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Prepared and Presented by Rebecca Wear Robinson www.rebeccawearrobinson.com email@example.com 001-630-729-4291
Stop and look at something that virtually every person in every country understands. A red light means stop. The message (stop) and the trigger (red light or stop sign) has infiltrated the public’s brain and consistently results in the desired behavior, which improves safety and decreases injury and mortality rates. We can accomplish the same outcomes with water safety if we use social marketing and incorporate consistent messaging into effective communication campaigns. We can create internalized, sustainable changes in behavior around water. Today I’m going to give an overview of social marketing, the role of consistent messaging in social and traditional media campaigns, and then give some real-life examples in the drowning prevention field to show how it can work. Social marketing. Starting with the textbook definition, from the book ‘Social Marketing and Public Health’, “Social marketing is not a theory itself, it is a framework or structure that draws from many other bodies of knowledge such as psychology, sociology, anthropology and communication theory. Social marketing is a dynamic interdisciplinary cross-sector approach to creating social good.”1 A true social marketing plan has six benchmarks 2. 1. Behavioral Change - Intervention seeks to change behavior and has specific measurable behavioral objectives. 2. Consumer Research - Intervention is based on an understanding of consumer experiences, values and needs. Formative research is conducted to identify these. Intervention elements are pretested with the target group. 3. Segmentation and Targeting - Different segmentation variables are considered when selecting the intervention target group. Intervention strategy is tailored for the selected strategy.
1 Jeff French, Clive Blair-Stevens, Dominic McVey, Rowena Merritt (2010). Social Marketing and Public Health - Theory and Practice, Oxford, UK, Oxford University Press. 2 Jeff French, Clive Blair-Stevens, Dominic McVey, Rowena Merritt (2010). Social Marketing and Public Health - Theory and Practice, Oxford, UK, Oxford University Press.
4. Marketing Mix - Intervention considers the best strategic application of the ‘marketing’ mix. This consists of the four ‘P’s’: product, price, place and promotion. Other P’s might include ‘policy change’ or ‘people’ (e.g. training is provided to intervention delivery agents). Interventions that use only the promotion P are social advertising, not social marketing. 5. Exchange - Intervention considers what will motivate people to engage voluntarily with the intervention and offers them something beneficial in return. The offered benefit may be intangible (e.g. personal satisfaction) or tangible (e.g. rewards for participating in the program and making behavioral changes). 6. Competition - Competing forces to the behavioral change are analyzed. Intervention considers the appeal of competing behaviors (including current behavior) and uses strategies that seek to remove or minimize the competition. The field of social marketing is new, complex and developing, with significant challenges, but also with much success and enormous potential for positive change. Measuring effectiveness can be difficult or even counter-productive because it forces an emphasis on a few criteria rather than looking at the broader implications of change. Think of it as pushing in a balloon, or throwing a rock in the water. When you push one area, something else may pop up, or you may not be able to anticipate the ripple effect. We are also talking about attempting to impose ideals on real-life, with all of it’s political, policy and practical limitations. Regardless of these limitations, social marketing is being used successfully in an increasing number of countries to address public health and safety issues, from nutrition to substance abuse to physical activity and others. It has the potential to significantly impact our efforts to change behavior about, and attitudes towards, water. I’ve talked about the ideal social marketing characteristics, literally the textbook version, now I’d like to shift gear and talk about it in more practical terms and the ‘how to’. More simply, social marketing is ‘harnessing market forces to change behavior for the public good.’ Let’s break that down. Social marketing incorporates: - Social good; - Behavior; and - Harnessing the power of marketing in all its forms. The first two concepts are fairly simple. We all agree that it would be in the social good if drowning is reduced - lower mortality rates, lower injury rates, lower costs to society. We probably agree that if people change their behavior and act responsibly and safely around water their chance of drowning would be reduced.
What may not be so obvious is how marketing can bring about that change in behavior for the social good. Let’s break it down further. Philip Kotler, the guru of marketing and author of “Marketing Management” stated that, “Marketing is the set of human activities directed at facilitating and consummating exchanges.”3 Marketing allows us to live within society. The way that we have been conditioned to think about marketing can mean a purely commercial exchange of money for services or products. But marketing is not limited to commercial transactions. When you tell someone that ‘one child drowns every minute’, when you talk with colleagues in the drowning prevention community, attend a conference, or engage via social media, you are marketing. You are facilitating and consummating an exchange a recognition of your efforts, forming a connection of resources and intent, confirming a sense of shared purpose to end drowning. When you discuss a new set of guidelines, unveil a new product or program, introducing new signage, or rally support for legislation, you are marketing, all within the realm of drowning prevention. Marketing is understanding your customer, your audience, understanding their needs, wants and motivations, and communicating with them in a way that influences them positively so that their behavior changes. Let’s look at a quick overview of how to market successfully. 1. Set your goals. Be clear on what you are trying to accomplish. Look at the issue, and not just the broader issue of water safety, but each specific component, for instance encouraging lifejacket use on boats or swimming near a lifeguard. Set your benchmarks up front. Identify your starting point, how you can measure progress, and how to measure results or outcomes. 2. Identify the desired behavior. Ideally the desired behavior is backed up by solid research as to it’s effectiveness. If it isn’t, which can be the case in water safety, make sure that you have enough of the experts on board that are in agreement about the ideal behavior. Again, set up a mechanism to test the outcomes, to determine whether the desired behavior actually had the anticipated result. If it doesn’t, you’ll need to revisit your goal. Also set up a mechanism for measuring unintended outcomes, what happens that you didn’t anticipate and that may be negative and actually counter-productive. Much of marketing is regularly measuring and questioning and circling back and tweaking your campaign. It’s a fluid and continuous process. 3. Identify your audience or target market. Break it down as much as you can by identifying the audience you want to reach by age, gender, geographic location, race,
3 Philip Kotler (1988). Marketing Management: Analysis, Planning, Implementation, and Control , Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, Prentice-Hall, Inc.
culture, socio-economic level, or any other logical breakdown for the issue. This will help to create specific messages across targeted communication platforms. The method, and the message you use to reach mothers is different than reaching men, teenagers, grandparents, or children. If possible, set a starting benchmark for the current behavior or level of awareness of the group to measure effectiveness. Remember, you don’t have to reach every group, you need to reach the group with the most influence to push the change or the group most at risk. For instance, target parents with messages about supervision, or teens for messages about alcohol. 4. Identify influencers in your target market. What organizations or individuals are in the best position to reach and influence the target audience? If you can identify a few people who have influence within your demographic and target them to help you spread the message you’ll have greater success much more quickly. It can be Scout leaders, community leaders, teachers or other role models. For instance, Will.I.am. of the Black Eye Peas almost drowned as a child, as did Gerard Butler - they would have influence among teens and 20-somethings. Heidi Klum, whose child was caught in a rip, could speak directly to mothers. And we now are fortunate enough to have Princess Charlene of Monaco involved. A former Olympic swimmer for South Africa, she has has started a foundation dedicated to ending child drowning and is lending her influence and star power to raising awareness and funding, and attracting the press to the issue. 5. Develop your messages. Don’t drone on and on with all the details. You have maybe 10 seconds before you lose their interest, or less. Get their attention, give them an action to take. Once you have engaged your audience, you can elaborate and give them the 4 hour lecture you are dying to deliver, but to start, remember that the most people can reliably remember is three things. Stop, drop and roll. Don’t drink and drive. This is also where the importance of consistent messaging comes into play. 6. Identify the best mediums for delivering the message that most effectively reaches your audience. Look at the full range of mediums available across social media, traditional media, and other ways of engaging your influencers. 7. Measure your results then circle back and either revise or move forward to reinforce the message and build on the message. The ultimate goal should be to take it to the next level - inspire people and organizations about the potential for being involved in positive change. Research shows that if people are positively motivated to change, shown how to make the change, and supported while they implement the change - change will not just occur, but will be internalized and self-sustaining.4 Which reinforces the benefit of incorporating social marketing. Social marketing is used to ensure that ideas that are meant to change behavior for the social good aren’t just given lip-service, but are actually implemented and result in a lasting change in behavior in the target audience. If social marketing is done effectively, the end result is internalized, sustainable change in behavior. Another way of thinking about internalized, sustainable change in behavior is to think of it as educated instinct. Instinct guides how you react in an emergency, or how you
4 Chip Heath and Dan Heath (2010) Switch: How To Change Things When Change Is Hard, New York, NY, Broadway Books.
approach a potentially dangerous or new situation. In the case of water we are dealing with two distinct scenarios - staying out of trouble, and getting out of trouble. When instinct is not educated, the person may or may not make the right decision how to act. When instinct is educated, it means that the correct behavior has been wired into the brain, overriding what someone may have seen on TV, heard about from a friend, or just the primitive response mechanism that has been evolutionarily developed. We can create educated instinct with consistent, repetitive messages. Let me start by giving you two examples - of pure instinct and of educated instinct - and then I’ll talk about how consistent messages can turn instinct into educated instinct. When my daughter was 3 months old I was walking her to soothe her at the end of a long day and stepped on a wooden block. My feet went flying behind me and I pitched violently forward, landing hard on my knees and elbows on the the stone floor. Not one bit of my infant daughter touched the unforgiving floor and no harm befell her. In a splitsecond, with no conscious thought, I had curled myself around her, with no thought to my personal safety. It took weeks for my bruises to fade, and much longer for the horror of ‘what if’ to subside. In such a case, where a split-second decision is called for, we have no hope of overriding the parental instinct to protect or save their child. Fortunately with water we usually have longer than a split second to act. Educated instinct. When my daughter was 7 years old, she woke me at 5:30am, crying hysterically. Emerging out of a deep sleep I looked over to see a horror show standing by my bed. She was glowing in the dark. Literally. It took less than a minute for my brain to work through the options and make sense of her garbled words. Process of elimination - look to the window, no weird lights reflecting on her. Keep blinking thinking something has gone terribly wrong with my eyesight. Finally hear the words ‘glow stick’ through the tears and my brain whips through the rest of the story faster than a supercomputer. She had received a glow stick at a party the night before. I didn’t need to know the ‘why’ or ‘how’, I knew she had luminescent chemicals all over her face and front, including her eyes. I leaped out of bed, ran her into the bathroom, ripped off her jammies and stuck her under a shower with strict and calm instructions to keep her face pointed into the water for 10 minutes. By the end of the 10 minutes I had woken my son and told him to get dressed, got dressed myself, fished the glow stick packaging out of the garbage, dried and dressed my daughter, and was in the car heading to the emergency room. I had done everything right. I had heard the messages about safety consistently and repetitively since I was a child - in Girl Scouts, in First Aid training and recertification, in health class at school. Rinse the area for 10 minutes in clear, running water and then seek medical attention. This is educated instinct, when you, your child, or someone else is in a traumatic and potentially dangerous situation and you are able to, without conscious thought, reach through your memory to retrieve the correct action and calmly follow through, even if the scenario is different from what you were taught. The key to creating educated instinct is consistent and consistent messaging. STOP. Don’t drink and drive. Fasten your seatbelt. Look both ways before you cross the
street. Stop, drop and roll. All are public safety messages that work because they are used consistently and repetitively until they infiltrate the brain and become educated instinct. We don’t go through a long thought process weighing our options or creating new possible actions when we see a red light, we stop. Consistent and repetitive public safety messages work. We need to commit to using consistent and repetitive water safety messages. We need to stop using our creative talents with the words and stick with the basics. ‘Rinse the area in clean, running water for 10 minutes and seek medical attention’ came to the forefront of my mind because it had been consistently and repetitively hammered home over many years. We have some messages. Reach, Throw, Row, Don’t Go (or Go) for rescuing someone in distress. The International Open Water Safety Guidelines 5, developed by an international task force has 16 key messages about open water safety. We need to commit to using these messages, not creatively, but verbatim, repetitively and consistently. If we all, repetitively and consistently, start using the words ‘Swim in areas with lifeguards’, as the Guidelines suggest, over time those words, and the actions, will become as deeply ingrained as Stop, or stop, drop and roll. People will see a beach and think ‘swim in areas with lifeguards’. We will have created educated instinct in a large segment of the population, which has been shown to change behavior positively. When the messages are not consistent, when there is too much playing with the words, the messages becomes diluted and are less likely to turn into educated instinct or actually change behavior. The seemingly harmless manipulation of the message, changing ‘swim in areas with a lifeguard’ to ‘swim near a lifeguard’, ‘swim near guarded beaches’, or ‘lifeguards are there for your safety’ make it far less likely for the public to follow the correct action. Hearing one thing from a news report, another from the pool, another from a lifeguard, yet another from a PSA, and you may raise awareness slightly, but it is unlikely that you are rewiring the brain for the desired behavior of ‘swim in areas with a lifeguard’. One of the most common concerns I hear in the field is that water safety is so complex that we can’t possibly boil it down to soundbites and we need to elaborate on the message, preferably at length and in excruciating detail. True, water safety is complex, but we can’t deliver the full message unless we have the public’s attention, and this is best achieved using repetitive, consistent messages in sound bites. One child drowns every minute. Effective campaigns are launched with three words or less with simple, directive concepts. Tell people what to do. Stop, drop and roll. Don’t drink and drive. Once you have their attention, and you’ve driven the key message into their brain, you can elaborate. How to exit a house safely in a fire. Assigning a designated driver. Stop, obey all traffic signals and look both ways before proceeding carefully.
When you are planning a campaign, they key is to decide on a consistent message and then know your audience to expand on the message across a range of mediums. Repetition. If your message is “Swim in areas with lifeguards”, repeat that phrase consistently and repetitively, and then elaborate. You can explain the role of a lifeguard, which public beaches have lifeguards, how you can tell the range of a lifeguard’s observation, the hours the lifeguard is on duty, and more. For “obey all safety signs and warning flags”, once you have their attention with the commonly used “obey all safety signs and warning flags”, you can explain what safety signs and warning flags would typically be posted, where they would be posted, and the meanings of the signs and flags, how the signs and flags look. Both are separate and complex campaigns, but they tie back to the consistent message “swim in areas with lifeguards” and “obey all safety signs and warning flags”. The importance of repetition can be seen with my earlier example of “look both ways before you cross the street”. We don't say “look both ways before you cross the street” once to a child and hope the lesson sinks in, or put up a traffic light and hope people figure it out, we do it thousands of times, using the exact same words and symbols, until we see the desired behavior consistently and without prompting so we know it is internalized. Simple, consistent and repetitive messages are key to raising awareness and changing behavior. One last thing to remember when crafting your simple, consistent and repetitive messages. Be positive. There is a large body of research showing that people are far more likely to internalize the desired behavior if they are positively motivated. If you want behavior to be changed, tell people what to do in a way that makes them feel good about the change, not all messages of doom and gloom. Trying to convince people that they want to give up something that brings them joy doesn’t work. It’s the reason the don’t drink and drive campaign has been so successful. They don’t ask people to stop drinking, they tell people don’t drink AND drive. The most effective AIDS campaigns don’t ask people to stop having sex, they tell them to use a condom. Doom, gloom and fear don’t sell, and they don’t change behavior consistently or sustainably. Positive, simple, consistent and repetitive messages are key to raising awareness and changing behavior. Know your audience. You will not deviate from your positive, simple, consistent and repetitive message, but the broader campaign must be communicated effectively to your target audience. Let me relate one of my favorite stories. I was participating in a spirited debate about effective messaging on LinkedIn and a number of the guys, all in their 20’s and early 30’s, were talking about how we just need to tell people, especially teenage boys, that activities are dangerous and they would listen. I finally commented, like the mom I am, and said, ‘knowing all of you and knowing full well that all of you surf,
climb mountains, travel to remote and dangerous areas and do other risky activities, if I were to call your mother and ask her if you listened to warnings about danger when you were teenagers, would she tell me that you listened to the warnings?’ Silence. After a day someone finally said, ‘good point’. Know your audience and understand how to reach them effectively. Understand that you have many different audiences, and while it is important to have a positive, simple, consistent and repetitive message leading the campaign, the detailed campaign needs to target specific audiences differently. Mothers need different messages than teenage boys. Know your audience and use positive, simple, consistent and repetitive messages to change behavior. You’ve done your market analysis. You know the issue. You have core messages that are positive, simple, consistent and repetitive. Now it’s time to deliver the messages. Social media and technology have the potential to spread public safety messages further and faster than any other medium. Facebook has over 1 billion monthly active users. Twitter has 230 million active users generating an average 500 million tweets every day. YouTube has over 1 billion unique visits each month, watching over 6 billion hours of videos. There are a number of other social media programs out there - all reaching the audiences you want to reach. Your social media presence can make your organization sink or swim. Developing and executing an effective social media strategy is confounding to many organizations, so they dismiss it as a waste of time, too much effort for little return, background noise, or really not necessary. Or worst case, they do social media so poorly that they turn off their supporters and actually damage their organization. And yet, effectively using social media is the best investment any organization or cause can make. The marketing and consistent messaging I’ve been talking about are also critical components to being effective on social media. It is tricky. Being an individual on social media is easier - it’s highly personal, which is what makes it successful, and social media is really meant for individuals. There can be backlash if you are perceived as invading people’s personal space or pushing a corporate agenda. Let’s talk about how to assess your current social media strategy and how to improve the effectiveness of your social media to push your positive, simple, consistent and repetitive messages.
Develop a strategy. It’s not enough to just do social media, you need to be very intentional and consistent to your brand. One of the key points is recognizing that you have multiple audiences, and each one of those audiences needs to be reached and engaged in a different way. Match your audiences with the best social media platforms. There are a number of articles on the web that can help you match your demographics with the best platform. Decide what you are trying to do with each one of your audiences. Be clear on what you want to accomplish and set benchmarks to measure your success so that you can see what is working. Assess your current situation. Look at the demographics and the level of engagement on all of your existing social media platforms, including your website. Set baseline measurements to track your progress, review your analytics weekly, and pay attention to what has the most shares, retweets, views, comments. It will teach you about what interests your audience, and also, if you really pay attention, can save you a lot of time and money when you develop larger communications campaigns because you already know how to best reach your audience. Think of social media as also doing market research. ENGAGE! The biggest mistake made in social media by organizations is just pushing information, and not engaging your audience. It’s easy to just post a bunch of stuff and think ‘this is important, everyone should care’. No one else cares about your issue. And worse, the individuals who populate social media don’t want to be lectured to and will turn off or retaliate at the first whiff of self-serving lecturing, unless you make it a conversation and find out your audience’s concerns and address them. It’s tricky to balance the organizational tone and the personal voice you need to succeed in social media, but with practice it can be done, and when done right, you can do it in subliminal ways that shift your audience’s way of thinking in a very positive manner. My all-time favorite safety video is ‘Dumb Ways To Die’ 6. The sponsor is talking about train safety, but 69 million people have learned about a number of ways potentially fatal accidents can occur. Kids and teens absolutely love the video - which means they watch and the message goes in. They love it so much it has spawned apps and interactive games. Because, really, if you are going to die you really don’t want your friends thinking ‘that was a dumb way to die‘ - how embarrassing! (yes, a teen might think that) Amazing use of leveraging natural peer pressure in a humorous manner - and a very catchy tune. Now imagine if we did that with water safety, if we made everyone aware that one child drowns every minute and then told them the correct actions to take around water with consistent and repetitive messages. Another innovative example, Virgin America’s new inflight safety video 7 also has over 8 million hits on YouTube, and is seen by thousands on their flights. Incredibly creative, great music and dancing, stars Virgin America staff, and still in adherence with FAA standards, who were involved in making the video. They also produced a ‘how it was made’ YouTube video8
6 http://youtu.be/IJNR2EpS0jw 7 http://youtu.be/DtyfiPIHsIg 8 http://youtu.be/kO8Z3Us2SlQ
Which brings us again to the doom and gloom mistake. The above videos are fun, joyful. I’m not suggesting we make light of the issue or be irresponsible. The problem is, if you are always issuing dire warnings and misery, people will stop listening. ‘Just say no’ has never worked as a strategy.9 You can tell people that drowning is a problem, but the majority of your communication needs to be telling people what positive and easy things they can do to keep themselves and their loved ones safe. Water is a magnet for most of us, and it does bring great joy - not only death and destruction. Celebrate the good, the reason we are drawn to water, and provide positive, directive tips on how to be safe, consistently and repetitively - and you’ll not just get more followers, you are far more likely to change their behavior around water positively. Tell people what to do. Give them the correct action to take. Make it easy to take the correct action. Reinforce their decision. And again, focus on positive, simple, consistent and repetitive messages. Fortunately, social media is an ideal medium for pushing those positive soundbites of information repetitively so that people start internalizing the messages and actually change their behavior - which is the point of social marketing. 10 Soundbites work - in social media and in making people change their behavior. Finally, putting it all together. Everything I’ve talked about today can be done by any one organization. You can develop a social marketing strategy that includes developing consistent and effective messages and marketing them effectively to your target audience using social media along with more traditional communication strategies. But it’s not enough if we’re going to shift the needle on drowning. We must work together. A rising tide lifts all boats. No single organization should give up their autonomy, their brand identity, their programs or their audience, we need the breadth of resources, we have a large and diverse audience to reach, on a complex subject, but if we use the internet to link resources, everyone will benefit. For example, if we use the Guidelines as the basis for consistent messages, at a minimum I’d recommend placeholder websites with major water safety themes that are highly search engine optimized and that link back to all organizations who are contributing and supporting the consistent messages. Right now the International Open Water Safety Guidelines are currently hidden in the Seattle Children’s Hospital website as a .pdf. If there were a simple website - www.openwatersafety.org - that listed the guidelines on the landing page with one ‘this is why you need to know this’ header, that then had links to Seattle Children’s Hospital and to every other organization globally that
9 http://rebeccawearrobinson.com/sex-and-drowning/ 10 http://www.scribd.com/doc/180172408/Social-Marketing-for-Guidelines-Potsdam-2013-doc
have agreed to adopt and integrate the guidelines into their campaigns, it will raise the SEO (search engine optimization) and the profile online not only of the guidelines with their consistent messages, but also for every contributing organization. A simple step that creates a broad web and raises the profile of all the organizations that are participating while pushing consistent messages repetitively. There are opportunities coming up to practice social media collaboration. The Josh Project was offered a PSA by the Daytona 500 that will be airing in February during the Daytona 500 on the big screen. It’s intentionally a neutral video with the main goal of raising awareness with the public that drowning is an issue and should generate increased searches about the issue. The second opportunity is by an upcoming visit to Los Angeles by Princess Charlene of Monaco, where she will be attending a water safety day. Both provide an easy way to reach an enormous audience with little effort, just a willingness to support each other’s efforts, and it comes back to you in spades if each organization commits to tweeting, posting, using relevant and consistent hashtags and pushing for traditional media coverage of the events. We could make drowning a trending topic if we all work together. Finally, an example of how to take an existing piece and expand it into a broader campaign. One of my favorite PSA videos is ‘Heroes Wear Life Jackets’ 11 from the U.S. Coast Guard and Boat California.com, a brilliant video - fast-paced, exciting, strong and effective message, but it has only about 8,000 views on different channels on YouTube. If all the organizations working on drowning prevention committed to addressing the issue of lifejackets in a set time period, simultaneously, integrating their brand, reaching their specific audiences while promoted the video and consistent messages about wearing lifejackets, repetitively promoted, we have the opportunity to reach and change the behavior of far more people. Even better if specific efforts are made to let sporting good stores, life jacket manufacturers and the boating industry aware that one month will be ‘lifejacket’ month and encourage them to display lifejackets prominently for sale or even offer sales and promotions during that month. Perhaps even get them to display the video near the lifejackets. If you take it to the next level on any initiative - open water safety, pool safety, lifeguards, boating, ice, young children, teenagers - and then coordinate efforts to push the same positive, simple, consistent messages repetitively across all the different channels for participating organizations, you start creating a major campaign with very little additional effort. Even something as simple as committing to retweeting or sharing what all the partners are doing will significantly raise the online presence and the influence of everyone. A rising tide lifts all boats. If we integrate social marketing and consistent messaging into effective social media and traditional media campaigns, we can capture the public’s attention, raise
awareness, and teach them how to act safely around water until it becomes internalized, sustainable behavior. Until we do, it will continue - One child drowns every minute. About The Author: Rebecca Wear Robinson has been working independently to end child drowning since 2007. One child drowns every minute. She is not parent who has lost a child, an aquatics or public safety professional, or even the best swimmer, but she brings an unusual perspective to the field - applying social marketing and business disciplines to a global epidemic. The man who literally wrote the book on social marketing told Rebecca that she is possibly one of the few in the world working in social marketing who is equally strong in the ‘social’ and the ‘marketing’. The ‘marketing’ comes from her first Master’s, in Management from the Kellogg School of Management at Northwestern University, focusing on International Management, Marketing and Economics. The ‘social’ comes from her second Master’s, in Organizational and Social Psychology from London School of Economics, where she looked at group dynamics, particularly how they are affected by gender and culture, and also workplace flexibility. Rebecca’s professional background is primarily consulting, with several stints as an entrepreneur, and many years spent volunteering for causes that benefit children, including Girl Scouts and Boy Scouts. She consults regularly with organizations around the world, spends much of my time connecting resources, and is very active in social media across LinkedIn, Facebook, Twitter and Pinterest along with blogging and maintaining two websites.
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