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2.8) A sample of methane of mass 4.50 g occupies 12.7 L at 310 K. (a) Calculate the work done when the gas expands isothermally against a constant external pressure of 200 Torr until its volume has increased by 3.3 L. (b) Calculate the work that would be done if the same expansion occurred isothermally and reversibly. (a) For an expansion against constant pressure, w = pex V, w = (200 Torr)( 3.3 L) = 660 Torr L 133.32 Pa 1 dm 3 1 m 3 -660 Torr L = 88 J 10 dm Torr L (b) For an isothermal, reversible expansion of a perfect gas: w = nRT ln n= 4.50 g = 0.28051 moles 16.042 g / mol 12.7 + 3.3 = 167 J 12.7 Vf Vi ,

w = (0.28051)(8.31451)(310 K ) ln

2.15) When 229 J of energy is supplied as heat to 3.00 mol Ar(g) at a constant volume, the temperature of the sample increases by 2.55 K. Calculate the molar heat capacities at constant volume and constant pressure of the gas. at constant volume: q = qv = Cv T = nCv,m T Cv,m = qv 229 J = = 29.9 J mol-1 K -1 nT ( 3.00)(2.55 K)

Remember that C p,m Cv,m = R , (perfect gas only) so C p,m = Cv,m + R = 29.9 + 8.31451 = 38.2 J mol-1 K -1

2.16) The heat capacity of air at room temperature and pressure is approximately 21 J K-1 mol-1. How much energy is required to raise the temperature of a room of dimensions 5.5m x 6.5m x 3.0m by 10C? If losses are neglected, how long will it take a heater rated at 1.5 kW to achieve that increase given that 1 W = 1 J s-1? The volume of the room is: (5.5m)(6.5m)(3.0m) = 107.25 m

3

Standard ambient temperature and pressure is 25C (298.15 K) and 1 bar (105 Pa) First calculate the # moles of air in the room: pV (10 5 Pa)(107.25 m 3 ) n= = = 4326.4 moles RT (8.31451)(298.15 K ) then: q = nC p,m T = ( 4326.4 )(21 J K -1 mol-1 )(10) = 908.5 10 3 J = 910 kJ at 1.5 kJ/s: 908.5 kJ 1s = 605.7 s 610 s 1.5 kJ

2.17) A sample of food was burned in an oxygen atmosphere and the temperature rose by 2.89C. When a current of 1.27 A from a 12.5 V source flowed through the same calorimeter for 157 s, the temperature rose by 3.88C. What is the heat released by the combustion? First find the heat capacity of the calorimeter: q = IVt = (1.27 A)(12.5 V)(157 s) = 2492.4 J q 2492.4 C= = = 642.4 J deg -1 3.88 T Then for our unknown sample, q = CT = (642.4 )(2.89) = 1857 J = 1.86 kJ

2.18) Calculate the heat needed to be supplied to a parcel of air containing 1.00 mol air molecules to maintain its temperature at 300 K when it expands reversibly and isothermally from 22.0 L to 30.0 L as it ascends. For a perfect gas, U = 0, so from the 1st law of thermodynamics, q = w q = w = nRT ln Vf = (1.00)(8.31451)( 300) ln 30.0 22.0

Vi = 773.6 J = 774 J

2.21) (a) Calculate the difference between the molar enthalpy and the molar internal energy of carbon dioxide regarded as a perfect gas at 298.15 K. (b) Is the molar enthalpy increased or decreased when intermolecular forces are taken into account? For the latter calculation, treat carbon dioxide as a van der Waals gas and use the data in Table 1.5. (a) H = U + pV, so for a perfect gas H = U + nRT and Hm = Um + RT H m U m = RT = (8.31451)(298.15) = 2479.0 J mol-1 1 RT (b) for a van der Waals gas, p = a Vm b Vm

2

So, how does pVm differ between a van der Waals gas and a perfect gas (where it equals RT) ? There are probably a few different ways to get at this question, but for a given pressure we can simplify this by looking then just at the molar volume, Vm. Rearranging the van der Waals eqn.: Vm = RT +b a p+ Vm 2 (1)

While we cant solve this directly, we can use the method of successive approximations. For a perfect gas, Vm = RT (0.0820578)(298.15) = = 24.4655 L p 1 atm

Vm

1+

+ 0.043 = 24.3626 L

Substituting this new value back into (1): Vm 1+ 24.3626 3.59 (24.3626)2 + 0.043 = 24.3614 L

on comparison we see we are converged to sufficient accuracy to say that pVm (vdW) < pVm (perfect) and hence that the molar enthalpy decreases when intermolecular interactions are included in the case of CO2.

2.23) When 3.0 mol of O2(g) is heated at a constant pressure of 3.25 atm, its temperature increases from 260 K to 285 K. Given that the molar heat capacity of O2 at constant pressure is 29.4 J K-1 mol-1, calculate q, H, and U. a) at constant pressure, q = nC p,m T = ( 3.0)(29.4 )(25) = 2205 J = 2.2 kJ b) since were at constant pressure, H = q = 2.2 kJ c) H = U + ( pV ) = U + nRT (perfect gas) U = H nRT = 2205 ( 3.0)(8.31451)(25) = 1581 J = 1.6 kJ

2.26) The heat capacity of a substance is often reported in the form c C p,m = a + bT + 2 T Use this expression to make a more accurate estimate of the change in molar enthalpy of carbon dioxide when it is heated from 15C to 37C given a = 44.22 J K-1 mol-1, b = 8.79 x 10-3 J K-2 mol-1, and c = 8.62 x 105 J K mol-1. For infinitessimal temperature changes: dH = C p dT , or dH m = C p,m dT Finite changes (T = 288.15 K to 310.15 K) are then given by: c H m = C p,m dT = a + bT + 2 dT T Ti Ti b c f = aT + T 2 2 T T i 1 b 1 = a (T f Ti ) + T f 2 Ti 2 c 2 T f Ti

T Tf Tf

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