# Code No: R059211401

Set No. 1

II B.Tech I Semester Regular Examinations, November 2007 THERMAL SCIENCE ( Common to Mechatronics and Production Engineering) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. A gas undergoes two processes that are in series. The ﬁrst process is an expansion that is carried out according to the law PV = constant, and the second process is a Constant pressure process that returns the gas to the initial volume of the ﬁrst process. The start of the ﬁrst process is at 400 KPa and 0.025 m3 with the expansion to 200 KPa. Sketch the process on a P-V diagram, and determine the work of the combined process. [16] 2. (a) Write the steady ﬂow energy equation and point out the signiﬁcance of various terms involved. (b) Air at 100 KPa and 290 K ﬂows steadily through a compressor at a rate of 5 m3/sec. During the compression process, the pressure and temperature of air are respectively raised to 250 KPa and 400 K. There is also a heat loss of 15 KJ/s to the cooling water. Determine the power required to drive the compressor. Neglect changes in kinetic energy and potential energy. Take for air Cp=1.005 KJ/Kg-K and R = 0.287 KJ/Kg-K. [6+10] 3. (a) With a schematic representation explain brieﬂy about heat engine, refrigerator and heat pump (b) Deﬁne COP of a refrigerator (c) A certain machine works on reversed car not cycle between the temperature limits of -80 C and 250 C. Find its COP when working as [9+1+6] i. A refrigerating machine ii. Heat pump and eﬃciency when working as heat engine. 4. (a) Represent Otto Cycle on P-V and T-S diagram. Analyze the cycle and deduce an expression for air standard eﬃciency in terms of compression ratio? (b) An oil engine working on the dual combustion cycle has a compression ratio 14 and the explosion ratio obtained from an indicator card is 1.4. If the cut oﬀ occur at 6 percent of stroke. Find the ideal eﬃciency take for air γ = 1.4 [6+10] 5. (a) Enumerate the applications of Joule‘s cycle. (b) Show with the help of diagrams the diﬀerences between theoretical and actual vapour compression cycles. [10+6] 6. (a) Explain the working of Evaporating Cooling System. (b) Name the components of water cooling system and explain in detail. 1 of 2 [8+8]

Code No: R059211401

Set No. 1

7. (a) What are main functions of carburetor in S.I. Engine? (b) Describe the working principle of simple carburetor with suitable diagram. [6+10] 8. (a) Explain diﬀerent applications of gas turbine power cycles. (b) Draw the schematic diagram of closed cycle gas turbine and explain its working. [6+10] ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

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Code No: R059211401

Set No. 2

II B.Tech I Semester Regular Examinations, November 2007 THERMAL SCIENCE ( Common to Mechatronics and Production Engineering) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. (a) Write the diﬀerences between system and control volume. (b) An engine cylinder has a piston of area 0.12 m2 and contains gas at a pressure of 1.5 MPa. The gas expands according to a process which is represented by a straight line on a pressure-volume diagram. The ﬁnal pressure is 0.15 MPa. Calculate the work done by the gas on the piston if the stroke is 0.30 m. [6+10] 2. A gas undergoes a thermodynamic cycle consisting of the following processes: (i) Process 1-2: Constant pressure, P=1.4 bar, V1 = 0.028 m3 , W12 = 10.5 KJ, (ii) Process 2-3 compression with PV = constant, U3 = U2 , (iii) Process 3-1: Constant volume, U1 − U3 = -26.4 KJ. There are no signiﬁcant changes in KE and PE. (a) sketch the cycle on a P-V diagram (b) Calculate the net work for the cycle in KJ (c) calculate the heat transfer for process 1-2 (d) show that δQ = δW. [16] 3. (a) With a schematic representation explain brieﬂy about heat engine, refrigerator and heat pump (b) Deﬁne COP of a refrigerator (c) A certain machine works on reversed car not cycle between the temperature limits of -80 C and 250 C. Find its COP when working as [9+1+6] i. A refrigerating machine ii. Heat pump and eﬃciency when working as heat engine. 4. (a) Deﬁne mean eﬀective pressure? What is its importance in reciprocating engines? (b) In an air standard Diesel cycle, the compression rate is 16, and at the beginning of isotrophic compression, the temperature is 150 C and the pressure is 1 bar. Heat is added until the temperature at the end of the constant pressure process is 14800 C. Calculate [4+12] i. ii. iii. iv. Cut-oﬀ ratio Heat supplied per kg of air Cycle eﬃciency M.E.P.

5. (a) Show the vapour compression cycle on p-h diagram for the following cases: i. When vapour ids dry and saturated at the end of compression ii. When the vapour is super heated after compression 1 of 2

Code No: R059211401

Set No. 2
[4+4+8]

(b) State the merits and demerits of an Air refrigeration system. 6. (a) Give classiﬁcation of Internal Combustion engines. (b) How does a two-stroke engine diﬀer from a four-stroke engine?

[8+8]

7. (a) How to achieve rich fuel air mixture in S.I. Engine. Under what operating conditions rich mixture is required. (b) Describe the eﬀect of diﬀerent operating parameters on ignition delay in C.I. Engine combustion. [8+8] 8. (a) What are diﬀerent assumption made in evaluation of thermal eﬃciency of Brayton cycle and derive the thermal eﬃciency equation. (b) A gas turbine plant is supplied with air at a pressure of 1 bar and 300 K. The air is then compressed to a pressure of 5 bar and then heated to 8500 C in the combustion chamber. Calculate the thermal eﬃciency of the cycle. [8+8] ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

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Code No: R059211401

Set No. 3

II B.Tech I Semester Regular Examinations, November 2007 THERMAL SCIENCE ( Common to Mechatronics and Production Engineering) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. (a) State whether the following properties of a system are intensive or extensive. Give justiﬁcation: pressure, temperature, mass, density, volume, speciﬁc volume, energy and velocity. (b) A mass of 2.5 kg of air is compressed in a quasi static process from 0.1 MPa to 0.7 MPa for which PV = constant. The initial speciﬁc volume is 0.80 m3 /kg. Find the work done by the piston to compress the air [8+8] 2. A thermodynamic system operates under steady ﬂow conditions, the ﬂuid entering at 2 bar and leaving at 10 bar. The entry velocity is 30 m/s and exit velocity is 10 m/s. During the process 25 MJ/hr of heat is supplied and the increase in enthalpy is 5 KJ/kg. The exit point is 20 m above the entry point. Determine the work from the system if ﬂuid ﬂow rate is 45 Kg/min. [16] 3. (a) State and explain i. Kelvin - Planck Statement of II nd Law of thermodynamics ii. Clausius statement of II nd Law of thermodynamics (b) An engine is to be designed to produce 0.735KW by taking continuously 6000kJ/h from heat source which is at 505K. The heat sink is atmosphere i.e., sink temperature is atmospheric. Calculate the eﬃciency of car not cycle. The atmospheric temperature varies from 380 C in summer and 00 c in winter. Comment on the performance of the engine [8+8] 4. (a) Discuss the use of air standard cycle analysis for study of Internal Combustion engines? (b) An oil engine working on the dual combustion cycle has a compression ratio 14 and the explosion ratio obtained from an indicator card is 1.4. If the cut oﬀ occur at 6 percent of stroke. Find the ideal eﬃciency take for air γ = 1.4 [6+10] 5. (a) With the help of T and P-V diagrams, explain the working of simple Rankine cycle. (b) Deﬁne ton of refrigeration. Discuss the applications of refrigeration. [10+6]

6. (a) For a diesel engine, give the lay-out of the fuel system naming the essential components and explain their roles.

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Code No: R059211401

Set No. 3

(b) Why do designers go for multicylinder engines for heavy loads and name some multicylinder engine types. [10+6] 7. (a) Explain diﬀerent stages of combustion in S.I.Engine along with p-θ diagram. (b) What is diesel knock? How to minimize knocking in C.I. Engine. 8. (a) Derive the work ratio and thermal eﬃciency of gas turbine cycle. (b) A gas turbine cycle receives air at 1 bar and 298 K and compressed to a pressure of 8 bar isentropically and heated to a temperature of 1173 K. Calculate the power developed, work ratio and thermal eﬃciency if mass ﬂow rate of air is 4 kg/s. [6+10] ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ [8+8]

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Code No: R059211401

Set No. 4

II B.Tech I Semester Regular Examinations, November 2007 THERMAL SCIENCE ( Common to Mechatronics and Production Engineering) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. (a) Deﬁne thermodynamic work. When a work is said to be done by a system? What are positive and negative work interactions. (b) Air initially at 300 KPa pressure and 0.02m3 volume expands according to the law PV=constant until the pressure reduces to 150 KPa. Subsequently it is compressed at constant pressure to its original volume of 0.02m3 . Sketch the process on P-V diagram and calculate the work interaction per unit mass of air. [6+10] 2. (a) What do you understand by thermometric property and thermometric substance? (b) Establish the correlation between centigrade and Fahrenheit temperature scales [8+8] 3. (a) State and explain i. Kelvin - Planck Statement of II nd Law of thermodynamics ii. Clausius statement of II nd Law of thermodynamics (b) An engine is to be designed to produce 0.735KW by taking continuously 6000kJ/h from heat source which is at 505K. The heat sink is atmosphere i.e., sink temperature is atmospheric. Calculate the eﬃciency of car not cycle. The atmospheric temperature varies from 380 C in summer and 00 c in winter. Comment on the performance of the engine [8+8] 4. (a) Discuss the use of air standard cycle analysis for study of Internal Combustion engines? (b) An oil engine working on the dual combustion cycle has a compression ratio 14 and the explosion ratio obtained from an indicator card is 1.4. If the cut oﬀ occur at 6 percent of stroke. Find the ideal eﬃciency take for air γ = 1.4 [6+10] 5. In an open cycle air refrigeration machine, air is drawn from a cold chamber at-2o C and 1 bar and compressed to 11 bar. It is then cooled at this pressure, to the cooler temperature of 200 C and then expanded in expansion cylinder and returned to the cold room. The compression and expansion are isentropic, and follow the low pv 1.3 =constant. Sketch the p-v and T-s diagrams of the cycle and the for a refrigeration of 15 tonnes, ﬁnd: 1. theoretical C.O.P; 2. rate of the air in kg/min ; 3. piston displacement per minute in the compressor and expander ; and 4. theoretical power per tonne of refrigeration. [16] 1 of 2

Code No: R059211401

Set No. 4

6. (a) What is the function of a fan in cooling system? Is it always required? (b) Discuss the merits and the demerits of air and water cooling systems. [6+10] 7. (a) How to achieve rich fuel air mixture in S.I. Engine. Under what operating conditions rich mixture is required. (b) Describe the eﬀect of diﬀerent operating parameters on ignition delay in C.I. Engine combustion. [8+8] 8. (a) What are diﬀerent assumption made in evaluation of thermal eﬃciency of Brayton cycle and derive the thermal eﬃciency equation. (b) A gas turbine plant is supplied with air at a pressure of 1 bar and 300 K. The air is then compressed to a pressure of 5 bar and then heated to 8500 C in the combustion chamber. Calculate the thermal eﬃciency of the cycle. [8+8] ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

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