This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
6(8): August 2013
ISSN 0974-3618 RESEARCH ARTICLE
Evaluation for CNS Activities of Hexane Extract of Citrullus lanatus Seeds
Habibur Rahman1,2*, M. Chinna Eswaraiah2, Anoosha T.2, Nagaveni K.2, Manjula K.2
Research Scholar, Assam Down Town University, Guwahati, Assam Department of Pharmacology, Anurag Pharmacy College, Kodad, Andhra Pradesh-508206, India *Corresponding Author E-mail:- firstname.lastname@example.org
The present study aimed to evaluate the possible CNS activities of hexane extracts of Citrullus lanatus Seeds. The effect of hexane extracts of Citrullus lanatus Seeds was tested for Anti-depressant activity using Forced Swim Test (FST) and Tail Suspension Test (TST) in mice, Anxiolytic activity using Elevated Plus Maze(EPM) and Dark-light model in mice and effect on motor co-ordination and skeletal muscle using Rota-Rod , Grip Strength test in mice. The hexane extract exhibited significant anti-depressant and anxiolytic activities but the extract does not produces skeletal muscle relaxant activity beside it slightly improved the skeletal muscle activity in animal models. It can conclude that hexane extract of Citrullus lanatus Seeds possess anti-depressant and anxiolytic activity but does not affect on skeletal muscle activity. Finally, it can say that this can be used in CNS disorders like depression and anxiety and does not affect of skeletal muscle activity like synthetic drugs.
KEYWORDS -: Citrullus lanatus Seeds, hexane extract, Forced Swim Test, anxiety, skeletal muscle activity INTRODUCTION:
Citrullus lanatus of family Cucurbitaceae is commonly known as water melon and in local name Tarmuz (Hindi), Puchakaya (Telugu). The ripe fruits are edible and largely used for making confectionary. Its nutritive values are also useful to the human health. Fruit is used in cooling, strengthening, aphrodisiac, astringent to the bowels, indigestible, expectorant, diuretic, and stomachic, purifies the blood, allays thirst, cures biliousness, good for sore eyes, scabies and itches and as brain tonic to the brain 1. It also reported having analgesic and anti-inflammatory of seeds2, anti-ulcerative activity3,4, antimicrobial activity5, laxative activity of fruit6, antioxidant of fruit7, hepatoprotective8 and anti-hyperlipidemic9. Literature survey reveals the uses Citrullus lanatus fruit Seeds contain unsaturated fats almost 90%, vitamins, antioxidants, minerals, proteins and phytochemicals like terpinoids, Flavanoids and phenolic compounds10. Flavnoids and phenolic containing herbal drugs has got increased demand in recent years owing to their potent antioxidant and free-radical scavenging activities14-17. Though Watermelon Fruit is an excellent source of vitamins, arginine, Carotenoids, lycopene, carbohydrate, sodium, magnesium, potassium and water and consumed widely throughout the world18-19. But the seeds are not in generally given importance though it contain important phytochemicals and hence the present investigation was conducted to study CNS activities of hexane extracts of Citrullus lanatus seeds in experimental animal models.
MATERIAL AND METHODS:
Plant material and extraction procedures: Citrullus lanatus fruit were purchased local market from Kodad, Andhra Pradesh and seeds were collected from fruits and was authenticated by Prof. Dr. K. Madhava Chetty,Taxonomist, SVU University, Chithoor, Andhra Pradesh (India).The air dried seeds were made into coarse Oxidative damage to cellular biomolecules such as lipids, powder and extracted with n-Hexane using Soxlet proteins and DNA is thought to play a crucial role in the Apparatus and percentage yield were calculated. incidence of several chronic diseases including CNS degenerative, anxiety, Alzheimer and cardiovascular etc11-13. Preliminary Phytochemical Analysis The hexane extract of Citrullus lanatus were tested for different phytoconsituents like alkaloids, glycosides, saponinins, tannins, terpinoids, phenolic compounds, protein, carbohydrates using standard procedures20.
Received on 03.05.2013 Modified on 10.06.2013 Accepted on 15.06.2013 © RJPT All right reserved Research J. Pharm. and Tech. 6(8): August 2013; Page 878-884
p. It was filled with water (2729 °C) up to a height of 15 cm All the animals were treated for one week with drugs. The Anxiolytic activity of the test drugs were evaluated using the Forced Swim Test (FST) in mice Antidepressant activity was evaluated by using Porsolt experimental Elevated Plus Maze (EPM) and Light-Dark Forced Swing test in mice. On day before experiment. and also signed of tremors.o) the following experimental models Forced Swim Test Behavioural evaluation was carried out 60 minutes post (FST) and Tail Suspension Test (TST) in mice.o) of drugs and observed for the signs of toxicity. Acute Oral Toxicity Study The acute oral toxicity procedure was followed by using OECD 423 guidelines starting with 2000 mg/kg body in adult female mice which were fasted overnight with water ad libitum.o in1% Tween 80) Apparatus consist of a water tub of 60 cm (inner diameter) and 35 cm (height) was used. The duration of immobility was recorded during the last 4 minutes of the observation period because each animal showed vigorous movement during initial 2 min period. lethargy. the animals were divided randomly into four groups of six animals each and treated with drugs for 1 weak. Animals were obtained from Anurag Pharmacy College. salivation. The starting dose level of the hexane extract of Citrullus lanatus was 2000mg/kg body weight p. Evaluation for Anti-depressant activities Experimental Design: Animal: Mice. Body weight of the animals before and after administration were noted and any changes in skin and fur. Sex: Male. The Group IV: Standard (Diazepam. p.22 This works on the basic Model (LDM) in mice. It was then wiped dry and returned to home cage.o. (250mg/kg in 1% Tween 80) Behavioural evaluation was carried out 60 minutes post Group III: EECL( 500mg/kg in 1% Tween 80) drug/vehicle administration on the last day. 23 and works on the principle of Antidepressant effect significant decrease in escape oriented movement immobility (hangigg) in rodents. diarrhoea. convulsions. Weight: 25-35 gm On the day of the experiment. Pharm. On day 7th. and Tech. Sex: Male. After a gap of 1 hour they were subjected to the swim test. in 1% Tween antidepressant activity of the test drug was evaluated using 80. The duration of the mouse was considered immobile when it floated motionlessly or made only those moments necessary to keep its head above the water surface. et. The animals were accustomed to the laboratory conditions for a week prior to the experimentation. 10ml/kg.21. drug/vehicle administration on the last day. The fresh diet and water for the animals has to be supplied daily to the animals.o) Group II: EECL. Tail Suspension Test in Mice In Tail Suspension test used is described by Steru. 10ml/kg.o) Group II: EECL (250mg/kg in 1% Tween 80) Group III: EECL (500mg/kg in 1% Tween 80) Group IV: Standard (Imipramine. placed approximately 1 cm from the tip of the tail. sleep and coma were noted. 22. Vehicles and Preparation of Doses To prepare the dosage forms extract of Citrullus lanatus seed is made a suspension with 1% tween 80. p. Each animal under test was both acoustically and visually isolated from other animals during the test. Group I: Control (1% Tween 80. autonomic and central nervous system and loco motor activity and behaviour pattern were observed. Group I: Control (1% Tween 80. The dose in required concentration was administered at 1ml/100g body weight of the animal. The duration of immobility was observed for a period of 8 minutes. principle of antidepressant effect statistically decrease in immobility and behavioral despair in rodents. p. The animals were hung by the tail on a plastic string 50 cm above the surface with the help of an adhesive tape. The test was conducted in a dim lighted room and each mouse was used only once in the test. Animals were kept under standard conditions at 23-250C for 12 hr light/dark cycle and given standard pellet diet and water. The duration of immobility was recorded during the last 6 minutes of the observation period. each animal was dropped in water and was forced to swim for 6 min. 6(8): August 2013 Experimental Animals Mice of either sex weighing 150-200 g of body weight were used in experiment. eyes and mucous membranes and also respiratory. The condition of the animals has to be supervised daily till the completion of the experiment. Food was with held for further 3-4 hours after administration (p. The 879 .Research J. Evaluation of Anxiolytic and Skeletal Muscle Relaxant Activity Experimental Design: Animal: Mice. Mice were considered to be immobile only when they hung passively and were completely motionless. Weight: 25-35 gm On the day of the experiment. 10mg/kg. the animals were divided randomly into four groups of six animals each and treated with drugs for 1 weak.o. 10mg/kg. In accordance with Porsolt et al. The water was changed after each test. The onset of toxicity and signs were also noted. al. Kodad. circulatory. as most of the crude extracts posses LD50 value more than 2000 mg/kg. mice were kept in water for 6 min. The test was conducted in a dim lighted room and each mouse was used only once in the test. mice were treated with drugs as mention in respective groups and control receive only vehicle. p.
The effect on duration of immobility were compared with Rota Rod test in Mice Standard (Imipramine. The test was followed by Dennett’s‘t’-test. Light-Dark Model in Mice The light-dark model works on the principal that the light/bright environment works as source of anxiety and Anxiolytic effect statistically significant increase in light (movement) time or number of transition. placed at a height of 50 cm over a cushion ANOVA followed by Dunnett‟s multiple “t” test support.Research J. interfering with motor coordination.27 The rotarod test was used to determine the effect of drugs on motor coordination. ns -Non Significant. During the 5 min experiment. p. After 60 min of administration of the tested drugs the each animal 880 . Every time before placing each animal. Result of Acute oral toxicity Acute oral toxicity studies of hexane extract of Citrulus lanatus (HECL) seeds were carried out according to OECD-423 guidelines in mice and starting at a dose of 2000 mg/kg.o and 500 mg/kg. 10mg/kg. 10ml/kg. spend greater amount of time in enclosed arm. Rota Rod. The percentage yield is 16. the light-compartment and the dark compartment. the behavior of the mouse was recorded as the number of entries into the open or closed arms and time spent by the mouse in each of the arms. 10mg/kg. Number of crossings between the light and dark area and total time spent in the illuminated part of the box were calculated.82*** (Imipramine.o) each animal falls off from the rod/ time spent by animal in II HECL 135.24 All the rodents have aversion for height and open space. and Tech. the maze was cleaned with 5% alcohol to eliminate the possible bias due the odor left by the previous animal.M (n=6). IV Standard 74. the mice was allowed to hold with the Values are in Mean ± S.27 The length of time the rat was able to hold the wire was recorded.01.o) which showed The rotarod test is used to evaluate the activity of drugs significant decrease in duration of immobility.E. After 60 min of administration of the tested drugs III HECL 127.001 when compared with Control using One way length). Table-1: Effect of HECL on duration of immobility in Forced The instrument (a horizontal rotation device.o. An arm entry was defined as the entry of all four paws into the arm. Anxiolytic effect statistically increase in open time or open entries. they prefer to hide in enclosed arm therefore.67±3. ***p<0. Oils and Phenolic compounds. The drugs and vehicle were administered orally at their respective doses. *p<0. Result of Evaluation of Anti-depressant activity Effect of HECL on duration of immobility in Forced Swim Test in mice The effect of pretreatment with HECL with (250 mg/kg. p values less than 0. p. 6(8): August 2013 Elevated plus Maze Model in Mice Anxiolytic activity was accessed by using Elevated plus Maze(EPM) in mice . consisting of two open arms (16 x 5 cm) and two closed arms (16 x 5 x 12 cm) having an open roof.8±3. After proper treatment with drugs each mouse was placed at the center of the maze with its head facing the open arm.55 evaluated for motor coordination basal reading (the time (1% Tween 80. The box consists of a hole (5cm×5cm) in the bottom of the clapboard between the two compartments. The mice were treated with drugs and vehicles as respective groups and after one hour of treatment each mice during the test the mice were put into the center of the light compartment with their back to dark compartment and then transition behavior over 5 min was observed. The plus-maze apparatus.5±3. exhibited normal behaviour. Result of Preliminary Phytochemical Analysis The hexane extract of Citrullus lanatus seeds was tested for different phytoconsituents and found to have Terpinoids. was kept on wire and the time each animal falls off from the wire of each animal were recorded.o in 1% Tween 80) In grip strength test.p. without any signs of toxicity and two dose level as 250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg selected for pharmacological activities. p.43% w/w.o) for 7 days showed decreased in duration of immobility in Forced Swim Test in mice and the result are given in Table-1 and plotted in Fig-1. Flavanoids. This latency to the grip loss is considered as an indirect measure of grip strength. The data were analyzed by using Graph pad software version5 by one way analysis of variance (ANOVA). Pharm.83±5. Each rat was placed on Immobility (sec. The animals were than I Control 153.05 were considered as significance. forepaws a steel wire (2mm in diameter and 35 cm in **p<0.05. p. Statistical Analysis The data were expressed as mean ± standard error mean (SEM). Swim Test (FST) Group Drug Treatment Duration of Edison) was set at a rate of 25 rpm. 25-26 The mice’s light-dark box (40cm ×20cm ×20cm) consists of two parts.24* (250mg/kg in 1% Tween 80) rotarod.) the rod and those animals that remained on the rod for 3 Mean ± SEM mins were selected for the study. RESULT: Result of solvent Extraction The coarse powder seeds were extracted with solvent extraction done n-hexane and oily light yellow colour extract was found. Grip strength test in Mice p.00** the each animal was kept on rotarod and the time each (500mg/kg in 1% Tween 80) animal falls off from the rod each animal were recorded.
Pharm.0±4.E.56 9.o) II HECL 141.001 when compared with Control using One way ANOVA followed by Dunnett‟s multiple “t” test I Immobility (sec.01.7±6. 10mg/kg.80±0.78±4.17±2.17±4. *p<0. 6(8): August 2013 Effect of HECL on duration of immobility in Tail Suspension Test in mice The effect of pretreatment with HECL with (250 mg/kg.0±3. in 1% Tween 7.o) for 7 days showed decreased in duration of immobility in Tail suspension Test in mice and the result are given in Table-2 and plotted in Fig-2. p.o and 500 mg/kg. ***p<0.24ns 8.39 129.Research J. of entries and time spent in open arm of EPM were compared with Standard ( Diazepam. Group Drug Treatment Duration of Control (1% Tween 80. The effect Test (FST on no. p.33±0. p.52** 8. p.97** 164.27 Group III HECL (500mg/kg in 1% Tween 80) 6. ns -Non Significant. ***p<0.23** 176.67±8.o) Group II HECL (250mg/kg in 1% Tween 80) 6.66±1.01.69* (250mg/kg in 1% Tween 80) III HECL 130.45±1.001 when compared with Control using One way ANOVA followed by Dunnet’s “t” test.83±6. 1% Tween 80. p.78 61.50±0.45 Group IV (Diazepam.76 ns 9.62* (500mg/kg in 1% Tween 80) IV Standard 72. ns -Non Significant.59 65.40±1. 10mg/kg.05. of entries and time spent Suspension Test (TST) in open arm of EPM.33±2.62 210.o) which Table-2: Effect of HECL on duration of immobility in Tail showed significant increase in no. The effect of pretreatment with HECL with (250 mg/kg.E. 10mg/kg. 10ml/kg. 4.14 80.) Mean ± SEM 170.o) (Values are in Mean ± S.).50± 0.66*** 124. **p<0.p.34±10. 10mg/kg. 881 . p.o) for 7 days showed increase in no.o and 500 mg/kg. p. **p<0.M (n=6).45±0. The effect on duration of immobility were compared with Standard ( Imipramine.o in2% Tween 80) Values are in Mean ± S. p.76±9.o) which showed significant decrease in duration of immobility.05.0±2.69*** (Imipramine. *p<0. of entries and time spent in open arm of EPM in mice and the Fig-1: Effect of HECL on duration of immobility in Forced Swim result are given in Table-3 and plotted in Fig-3.34 26.11 10ml/kg.80 Fig-2: Effect of HECL on duration of immobility in Tail Suspension Test (TST) Fig-3: Effect of HECL for anxiolytic activity on EPM in mice Effect of HECL for anxiolytic activity on EPM in mice Table-3: Effect of HECL for anxiolytic activity on EPM in mice Group Treatment No. of entries / 5min Time spent (Sec)/5min Open arm Close arm Open arm Close arm Group I Control (Vehicle.p.M (n=6). and Tech.
).26ns Tween 80) Group (Diazepam. ***p<0.p.04ns 228. **p<0. *p<0.55*** 1% Tween 80.05.o) which Tween 80) showed significant increase in spent in open chamber. ***p<0.o) for 7 days showed decrease in spent in rota rod in mice and the result are given in Table-5 and plotted in Fig-5.o and 500 mg/kg. 882 .o) are given in Table-4 and plotted in Fig-4. p. 10mg/kg. p.05.83± 6.001 when compared with Control using One way ANOVA followed by Dunnet’s “t” test. in 1% 138.). ***p<0. p. 10mg/kg. ns -Non Significant.00±4.o and 500 mg/kg. Group IV (Diazepam. p.o) (Values are in Mean ± S.01.05.E.3 ± 5.17±4.83 ± 4. in Table-4: Effect of HECL for Anxiolytic Activity on Dark-Light Model Groups Treatment Time spent in Lightchamber (Sec) Mean±SEM Group I Control (Vehicle.001 when compared with Control using One way ANOVA followed by Dunnet’s “t” test.33±1.17± 3. 10mg/kg.E.p.48 231. 10mg/kg. 10ml/kg.o) Group II HECL (250mg/kg in 1% 79.0 ± 4.01. 10ml/kg. p. *p<0.E.p. p.62 80.o) Group II HECL (250mg/kg in 1% 76. The effect on time spent rota rod in mice were compared with Standard (Diazepam.Research J.31ns Tween 80) Group III HECL (500mg/kg in 1% 75.M (n=6).o) for 7 days showed increase in spent in Group I Control (Vehicle.o) (Values are in Mean ± S.o) for 7 days showed decrease in spent in thread in mice and the result are given in Table-6 and plotted in Fig-6.o and 500 mg/kg.M (n=6). Model Table-6: Effect of HECL on skeletal muscle relaxant activity on grip strength test Groups Treatment Time spent in thread (Sec)Mean±SEM Group I Control (Vehicle.).M (n=6). 1% light chamber in Dark-light Model in mice and the result Tween 80. The effect on spent spent in thread in mice were compared with Standard ( Diazepam. p. ns -Non Significant.29ns 21.01.45*** IV Tween 80. **p<0.35*** Tween 80. Pharm. *p<0.17±5. in 1% 17.o) (Values are in Mean ± S. Fig-5: Effect of HECL on skeletal muscle relaxant activity in Rota Rod Test Effect of HECL on skeletal muscle relaxant activity on grip strength test The effect of pretreatment with HECL with (250 mg/kg. 10mg/kg. Effect of HECL on skeletal muscle relaxant activity in Rota Rod Test in mice The effect of pretreatment with HECL with (250 mg/kg. The effect on Group II HECL (250mg/kg in 1% Tween 80) spent in light chamber in Dark-light M0del in mice were Group III HECL (500mg/kg in 1% compared with Standard ( Diazepam. and Tech.05* IV Tween 80) Group V (Diazepam. muscle relaxant activity in Time spent in Rota Rod (Sec) Mean±SEM 223.o) which showed significant decrease in time spent in rota rod. ns -Non Significant.o) which showed significant decrease in time spent in Fig-4: Effect of HECL for Anxiolytic Activity on Dark-Light thread. p. 1% Tween 68. p.51 80. 10mg/kg. p. 6(8): August 2013 Effect of HECL for Anxiolytic Activity on Dark-Light Table-5: Effect of HECL on skeletal Rota Rod Test Model Groups Treatment The effect of pretreatment with HECL with (250 mg/kg. p.28ns Tween 80) Group HECL (500mg/kg in 1% 88. 1% Tween 73. p. 10ml/kg.33 ± 4.2± 8. **p<0.8± 5.001 when compared with Control using One way ANOVA followed by Dunnet’s “t” test.
Chinna Eswaraiah. it can say that this can be used in CNS disorders like depression and anxiety and does not affect of skeletal muscle activity Tail Suspension Test (TST) is a simple. Elevation of Plus Maze apparatus was used. of entries and time spent in light chamber but was less effective then standard diazepam. rapid and reliable like synthetic drugs. The slight increase in performance is may be due to physical activity causing muscle fatigue due to release of ROS during activity. Rahman A.21 CONCLUSION: It can conclude that hexane extract of Citrullus lanatus Seeds possess anti-depressant and anxiolytic activity but does not affect on skeletal muscle activity. serotonergic and dopaminergic systems or adrenomedullary system. inflammation and allergy. As some study already suggest that exercise and activity increases oxidative stress in cells 32 and antioxidants like alpha tocopherol increases swimming endurance of trained swimmers. In Light-Dark Transition test.. A few studies available which suggest that antioxidant supplement therapy like vitamins A.Research J. M. for his exact of Citrulus lanatus (HECL) seeds showed dose valuable suggestion and help. of entries and time spent in open arms but was less effective than standard diazepam.33 Fig-6: Effect of HECL on skeletal muscle relaxant activity on grip strength test DISCUSSION: Anxiety and depression form commonest stress-induced psychiatric disorders. Pharm. Hence it 2. The hexane Pharmacy College. Our special TST induced immobility is reduced by a large no of thanks to Dr. This method is based on the observation ACKNOWLEDGEMENT: that a mouse suspended by the tail shows alternate agitation This study was supported by giving permission to use and immobility which is indicative of a state of depression. For evaluation of Anxiolytic activity. and Naderuzzaman A. Madhavi P. Journal of Applied Sciences Research. and E as an adjuvant therapy is useful in patients with stressinduced psychiatric disorders and the results have been discussed. It has the advantages of being quick and easy to use without food and water deprivation prior training of animals and natural stimuli are used.31 It was found that dose dependent way the hexane exact of Citrulus lanatus (HECL) increases no. Rafiul Islam A.. light and dark. 6(8): August 2013 was thought to be worthwhile to estimate all the three neurotransmitters in brain. The decreased duration of immobility REFERENCES: in reveals antidepressant activity of the plant. However depression is a complex disorder resulting from changes in central noradrenergic. Kodad. In skeletal muscle relaxant activity. Maruthi Rao. The light-dark test may be useful to predict the anxiolytic like activity of drugs in mice. Finally. 1. Evaluation of Anti-Inflammatory Activity of 883 . the apparatus contains two compartments i. the pretreatment of hexane exact of Citrulus lanatus (HECL) seeds showed non significant activity in Rota rod as well as Grip strength test. Kamala Vakati.M.30 It was found that dose dependent way the hexane exact of Citrulus lanatus (HECL) increases no. C.K. Anisuzzaman M. such as cardiovascular disease. But very less literature suggest the evidence for CNS diseases. The elevated plus maze is a wellestablished animal model for testing anxiolytic drugs. there is antioxidant defence in the biological system. The role of anti-oxidant phytoconstituets widely screened for various diseases. cancer. To combat the biochemical changes which occur as a result of stress. Habibur Rahman. instruments and ethical clearance from institute. Ferdous Ahmed.M. Anurag 29 clinically active and atypical antidepressants.M. Study of Nutritive Value and Medicinal Uses of Cultivated Cucurbits. Animals always try to spend more time in dark compartment because of fear about new environment.H.M. it was found to increase slight performance of the mice in both test models. and anti-oxidants present in Citrulus lanatus scavenge those free radical. Andhra Pradesh. Transitions have been reported to be an index of activity exploration because of habituation over time and the time spent in each compartment to be a reflection of aversion.e. and Tech. Chinna Eswaraiah. M.. The decreased duration of immobility in Forced Swim Test reveals antidepressant activity.28 In Forced Swim Test(FST) in mice. Moreover. method to screen antidepressants and other class of psychotropics. Principal.T. 2008. hexane exact of Citrulus lanatus (HECL) seeds showed dose dependent decreased duration of immobility but lower than standard imipramine. 4(5): 555-558. dependent decreased duration of immobility but lower than standard imipramine.
Ankit kumar Arora .M. 2(4):104-108. Rice-Evans C. Pumpkin. Richardson A. 5th Edn. Neurosci. 1991. M.M. 1997. and Paprika Seed Oils and Flours. and safety. Chaudhuri A. Rev. Miller N. The tail suspension test: A new method for screening antidepressants in mice.M. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Disease. John. 2012 . 2012. 54(3): 244–247.88(4):1243-76. S1:261-S1265. 28:2933. Coyle J. Journal of Applied Sciences Research.K.. Am J Clin Nutr. Scholars Academic Journal of Pharmacy. Mech. Anita Sharma Gautam. Wesołowska A.M. Madhavi P. Evaluation of Anti-Ulcer Activity of Citrullus Lanatus Seed Extract in Wistar Albino Rats. Trends Plant Sci. Praveen Sharma. Meth Find Exp Clin Pharmacol. Evaluation of Antioxidant activity of citrullus lanatus Seed extract in Rats. 1 (1):30-33. Riehl WP. Pharmacology online. 1996. Nikiforuk A. Reddy DS. 4(5): 555-558. Rev. P.1990. 18: 219-230. 17.. 1985. 7. 25. Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry. and BrileyM.. Steru L. 23. and Jalfre. Vivek Dabas. Validation of openclosedarm entries in an elevated plus-maze as a measure of anxiety in the rat. 45: 425-455.266(5604): 730–732. 6. In-vitro Antimicrobial activities of chloroformic. Rateri. Chopin P. J. Dietary flavonoids: Bioavailability. International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2011. 30(3):429-34. Loiy Elsir Ahmed Hassan. Oxidative stress in neurodegenerative diseases. Debra L. B. Powers SK. Radhakrishna. and Habibur Rahman.85:367–370. El-Adawy T. Drugs. Johnson J. 2:790-797. 13. The mouse light/dark box test. 36: 83–106. Anxiogenic effects of methyl-? carboline-carboxylate in a lightdark choice situation.E.H.51(3):578-586.. 2011. Ashok. Swapnil Sharma. European Journal of Pharmacology. Taha K. Comparative study in mice of tetrazepam and other centrally active skeletal muscle relaxants. Mukta Agrawal. 2001. Ross J. 1985. Netticadan T. Uwaya O. Pelow S. Methods. Jude. J. 18: 655–673. Latin American journal of pharmacy (formely Acta Farmaceutica Bonaerense). 130 :715–724 Simonian N. Veera Jyothsna.Research J. Okunrobo O. Indian J Psychiatry. 2012. Pharmacol. Neuropharmacology. Hepatoprotective Activity of Citrullus Lanatus Seed Oil on CCl4 Induced Liver Damage in Rats. Seong Gyu Ahna. The role of oxidative damage and stress in aging. Naresh Singh Gill. Food Chem. 32. Kate. 28. Simiand J. Kulkarni SK. 49: 345. Clin. Lat. 2011. 33. Le Pichon. 4(5): 135-139. Ji Hyun Hwanga. Antioxidant properties of phenoilc compounds. Annu. 6(8): August 2013 Citrullus lanatus Seed Oil by In-vivo and In-vitro Models. 1975. 2005.A.A. File S. M. Pharm. 2004. Ju Youl Ohb. Miller N.. 22. Functional characterization of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus L. Ann. First report on Laxative activity of citrullus lanatus. Metal analysis and Antiulcer evaluation of Methanol seeds extract of Citrullus lanatus Thunb (Cucurbitaceae) in Rats. Paganga G.2(3): 86-91. Ageing Dev. and Tech. Polyphenols: Antioxidants and beyond..M. J. Sibu Saha. Smith JL. hexane and ethanolic extracts of Citrullus lanatus var. Study of Nutritive Value and Medicinal Uses of Cultivated Cucurbits. 16. 2:152–159. 21.T. Porsolt. 10. Imafidon E. Young Hoon Park. Bower RC. 2011. Agric. Citrullus lanatus ‘sentinel’ (watermelon) extract reduces atherosclerosis in LDL receptor-deficient mice. Dodd RH. Thierry B. Dhalla N. 9. Int J Pharm Biomed Sci. R. Role of antioxidants in generalised anxiety disorder and depression. Nature. 29. Medhavi Gautam. (Article in Press). 14 :149-167. Maxwell SJ. Characteristics and Composition of Watermelon. Evaluation of anxiolytic activity of aqueous and alcoholic extracts of leaves of Crataegus oxycantha in mice.A. Jum Soon Kanga. Practical Pharmacognosy. Rajeev Kumar. 5 (8): 1338-1344. Lucky. Keane PE. Young Whan Choia. Peter. Shubin K. Animal models of depression: an overview.M. Chapounthier G. Sealbert A.. Stachowicz K and Tatarczyńska E. M. Chermat R. Depression: A new animal model sensitive to antidepressant treatments. Michel Bourin. 26. 81: 2155–2175. Simon P. Nutr..) EST–SSR by gel electrophoresis and high resolution melting analysis. 2012. Vallabh Prakasham. Kamala Vakati. Rice-Evans C. 24. Int. Am. Belzung C. 31. 2008.A. Role of oxidative stress in cardiovascular diseases. Physiol Rev. Animal behavioral models for testing antianxiety agents. Manaswi Gautam. Jackson MJ. 49(3): 1253-1259. D. 1995.. ShivalingeGowda. Kokate CK. Toxicol. Biziere K. Journal of Medicinal Plants Research.125:811– 826. 107-121. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2006. 4. 20. J. 1989 .28(3):205-8 3. 2003.). 19. Am. Misslin R. 27. J. 18. Temsah R..S. Aruna Poduri. 2008. Nutr. Osarumwense O. Anisuzzaman M. 2012. Rafiul Islam A. citroides. 1987. 5.M. K. and Shiv Gautam. 8. Ferdous Ahmed. Saha. Res J Pharm. and Naderuzzaman A. Rahman A. 2002.463:55– 65. 1977. 14. Alan Daugherty. M. 22: 19–34. 11.. Alok Bhardwaj. Arch Int Pharmacodyn Ther.. App Sci. Prospects for the use of antioxidant therapies. Lawrence JD. 2000. 2012. 2011. Effect of `the selective 5-HT7 receptor antagonist SB 269970 in animal models of anxiety and depression. Kasum C. Omorodion E. Quantitative determination.. Niyaz Alam. Vogel E. 884 . metabolic effects. Willner. 15. Soubrie P. 1996. Pharmacol Ther. Martine Hascoet. Saltmarsh M. Effects of alphatocopherol acetate on the swimming endurance of trained swimmers. Exercise-induced oxidative stress: cellular mechanisms and impact on muscle force production. Psychopharmacology (Berl. Scientia Horticulturae. Hypertens.297:272-85.T. Bokov A. 12. Pharm.P. 30..
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.