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A constructed response is a type of open-ended essay question that demonstrates Cognitive knowledge and reasoning. The answer must be provided using information that can be found in a particular text and is not meant to demonstrate opinion but to show how you are Able to construct information and use this as the basis for forming a complete answer. D-define term and state a topic sentence from the question This means that you define any terms that need to be addressed in your response. Also, you need to begin with a topic sentence. A topic sentence is a sentence that expresses the main idea of a paragraph E-give an example(s) from the text As the constructed response question is meant to show how well you comprehend and are able to draw inferences from the prompt, it is essential that you give examples from the text to show how well it supports your answer. Explain the example In addition to the evidence you have cited from the text, you will need to supply your own reasoning for why you think your answer is correct .After starting your example you would explain it fully. R-refer back of what the question asked to conclude your constructed response.

You may be required to compare and contrast, show Cause and effect, identify patterns, construct graphs on charts summarize information, state a conclusion or predict based on evidence presented. swer to constructed response questions may require more

Are open-ended, pen and paper test, short answer questions.

As the name suggests, you have to construct your own responses to answer these questions. Your answer to each of the questions could be in a few words or a few sentences depending on what is being asked. Answer to constructed response questions may require more than simply recall facts you may have to apply your knowledge to certain situations, analyze information or solve problems.

What is short-answer items

Allows student to provide short answer to the questions or descriptions. This type of test calls for student to respond to either a direct question.

A specific description or an incomplete sentence by supplying a word, a phrase or a sentence

Easy to construct and work Easy to construct and work

How to write short-answer items

Make instructions explicit You need to set clear instructions which should indicate the content area, the task and scoring. Decide in the items format When you decide to use short answer items, also decide if all your items should come in questions description or incomplete sentences. Whichever you decide to use to format your items, maintain consistency of the format for all your short answer items.

For example, if you wish to give a 15 items short-answer test and expect that
students supply short answer to your questions, have all your items of the test written in a direct question form. Never mix direct question items with descriptions or incomplete sentences.

Structure the items accordingly

Always make sure you structure every item in a way that it requires only a brief answer (a word, a symbol, a number(or a set of numbers), a phrase or a short sentence). This is achieved by formulating very clear, specific, explicit, and error-free statements in your items. A clear and specific questions calls for a specific answer. One important reason why we need to ensure that students supply only one brief responses is because we make sure that responses are easy to check objectively.

Provide the blanks in appropriate places

Blanks spaces in the items where students supply their answers by writing a word, a symbol, a number phrase or a sentence. If your items are all in a direct question format where each question begins with an item number; place the blanks on the left-side of the item number. The reason for this is that you need to first establish the key idea of the sentence so that students immediately know what is missing in the sentence right after one reading.

1.Require short, definite, clear-cut, and explicit answers FAULTY: Earnest Hemingway wrote_______. IMPROVED: The Old Man and the sea was written by________. Who wrote the Old Man and the Sea? 2. Avoid multimutilated statements FAULTY:_______ pointed out in _____ the freedom of thought in America was seriously hampered by _____,_____, & _____. IMPROVED: that freedom of thought in America was seriously hampered by social pressures toward conformity was pointed out in 1830 by _______. 3. If there are several equal answers, equal credit should be given to each one. 4. Specify and announce in advance whether scoring will take spelling into account.

5. In testing for comprehensive of terms and knowledge of definition, it is often better supply the term and require a definition than to provide a definition and require the term. Faulty: what is the general measurement term describing the consistency with which items in a test measure the same thing? Improved: define internal consistency reliability. 6. It is generally recommended that in completion items the blanks come at the end of the statement. Faulty: a (an) _______is the index obtained by dividing a mental age score by chronological age and multiplying by 100. IMPROVED: the index obtained by dividing a mental age score by chronological age and multiplying by 100 is called a (an) _________. 7. Minimize the use of textbook expressions and stereotyped language. FAULTY: The power of declare war is vested in _________. IMPROVED: Which national legislative body has the authority to declare war? 8. Specify the terms in which the response is to be given. FAULTY: Where does the Security Council of the United Nations holds its meeting? IMPROVED: In what city of United States does the Security Council of the United Nations hold its meeting? FAULTY: If a circle has 4-inch diameter, Its area is___________. IMPROVED: A circle has 4-inch diameter. Its area in square inches correct to two decimal places is__________. 9. In general, direct questions are preferable to incomplete declarative sentences. FAULTY: Gold was discovered in California in the year _________ IMPROVED: In what year was gold discovered in California?

10. Avoid extraneous clues to the correct answer. FAULTY: A fraction whose denominator is greater than its numerator is a________. IMPROVED: Fractions whose denominator are greater than their numerators are called__________.

Relatively fast to mark and can be marked by different assessors as long as the question are set in such a way that all alternative answers can be considered by the assessors Can be used as part of a formative and summative assessment, as the structure of short answer questions are very similar to examination questions students are familiar with the practice and feels less anxious

Are only suitable for question that can be answered with short responses. Typically used for assessing knowledge only, student may often memorize short answer questions with note learning Accuracy of assessment may be influenced by hand writing/spelling skills There can be time management issues when answering short answer questions or items.