*e come to %old a" erro"eous *ie0 t%at t%e ED8 is "ot >ust a *ery (ood- or e*e" t%e &est tra"slatio" i" t%e E"(lis% la"(ua(e- &ut t%at it is a&solutely 'erfect a"d faultless!) +ut 0e su((est t%at t%e true +i&le &elie*er 0ill i"deed %a*e suc% a" im'licit trust i" %is +i&le- a"d t%is is t%e %istoric 'ositio"! .e"fold alle(es t%at o"e of t%e leaders of t%is )ED8 O"ly) mo*eme"t is 7r .eter Ruckma" of 6lorida- T%is t%rice married ma"- 0%o %olds to a "um&er of stra"(e doctri"es does "ot lead a"y &ut %is o0" little cult as r .e"fold k"o0s *ery 0ell- %a*i"( s'e"t some time i" %is %ome i" 6lorida! #e is "ot re'rese"tati*e of t%e *ast ma>ority of +i&le &elie*ers! 9m I to re>ect my +i&le &ecause .e"fold %as fou"d a fe0 extremists 0%o make false claims for itB Of course "ot- 0e are told- )a sim'ler solutio" 0ould &e to u'date 0ords 0%ose mea"i"(s %a*e c%a"(ed!) 9" attem't to do t%is 0as made 0it% t%e /ED8- 0it% disastrous results! T%e"

t%ere 0ill %a*e to &e a"ot%er u'date "ext year as la"(ua(e c%a"(es e*e" more! T%e salesma" fi"ds %e ca""ot make a li*i"( from o"e u"c%a"(ea&le +ook5 .e"fold res'o"ded to my reHuest for a co'y of %is leaflet 0it% t%ese 0ordsG!I %a*e o"ly %ad t0o 0ritte" res'o"ses to my leaflet! O"e from 7- a"d o"e from 9- - &ot% fa"atical Ruckma"ites! S'eaks for itself! Ot%er t%a" t%at a (ood "um&er of more &ala"ced folks %a*e s'oke" of (reat %el' recei*ed! G!I ca" >ust see t%e "ext editio" of Waymarks 0it% t%e mai" %eadli"e ).e"fold a'ostatises)- %o0e*er- I %a*e lo"( &elie*ed t%at ED8 'erfectio"ism is a" error a"d a di*isi*e o"e at t%at- a"d %a*i"( see" some of t%e dama(e it %as do"e I decided to &ala"ce t%e s%i' as far as our o0" &ooklist is co"cer"ed a"d 'u&licly make it clear t%at 0%ile 0e sta"d for t%e TR a"d t%e ED8 0e do "ot acce't t%e 'erfectio" t%eory! Re(ardsic%ael ic%ael k"o0s t%at Waymarks does "ot carry mai" %eadli"es! #e says t%at %e %as )lo"( &elie*ed t%at ED8 'erfectio"ism is a" error) &ut 0e ca" remem&er /OT SO LO/$ 9$O t%at ic%ael te"aciously defe"ded t%e 'ositio" %e "o0 re>ects! 9s far as ).e"fold a'ostasies) is co"cer"ed- 0e "eed o"ly to add- )you said it5)! +ut 0e do "ot &elie*e e*ery 'erso" 0%o Huestio"s t%e i"te(rity of t%e 98 +i&le is a" a'ostate! Some are &elie*ers 0%o %a*e &ee" misled a"d misi"formed &y ot%er &ret%re"! Some are you"( &elie*ers- co"fused &y t%e &arra(e of moder" *ersio"ism 'ut u' &y Sata"! ic%ael does"Rt say 0%at is t%is dama(e do"e &y %a*i"( a total trust i" o"e +i&le mi(%tily &lessed of $od o*er %u"dreds of years! #e does"Rt ex'lai" 0%y &elie*i"( i" a 'erfect +i&le is di*isi*e! +ut 0e %a*e see" t%e dama(e do"e to t%e fait% of you"( &elie*ers 0%o are told &y leadi"( &ret%re" )t%e 98 is 0ro"( %ere)! 9"d t%ere is "ot%i"( so di*isi*e as t%e 'roliferatio" of moder" *ersio"s! #e assumes t%at o"ly u"&ala"ced folk 0ill 0rite for %is leaflet! We 0o"der 0%at ki"d of 'eo'le are t%ey 0%o are %el'ed &y &ei"( told t%e 9ut%ori1ed 8ersio" +i&le is defecti*e i" t%ousa"ds of 'laces! 9re t%ey 'leased to lear" t%at t%e +i&le mi(%tily &lessed a"d used of $od for 4;; years is at last 'ro*ed to &e faultyB #o0 ca" a t%orou(%ly "e(ati*e 'iece of 0riti"( %el' a"y&ody a'art from t%e 0riter- 0%o c%ar(es folk <;' a time to read itB #ere is a"ot%er stra"(e t%i"( ma"y of t%e su''osed errors disco*ered &y r .e"fold are 0ell a"s0ered i" some of t%e &ooks %e sells5 Is %e "ot familiar 0it% %is o0" (oodsB 7oes %e "ot &elie*e i" t%emB T0o I %a*e i" fro"t of me are /nholy 0ands on (od1s 0oly Boo* &y 7a*id Cloud- a"d The "in# James Version 2e%ended &y E 6 #ills! T%ese are %i(%ly recomme"ded to t%e &elie*er 0%o 0a"ts t%e a"s0ers to t%e malicious smears &ei"( made a(ai"st t%e #oly +i&le 9ut%ori1ed 8ersio"! /o0 %ere are some of errors t%at ic%ael lists!

)T%e 1L=; ED8 differs from t%e 1311 editio" i" C=-;;; details!) #e does"Rt tell %is readers t%at *ery "early 9LL of t%ose C=-;;; i"*ol*e c%a"(ed s'elli"(: * to u- so )*"till) &ecomes )u"til) a"d sometimes u is c%a"(ed to *- as )euill) &ecomes )e*il)! f &ecomes s- a"d I &ecomes >! 7r Waite 'oi"ts out t%at o"ly 421 c%a"(es ca" &e detected &y t%e ear! .e"fold dra0s atte"tio" to t%is as a +i( T%i"(! #e for(ets to tell %is readers t%at t%ere are C41<2L 0ords i" t%e 98 +i&le! T%atRs a&out ;!;=Q of t%e 0ords c%a"(ed sufficie"tly for t%e ear to detect! It does"Rt im'ly t%at t%e mea"i"(s of t%ese 0ords %as c%a"(ed! Out of t%ose 421- o"ly 1<3 are actually differe"t 0ords! 9" exam'le is )G%e came a"d 0ors%i''ed %im) ( ark =A3) &ecomes &e ran and '(rs&i))ed &i*+ Of course t%ere 0ere 'ri"terRs errors made i" 131197! W%at a miracle t%at t%ere 0ere "ot more 0it% 'ri"ti"( t%e" i" its i"fa"cy! +ut t%ese 0ere disco*ered a"d corrected i" later editio"s! O"e %as to &e *ery de*ious to su((est t%at 'ri"terRs errors are mistakes i" t%e 0ord of $od! .e"fold %as &uilt u' %is stra0 ma"- calli"( %im a )ED8O"ly ad*ocate) a"d ad*ises %is readers to ask 0%at %e t%i"ks is a" u"a"s0era&le Huestio"- )0%ere 0as $odRs 0ord i" 131;B)! .e"fold t%e" 'uts %is a"s0ers

i"to t%e mout% of r Stra0ma" &ut fails to (i*e t%e a"s0er a"y +i&le &elie*er 0ill (i*e! W%ere 0as t%e 0ord of $od i" 131;97B It 0as i" t%e %a"ds of &elie*ers o" t%e Co"ti"e"t! T%e Walde"sia"s for 1;;;years %ad t%eir Old Lati" tra"slatio" &ased o" 0%at &ecame k"o0" as t%e Recei*ed Text! T%at is- t%eir +i&le 0as t%e same as mi"e- t%e 0ord of $od! T%us it is a mis"omer to call E"(lis% s'eaki"( +i&le &elie*ers )ED8 O"ly ad*ocates!)! $od %as "ot 'romised to mai"tai" #is 0ord i" e*ery k"o0" la"(ua(e across t%e 0orld at all times! +ut t%ere "e*er %as &ee" a time 0%e" t%e 0ord of $od 0as "ot a*aila&le i" its e"tirety to &elie*ers some0%ere i" t%e 0orld! 9t 'rese"t t%e 9ut%ori1ed +i&le is t%e o"ly fait%ful tra"slatio" i" t%e E"(lis% to"(ue (a"d i" t%is- I do &elie*e- it is su'erior to a"y +i&le i" a"y ot%er la"(ua(e!) I fi"d "o su&stitute for my 98 +i&le so if .e"fold 0a"ts to mock me for it let %im co"ti"ue! .e"fold s'eaks of im'erfectio"s i" t%e #oly +i&le! (Sorry ic%ael- F +i&le IS t%e #oly +i&le a"d O/E im'erfectio" o"e fly i" t%e oi"tme"t 0ould cause it to sti"k- to &ecome u"%oly!)! T%ese )im'erfectio"s) 0ere a"s0ered 1;; years a(o! T%e im'erfectio"s are i" t%e darke"ed mi"ds of t%ose 0%o seek to sa*a(e t%e 0ord of $od! T%is offe"si*e leaflet closes 0it% a Huote from D +ur(o"! It is Huoted out of co"text maki"( us t%i"k t%at .e"fold %ad "ot trou&led %imself to read D +ur(o" &efore%a"d! #e Huotes

34that by perpetual miracle, sacred manuscripts would be protected all down the a#es a#ainst depra5in# in%luences o% whate5er sort, was not to ha5e been e,pected; certainly was ne5er promised3 (T%e Re*isio" Re*ised- '!<<=) T%e Huote 'rese"ted i" t%is ma""er is dis%o"est a"d deceitful for +ur(o" i" t%e *ery "ext se"te"ce 0rote-

)+ut t%e C%urc%- i" %er collecti*e ca'acity- %at% "e*ert%elessS as a matter of factS &ee" 'er'etually 'ur(i"( %erself of t%ose s%amefully de'ra*ed co'ies 0%ic% o"ce e*ery0%ere a&ou"ded 0it%i" %er 'ale! )W%at- i" t%e mea"time- is to &e t%ou(%t of t%ose &li"d (uidesS t%ose deluded o"esS 0%o 0ould "o0- if t%ey could- 'ersuade us to (o &ack to t%ose same codices of 0%ic% t%e C%urc% %at% already 'ur(ed %erselfB To (o &ack i" Huest of t%ose *ery Readi"(s 0%ic%- 1= or 13;; years a(o- t%e C%urc% in all lands is fou"d to %a*e re>ected 0it% loat%i"(! T%e /ED8 (sold &y .e"fold +ook a"d +i&le #ouse- &ut "ot listed i" %is catalo(ue) is certai"ly a ste' &ack i"to t%ose de'ra*i"( i"flue"ces- 0%ic% 0ere reco("ised for 0%at t%ey are from t%e &e(i""i"(! 9"ot%er ar(ume"t used i" t%e .e"fold leaflet is t%at some 'assa(es are )almost im'ossi&le to u"dersta"d 0it%out a study aid of some ki"d! W%at use is a T'erfectR E"(lis% tra"slatio" if you ca"Rt u"dersta"d 'arts of itB Take for i"sta"ce II Cor 3*11-1<! W%at does t%is mea"GB) ost of us %a*e a *ery (ood study aid: 0e 0ere tau(%t to read E"(lis% 0%e" 0e 0ere c%ildre"! W%e" a ma" claims to %a*e &ee" sa*ed a Huarter of a ce"tury or more a"d t%e" asks- 0%at does t%is mea"B We ask- %as %e o"ly >ust started readi"( %is +i&le! 7id %e "ot disco*er t%e a"s0er years a(oB 7id %e "ot %a*e a" elder or a fat%er to ex'lai" it to %imB I" a"y case- t%e 98 is 0ritte" i" 'lai"er a"d sim'ler E"(lis% t%a" a"y moder" *ersio"! .eter 0rote co"cer"i"( .aulRs e'istles- in '&i,& are s(*e t&ings &ard t( -e .nderst((d (2 .eter <A 13)! It may &e t%at t%is is t%e crux of t%e matter! To u"dersta"d t%e E"(lis% +i&le o"e must &e sa*ed a"d o"e must a''ly s'iritual discer"me"t a"d o"e must 0ait o" t%e Lord i" 'rayer a"d meditatio"! T%e #oly S'irit teac%es us all t%i"(s! .e"fold closes 0it% a false surmise:


If $od- &efore t%e i"*e"tio" of 'ri"ti"(- ke't #is 'romise of 'reser*atio" &y letti"( t%e 0ord of $od exist as a com'lete e"tity across t%ousa"ds of ma"uscri'ts- &ut "ot i" a"y si"(le 'erfect ma"uscri't- t%ere is "o "eed"or is it 'ossi&le- to co"fer i"falli&ility o" o"e E"(lis% tra"slatio" today! So is $od t%e" t%e 9ut%or of co"fusio"B 9ll s%ould k"o0 t%at &y t%e middle of t%e 2 "d Ce"tury t%e /e0 Testame"t 0riti"(s 0ere collected i" o"e +ook! It 0as a*aila&le i" t%e Syriac to"(ue- a"d i" Old Lati"! T%ese 0ere i" a(reeme"t 0it% eac% ot%er a"d %a*e &ee" referred to &y some as t%e +y1a"ti"e Text! D oorma"- i" %is &ook 6or E5er )ettled- says

T%e Ei"( Dames +i&le %ad %ardly &e(u" its career &efore t%e e"emies comme"ced to fall u'o" it! T%ou(% it %as &ee" 0it% us for ?more t%a"@ t%ree %u"dred years i" s'le"did leaders%i' Ua striki"( '%e"ome"o"U "e*ert%eless- as t%e years i"crease- t%e attacks &ecame more furious! If t%e +ook 0ere a da"(erous docume"t- a source of corru'ti"( i"flue"ce a"d a "uisa"ce- 0e 0ould 0o"der 0%y it %as &ee" "ecessary to assail it si"ce it 0ould "aturally die of its o0" 0eak"ess! +ut 0%e" it is a 7i*i"e &lessi"( of (reat 0ort%- a faultless 'o0er of tra"sformi"( i"flue"ce- 0%o ca" t%ey &e 0%o are so stirred u' as to deli*er a(ai"st it o"e assault after a"ot%er! ('! 141) 7es'ite all t%e efforts of t%e critics- Clarke &emoa"s t%e fact t%at ,9ll t%e ?C=@ critical editio"s si"ce 1LL1 are &asically t%e same as Westcott P #ort,s text!!!!9ll are fou"ded o" t%e same E(y'tia" rece"sio"!!!!, '=<! ,!!! We %a*e made little 'ro(ress i" textual t%eory si"ce WP# a"d 0%ate*er si("ifica"t seco"d act is to follo0!!!!, '121! /ote t%at 5 T%ey are 0aiti"( for t%e (reat W#9TE8ER! O"e of t%em 0ill 'erform a co">uri"( trick a"d out of %is %at 0ill come t%e (reat a"d fi"al $reek Text! T%e critics 0ill all recei*e t%eir ,(olde" %a"ds%akes, a"d 0e ca" all (o %ome to &ed! +ut t%ey k"o0 t%ey are &eate"! T%ey k"o0 t%ere is "o (olde" text 0aiti"( to &e disco*ered! T%e Si"aitic dust&i"s (from 0%e"ce came t%e Si"aitic mss of t%e R8) %a*e &ee" 0ell scoured! T%ere is "ot%i"( for t%em &ut more misera&le WP#! t%e1;;;,s of mss disco*ered si"ce WP# o"ly ser*e to *i"dicate t%e Recei*ed Text! T%is is ack"o0led(ed &y Clarke- ,!!!!T%e "e0 'a'yri disco*eries %a*e a''are"tly s%o0" t%at a" early form of Syria"J+y1a"ti"e readi"(s!!!existed 'rior to t%e fourt% ce"tury- a"d 'er%a's as early as t%e seco"d ce"tury,! So t%ese are >ust &rus%ed aside as comi"( from o"e de'ra*ed source! Well- 0e k"o0 t%at is t%e situatio" 0it% t%e critical text! It comes from a 'olluted source! 9 text t%at descri&es Dose'% as t%e fat%er of t%e Lord Desus %ardly came from a 'ure source!

THE CORRECTED TEXT )If 0e must recei*e t%e Corrected Text of ! $ries&ac%- ?re(arded &y ma"y as t%e fat%er of moder" textual criticism@- to t%e exclusio" of t%e $reek 8ul(ate ?VRecei*ed Text@- 0e must acce't it as a demo"strati*e 'roof of t%e (e"eral corru'tio" of t%e sacred text- a"d of t%e fait%less"ess of t%e traditio"al testimo"y o" 0%ic% it is su''orted- for a 'eriod exte"di"( from t%e a'ostolical to t%e 'rese"t a(e! O"e of t%e first 'ositio"s laid do0" i" %is critical t%eory- a"d im'lied i" t%e co"clusio"s 0%ic% it i"*ol*es- is- t%at t%e t0o 'ri"ci'al Classes of Text out of 0%ic% %is editio" is formed- %a*e &ee" i"ter'olated i" e*ery 'art of t%em for t%at 'eriod! O"e of t%e last co"seHue"ces 0%ic% t%at t%eory te"ds to esta&lis%- is- t%at t%e o"ly remai"i"( Class of Text existi"( i" t%e $reek 8ul(ate- a"d a(ai"st 0%ic% t%e imme"se "um&er of 1=;-;;; *arious readi"(s %as &ee" collected- %as existed i" its 'rese"t state of corru'tio" "early 14;; years! If t%ese co"clusio"s are u"a*oida&le- t%ere seems to &e "o reser*atio" &y 0%ic% t%e doctri"al i"te(rity of t%e sacred Scri'tures ca" &e sa*ed! If t%e a'ostolical a(e %as t%us erred i" its testimo"y- a"d its e*ide"ce %as &ee" furt%er corru'ted i" t%e 'rimiti*e a(e: 0%ate*er &e t%e text- 0%ic% is (at%ered out of t%e imme"se "um&er of *arious readi"(s0%ic% make u' t%e sum of t%eir testimo"y- it may &e as 0ell a"y ot%er text- as t%at 0%ic% t%e i"s'ired 0riters

ori(i"ally deli*ered to t%e c%urc%!) -6red /ola": An !n7uiry into the !nte#rity o% the (ree* Vul#ate; 1L1=! W%at /ola" 'oi"ted out- 0ell "i(% 2;; years a(o- a"d 33 years &efore t%e R8 0as 'u&lis%ed- 0as t%at if t%e sacred text %as &ee" corru'ted from t%e &e(i""i"( t%e" 0e %a*e "o %o'e of certai"ty as to t%e 0ord of $od! 6urt%er: stateme"ts co"cer"i"( t%e fait%ful"ess of $od i" 'reser*i"( t%e Scri'tures are false! T%e 0ork of t%e Textual Critic is to iro" out all t%at %e sees as corru'tio"s i" t%e Scri'tures! T%is is t%e *ery fou"datio" sto"e of Textual Criticism! It is t%e %eart of moder" *ersio"ism! $ries&ac% 'u&lis%ed %is $reek /T i" $erma"y i" 1CC=- i" a" attem't to destroy t%e Recei*ed Text! #e 0as",t t%e first- to e"dea*our to o*ert%ro0 t%e true 0ord of $od! e" like Ori(e" a"d Euse&ius %ad sou(%t to do t%at at a *ery early sta(e! T%e aster O*ert%ro0er a"d Re*isio"ist is Sata" of course! Ours is "o &li"d ad%ere"ce to a" a"tiHuated a"d forlor" &ook! T%e 0ord of $od is Huick- a"d 'o0erful- a"d s%ar'er t%a" a"y t0oed(ed s0ord! #e&!4A12! Our +ook is li*i"(! It %as a" i"%ere"t *itality- a"d if it ca" a(e a"d fall i"to decay- t%e" so ca" $od! It is #is 0ord! ore t%a" t%at- it is C%rist! #is "ame is called T%e Word of $od! Re*!14A1<! 9ttacks o" t%e Scri'tures are attacks o" C%rist! If t%e 0ritte" Word ca" &e 'ro*ed defecti*e t%e" C%rist is 'ro*ed to &e defecti*e!

THE STATUS /UAESTIONIS I" 144= a &ook 0as 'u&lis%ed titled 8The Te,t o% the New Testament in ontemporary 9esearch; Essays on the )tatus :uaestionis', Edited &y + 7 E%rma" a"d W #olmes! T%e title cries u"&elief! T%e use of Lati" i" t%e title is to (i*e t%e im'ressio" t%at t%e 0ork is sc%olarly! T%e text of t%e /e0 Testame"t reHuires "o co"tem'orary researc%! It did i" t%e 13t% ce"tury a"d ErasmusSte'%e"s a"d t%e El1e*ir &rot%ers a''lied t%emsel*es to t%is- 'roduci"( 0%at &ecame k"o0" as t%e Recei*ed Text! T%is text 0as acce'ted as t%e true text &y &elie*ers i" t%e 13t% ce"tury a"d si"ce! 9 fu"dame"tal reaso" for its acce'ta"ce 0as its a(reeme"t 0it% early tra"slatio"s- docume"ts- a"d Huotatio"s from t%e 6at%ers! T%is a(reeme"t is e*ide"ce t%at it is t%e text ,%a"ded do0", &y t%e early c%urc%! T%e ma>ority of all t%e $reek mss &ear testimo"y to t%is text! T%e text reHuires "o co"tem'orary researc% &ecause it is a settled text! T%e critics %old to a" e*ol*i"( text&ut t%ey are ru""i"( out of steam! #e"ce o" t%e co*er of t%is &ook 0e read- )Re'eatedly o"e %ears t%at ri(or mortis %as set i" for textual criticism of t%e /e0 Testame"t! +ut t%e 'rese"t 'u&licatio" su((ests t%at i" 'lace of lame"tatio" o"e ou(%t to cele&rate t%e 'ai"s a "um&er of sc%olars %a*e take" to e"sure re*i*al of t%e 'atie"t! uc% of t%e credit for resur(e"ce of i"terest i" t%e disci'li"e (oes to 7r! +ruce et1(er- to 0%om t%is *olume is dedicated!) -6 W 7a"ker: Lut%era" Sc%ool of T%eolo(y at C%ica(o! et1(er is a "otorious %eretic! #e tells us t%at oses did "ot 0rite t%e .e"tateuc%- a"d t%at t%e miracles 'erformed &y t%e Lord did "ot %a''e"! #e de"ies a"y su'er"atural i"*ol*eme"t i" t%e (i*i"( of Scri'ture! +e assured t%at a"y furt%er researc% from t%ese critics 0ill result i" dee'er a'ostasy! Lut%era" t%eolo(y %as *ery little to do 0it% sou"d +i&lical doctri"e! T%e title of t%e &ook is false &ecause it assumes a" i"com'ete"t $od W%o took t%e trou&le to (i*e #is 0ord &y i"s'iratio" to selected me" &ut fou"d #imself u"a&le to 'reser*e it! T%e critics tell us t%at t%e text could "ot &e 'reser*ed i"tact 0ord for 0ord from t%e &e(i""i"( &ecause it 0as i" t%e %a"ds of 0eak a"d faili"( me" 0%o 0ere lia&le to make mistakes i" t%e tra"smissio" of t%e text! We a"s0er t%at t%ose me" 0%o first set do0" t%e 0ord of $od i" 0riti"( 0ere also 0eak a"d faili"(- &ut "ot i" t%e matter of 0riti"( Scri'ture! T%ey 0ere t%e" u"der t%e direct su'er*isio" of t%e S'irit of $od! Si"ce t%e" t%e Scri'tures %a*e remai"ed I/ T#E #9/7 O6 $O7! #e %as c%ose" to use 'u"y &elie*ers i" t%e tra"smissio" of #is 0ord a"d if $od (a*e #is 0ord &y i"s'iratio" i" t%e first 'lace- it seems i"credi&le to me- t%at #e 0ould t%e" a&a"do" #is 0ord to t%e *icissitudes of fate! T%e first essay i" t%e &ook deals 0it% t%e 'a'yrus ma"uscri'ts! T%ese are of course t%e oldest docume"ts of t%e /T! T%e critics %old t%at ,oldest is &est, &ut t%is is a false surmise- &ecause 0e must ask- 0%y %a*e

certai" mss sur*i*ed a"d "ot ot%ersB 6irst 0e "ote t%at "o 1st ce"tury ms %as sur*i*ed (i!e! "o ori(i"al ms) T%e 'a'yri disco*ered ra"(e from t%e 2"d to t%e Lt% ce"turies! 9fter t%at 'a'yrus 0as "o lo"(er used! 9ll 43 exta"t 'a'yrus mss 0ere fou"d i" E(y't a"d t%ey re'rese"t less t%at 2Q of all mss! T%e critics %a*e cle*erly di*ided t%em i"to t%ree text ty'es k"o0" as 9lexa"dria"- Wester"- a"d Caesaria"! de'e"di"( o" t%e *arious readi"(s 'eculiar to eac%! T%ey ex'lai" t%e 'rese"ce of Wester" a"d Caesaria" ty'e mss i" E(y't &y su((esti"( t%at tra*elers must %a*e &rou(%t t%em i"! T%is is a mere %y'ot%esis for 0%ic% t%ere is "o e*ide"ce! T%ere is a fourt% text ty'e t%at (ets a &rief me"tio" si"ce "o"e of t%is ty'e %as &ee" 'reser*ed amo"( t%ese earlier relics i" t%e sa"ds of E(y't! T%is ty'e t%ey desi("ate a>ority or +y1a"ti"e! T%is ty'e- &elo*ed- is our recei*ed text! T%e critics ar(ue t%at &ecause "ot%i"( of it %as &ee" fou"d 0it% t%e ot%er a"cie"t 'a'yri i" E(y't t%e" t%is text-ty'e did "ot exist a"y0%ere i" t%e first a"d seco"d ce"turies a"d 0as i" fact i"*e"ted muc% later! T%e &elie*er sees "o 'ro&lem i" t%e a&se"ce of +y1a"ti"e ty'e 'a'yri i" E(y't! T%ese mss &ecame 0or" 0it% usa(e a"d o"ce reco'ied t%e ori(i"al 0ould &e destroyed! T%ose mss fou"d discarded i" t%e sa"d may &e frail 0it% a(e &ut 0ere "ot 0or" 0it% usa(e! 9lso 0e ca""ot ima(i"e 0%y +i&le &elie*ers i" t%e first t0o ce"turies 0ould 0a"t to (o to E(y't- t%e %ome e*e" t%e" of a'ostates suc% as Ori(e"! 9"d if t%ey did- 0%y 0ould t%ey t%ro0 t%eir +i&les a0ay-+i&les co"tai"i"( t%e full ca"o" of Scri'ture 0ere a*aila&le from t%e 2"d ce"tury-or ot%er0ise dis'ose of t%em 0%e" t%ey (ot t%ere! If t%ey 0e"t at all- t%ey 0ould %a*e take" t%eir +y1a"ti"e +i&les &ack %ome 0it% t%em! T%e area of testimo"y i" t%e first t0o ce"turies ce"tred arou"d +y1a"tium! E D E'' co"fesses i" t%is &ook t%at of t%e 4C earliest 'a'yri- dati"( u' to t%e tur" of t%e t%irdJfourt% ce"turies- ,it remai"s dou&tful- t%erefore- 0%et%er it ca" &e said t%at i" t%ese forty-se*e" mss t%e /T text ca" &e studied i" t%e ori(i"al,! #is reaso" for sayi"( so is t%e "um&er of differe"t readi"(s t%at occur e*e" amo"( t%ese fe0 mss! T%e critics do "ot e*e" k"o0 0%ic% 0as co'ied from 0%ic%! We are assured %o0e*er t%at t%ese E(y'tia" co'yists 0ere "ot &elie*ers (i!e! 0ere "ot sa*ed me")! +elie*ers 0ere fait%ful i" t%eir co'yi"(! I" a"y case 0e &elie*e t%at t%e ori(i"al mss-t%e auto(ra'%s-e"ded t%eir days close to 0%ere t%ey 0ere ori(i"ated- o" t%e "ort%er" side of t%e editerra"ea" Sea! A note about the copyin# o% )cripture' 9 &i&le critic o"ce offered a c%alle"(e! #e said t%at it is im'ossi&le to co'y a"y 'iece of 'rose 0it%out maki"( a lot of mistakes! #e ar(ued t%at t%is ex'lai"ed t%e multi'licity of differe"ces i" t%e *arious ma"uscri'ts! #is stateme"t is misleadi"(- first &ecause t%ere is a remarka&le u"ity i" t%e ma>ority of ma"uscri'ts! O"ly a fe0 ma"uscri'ts dis'lay a de'ra*ity i" t%e text! T%ey are 0ell k"o0" a"d are t%e o"es ,'referred, &y t%e critics! T0o i" 'articular &ei"( t%e 8atica"us a"d t%e Si"aiticus! T%ey are 'referred &ecause i" ma"y i"sta"ces t%ey attack t%e deity of C%rist a"d t%e critics 7O /OT +ELIE8E I/ t%e deity of C%rist! Seco"d- it is "ot im'ossi&le to co'y 0it%out maki"( ma"y mistakes! Our critic su((ested o"e mi(%t try co'yi"( t%e $os'el of Do%"! I %a*e co'ied lo"(%a"d t%e first te" c%a'ters! I made fi*e errors i" all: I s'otted t%em myself: I c%a"(ed t%em- a"d "o"e affected t%e mea"i"( of t%e se"te"ce! 6or exam'le I 0rote /at%a"iel i"stead of /at%a"ael: ca" i"stead of Ca" etc! +elie*ers 0ere *ery meticulous i" t%eir co'yi"( of t%e first ma"uscri'ts &ecause t%ey k"e0 t%ey 0ere %a"dli"( S'irit (i*e" Scri'ture- t%e 0ord of Life! o"ks a"d 'rofessio"al scri&es &e(a" to make co'ies &ut t%ey did "ot t%i"k accuracy 0as too im'orta"t! Later ot%er illiterate mo"ks made co'ies a"d decorated t%em 0it% 'retty 'ictures to make mo"ey! T%ey 0ere i"differe"t to t%e text itself! Today t%ese a"cie"t mss are 0ort% (reat sums of mo"ey- &ut did you e*er %ear a"y 'erso" taki"( i"terest i" 0%at 0as actually 0ritte" o" t%emB HI#HER CRITICISM W%ilst 0e acce't a s'iritual i"*esti(atio" i"to t%e &ack(rou"d details of t%e +i&le- as to aut%ors%i' of t%e *arious &ooks etc!- 0%at is k"o0" as #I$#ER CRITICIS is a 'er*ersio" of sata"ic ori(i"- &ei"( t%e 0ork of u"co"*erted ratio"alists!

It i"*ol*es a ra"k de"ial of 'lai" stateme"ts of Scri'ture- ofte" i" relatio" to t%e miracles- a"d Huestio"s ma"y of t%e %istoric facts of t%e +i&le 0it%out offeri"( co"clusi*e e*ide"ce to t%e co"trary! 9 (e"ui"e &elie*er does "ot- i"deed ca""ot- follo0 t%is 'at%! O"e of t%e first e*ide"ces of "e0 life i" a soul is t%e ack"o0led(eme"t t%at t%e +i&le is 0%at it claims to &e- t%e 0ord of $od- (i*e" &y i"s'iratio" a"d 0it%out error! T%at t%is is Huestio"ed &y ma"y of our o0" &ret%re" o"ly %i(%li(%ts t%e a'ostasy of our day! If 0e %a*e "ot suc% a &ook t%e" 0e %a*e a" i"com'ete"t $od 0%o ca""ot kee' #is 'romises! +ut t%e i"d0elli"( #oly S'irit teac%es t%e soul from t%e mome"t of co"*ersio" t%e trut% of $od,s 0ord! T%e 'erso" 0%o %olds a co"*ictio" t%at t%ere is error i" t%e +i&le 0ill "eed to look to %is o0" soul as to 0%et%er %e is i" 'ossessio" of eter"al life! 7ou&ts a"d a"xieties may &e caused &y %eedi"( t%e teac%i"(s of t%e #i(%er Critics- &ut a &elie*er 0aiti"( o" t%e Lord 0ill (ai" assura"ce t%at t%ese me" are decei*ers! 9ll t%eir lies 0ere a"s0ered more t%a" a %u"dred years a(o! T%e 'salmist 0rote I 0ill deli(%t myself i" t%y statutesA I 0ill "ot for(et t%y 0ord! .s! 114A13! #e 0ould "ot %a*e deli(%ted %imself i" fla0ed statutes! 9"y 0%o e*e" t%i"k t%at t%ere are faults i" t%e Word 0ill soo" for(et t%e Word! T%ey 0ill %a*e little time for it! T%ey 0il "ot &e me" a"d 0ome" of t%e +ook! 9" exam'le of t%e u"&elief of t%e #i(%er Critics is fou"d i" t%eir Huestio"i"( of t%e c%ro"olo(y of Luke <A1-2! So- 0e Huote .rof! 6i"dlayA )Luke,s attem't to relate t%e &e(i""i"( of t%e mi"istry of Desus to t%e life of t%e lar(er 0orld creates t0o or t%ree difficulties! 7oes ,t%e fiftee"t% year of t%e rei(" of Ti&erius Caesar, date from 97 11- 0%e" Ti&erius 0as made 9u(ustus,s collea(ue- or 97 14- 0%e" 9u(ustus diedB .ro&a&ly t%e former!) /ote t%at t%is 'rofessor could offer "o more t%a" )'ro&a&ly)! #e rated %is o0" i"tellectual 'o0ers as of %i(%er *alue t%a" t%e recorded 0ord of $od! #e (a*e "o e*ide"ce for %is o'i"io"! We tur" to a"ot%er ratio"alist o" t%e same 'assa(e! I Huote .rof! .lummerA )It is im'ossi&le to determi"e t%is 0it% certai"ty! $ood aut%orities (Wum't- Weiseler- Weiss) 'lead for ?97 11@ 0%ic% makes t%e (os'el c%ro"olo(y ru" more smoot%ly!) T%ey )'lead)5 /o e*ide"ce comes from t%ese $erma" ratio"alists! +elie*ers are "ot im'ressed &y t%is "o"se"se! t%ey k"o0 t%at t%e Scri'tures 0ere (i*e" &y i"s'iratio" of $od- so t%at alt%ou(% Luke (a"d ot%er 0riters of Scri'ture) 0ere "ot om"iscie"t- t%ey 0ere "e*ert%eless di*i"ely (uided to record o"ly trut% &y t%e om"iscie"t all-seei"( S'irit of $od! 9ll t%e ar(ume"ts of t%ese scoffers follo0 t%e same 'atter" a"d ca" &e dealt 0it% i" t%e same 0ay! 9s far as t%e first t0o c%a'ters of Luke,s $os'el are co"cer"ed- t%ey %a*e ofte" &ee" u"der attack- "o dou&t &ecause of t%eir co"te"t! It is %ere t%at 0e read i" detail co"cer"i"( t%e i"car"atio" of C%rist &y mea"s of a *ir(i",s 0om&! Some descri&e t%e o'e"i"( 0ords of Luke as of )classical) style- (.lummer)- a"d ot%ers su((est t%at t%ese *erse are )'oetical)! T%ere is a" i"fere"ce t%ere t%at a"ot%er 0riter- ot%er t%a" Luke- 0as i"*ol*ed! If t%at 0ere so t%e" 1A< re*eals t%at 0riter to &e a liar a"d makes a liar of Luke 0%o claims aut%ors%i' for t%e 0%ole! +ut t%ere are "o *alid (rou"ds for Huestio"i"( t%e aut%ors%i' of a"y 'art of Luke,s $os'el- or for a"y 'art of Scri'ture for t%at matter! It %as &ee" alle(ed t%at Luke,s refere"ce to T%eudas (9cts =A<3) is a" error! t%e first a"s0er to t%at is t%at Luke sim'ly recorded t%e 0ords of $amaliel- 0%o referred to T%eudas &y mistake! so t%e error 0ould %a*e &ee" $amaliel,s a"d "ot Luke,s! +ut t%e co"flict- 0e are told- lies &et0ee" $amaliel,s accou"t a"d t%at of t%e %istoria" Dose'%us! Dose'%us tells us t%at it 0as a Dudas a"d "ot T%eudas- 0%o led t%e re*olt referred to! #o0e*er- if 0e may Huote o"e more critic- )it is Huite 'ossi&le t%at Dose'%us made a" %istorical mistake as t%at St Luke did!) - 9cts of t%e 9'ostles: 6 Sadler!

Im'ossi&le for t%e S'irit-led Luke to err- 0e say- &ut 'ossi&le for $amaliel a"d o&*iously so for Dose'%us! 9(ai" 0e say- &elie*ers are "ot &am&oo1led &y t%e uttera"ces of u"co"*erted critics- clerics- a"d comme"tators! Let $od &e true- &ut e*ery ma" a liar! Rom!<A< CHURCHES CORRUPTED 0Y HI#HER CRITICISM T%e follo0i"( is take" from a" article first 'u&lis%ed a&out 1;; years a(o! T%e article is ) E,periences o% Assembly ;i%e .Bypaths and their 2an#ers): .rese"t Trut% 8ol!1;- /o!11<! 1444! I fi"d myself i" full accord 0it% t%e doctri"al a"d 'ractical teac%i"(s ex'ressed! T%ere 0as o"e 'ara(ra'%- %o0e*er- t%at stood out-

-)6or as ,t%e c%urc%es, &ecome more a"d more corru'ted &y t%e ,#i(%er Criticism, a"d a*o0ed sce'tical o'i"io"s of some of t%eir .rofessors a"d i"isters- t%ey must (i*e u' most of t%e *ital trut%s of t%e (os'el!) I 0as t%a"kful 0%e" I 0as recei*ed i"to t%e fello0s%i' of a little (at%eri"( of t%e Lord,s .eo'le more t%a" forty years a(o t%at I fou"d myself i" a com'a"y free from t%e tai"ts of moder"ism! I %a*e "e*er 0a"ted to &e a"y0%ere else! 9s t%e years 'assed &y I disco*ered 0it% dee' re(ret t%at t%e errors of +i&le Criticism 0ere as ram'a"t amo"( us t%ey are t%rou(%out C%riste"dom! 6or 0%ile most of our &ret%re" disclaim #i(%er Criticism t%ey seem u"a0are t%at t%e )#i(%er) s'ra"( out of t%e )Lo0er) Criticism 0%ic% t%ey %a*e em&raced 0it% so muc% e"t%usiasm!

)Criticism is di*ided i"to Lo0er- or textual- a"d #i(%er! Lo0er or textual criticism co"fi"es itself to testi"( t%e *arious editio"s of a 0ork &y exami"i"( t%e style- 0ords- '%rases a"d fi(ures used i" t%e text- u"til &y t%is 'rocess it is a&le to settle t%e correct text: for u"til 0e %a*e a" accurate co'y of t%e ori(i"al t%ere 0ill al0ays &e some Huestio" as to t%e safety of t%e co"clusio"s dra0"! T%e ,Lo0er Criticism, %a*i"( do"e its 0ork i" settli"( t%e text- i" ste's t%e ,#i(%er Criticism,G!to ascertai" a"d to settleG!le(itimate Huestio"sG!is t%e 'erso" 0%ose "ame is attac%ed to t%e &ook really t%e 9ut%orB) hapters on the 0i#her riticism: 6 D Eir&y! Our &ret%re" from t%e start %a*e s0allo0ed t%e Lo0er Criticism lie! 7ar&y- Eelly- 8i"e- /e0&erry 0ere all i"flue"ced &y ratio"alistic sc%olars! So today t%e text is Huestio"ed from all our 'latforms! )T%e 98 is 0ro"( %ere)- )a &etter re"deri"( 0ould &e)- )t%e critical text 'uts it)- )t%e ori(i"al says)- )t%is is a" i"ter'olatio")t%at is a (loss)- a"d so o"! T%e result is fait% i" t%e i"s'ired 0ord of $od is distur&ed a"d *ital trut%s of t%e $os'el are certai"ly &ei"( "e(lected! .reac%i"( desi("ed to &ri"( a soul u"der dee' co"*ictio" of si" is rarely %eard amo"( us! Re'e"ta"ce is "o lo"(er called for a"d a co"*ersio" ex'erie"ce is missi"( from t%e li*es of "ot a fe0 i" fello0s%i' amo"( us! #i(%er Criticism ca""ot &e di*orced from t%e Lo0er! 9 'roof of t%is may &e see" i" t%e c%a"(e made to 7eut!1A1!/o lo"(er is it t%is side Dorda"- 0%ic% %a''e"ed to &e t%e 0ilder"ess side- 0%ere oses &ot% s'oke a"d 0rote 7eutero"omy a"d 0%ere %e died! T%e co"clusio" is t%at someo"e else 0rote t%e &ook a"d referred &ack to 0%ere oses 0as o" )t%e ot%er side)! T%us is t%e aut%ors%i' of t%e &ook Huestio"ed i" t%e R8-/I8 a"d ma"y ot%er moder" *ersio"s! T%e fact t%at so ma"y of our &ret%re" 0ere misled &y t%e R8 (a"d some still are) s%o0s t%at our early &ret%re" 0ere "ot free from t%e co"tami"atio" of #i(%er Criticism!

A CRITICAL LEXICON -1 E 2 0ULLIN#ER T%is 0ork 0as first 'u&lis%ed i" 14;L a"d is "o0 re'ri"ted! 9 re*ie0er tells us t%at t%is 0ork )offers t%e E"(lis% reader co"sidera&le %el' i" determi"i"( ,at o"e *ie0- t%e $reek 0ord 0it% its literal a"d deri*ati*e

mea"i"(s!!! for e*ery 0ord i" t%e E"(lis% /T,! T%e 'reface claims ,t%at ma"y useless ar(ume"ts 0ould &e sa*ed if it 0ere k"o0" 'recisely 0%at 0as t%e exact force of t%e 0ords, i" a 'articular 'assa(e of Scri'ture5,) We 'oi"t out re'eatedly t%at t%e E"(lis%ma" does "ot "eed to k"o0 a"y $reek 0ord! I also 'oi"t out t%at I am "ot o''osed to sc%olars%i' a"d lear"i"(! I am a sc%oolteac%er! +ut 0e do %a*e a settled sta"dard defi"iti*e +i&le! It is "ot e*ol*i"( as is t%e so-called $reek text! T%e year"i"( to (et &ack to t%e $reek is t%e 'roduct of ratio"alism! It is a ratio"alism t%at is "ot satisfied 0it% 0%at our $od %as (i*e" us i" t%e 9ut%ori1ed +i&le! I fi"d suc% lexico"s as +ulli"(er,s fasci"ati"(- &ut "ot s'iritually &e"eficial! +ut "ote 0%at t%e re*ie0er tells us! ) a"y useless ar(ume"ts 0ould &e sa*ed if it 0ere k"o0" 'recisely 0%at 0as t%e exact force!!!)! T%e $reek lexico" (+ulli"(er,s or 8i"e,s- or may&e e*e" T%ayer,s- &ecomes t%e fi"al court of a''eal! It is "o lo"(er )W%at sayet% t%e Scri'tureB) &ut 0%at sayet% +ulli"(er (or 8i"e)B If t%ere is )a useless ar(ume"t) o*er t%e 0ord of $od- it ca" "o0 &e settled at t%e s%ri"e of +ulli"(er! T%e Scri'ture 0ar"s us to s%u" 'rofa"e a"d *ai" &a&&li"(sA for t%ey 0ill i"crease u"to more u"(odli"ess! 2 Tim!2A13! W%e" a ma" (ets u' i" t%e +i&le Readi"( to tell us 0%at t%e $reek 0ord is (&ecause %e %as %ad time to look it u' i" 8i"eJ+ulli"(er) it is mere 'rofa"e a"d *ai" &a&&li"(! /o0 a little a&out 7r! +ulli"(er! #e 0as a" 9"(lica" cleric! (Fes- I k"o0 o"e or t0o of t%em %a*e &ee" &elie*ers!) T%is o"e %ad some *ery 0eird ultra-dis'e"satio"alist doctri"es 0%ic% (a*e rise to t%e cult of +ulli"(erism! T%is is 0%at %e tau(%tA )T%e four (os'els are De0is% a"d do "ot a''ly today at all! 9cts co*ers a ,tra"sitio" 'eriod, a"d o"ly 0%e" 0e come to t%e 'riso" e'istles is t%e ,7is'e"satio" of mystery, re*ealed! T%us t%e c%urc% 0%ic% is C%rist,s +ody &e(a"- so it is claimed- "ot o" t%e day of .e"tecost- &ut some t%irty years later! 9s for t%e ordi"a"ces- +a'tism a"d +reaki"( of +read- t%ey &elo"(ed to t%e 9cts 'eriod a"d %a*e "o 'lace "o0- t%is &ei"( a s'iritual dis'e"satio"!) T%e a&o*e is t%e extreme o''osite to a-mille"ialism a"d is Huoted from W +u"ti"(,s article o" a-mille"ialism 'u&lis%ed i" 9ssem&ly Testimo"y arc%J9'ril 1432! Ca" a ma" %oldi"( to doctri"al error &e a relia&le source for t%e u"dersta"di"( of t%e 0ord of $odB +e0are t%e idol of a'ostate sc%olars%i' set %i(% u'o" its (ilded 'edestal! Remem&er too 0%e" you look u' a $reek 0ord you are "ot readi"( 0%at t%e 0ord mea"s- you are lear"i"( 0%at t%e sc%olar tells you it mea"s! +ulli"(erism co"ti"ues today i" t%e )+erea" Trust)! O"e of t%eir c%ief me" 0as C%arles Welc% ! T%eir #X is Wilso" St! C%a'el- Lo"do"- 0%ic% is also referred to as )T%e C%a'el of t%e O'e"ed +ook)!

REDACTION CRITICISM 3a4a C(*)(siti(n Criti,is*5 Redactio" Criticism teac%es t%at t%e (os'els 0ere "ot 0ritte" &y direct i"s'iratio" of $od &ut &y co'yi"( material from seco"dary sources (see Waymarks /o!14 Misleadin# Views' 7a*id Cloud i" %is mo"t%ly ma(a1i"e- < Timothy, 8ol!1=- issue C- 144L (i*es six reaso"s 0%y redactio" criticism is false! I (i*e >ust %is %eadi"(s &elo0!

T1 If t%e redactio" t%eories of t%e $os'els are true- 0e do "ot %a*e a" i"falli&le accou"t of C%ristRs life! 2 If t%e redactio" t%eories of t%e $os'els are true- 0e 0ill "e*er k"o0 for sure 0%at 'art of t%e $os'els are falli&le 0ords of me" a"d 0%at 'art is t%e i"falli&le Word of $od!

< T%ose 0%o acce't redactio" t%eories are "ot edifyi"( t%e flock: t%ey are e"tertai"i"( t%e sc%olars! 4 T%e alle(ed co"tradictio"s a"d 'ro&lems 0it%i" t%e $os'els 0%ic% are raised &y t%ose 0%o 'romote redactio" criticism %a*e &ee" a"s0 -ered satisfactorily 0it%out resorti"( to redactio"ism! 5 O"e of t%e errors 0%ic% leads to t%eories suc% as redactio"ism is to focus o" t%e met%od of i"s'iratio" rat%er t%a" o" t%e 'roduct! 3 1 &elie*e redactio" criticism is of t%e de*il!R Redactio"ists may &e reco("i1ed &y t%eir use of 0ords suc% as Tt%e Sy"o'tic 'ro&lemR- Tt%e com'ositio" of t%e Scri'turesR- Tt%e lost ma"uscri'tR- T ark 0rote %is (os'el firstR- Tt%e %istorical DesusR! Redactio"ists %old &las'%emous *ie0s of C%rist! /orma" .erri" 0rote- Tt%e early c%urc%!!! !sa0 "o reaso" to disti"(uis% &et0ee" 0ords ori(i"ally s'oke" &y t%e %istorical Desus &ar Dose'% from /a1aret% a"d 0ords ascri&ed to %im i" t%e traditio" of t%e c%urc%!R =hat is 9edaction riticism&; S.CE 14C;! .erri"Rs &las'%emy- a"d %e is a s'okesma" for all redactio"ists- is i" li"e 0it% t%e murmuri"( De0s of Do%" 3A410%e" t%ey said- is "ot t%is Desus- t%e so" of Dose'% 0%ose fat%er a"d mot%er 0e k"o0B We k"o0 too t%at t%e (os'el accou"ts 0ere (i*e" &y i"s'iratio" of $od so t%at 0e %a*e fait%ful a"d true records of t%e life a"d mi"istry of t%e Lord Desus C%rist! it is t%erefore mere idle s'eculatio" as to 0%ic% 0as 0ritte" first! T%e follo0i"( is Huoted from Belie5er1s Ma#azine -Oct! 4L- '!<;2A- I" t%e 're*ious article o" !nspiration 0e fou"d t%at t%ere 0as a %uma" eleme"t i" t%e com'ositio" of scri'ture: di*i"ely 're'ared me" 0ere used &y t%e #oly S'irit to 0rite i" 'rose or 'oetry co"tai"i"( fi(urati*e a"d e*e" sym&olic la"(ua(e at times!R T%ere 0e %a*e it a(ai" U Tt%e com'ositio" of scri'tureR! I" ot%er 0ords Scri'ture 0riters 0ere "ot led to set do0" t%e i"s'ired 0ord! t%ey 0ere i"stead TusedR i" its com'ositio" T%is is t%e #i(%er (Redactio") Criticism t%at 0e t%ou(%t 0as dead fifty years a(o

CRITICS ON THE RUN 7 Wallace- a textual critic- 0rote i" The Te,t o% the New Testament in 144=- U ontemporary 9esearch; Eerdma"s:

6or t%e first t0o-t%irds of t%e t0e"tiet% ce"tury- /T critics could s'eak 0it% o"e accordA t%e TR %ad fi"ally &ee" laid to rest! G! T%e situatio" today is distur&i"(ly differe"t! $o"e is t%e era 0%e" ED8JTR ad*ocates could &e fou"d o"ly i" t%e &ack0aters of a"ti-i"tellectual 9merica" fu"dame"talism! 9 small &ut (ro0i"( "um&er of stude"ts of t%e /T i" /ort% 9merica a"d to a lesser de(ree- i" Euro'eG! 9re em&raci"( a *ie0 left for dead o*er a ce"tury a(o t%at t%e ori(i"al text is to &e fou"d i" a ma>ority of SS! G'ro'o"e"ts of a mi"ority *ie0 are tryi"( to reo'e" a" issue o"ce t%ou(%t to &e settled! We are remi"ded i" t%is of %o0 t%e De0s from 9"tioc% a"d Ico"ium 'ersuaded t%e 'eo'le to sto"e .aul a"d t%ey dre' &i* (.t (6 t&e ,it17 s.))(sing &e &ad -een dead+ 9cts 14A14! #o0 t%e De0s must %a*e

re>oiced! /o lo"(er 0ould t%ey %a*e to suffer t%is little De0 0it% %is (os'el 0%ic% cut ri(%t t%rou(% ma"Rs 'ride! H('-eit7 as t&e dis,i)8es st((d r(.nd a-(.t &i*7 &e r(se .) and ,a*e int( t&e ,it1+ *!2;! O 0%at a" a0ful s%ock for t%ose $od-%ati"( De0s5 T%ey t%ou(%t t%ey %ad 'ut a" e"d to t%e a'ostle! It is .aul 0%o remi"ds us- it is 'ritten7 I 'i88 destr(1 t&e 'isd(* (6 t&e 'ise+ 1 Cor!1A14! W%at a s%ock too for t%ose critics 0%o %ad la&oured for so lo"( to destroy t%e 98 +i&le o"ly to disco*er t%at it is still *ery muc% ali*e- a"d %ad"Rt died at all! It must &e u"derstood t%at t%is is t%e 'ur'ose &e%i"d textual criticism- to destroy t%e 0ritte" testimo"y of $od! T%e stru((le to arri*e at t%e ori(i"al text is merely a su&terfu(e! T%e critics co"fess t%at t%is (oal 0ill "e*er &e reac%ed! #o0e*er- t%e )ori(i"al text) is e*er 0it% us- a"d 0e %a*e it i" t%e 98 +i&le! We are seei"( a" a0ake"i"( to t%e true Scri'ture a"d 0e are t%a"kful for it! T%ere are "o0 ma"y (ood &ooks a*aila&le defe"di"( t%e 98 a"d t%e TR! T%e &ooks &y E #ills a"d Otis 6uller s%ould &e o" e*ery +i&le &elie*erRs &ooks%elf to(et%er 0it% +ur(o"Rs classic 9e5ision 9e5ised' Wallace (oes o"-

T%e a>ority text mo*eme"tG! &e(a" immediately after t%e e'oc%-maki"( 'u&licatio" of Westcott a"d #ortRs The New Testament in the Ori#inal (ree* a"d co"comita"tly t%e R8 of t%e /T (1LL1)! T%e 98 +i&le is "ot &ased solely o" t%e a>ority Text! /eit%er is it solely &ased o" t%e TR! T%ere are *erses i" t%e 98 +i&le t%at are "eit%er i" t%e a>ority Text "or t%e Textus Rece'tus! +elie*ers "eed to u"dersta"d t%is! Dack oorma" %as dealt adeHuately 0it% t%is seemi"( 'ro&lem i" %is &ooks Early Manuscripts and the Authorized Version a"d =hen the "JV 2eparts %rom the 3Ma>ority3 Te,t' I" t%ese %e su''lies t%e ms e*ide"ce for eac% readi"( 'eculiar to t%e 98! W%at com'lai"t do t%e critics %a*e a(ai"st +ur(o"B T%ey alle(e t%at %e 0rote 0it% a *itriolic 'e" &ut t%ey "e*er (i*e exam'les! #e s'oke t%e trut%! I %a*e read %is &ook *ery carefully a"d I &elie*e %e s'oke t%e trut% i" lo*e! +ut %ere is t%eir mai" com'lai"t-

T%e &edrock of +ur(o"Rs text-critical *ie0s 0as a &elief i" *er&al-'le"ary i"s'iratio" a"d t%e doctri"e %e i"ferred from it- 'ro*ide"tial 'reser*atio"! O" t%is fou"datio" %e co"structed four ar(ume"ts (0%ic% remai" t%e mai" ar(ume"ts of t%e a>ority text t%eory to t%is day)A (1) a t%eolo(ical a 'riori t%at $od %as 'reser*ed t%e textS a"d t%at suc% a 'reser*ed text %as &ee" accessi&le to t%e c%urc% i" e*ery a(e: (2) a" assum'tio" t%at %eretics %a*e- o" a lar(e scale- corru'ted t%e text: (<) a" ar(ume"t from statistical 'ro&a&ility related to t%e corollary of accessi&ility (*i1!- t%at t%e ma>ority is more likely to co"tai" t%e ori(i"al 0ordi"(): a"d (4) a 'ro"ou"ceme"t t%at all early +y1a"ti"e SS must %a*e 0or" out! (i&id) T%e 'erso" 0%o demurs at +ur(o"Rs first 'oi"t ca" %ardly &e sa*ed! It is t%erefore at t%is first a"d most critical 'oi"t t%at 0e se'arate oursel*es from t%e critics! Textual critics %a*e s%o0" t%emsel*es "otoriously %ostile to t%e doctri"es of *er&al 'le"ary i"s'iratio" a"d t%e 'reser*atio" of Scri'ture! It is "ot 'ossi&le to mai"tai" t%ese doctri"es a"d to acce't moder" *ersio"s at t%e same time! +ur(o"Rs ot%er t%ree 'oi"ts %a*e &ee" 0ell e"ou(% esta&lis%ed &y ot%er 0riters! It is also false to su((est t%at +ur(o" 0as t%e first to sta"d a(ai"st t%e critics! 7 Cloud i" %is &ook 6or ;o5e o% the Bible 0rites of t%e follo0i"( me" 0%o stood for t%e 98JTR!A # D Todd 9 'u&lis%ed A Vindication o% Our Authorized Translation i" 1L14- D W W%ittaker 9 'u&lis%ed a defe"se of t%e 98 i" 1L2;! T%e" follo0 fiftee" &io(ra'%ies of ot%er 14t% Ce"tury 98 sc%olars! O"e ot%er 0%o deser*es me"tio" is 6red /ola" 0%o i" 1L1= 'u&lis%ed %is !n7uiry into the !nte#rity o% the 9ecei5ed Te,t' T%is &ook s%o0s t%e corru'tio" of t%e 9lexa"dria" Text a"d demo"strates t%e *er&al i"te(rity of t%e Recei*ed Text! /ola" deals i" de't% 0it% 1 Do%" =AC: 1 Tim!<A13- a"d 9cts 2;A2L! Wallace "ext critici1es E #ills as t%e ma" 0%o T"early se*e" decadesR later takes u' t%e cause of t%e traditio"al text! #e %as t%is to say a&out %im-

#e ar(ued e*e" more stro"(ly t%at did +ur(o" from 'ro*ide"tial 'reser*atio"- for i" %is *ie0 t%e TR a"d "ot t%e +y1a"ti"e SS 'er se 0as t%e closest text to t%e auto(ra'%s! #is do(matic co"*ictio"s a&out

'ro*ide"tial 'reser*atio" led %im to co"clude t%at Erasmus 0as di*i"ely (uided 0%e" %e i"troduced Lati" 8ul(ate readi"(s i"to %is $reek text5 (i&id '<;1!) If di*i"e (uida"ce is de"ied to Erasmus t%e" it must &e de"ied to e*ery tra"slator! 6or 0%y s%ould a"y ot%er tra"slator recei*e it a"d "ot ErasmusB Critics 0ill &e Huite %a''y 0it% t%is of course! T%eir i"tellectual 'o0ers 0ill "ot "eed t%e i"terfere"ce of t%e #oly S'irit! If 0e &elie*e it is $odRs +ook- di*i"ely (i*e"- t%e" 0e are co"fide"t t%at $od 0ill o*ersee its 'reser*atio" from its ori(i" a"d t%rou(%out t%e remai"der of time- for t%e &e"efit of #is 'eo'le! #a*i"( dismissed #ills- Wallace also dismisses t%e TR- &elie*i"( t%at t%e #od(es J 6arstad a>ority Text of 14L2 is t%e o"ly serious o''o"e"t of t%e TCriticalR Text! 9"y still %oldi"( to t%e TRJ98 0ill &e re(arded as a"ti-i"tellectual fu"dame"talists! Wallace claims t%at-

T%e a>ority Text re*ealed co"cretely t%at t%e +y1a"ti"e text-ty'e %ad &ee" 'oorly re'rese"ted &y t%e TR! (i&id! '<;2)! 9s t%ou(% t%ese are t%ree differe"t texts- or Ttext-ty'esR! T%e 9ut%ori1ed 8ersio" is esse"tially t%e a>ority text &ut t%ere are some *ery si("ifica"t differe"ces! T%e a>ority text excludes 'assa(es suc% as 9cts LA<3-<C a"d 1 Do%" =AC! See a(ai" D oorma"Rs &ook! Wallace co"cedes t%at 0%ile &ot% a>ority a"d TR ad*ocates may %old to *er&al i"s'iratio" a"d 'reser*atio"- t%e a>ority defe"ders do "ot "otice

t%at to (ra"t to 'reser*atio" t%e same doctri"al status as *er&al i"s'iratio" is to de"y t%eir o0" claims for t%e a>ority text a"d to affirm t%e TR!(i&id! '<;3!) +ut Wallace 0ill %a*e t%e a>ority defe"ders 0i""i"( t%e day a(ai"st t%e TR ad*ocates- &ecause t%ey- t%e a>ority defe"ders 0ill "ot make t%e same %ideistic lea' t%at t%e TR 'eo'le make! T%eir %ideism, %e 0rites

is stri''ed "aked at t%e &ar of lo(ic a"d em'iricismG! 9 t%eolo(ical a 'riori %as "o 'lace i" textual criticism! (i&id! '<;3- <;4) T%ere Wallace s'ells it out a(ai" for us! T%e %eart of t%e &attle lies &et0ee" fait% i" $od a"d %uma" 0isdom: &et0ee" sa*ed me" a"d 0ome" 0%o k"o0 t%eir $od a"d u"co"*erted sc%olars! T%is is 0%y t%ere are t0o &i&les- t%e 9ut%ori1ed- a"d t%e rest (0%et%er &ased o" t%e Westcott-#ort-/estle-M+S text or o" t%e #od(es-6arstad a>ority text!) O"ly t%ose 0%o %old solidly to t%e 98 +i&le ca" %old to 8er&al I"s'iratio" a"d t%e .reser*atio" of Scri'ture! T%e textual critic declares %imself to &e a" u"&elie*er a"d 0e are to &a9e n( 6e88('s&i) 'it& t&e .n6r.it6.8 '(r4s (6 dar4ness (E'%!=A4- Rom!1<A12)! T%irty years a(o Eldo" Ladd- a leadi"( 9merica" Textual Critic- 'roclaimi"( %imself to &e a" E*a"(elicalsou(%t to &ri"( to a" e"d Tt%e &itter fu"dame"talist-moder"ist co"tro*ersy 0%ic% ra(ed i" t%e early t0e"tiesR a co"seHue"ce of 0%ic% T%as &ee" t%e stro"(ly "e(ati*e attitude to0ard &i&lical criticism assumed &y some of t%e successors to t%e fu"dame"talists of t%e 142;Rs! Suc% 'eo'le- accordi"( to .rofessor Ladd- i"sist t%at t%e critical met%od is &asically %ostile to t%e e*a"(elical fait%- a"d t%ey %a*e co"ti"ued to o''ose itR! T%e essays i" T%e Text of t%e /e0 Testame"t i" Co"tem'orary Researc% - a"d i" 'articular- WallaceRs essay- s%o0 0%y fu"dame"talists (i!e! sa*ed +i&le &elie*ers) 0ill co"ti"ue to o''ose moder" textual criticism!

Ladd failed i" %is missio"! #is &ook T%e /e0 Testame"t a"d Criticism did "ot im'ress +i&le &elie*ers! O"e stateme"t- (i*e" i" %is i"troductio" a"d re'eated o" t%e &ack co*er s%o0s 0%y %e failed! It is t%is-

T%e ce"tral t%esis of %is &ook is t%at t%e T+i&le is t%e Word of $od (i*e" i" t%e 0ords of me" i" %istory-R a"d as suc% its %istorical ori(i"s must &e reco"structed as far as 'ossi&le! T%e c%ild of $od &elie*es t%e +i&le is t%e 0ord of $od (i*e" i" t%e 0ords of $od- set do0" &y c%ose" me" a"d directed &y t%e #oly S'irit so t%at e*ery se"te"ce- e*ery '%rase- e*ery 0ord- e*ery sylla&le- a"d e*ery >ot a"d tittle recorded is t%at 0%ic% $od reHuired to &e recorded- 0it%out error- 0it%out %uma" additio" a"d 0it%out %uma" su&tractio"! C%rist said- *1 '(rds s&a88 n(t )ass a'a17 at!24A<=! T%e 0ords of me" do! I6 an1 *an tea,& (t&er'ise7 and ,(nsent n(t t( '&(8es(*e '(rds (6 (.r L(rd $es.s C&rist7 and t( t&e d(,trine '&i,& is a,,(rding t( g(d8iness: &e is )r(.d7 4n('ing n(t&ing7 -.t d(ting a-(.t ;.esti(ns and stri6es (6 '(rds7 '&ere(6 ,(*et& en917 stri6e7 rai8ings7 e9i8 s.r*isings7 )er9erse dis).tings (6 *en (6 ,(rr.)t *inds7 and destit.te (6 t&e tr.t&7 s.))(sing t&at gain is g(d8iness< 6r(* s.,& 'it&dra' t&1se86+ 1 Tim!3A<-=! T%e +i&le is "ot com'rised of t%e 0ords of me"! It is t%e critic 0%o causes strifes of 0ords a"d t%e i">u"ctio" i" t%is co"text is from suc% 0it%dra0 t%yself!

0E2ARE 0ART EHRMAN E%rma" is a" outsta"di"( sc%olar a"d a leadi"( 0orld ex'ert i" Textual Criticism! #is 0orks %a*e a (reat im'act o" t%e 'roductio" of moder" *ersio"s of t%e /e0 Testame"t! +ut E%rma" %as &ee" descri&ed i" t%e Was%i"(to" .ost- arc% =t% 2;;3- as Yt%e fu"dame"talist sc%olar 0%o 'eered so %ard i"to t%e ori(i"s of C%ristia"ity t%at %e lost %is fait% alto(et%er!Z #e claims to %a*e %ad a Y&or"-a(ai" ex'erie"ceZ 0%ile %e 0as a so'%omore- &ut later a&a"do"ed t%is 'ositio"- 'referri"( to acce't t%e teac%i"( of %is a'ostate 'rofessor- t%at ark i" %is (os'el made a mistake! T%is 'ut E%rma" 0ell o" t%e road of a'ostasy %imself a"d %e e"ded u' de"yi"( fu"dame"tal +i&le teac%i"(i" 'articular t%e resurrectio" of C%rist! It 0as "ot lo"( &efore %e &elie*ed t%e +i&le to &e full of error! O" t%e 9merica" T8 s%o0 The olbert 9eport ( 0%ic% I 0atc%ed) E%rma" said %e 0as a" a("ostic a"d did "ot &elie*e i" $od! #e 0roteI &e(a" seei"( t%e /e0 Testame"t as a *ery %uma" &ook! T%e /e0 Testame"t as 0e actually %a*e it- I k"e0- 0as t%e 'roduct of %uma" %a"ds- t%e %a"ds of t%e scri&es 0%o tra"smitted it! T%e" I &e(a" to see t%at "ot >ust t%e scri&al text &ut t%e ori(i"al text itself 0as a *ery %uma" &ook! T%is stood *ery muc% at odds 0it% %o0 I %ad re(arded t%e text i" my late tee"s as a "e0ly mi"ted )&or"a(ai") C%ristia"- co"*i"ced t%at t%e +i&le 0as t%e i"erra"t Word of $od a"d t%at t%e &i&lical 0ords t%emsel*es %ad come to us &y t%e i"s'iratio" of t%e #oly S'irit! 9s I reali1ed already i" (raduate sc%ool- e*e" if $od %ad i"s'ired t%e ori(i"al 0ords- 0e do",t %a*e t%e ori(i"al 0ords! So t%e doctri"e of i"s'iratio" 0as i" a se"se irrele*a"t to t%e +i&le as 0e %a*e it- si"ce t%e 0ords $od re'ut edly i"s'ired %ad &ee" c%a"(ed a"d- i" some cases- lost! oreo*er- I came to t%i"k t%at my earlier *ie0s of i"s'iratio" 0ere "ot o"ly irrele*a"t- t%ey 0ere 'ro&a&ly 0ro"(! 6or t%e o"ly reaso" (I came to t%i"k) for $od to i"s'ire t%e +i&le 0ould &e so t%at %is 'eo'le 0ould %a*e %is actual 0ords: &ut if %e really 0a"ted 'eo'le to %a*e %is actual 0ords- surely %e 0ould %a*e miraculously 'reser*ed t%ose 0ords- >ust as %e %ad miraculously i"s'ired t%em i" t%e first 'lace! $i*e" t%e cir cumsta"ce t%at %e did",t 'reser*e t%e 0ords- t%e co"clusio" seemed i"esca'a&le to me t%at %e %ad",t (o"e to t%e trou&le of i"s'iri"( t%em!U =hose =ord is it& Co"ti"uum- 2;;3A '!211! T%e truly &or" a(ai" soul is i"d0elt &y t%e #oly S'irit a"d C9//OT a'ostatise!

E%rma" studied u"der et1(er- a"ot%er "otorious a'ostate- a"d is "o0 t%e leadi"( +i&le critic! #e is determi"ed to destroy all trust i" t%e Scri'tures a"d fait% i" $od! #e is "o differe"t from all t%e Textual Critics 0%o %a*e (o"e &efore %im!

ANS2ERS t( a C(rres)(ndent=s Criti,is*s (6 t&e AV 0i-8e 3?our note''''! hope will not lead to the polarisin# o% the saints3'''' $olarisation be#an when the %irst copy o% the 9'V' was brou#ht into the assembly' The reco5ery o% assembly truth in the @Ath century was made throu#h the only a5ailable 5ersion, the A'V' There was no other bible used' This Newsletter B=aymar*sC is intended to brin# saints bac* to a united stand' =e understand you to mean that my ur#in# belie5ers to hold to the AV Bible is di5isi5e' This is a 5ery serious char#e to ma*e, but it is aimed essentially a#ainst the word o% (od' =e *now that some o% our leadin# Bible e,positors are declarin# the AV Bible not to be the word o% (od' There is only one thin# we can do with these men and that is to shun them' ! do not sit under the ministry o% men who %ault my Bible' has any ri#ht to tell another what bible they should use3 Not e5en elders in the assembly& Must we tolerate con%usion& Must we say nothin# when we *now that modern 5ersions are the wor* o% unre#enerate men who ha5e used lies and deceit to produce their wor*& !% the elders in the assembly may not spea* on such a %undamental matter, what may they spea* on& 3!% Dthe AV BibleE leads to de%ecti5e understandin# o% the mind o% (od, then one who is better tau#ht may well, in lo5e, see* to enli#hten, as A7uilla and $riscilla or Apollos' No child o% (od was e5er led to a de%ecti5e understandin# because he used the A'V' Bible' That the Bible (od has used and blessed %or F<< years could lead a saint astray in any respect is a thou#ht that sullies the mind' !n FG years o% hristian e,perience ! ha5e yet to meet one indi5idual better tau#ht throu#h the use o% modern 5ersions' Note also that A7uilla, $riscilla and Apollos used the same Masoretic te,t.based 0ebrew )cripture; Bthat on which the A'V' is basedC' There is no e5idence that they read the (ree* )eptua#int' 3!n those countries where En#lish is spo*en, althou#h ! ha5e no %i#ures to bac* up the supposition, it would not surprise me i% souls were brou#ht to the %aith by other means than by the A'V' o% @G@@, in #reater numbers than by that re5ered translation' =hat are these 3other means3& Appeals, s7uashes, youth ni#hts, co%%ee mornin#s, ladies tea.parties, pentecostalist %roth and bubble& Or do you mean 3other 5ersions3, thou#h a%ter F<< years the A'V' is still the world8s best seller' A#reed, (od is so5erei#n and a soul mi#ht come across a %ra#ment o% the pure =ord o% (od amon#st the H<<< chan#es made in e5ery modern 5ersion, and be sa5ed by it' 3!t mi#ht surprise us #reatly to *now >ust what translation (od has been pleased to use in people8s sal5ation, and to %eed them with spiritual %ood'3 =ell, ne5er mind the 9e%ormationI Just thin* o% the mi#hty re5i5als o% the @Ath century' There ha5e been no re5i5als since the modern 5ersions be#an to proli%erate' 3(od is not restricted' =ho can tell 0im what 0e ou#ht to use& But may we not e,pect (od to use 0is own =ordJthat which was settled in hea5en be%ore the world was made& =ould 0e use the words o% lyin# men, as =estcott and 0ort ha5e been shown to be& 3The lan#ua#e B$aul and his companyC spo*e was 3collo7uial3, %or they aimed to reach the people3

! cannot %ind e5idence o% this' The N'!'V' uses collo7uial speech with #rie5ous results' ! would certainly ne5er preach in collo7uial En#lish, %or this would cheapen the #ospel and ! want people to understand what ! am sayin#' 3!t is the content o% the messa#e that counts''''A postman would lose his >ob i% he decided he would only deli5er pac*a#es o% a certain colour'3 0e mi#ht lose his >ob more 7uic*ly i% he started to deli5er unauthorised mail II ONE 0I0LE ONLY% T%e attack o" t%e Ei"( Dames (98) +i&le co"ti"ues u"a&ated! T%ere is a factio" 0it%i" t%e so-called e*a"(elical 0orld 0%ic% is "ot co"te"t 0it% 'romoti"( moder" *ersio"s of t%e +i&le- &ut is resol*ed to destroy our time-%o"oured +i&le to(et%er 0it% t%ose 0%o %old to it! T%ese me" are "eit%er Roma"ists- "or Russellites &ut 0is% to &e k"o0" as co"ser*ati*e- fu"dame"talist- e*a"(elical C%ristia"s! a"y of t%em 'ro*e to &e "eo-e*a"(elical ecume"ists! Some of t%ese %a*e issued a &ook- One Bible Only&; Ere(el: 2;;1!- co"tai"i"( articles &y 7 R cLac%la"- E T +auder- 7 E Eutilek- R E +eac%am- R W illima"- L 7 .ette(re0! 9ll of t%ese are associated 0it% t%e Ce"tral +a'tist T%eolo(ical Semi"ary- .lymout%- i""esota! T%e (ist of t%is &ook is t%at it is erro"eous to &elie*e t%at t%e 0ord of $od exists i" total a"y o"e *ersio" or tra"slatio" of t%e +i&le! T%ey i"sist t%at t%e true 0ord of $od lies scattered t%rou(% multitudes of ma"uscri'ts! T%ey say $od "e*er i"te"ded t%at #is 0ord 0ould &e 'reser*ed 0it%i" t%e co*ers of o"e +i&le! #o0e*er- t%ey assure us t%at a"y &i&le ca" safely &e re(arded as t%e 0ord of $od as t%e differe"ces &et0ee" t%em are of little co"seHue"ce! O"e fly i" t%e oi"tme"t is for t%em a tri*ial t%i"(! T%ey (o o" to say t%at t%ose t%ey descri&e as &elo"(i"( to t%e Ei"( Dames O"ly o*eme"t are i("ora"tco"tro*ersialist- di*isi*e- %eretics- u"ort%odox i" doctri"e a"d 'ractice (t%ese are t%eir 0ords)- a"d ou(%t to &e excommu"icated! +ut t%ey ca""ot excommu"icate t%ose 0%o %a*e "e*er &ee" i" fello0s%i' 0it% t%em!! oder" *ersio"ism (oes %a"d i" %a"d 0it% 0orldli"ess a"d li&eralism- a"d t%ose 0%o lo*e t%e 0orld are "ot sa*ed! We do "ot seek fello0s%i' 0it% t%em! We t%i"k t%ese me" are distur&ed &y t%e (ro0i"( "um&er of stude"ts a''lyi"( to t%eir semi"ary 0%o %old to t%e 98 +i&le- a"d t%is is 0%at lies &e%i"d t%e 'u&licatio" of t%is &ook! T%ey use t%e same attack as t%e o%ammeda"sA )T%e +i&le %as &ee" c%a"(ed!) (IR*e s'oke" to a "um&er of t%ese 'eo'le a&out t%is- a"d "ot o"e could tell me %o0- 0%ere- or 0%at %as &ee" c%a"(ed i" t%e +i&le)! Our sc%olars alle(e t%at t%e 98 +i&le %as &ee" c%a"(ed i" t%ousa"ds of 'laces! T%ey i"clude i" t%is t%e t%ousa"ds of s'elli"( c%a"(es 0%ere t%e TfR is c%a"(ed to t%e moder" TsR! T%ey i"sist t%at t%ere is "o fait%ful asoretic text &ecause of errors i" co'yi"(! T%is 0e s%o0 to &e a"ot%er lie! T%e care of t%e scri&es a"d t%e asorites i" co'yi"( t%e #e&re0 Scri'tures 0as exHuisite to t%e extreme! T%ese 0riters accuse +i&le &elie*ers of )demo"i1i"() Westcott a"d #ort! T%e e*ide"ce is t%at t%ey )demo"i1ed) t%emsel*es! 9ll t%e Huotes I %a*e read co"cer"i"( t%ese t0o me" ori(i"ate from t%eir o0" 'e"s! T%ey admitted to ex'erime"ti"( 0it% S'iritism! T%ey %a*e "ot &ee" Huoted out of co"text! Ori(e" too is to &e %eld i" admiratio" &ecause %e 0as a sc%olar! T%is is t%e ma" 0%o tau(%t t%at t%e Lord 0as a created a"(el! We come to t%e %eart of t%e matter i" relatio" to t%e doctri"e of 8er&al I"s'iratio"! T%e moder"ist *ie0 is t%at i"s'iratio" a''lies o"ly to t%e auto(ra'%s (t%e ori(i"al ma"uscri'ts) a"d 0%e" t%ey disa''eared t%e" i"s'iratio" e"ded!

T%e fact t%at 1ealous &ut mis(uided me" of t%e 'ast %a*e ascri&ed i"s'iratio" a"d i"falli&ilityUa Huality 'ossessed &y o"ly t%e ori(i"al Scri'turesUto tra"slatio"s i" $reek- 9ramaic- Lati"- Syriac- a"d $erma"

0ould lead us to sus'ect t%at some 'eo'le mi(%t &e i"cli"ed to make similar u"fou"ded claims re(ardi"( some E"(lis% +i&le *ersio"! $'FK' Fet e*e" i" t%e 'reface of One Bible Only& We fi"d Huoted a88 S,ri) is gi9en -1 ins)irati(n (6 #(d+ W%y do t%ey "ot say 0%at t%ey &elie*e- >9ll Scri'ture W9S (i*e" &y i"s'iratio" of $od! T%e clear im'licatio" of t%e 98 stateme"t is t%at t%e Scri'ture- (i*e" &y i"s'iratio" of $od- still exists! Eutilek re(ards t%is as a %eresy! T%e ori(i"al ma"uscri'ts do "ot exist &ut $od did "ot a&a"do" #is 0ord to t%e slei(%t of me" suc% as Ori(e"- Lac%ma""- Tisc%e"dorf- Westcott- #ort- /estle- 9la"d- et1(er- 7ar&y as is alle(ed! T%e i"s'ired 0ord of $od 0as carried fort% &y ordi"ary fait%ful &elie*ers t%rou(% t%e ce"turies a"d "o"e of it %as &ee" lost i" tra"slatio"! Ot%er0ise t%e 0ords a88 S,ri) is gi9en -1 ins)irati(n (6 #(d are mea"i"(less- a"d Scri'ture does "ot exist today a"y0%ere! T&e M1t& (6 t&e / Man.s,ri)t +i&le critics %a*e &ee" al0ays critical to t%e doctri"e of di*i"e i"s'iratio" of t%e 0ord of $od! T%ey re>ect t%e 'ossi&ility of Scri'ture &ei"( $odRs re*elatio" to ma"! T%us t%ey %a*e to i"*e"t t%eories relati"( to t%e ori(i" of Scri'ture! T%e a''are"t similarity of 'assa(es i" t%e (os'els is 'ut do0" to folk-lore or t%e &orro0i"( of t%e (os'el 0riters from a commo" source! 9&out 1=; years a(o a t%eory 0as de*elo'ed t%at att%e0 a"d Luke &ased t%eir (os'els o" ark a"d a myt%olo(ical docume"t called X! t%ere remai"s "ot a s%red of e*ide"ce to su''ort t%is *ie0 a"d e*e" Westcott 0as sce'tical of it! X is a" utterly myt%olo(ical i"*e"tio"- a 'roduct of t%e E"li(%te"me"t! /o&ody %ad %eard of X u"til t%e 14 t% Ce"tury! W%e" I came across refere"ces to X i" my studies %alf a ce"tury a(o I took it to &e 0%at it isUa ratio"alistic i"*e"tio" of t%e %i(%er critics of t%e 14 t% C! desi("ed to destroy fait% i" t%e i"s'ired 0ord of $od! I t%ou(%t it 0as "o more t%a" a fad of t%e 14 t% C! +ut t%is t%i"( is a(ai" (ro0i"( i" 'o'ularity amo"( t%e sc%olars! We s%all soo" %a*e our de*out co"ser*ati*e +i&le teac%ers Huoti"( it as a" aut%ority! Fou 0ill k"o0 t%ere is a mo*eme"t i" t%is directio" 0%e" t%e 'u&lic me" &e(i" referri"( to t%e YSy"o'tic $os'elsZ Sy"o'tic mea"s sea" to(et%er- a"d relates to t%e first t%ree (os'els! 6rom t%ere you (o to t%e commo" source *ie0! T%e &elie*er k"o0s t%e commo" source is t%e S'irit of $od a"d 0ill t%e" i"clude Do%"! T%e sy"o'ticists re>ect $od a"d trust i" t%eir o0" creatio" of fa&les! T%e X myt% %as "o0 &ee" trum'ed &y T%omas L +rodie! #e tells us t%at t%ere is a &etter source a"d more relia&le t%a" X! #e calls it $roto.;u*e 'It is &ased o" t%e Se'tua(i"t! (The Birthin# o% the New Testament; S%effield .%eo"ix .ress: 2;;4)!#e 0ritesA I" t%e lo"( term- .roto-Luke 0orks &etter ?t%a" X@! It accou"ts for almost all X texts- eit%er directly -i"directly (t%rou(% its i"flue"ce o" t%e at%e0 a"d ca"o"ical Luke;- or i" co">u"ctio" 0it% att%e0Rs ;o#ia+ 9"d it accou"ts for far more (os'el data- &e(i""i"( 0it% arkRs (os'el! I"ot%er 0ords- it sol*es more 'ro&lems t%a" X a"d does so more com're%e"si*ely! T%e moder" 'lou(%&oy- 'articularly if %e is a &or" a(ai" +i&le &elie*er- 0ill k"o0 t%is to &e mere sc%olarly cla'tra'! T%e S'irit of $od (a*e t%e 0ord 0%ic% 0e "o0 %a*e i" our o0" to"(ue! I o"ly &ot%er to i"clude t%is "o"se"se &ecause i" s%ort time our emi"e"t &ret%re" 0ill &e Huoti"( it from t%e 'latforms! It must follo0 t%at if t%e early (os'el accou"ts 0ere 'roduced from some yet u"disco*ered source- &e it X or .roto-Luke- t%ere is "o reaso" 0%y t%ey s%ould "ot &e furt%er modified as "e0 Ydisco*eriesZ are made! oder" textual critics re(ard t%e *er&al i"s'iratio" of Scri'ture as a discredited t%eory a"d if t%ere e*er 0as suc% it could a''ly o"ly to t%e auto(ra'%s! T%ese disa''eared almost as soo" as t%e i"k 0as dry so "o&ody ca" &e too sure a&out a"yt%i"( today! #e"ce t%eories as to t%e tra"smissio" of Scri'ture a&ou"d! +art 7! E%rma" %as %is t%eory! #e %as 0ritte" a&out it i" %is &ook The Orthodo, orruption o% )cripture; the E%%ect o% Early hristolo#ical ontro5ersies on the Te,t o% )cripture; OM.:144<! #e 0rites T%eolo(ical dis'utes- s'ecifically dis'utes o*er C%ristolo(y- 'rom'ted C%ristia" scri&es to alter t%e 0ords of Scri'ture i" order to make t%em more ser*icea&le for t%e 'olemical task! Scri&es modified t%eir ma"uscri'ts to make t%em more 'ate"tly Yort%odoxZ a"d less susce'ti&le to Ya&useZ &y t%e o''o"e"ts of ort%odoxy! T%e Ort%odox i" early c%urc% %istory 0ere t%ose 0%o 'redomi"ated a(ai"st t%e #eretical! E%rma" i"sists t%at it is "ot a matter of 0%ic% 'arty 0as ri(%t: %e does "ot 0is% to make a >ud(me"t! It is >ust t%at t%e stro"(er side 0ere officially t%e Ort%odox! So t%ey c%a"(ed t%e Scri'tures to accommodate t%eir t%eolo(y! T%us t%ey 'roduced t%e +y1a"ti"e text so-called to 0%ic% our 98 +i&le is so closely related! We co"clude

t%erefore t%at t%ey must &e t%e %eretical 0%o i" our day are so furiously c%a"(i"( t%e text &ack Uto 0%at 0e call t%e 9lexa"dria" text! T%ese Y%ereticsZ 0%ic% i"clude et1(er- 9la"d- t%ose me"tio"ed a&o*e- a"d ma"y ot%ers- are "o0 t%e Ort%odox a"d &or" a(ai" +i&le &elie*ers are t%e %eretics! +ut sa*ed scri&es 0ould "e*er %a*e altered t%e text! T%ey &elie*ed i" t%e *er&al i"s'iratio" of Scri'ture a"d k"e0 from t%e &e(i""i"( 0%at 0as i"s'ired a"d 0%at "ot &ecause t%e a'ostles k"e0 a"d 0ould %a*e tau(%t t%em t%us! (2 .eter <A 13) Sa*ed me" a"d 0ome" do /OT set out to decei*e! T%ose first C%ristia" co'yists %ad a dee' re*ere"ce for t%e 0ord of $od a"d &elie*ed e*ery >ot a"d tittle to &e (i*e" of $od! T%ere is "o 0ay t%ey 0ould %a*e t%ou(%t to im'ro*e o" 0%at $od %ad (i*e"! It 0ould "ot &e feasi&le for o"e scri&e to make %is alteratio" a"d t%is to &e fou"d i" all t%e co'ies of t%e YOrt%odoxZ5 T%e *ast ma>ority of t%e ma"uscri'ts of t%e YOrt%odoxZ a(ree 0it% eac% ot%er! O"ly a fe0 suc% as t%e 8atica"us a"d t%e Si"iaticus s%o0 t%emsel*es to &e seriously mutilated! T%e o"ly 0ay u"i*ersal a(reeme"t could %a*e &ee" o&tai"ed (if $od %ad "ot (i*e" t%e 0ord i" t%e first 'lace) 0ould &e &y t%e collusio" of all co'yists! T%is is more or less 0%at Westcott a"d #ort t%ou(%t %ad %a''e"ed 0%e" t%ey i"*e"ted t%eir rece"sio" t%eory Ua t%eory 0%ic% 0as *ery Huickly discredited! +elie*ers 0ould "ot co"sider alteri"( t%e text &ecause t%ey &elie*e $odRs 0ord 0as settled i" %ea*e"! F(r e9er7 O LORD7 t&1 '(rd is sett8ed in &ea9en+ (.s!114A L4)! +elie*ers seek to co"ti"ue i" t%e fait% (rou"ded a"d settled- (Col!1A 2<) a"d t%ere is "ot%i"( more u"settli"( to fait% t%a" to &e told t%at t%e +i&le is defecti*e i" so ma"y 'laces- so muc% of it %a*i"( &ee" c%a"(ed! +elie*ers do "ot acce't a" e*ol*i"( +i&le &ut t%is is t%e 0ar' a"d 0oof of textual criticism! E%rma" &e(i"s %is &ook 0it% t%ese 0ordsT%e o"e le*el I 0ill &e co"cer"ed 0it% i" t%e 'rese"t study i"*ol*es ma"uscri'ts of t%e e*ol*i"( C%ristia" Scri'turesU0%at 0ould e*e"tually &e called t%e /e0 Testame"t! E%rma"- as far as I ca" determi"e- %as "e*er made a claim to &ei"( sa*ed! /ot ma"y Textual Critics are sa*ed! 9 settled defi"iti*e +i&le is a fu"dame"tal to t%e fait%! Wit%out it fait% ca""ot exist! #is &i&le may &e freely altered- as all moder" *ersio"s are! We are "o0 (etti"( u'dates of u'dates! E%rma" me"tio"s ma"y alle(ed scri&al i"ter'olatio"s! Some of t%ese %a*e &ee" dealt 0it%i" 'ast issues of =aymar*s! T%ere is "ot o"e i"ter'olatio" i" my +i&le! #ere is o"e e*ide"ce out of ma"y listed &y E%rma" 0%ere %e &elie*es t%e Yort%odoxZ corru'ted t%e text! It is i" relatio" to t%e *ir(i" &irt% of C%rist! See my comme"ts a&o*e- AV Verses Vindicated- Lk! 2A <<-4L! .s!11A< I6 t&e 6(.ndati(ns -e destr(1ed7 '&at ,an t&e rig&te(.s d(% T%e fou"datio" of our fait% is settled i" t%e 0ord of $od! E'%! 2A 2; tells &elie*ers t%at t%ey are -.i8t .)(n t&e 6(.ndati(n (6 t&e a)(st8es and )r()&ets7 $es.s C&rist &i*se86 -eing t&e ,&ie6 ,(rner stone. If %arm is to &e do"e to t%e cause of C%rist a"d to #is 'eo'le- Sata" must do it t%rou(% attacks u'o" t%e fou"datio"s! T%e Scri'tures must &e destroyed! T%is- t%e &elie*er k"o0s- is a" im'ossi&ility for t%e 0ord of $od e"duret% for e*er! +ut &elie*ers must &e ur(ed to Huestio" its aut%e"ticityUY%at% $od saidBZ 0as Sata"Rs first lie- ri(%t &ack i" t%e $arde" of Ede"!

Satan has many apostate scholars in his employ who will impugn the word of od! "ut he #nows "elie$ers will ta#e little notice of them so he must use men who use the %onser$ati$e& 'undamental la"el( )e uses good! well taught *i"le preachers(
THE ROMISH ATTAC" ON SCRIPTURE Rome %as al0ays &ee" %ostile to t%e 0ord of $od! T%e reaso" &ei"( t%at t%e edicts of 'o'ery are co"sidered to %a*e more 0ei(%t t%a" t%e 0ords of Scri'ture! Rome %as %istorically re(arded it da"(erous to allo0 ordi"ary folk to read t%e Scri'tures i" t%eir o0" la"(ua(e! T%ey 0ill lear" t%e falsity of Roma"ism a"d read t%e fate of Rome- t%e ot%er of #arlots! RomeRs %ostility %as &ee" ma"ifested i" t%e treatme"t of Wycliffe- s'oke" of as t%e or"i"( Star of t%e Reformatio"- 0%o 'roduced a" E"(lis% +i&le i" t%e 14t% ce"tury! #is &o"es 0ere du( u' a"d cast i"to t%e ri*er! Later- &elie*ers 0ere &ur"t at t%e stake &ecause t%ey &elie*ed t%e 0ord of $od! Ty"daleRs &i&les 0ere sei1ed a"d &ur"ed! #e also 0e"t to t%e stake! 6rom t%e 14t% ce"tury Rome &e(a" a "e0 tactic &y follo0i"( t%e '%iloso'%y Yif you ca"Rt &eat Tem- >oi" TemZ! So Desuits i"filtrated t%e +i&le Societies- u"til today t%e +i&le Society 0%ic% 'roduces almost all t%e moder" *ersio"s is 0ell i"flue"ced &y Rome! Cardi"al arti"i is a" editor of t%e M"ited +i&le Societies $reek /e0 Testame"t u'o" 0%ic% moder" tra"slatio"s are &ased! arti"i is t%e R C 9rc%&is%o' of ila"! 7es'ite t%is it remai"ed

im'ossi&le for Roma" Cat%olics to &uy a +i&le i" some 'asts of t%e +ritis% Isles (Irela"d) 0ell i"to t%e 2;t% ce"tury! RomeRs %ostility to t%e E"(lis% +i&le 0as re*ealed i" t%e 7ouay-Westmi"ster *ersio"- 14=L 9 7! T%ere 0e readTy"daleRs .rotesta"t text 0as soo" follo0ed &y ot%ers- Co*erdaleRs +i&le 1=<=- T att%e0RsR +i&le (D! Ro(ers) 1=<C- t%e $reat +i&le 1=<4 (ofte" k"o0 ?sic@ as Cra"merRs &ecause of %is 'reface to t%e 2"d editio"!)- Ta*er"erRs 1=<4- t%e $e"e*a (W%itti"(%am) 1=3;- a"d t%e +is%o'Rs +i&leR ?sic@ 1=3L: to 0%ic% s%ould &e added t%e E"(lis% tra"slatio"s of ErasmusR Lati" /e0 Testame"t i" 1=4;- a"d of +e1aRa i" 1=C3- t%e latter- &y Tomso"- re'laci"( t%e /e0 Testame"t i" t%e $e"e*a +i&le (from 13;<)! (T%e 9ut%ori1ed 8ersio"- 1311- of course- came after &ot% R%eims a"d 7ouay!) T%e a&o*e 0ere t%e texts of 0%ic% 7r 9lle"- 'reside"t of 7ouay Colle(e- 0rote i" 1=CLA TOur ad*ersaries - %o0e*er- %a*e at t%eir fi"(erti's from some %eretical *ersio" all t%ose 'assa(es of Scri'ture 0%ic% seem to make for t%em- a"d &y a certai" dece'ti*e ada'tatio" a"d alteratio" of t%e sacred 0ords 'roduce t%e effect of a''eari"( to say "ot%i"( &ut 0%at comes from t%e +i&le! T%is e*il mi(%t &e remedied if 0e too %ad some Cat%olic *ersio" of t%e +i&le- for all t%e E"(lis% *ersio"s are most corru'tG! If %is #oli"ess s%all >ud(e it ex'edie"t- 0e oursel*es 0ill e"dea*our to %a*e t%e +i&le fait%fully- 'urely- a"d (e"ui"ely tra"slated accordi"( to t%e editio" a''ro*ed &y t%e C%urc%- for 0e %a*e me" most fitted for t%e 0orkR! T%e task 0as e"trusted to $re(ory arti" [ T%e #istory of t%e R%eims-7ouay *ersio" '!231 T%e 14=L Westmi"ster editio" carries a" i"troductory messa(e from .o'e .ius \II (.acelli)! #e 0rote- YWe 0armly 0elcome t%is "e0 editio" of a family +i&le 're'ared for E"(lis% s'eaki"( Cat%olics!Z T%is ma" %as &ee" la&eled Y#itlerRs .o'e! #is rei(" co*ered t%e 2"d 0orld 0ar! #e (a*e "o reactio" to Eristall"ac%t i" 14<L a"d 0as "ot o"ly a"ti-semitic &ut 'ro /a1i! T%is is t%e ma" 0%o a""ou"ced %imself as i"falli&le a"d declared t%e assum'tio" of ary- t%at is s%e 0as carried &odily u' i"to %ea*e" at %er deat%! We (i*e &elo0 a com'ariso" of some of its readi"(s 0it% t%e 98 a"d t%e /I8! We "ote t%e similarities &et0ee" t%e Westmi"ster 8ersio" a"d t%e /I8 readi"(s of 0%ic% Rome a''ro*es! Matt. 1: 25 AV- And knew her not till she had brought forth her firstborn son+ WV,( -.nd he #new her not till she "rought forth a son/0 'irst "orn omitted( NIrV(, -*ut he did not ha$e se1 with her until after she ga$e "irth to a son0( 2n this wretched per$ersion not only is the 3omish lie of the perpetual $irginity of 4ary maintained "ut the discrete language of the .5 is replaced with gutter phraseology( Luke 1 : 5 AV. -Whi!h of "ou shall ha#e an ass or an o$ fallen into a %it&. WV(, -6hich of you! if his son or his o1 fall into a well70 NIrV -Suppose one of you has a child or an o1 that falls into a well70 ries"ach! ree# scholar 89: and notorious *i"le hater appears among the first 8%ritical ree# and ;nglish <estament/ *agster/ undated 19th %(: to produce a ree# =ew <estament 81805 .>: reading uios 8son: in place of onos 8ass: 'ohn 1: 1( AV. -No )an hath seen *od at an" ti)e+ the onl" begotten ,on- whi!h is in the boso) of the .ather- he hath de!lared hi). WV(, - od no man hath seen at any time/ od only,"egotten! whom is in the "osom of the 'ather! he hath declared him(0 NIrV(, -=o,one has e$er seen od( *ut od the ?ne and ?nly! is at the 'ather@s side( .nd he has shown us what od is li#e(0 A( 4oorman comments+ -<his is the classic nostic per$ersion with its doctrine of Bintermediary gods(@ 2t is the trademar# of corruption in the early ;gyptian manuscripts which unfortunately spread to some others(0 8 Early Manuscripts and the Authorized Version/ *'<: 'ohn /: 1/

AV.- And no )an hath as!ended u% to hea#en- but he that !a)e down fro) hea#en- e#en the ,on of )an whi!h is in hea#en. 2V+ Y/o o"e %at% (o"e u' i"to %ea*e" &ut %e 0%o %at% come do0" from %ea*e"- t%e S o" of a"!Z NIrV! Y/o-o"e %as e*er (o"e i"to %ea*e" exce't t%e O"e 0%o came from %ea*e"! #e is t%e So" of a"!Z T%e om"i'rese"ce of t%e So" is de"ied &y omitti"( t%e fi"al '%rase! C(8+ 1< 1? AV+@ In '&(* 'e &a9e rede*)ti(n t&r(.g& &is -8((d7 e9en t&e 6(rgi9eness (6 sins+ 2V! YI" 0%om 0e %a*e redem'tio"-Z NIrV! Y+ecause of 0%at t%e So" %as do"e- 0e %a*e &ee" set free! +ecause of %im- all our si"s %a*e &ee" for(i*e"Z! t%rou(% %is &lood is omitted i" most moder" *ersio"s! T%is omissio" 're*e"ts for(i*e"ess of si"s! C(8+ <11 AV+ @In '&(* a8s( 1e are ,ir,.*,ised 'it& t&e ,ir,.*,isi(n *ade 'it&(.t &ands7 in ).tting (66 t&e -(d1 (6 t&e sins (6 t&e 68es& -1 t&e ,ir,.*,isi(n (6 C&rist+ 2V! YI" %im a(ai" it is t%at ye 0ere circumcised 0it% a circumcisio" "ot made 0it% %a"ds- t%e stri''i"( off of your fles%ly &ody!Z NIrV+ YW%e" you recei*ed C%rist- you 0ere also circumcised &y 'utti"( a0ay your si"ful "ature! #uma" %a"ds did"Rt circumcise you! C%rist did!Z We "ote t%at Scofield follo0s t%e Romis% text- calli"( for t%e omissio" of Yt%e si"s ofZ i" %is "otes! T%e /Ir8 (oes e*e" furt%er- claimi"( a" e"d to our si"ful "ature so teac%i"( si"less 'erfectio" [ a "ature t%at %as "ot%i"( i" it t%at ca" res'o"d to si"! So 0e are all (ods! 1 Ti*+ A< 1B AV+ @#(d 'as *ani6est in t&e 68es& 2V! YW%o 0as ma"ifested i" fles%!Z NIrV! YDesus a''eared i" a &ody!Z W8 a"d /Ir8 &ot% de"y t%e LordRs deity! Ti*+ A< 1B AV+@ A88 S,ri) is gi9en -1 ins)irati(n (6 #(d+ 2V!ZE*ery scri'ture is i"s'ired of $od!Z NIrV! Y$od %as &reat%ed life i"to all Scri'ture!Z T%e /Ir8 teac%es %ere t%at Scri'ture first existed 0it%out life! He-re's 1< A AV+ C2&en &e &ad -1 &i*se86 ).rged (.r sinsC 2V!- Y#a*i"( made a clea"si"( from si"!Z +y remo*i"( YourZ- t%e im'licatio" is t%e clea"si"( 0as from #is o0" si"! It is a %i(%ly &las'%emous readi"(! NIRV+@ Y#e 'ro*ided t%e 0ay for 'eo'le to &e made 'ure from si"!Z T%is also is a de"ial of C%ristRs sacrificial deat%! YT%e 0ayZ mi(%t &e &y ritualistic o&ser*a"ces or self-effort! It 0as "ot a 0ay at all! It 0as &y #imself! Y.eo'leZ de"ies a"y 'erso"al a''licatio"! It 0as our si"s! $a*es < ! AV+@0.t 'i8t t&(. 4n('7 O 9ain *an7 t&at 6ait& 'it&(.t '(r4s is dead% 2V! -Y6ait% 0it%out 0orks is idle!Z So t%e *ai" ma" refuses to admit to %is dead ( t%erefore "o"-existe"t) fait% ! NIrV!- YFou foolis% 'erso"5 7o you 0a"t 'roof t%at fait% 0it%out (ood 0orks is uselessBZ +ot% t%ese 'er*ersio"s teac% t%at you ca" %a*e fait% a"d t%erefore &e ri(%t 0it% $od 0it%out t%e sli(%test e*ide"ce of it i" o"eRs life!

$a*es D< 1B AV+@C(n6ess 1(.r 6a.8ts (ne t( an(t&er7 2V!- YCo"fess ye t%erefore yours si"s to o"e a"ot%er!Z T%e c%a"(e from faults to si"s le(itimi1es t%e co"fessio"al &ox- a"d o'e"s t%e 0ay for lasci*ious"ess! Lustful a''etites are 0%etted &y lear"i"( a&out t%e si"s of ot%ers! T%e 98 0ord faults tra"slates paraptoma- 0%ic% ca" mea" a la'se or u"i"te"tio"al error! T%e commo" *er& for si" is hamartano! T%is is t%e 0ord t%at a''ears i" *!1=- if %e %a*e committed si"s! T%ese t0o 0ords are /OT sy"o"yms! Wilful si" is dealt 0it% i" *!1=- faults are dealt 0it% i" *!13! Co"fusi"( t%ese t0o issues is a serious error! Wilful mistra"slatio" is a *ery serious si"! NIrV@ YSo admit to o"e a"ot%er t%at you %a*e si""ed!Z T%ese folk a(ai" follo0 t%e Romis% lie! 1 Peter < AV+@ As ne'-(rn -a-es7 desire t&e sin,ere *i84 (6 t&e '(rd7 t&at 1e *a1 gr(' t&ere-1+

2V!- YFear" for u"co"tami"ated s'iritual milk- t%at t%ereo" ye may (ro0 u"to sal*atio"!Z Rome claims t%at s%e alo"e 'ro*ides u"co"tami"ated s'iritual milk so t%e 0ord is remo*ed! Rome still %ates $odRs Word! D oorma" adds- Y9 classic sal*atio" &y 0orks alteratio" 0%ic% des'ite its u"cial a"d *ersio"al su''ortca""ot 'ossi&ly &e ri(%t! T%e /I8J/9S8 tra"slators did "ot tra"slate literally %ere55Z 1 $(&n D< E@F AV+ F(r t&ere are t&ree t&at -ear re,(rd in &ea9en7 t&e Fat&er7 t&e 2(rd7 and t&e H(81 #&(st< and t&ese t&ree are (ne+ And t&ere are t&ree t&at -ear 'itness in eart&7 t&e s)irit7 and t&e 'ater7 and t&e -8((d< and t&ese t&ree agree in (ne+ 2V!- T%ese *erses are missi"( t%e u"derli"ed 0ords T%ese 0ords are also missi"( from most moder" *ersio"s! T%ose 0%o %a*e a"y dou&ts as to t%eir i"te(rity "eed to read ic%ael ay"ardRs boo* A 0istory o% the 2ebate o5er @ John HL M.N : Comma .u&licatio"s! Read also t%e T + S leaflet =hy @ John H'M.N is in the Bible ! .articularly- read Dack oorma"Rs =hen the "JV departs %rom the OMa>orityP Te,t- c%!3: + 6 T! Re9+ D< 1! 3A8s( see Re9+ 1< B5 AV+@ And &ast *ade .s .nt( (.r #(d 4ings and )riests7 and 'e s&a88 reign (n t&e eart&+ 2V! Y9"d %ast made t%em a ki"(dom a"d 'riests to our $od a"d t%ey s%all rei(" u'o" t%e eart%!Z NIrV! YFou %a*e made t%em mem&ers of a royal family! Fou %a*e made t%em 'riests to ser*e our $od !T%ey 0ill rule o" t%e eart%!Z 9ll t%e +i&le critics %a*e follo0ed $reis&ac% 0it% t%is alteratio"! O"ly o"ly t%e so*erei(" i" a ki"(dom ca" rei(" /ot all mem&ers of a royal family ca" ruleJrei(" at t%e same time! +ut $od %as made #is 'eo'le ki"(s a"d t%ey 9LL 0ill rei("! Re9+ < 1? AV+ 08essed are t&e1 t&at d( &is ,(**and*ents7 t&at t&e1 *a1 &a9e rig&t t( t&e tree (6 8i6e+ 2V! Y+lessed are t%ey t%at 0as% t%eir ro&es- i" order t%at t%ey may %a*e ari(%t to t%e tree of life!Z NIrV! Y+lessed are t%ose 0%o 0as% t%eir ro&es! T%ey 0ill %a*e t%e ri(%t to come to t%e tree of life!Z T%ere is massi*e ma"uscri't e*ide"ce for t%e RTJ98 readi"(! T%e W8J/Ir8 readi"(s are 'o'is%!

T&e S,&(8ar=s Near81 A,,.rate -i-8e YIt is o"ly i" re(ard to o"e 0ord i" a t%ousa"d t%at t%e textual critics- &y la&orious com'ariso" of ma"uscri'ts- %a*e to determi"e t%e exact readi"( of t%e ori(i"al text!Z 9 c7! Red0ood: The 6aithA )ymposium;'<2C: . P I Ltd! 14=2! (T%is &ook %as &ee" re'ri"ted!) W%e" 0ill t%ey e*er lear"B T%e same old lies are still &ei"( 'ro'a(ated! I"s'ect a"y moder" *ersio" si"ce 14=2 a"d see if o"ly o"e 0ord i" a t%ousa"d is c%a"(ed! 9"d %o0 did t%ey select t%at Yo"e 0ordZ i" a t%ousa"dB +y tur"i"( to seriously de'ra*ed (ack"o0led(ed to &e so &y t%emsel*es) ma"uscri'ts t%at %ad &ee" k"o0" a"d re>ected &y t%e early c%urc%! Of course- t%ese me" %ad "e*er see" t%e ori(i"al text a"d so felt free to i"*e"t t%eir o0"! Red0ood t%e" Huotes Ee"yo"Rs &ook The )tory o% the Bible It may &e distur&i"( to some to 'art 0it% t%e co"ce'tio" of a +i&le %a"ded do0" t%rou(% t%e a(es 0it%out alteratio" a"d i" u"c%alle"(ed aut%ority: &ut it is a %i(%er ideal to face t%e facts- to a''ly t%e &est 'o0ers 0it% 0%ic% $od %as e"do0ed us to t%e solutio" of t%e 'ro&lems 0%ic% t%ey 'rese"t to us: a"d it is reassuri"( at t%e e"d to fi"d t%at t%e (e"eral result of all t%ese disco*eries a"d all t%is study is to stre"(t%e" t%e 'roof of the authenticity o% the )criptures, a"d our co"*ictio" t%at 0e %a*e i" our %a"ds- i" su&sta"tial i"te(rity- t%e *erita&le Word of $od! Ee"yo"- alo"( 0it% all sc%olars- t%ou(%t t%at o"ly i("oramuses &elie*ed i" t%e 'reser*atio" of Scri'ture! Ee"yo" t%ou(%t it more "o&le to rely o" %is o0" i"tellect to decide 0%at is Scri'ture a"d 0%at is "ot! #e 0as 'roud to a""ou"ce t%at t%rou(% all %is e"dea*ours %e *ery "early %ad a &i&le %e could trust! Red0ood- 'er%a's reali1i"( t%at Ee"yo"Rs *ie0s seriously u"dermi"e fait%- a"d 0riti"( i" a &ook su''osedly (i*i"( a sym'osium of t%e fait%- lamely closed %is c%a'ter 0ow we #ot our Bible 0it% t%ese 0ords Let it &e stated cate(orically t%at all t%e aut%orities i" t%e field of textual criticism assure us t%at "o si"(le doctri"e of t%e $os'el is affected &y a"y of t%e *ariatio"s still u"ex'lai"ed! Well- t%ey 0ould say t%at- 0ould"Rt t%eyB +ut Yt%e aut%orities!!! assure usZB 9re 0e "ot a&le to read for oursel*esB 9re 0e so i("ora"t t%at 0e do"Rt k"o0 0%at t%e Ydoctri"es of t%e $os'elZ areB W%at a&out t%e *ariatio"s t%at are ex'lai"edB 7o 0e i("ore t%emB W%ic% are t%ese u"ex'lai"ed o"es a"d 0%y ca" t%ey "ot &e ex'lai"edB I" a"y case 0e k"o0 t%at doctri"es are affected! 7a*id Cloud i" %is &ook Myths about the Modern Bible Versions lists fifty doctri"es remo*ed- 0eake"ed- c%a"(ed- or added i" t%e M+S $reek Text a"d t%e oder" 8ersio"s! +ecause of t%ese *ie0s 'ut out &y leadi"( &ret%re" i" a 'ast (e"eratio" 0e %a*e "o0 a situatio" 0%ere a"yt%i"( (oes! 9 fe0 years a(o &ret%re" 0ould read 'u&licly from t%e 98 +i&le a"d t%e" tell us 0%y t%e D/7 /e0 Tra"slatio" or t%e Re*ised 8ersio" 0as su'erior! /o0 0e fi"d audacious me" 0%o mou"t t%e 'latform a"d read from t%e /I8 or t%e /ED+! We %a*e a situatio" of co"fusio" a"d a decli"e i" fait%!

Beware Double Talk

YWe &elie*e t%is solem" trut% ?a literal %ell fire@ &ecause 0e &elie*e $odRs %oly 0ordZ! #arold .aisley (Ia"Rs &rot%er): =ords in )eason: ] 2;;2! YIt is our *ie0 t%at t%is is i"deed t%e correct la"(ua(e of t%e text!!! Y7eat% 0%ere is t%y *ictoryZ 1 Cor!1=A ==R8! #arold .aisley: =ords in )eason: ay 2;;2! 7eat% i" *!== is tra"slated from thanatos O deat&7 '&ere is t&1 sting% (98)! +ut t%e 9ut%ori1ed +i&le reads O gra9e7 '&ere is t&1 9i,t(r1+ 0ades i" e*ery ot%er 'lace &ut %ere is tra"slated %ell! It is "e*er tra"slated deat% a"d does"Rt mea" deat% t%ou(% t%e dead are t%ere! T%us # .aisley &elie*es %is Y*ie0Z to &e su'erior to t%e 0ord (i*e" &y t%e #oly S'irit! #is Y*ie0Z is t%at t0o or t%ree 9lexa"dria" $reek a"uscri'ts- re>ected &y &elie*ers from t%e &e(i""i"(- are su'erior to t%e *ast ma>ority of ma"uscri'ts 0%ic% com'rise t%e Recei*ed Text o" 0%ic% our aut%ori1ed +i&le is &ased! W%e" # .aisley says Y0e &elie*e $odRs 0ordZ %e is (uilty of dou&le talk! #e &elie*es a &i&le of %is o0" maki"(! Y7eat% 0%ere is t%y *ictoryZ is /OT $odRs %oly 0ord! It is "ot #is 0ord a all!

It is dou&le talk 0%e" a ma" states 'u&licly (i" t%is case D #u"ter- i"ter"et audio) Y0e &elie*e t%e +i&le to &e i"s'iredZ a"d t%e" a fe0 mi"utes later- a""ou"ces o"ly t%e ori(i"al ma"uscri'ts 0ere free from error! So 0e co"clude %e &elie*ed i" a &i&le "ot free from error yet i"s'ired of $od! T%is *ie0 im'u("s t%e ri(%teous"ess of $od- c%ar(i"( #im 0it% i"s'iri"( error! It is dou&le talk 0%e" a ma" tells %is audie"ce Yt%e +i&le ca" &e trustedZ &ut &elie*es it to &e less t%a" 'erfect- fla0ed i" ma"y 'laces due to scri&al mistakes etc! #is audie"ce does"Rt k"o0 0%ic% are t%e mistakes a"d 0%at is (e"ui"e! It is dou&le talk to su((est t%at $od could kee' me" from error i" 0riti"( t%e auto(ra'%s (ori(i"al ma"uscri'ts) &ut %as &ee" i"com'ete"t e*er si"ce: u"a&le &ecause of %uma" falli&ility- to 'reser*e t%e Scri'tures from error! If t%is s%ould &e true t%e" $od must &e c%ar(ed 0it% dis%o"esty! T%e +i&le co"tai"s "umerous 'romises to t%e 'reser*atio" of Scri'ture! .s! 12A 3-C: .s! 114A L4: tt! 24A <=: Do%" 1;A <=: 1 .eter 1A 22-2=! etc!