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I. II. III.

Title of Experiment : Thermochemistry Date of Experiment : October, 31th 2011 Finish Date of Experiment : October, 31th 2011

I .

!"rpose : # !ro$in% that e$ery chemical reaction is accompanie& absorption or release of heat # 'alc"late heat chan%es that occ"r in a $ariety of chemical reactions

(asic theory Thermochemistry study the thermal changes which follow chemical reactions and physical changes (dissolution, consolidation, and so on). Unit of heat energy is usually expressed in calories, joules or kilo calories. To determine the heat changes that occur in chemical reactions, is used calorimeter. The amount of heat of chemical reaction, can be expressed at a constant pressure and volume remains. hemical reactions involving splitting and or formation of chemical bonds is always associated with the absorption or release of heat. !xothermic reaction is a reaction that releases heat. "f the reaction takes place at fixed temperature, by appointment, #$ will be negative, because the heat content of the system will decrease. "n contrast to the endothermic reaction is a reaction that re%uires heat, by appointment, #$ will be positive. $eat of reaction can be expressed as a change of energy products and reactants at constant volume or at constant pressure. $eat the reaction was measured with the help of calorimeter. #$ is the change in energy and is often referred to as the heat of reaction. Thermochemistry e%uation shows how the chemical and physical processes give each other space, providing the provisions of the writing of the reactants and reaction products and showed that changes heat following process at a certain temperature. $eat is released into the environment or received from the surrounding environment by the system in isocloric or isobaric and T& ' T( condition is called isothermal heat of reaction. )ollowing re%uirements that must be carried out during the process* a) the temperature of the products and reactants must be e%ual+ b) all kinds of work should be included in the reaction process, except for employment expansion. $eat the reaction was measured by using a calorimeter. "n order to protect the temperature change of the process, heat transfer to the calorimeter or absorption of heat from the calorimeter must occur as soon as possible (in this case represents the surrounding calorimeter). $eat changes indicated by changes in temperature calorimeter ,v ' - v cal . #T cal

where cal is the heat capacity of calorimeter. $eat neutrali/ation occurs in a solution of strong acid and strong base with little water precious was constant. This is due because strong acid and strong base will easily be dissociated perfectly in form ions in solution. 0eutrali/ation heat is not always constant for a weak acid and weak base. This is because the desired for the ioni/ation of a weak acid and weak base must be considered and accounted.

VI.

LANES WORK 1. Determine 'alorimeter 'onstant 2) ml *ater !o"re& into calorimeter ,ecor&e& the temperat"re -T1. 2) ml *ater !o"re& into bea+er %lass /eate& "ntil the

temperat"re increase 100' from room temperat"re ,ecor&e& temperat"re-T2. 0ixe& hot 1ater into calorimeter 2ha+e& an& recore& the maxim"m temperat"re that constant the

2. Determine ,eaction /eat of 3n 4 '"2O5 2) ml '"2O5 !o"re& into calorimeter ,ecor&e& the temperat"re -T3. *ei%he& 0,) %r 3n po1&er !"t 3n po1&er into calorimeter ,ecor&e& maxim"m temperat"re -T5. 'alc"late& ne"trali6ation heat /r

$r
3. Determine 7e"trali6ation /eat /'l 4 7aO/ 2) ml /'l 1 0 !o"re& into calorimeter ,ecor&e& the temperat"re -T). 2) ml 7aO/ 1 0 'ontrolle& the temperat"re in or&er to same 1ith /'l temperat"re

0ixe& 7aO/ an& /'l into calorimeter ,ecor&e& mixe& temperat"re that maxim"m an& constant -T8. 'alc"late& the ne"trali6ation heat
$r

II.

,es"lt of Experiment ,es"lt T1 9 305 : T2 9 315 : /ypotesis 'oncl"sion (lac+ principle : the <1 9 18,= > amo"nt of heat that <2 9 2),2 > release& by <3 9 =,5 > s"bstance that has : 9 2,1>?: hi%her temperat"re is e;"al to the amo"nt of heat that absorbe& by s"bstance that has lo1er temperat"re.

Experiment 'alorimeter constant

,eaction heat of 3n T3 9 305 : @ '"2O5 T5 9 30) : There is &ar+ re& precipitate.

3n-s. @ '"2O5-a;. 3n2O5-a;. @ '"-s. Temperat"re from T3 to T5 increase 2o occ"re exoterm process.

<5 9 2,1 > <) 9 5,)3 > <8 9 8,83 >

7e"trali6ation of /'l # 7aO/

heat T) 9 305 : T8 9 308 :

/'l

-a;.

@ 7aO/-a;.

<A 9 A,80> <= 9 5,2 > <B 9 11,= >

7a'l-a;. @ /2O-l. Temperat"re Occ"re process. from Exoterm T) to T8 increase so

III.

Data Cnalysis 'alc"lation 1. Determine calorimeter constant -:. a.. /eat that absorbe& by 1ater -<1. <1 9 mass of 1ater x specific heat of 1ater x increasin% of temperat"re

9 1 x 5,2 x 5 9 18,= > b.. /eat that absorbe& by hot 1ater -<2. <2 9 mass of hot 1ater x specific heat of 1ater x &ecreasin% of temperat"re 9 1 x 5,2 x 8 9 2),2 > c.. /eat that absorbe& by calorimeter -<3. <3 9 <2 # <1 9 2),2 4 18,= 9 =,5 > &.. 'alorimeter constant -:. : 9

2. Determine reaction heat of 3n 4 '"2O5 a.. /eat that absorbe& by calorimeter -<5. <5 9 : x - T5 4 T3. 9 2,1 x -30) 4 305. 9 2,1 x 1 9 2,1 > b.. /eat that absorbe& by sol"tion -<). 0ole of 3n 9 0ole of '"2O5 90x 9 1 x 0,02) 9 0,02) mole 3n I : 0,00= ,: 0,00= E: # @ '"2O5 0,02) 0,00= 0,01A 0,00= 0,00= 0,00= 0,00= 3n2O5 @ '"

0ass of 3n2O5

9 mole x 0r 9 0,0= x 181 9 1,2== %r

<)

9 mass of sol"tion x specific heat of sol"tion x increasin% of temperat"re 9 1,2== x 3,)2 x 1 9 5,)3 > c.. /eat that pro&"ce& by reaction system -<8. <8 9 <) @ <5 9 5,)3 @ 2,1 9 8,83 > &.. ,eaction heat that pro&"ce& in one mole of sol"tion

3. 7e"trali6ation heat of /'l#7aO/ a.. /eat that absorbe& by sol"tion -<A. <A 9 mass of sol"tion x specific heat of sol"tion x increasin% of temperat"re 9 1,03 x 3,8B x 2 9 A,80 > b.. /eat that absorbe& by calorimeter -<=. <= 9 : x -T8 4 T). 9 2,1 x -308 4 305. 9 2,1 x 2 9 5,2 > c.. /eat that pro&"ce& by reaction system -<B. <B 9 <A @ <= 9 A,80 @ 5,2 9 11,= > &.. 7e"trali6ation heat that pro&"ce& in one mole of sol"tion /'l @ 7aO/ 7a'l @ /2O

I : 0,02) ,: 0,02) E: #

0,02) 0,02) # 0,02) 0,02) 0,02) 0,02)

ID.

Disc"ssion In the secon& an& thir& experiment 1e %et res"lt that sho1 exoterm process. This beca"se the temperat"re are increase than before. Exoterm process is reaction that pro&"ce ener%y -release heat.. The heat mo$es from system to en$ironment. ("t 1e &onEt %et too acc"rate temperat"re, beca"se it has infl"ence& 1ith the temperat"re o"t of the calorimeter.

D.

'oncl"sion C chemical reaction ta+es place by absorbin% an& releasin% ener%y. If release ener%y calle& exothermic reactions, 1hile the absorbe& ener%y is calle& en&othermic reactions. The system is part of the "ni$erse that is the center of attention, 1hile the en$ironment is part of the "ni$erse that interact 1ith the system. /eat is ener%y that mo$es from the system into the en$ironment or $ice $ersa beca"se of &ifferences in temperat"re, so that ; can be 1ritten ; 9 Ft or ; 9 mx ' x Ft.

DI.

,eferences Tim +imia &asar.200B.!en"nt"n pra+ti+"m :imia &asar I.2"rabaya:Gnipress http:??i&.1i+ipe&ia.or%?1i+i?HaI"Jrea+si

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