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Set No. 1

II B.Tech I Semester Regular Examinations, November 2007 FLUID MECHANICS FOR CHEMICAL ENGINEERS (Chemical Engineering) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. A horizontal cylindrical continuous decanter is to separate 9.93 m3 /h of a liquid petroleum fraction from an equal volume of wash acid. The oil is the continuous phase and at the operating temperature has a viscosity of 1.1 cP and a density of 865 kg/m3 . The density of the acid is 1153 kg/m3 . Compute (a) the size of the vessel, and (b) the height of the acid overﬂow above the vessel ﬂoor, if the interface between the vessel ﬂoor and liquid surface is 55cm and the total depth of the liquid in the vessel is 1.1m. [8+8] 2. Write short notes on: (a) Viscosity and Momentum ﬂux (b) Time dependent ﬂow of ﬂuids (c) A pipe of 20 cm and length 10m is used to transport oil of Sp.gr is 0.9 and viscosity 1.5 poise. The oil is pumped at a rate of 20 lit/s. Find the average velocity and Reynolds Number. [4+4+8] 3. Prove that the ﬂow of a liquid in laminar ﬂow between inﬁnite parallel ﬂat plates in given by P− Pb = 12µ∇L a a2 gc Where L = length of plate in direction of ﬂow, a = distance between plates , Neglect end eﬀects. [16] 4. (a) Describe in brief about isentropic ﬂow. (b) Derive an expression for velocity in nozzle for an isentropic ﬂow. 5. (a) Give a brief explanation on: i. Void fraction of bed ii. Tortousity (b) A gas ﬂows in a conduit vertically at a velocity of 200m/sec.What is the maximum particle size of density 1.2g/cc,that may be carried by it?(ρgas = 1.15 × 10−3 Kg/m3 and µgas = 2.25×10−5 pa.sec) .Assume Stoke’s law regime and check for the validity of Stoke’s Law. [8+8] 6. (a) Describe about types of ﬂuidization. [8+8]

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Code No: R050210801

Set No. 1

(b) A tower having a diameter of 0.1524m is being ﬂuidized with water at 250 C.The uniform spherical beads in the tower bed have a diameter of 4.42mm and a density of 1603 kg/m3 . Estimate the minimum ﬂuidizing velocity assuming shape factor and void fraction of the bed are not available. [8+8] 7. (a) Describe brieﬂy the joints and ﬁttings used in transportation of ﬂuids. (b) Describe the working of any one non-return valve with the help of a neat sketch. [10+6] 8. (a) Explain the working principle of oriﬁce meter. (b) A heavy oil at 20o C having a density of 900 kg/m3 and a viscosity of 6 cp is ﬂowing in 4-in steel pipe. When the ﬂow rate is 0.0174 m3 /s, it is desired to have a pressure drop reading across the manometer equivalent to 0.93x105 Pa. What size oriﬁce should be used if the oriﬁce coeﬃcient is assumed as 0.61? [6+10] ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

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Code No: R050210801

Set No. 2

II B.Tech I Semester Regular Examinations, November 2007 FLUID MECHANICS FOR CHEMICAL ENGINEERS (Chemical Engineering) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. A tubular centrifuge bowl with an inside diameter of 150 mm, rotating at 8000 r/min. is to separate chlorobenzene, with a density of 1109 kg/m3 , from an aqueous wash liquid having a density of 1020 kg/m3 . The free-liquid surface inside the bowl is 40 mm from the axis of rotation. If the centrifuge bowl is to contain equal volumes of the two liquids, what should be the radial distance from the rotational axis to the top of the overﬂow dam for heavy liquid? [16] 2. (a) Write short notes on the Reynolds stresses and Eddy viscosity (b) Turbulent boundary layer (c) Explain about velocity ﬁeld and one dimensional ﬂow. [6+5+5]

3. (a) Deﬁne ’Equivalent diameter’ for ﬂuid ﬂow through ducts of noncircular diameter. (b) Calculate the hydraulic mean diameter of the annular space between a 4 cm and 6 cm tubes. (c) Draw velocity proﬁle for laminar ﬂow in a circular pipe. 4. Write short notes on following: (a) Variable area conduit (b) Shock waves (c) Critical pressure ratio (d) Stagnation Temperature. [16] [5+5+6]

5. (a) A concentrated suspension of spherical quartz particles in water settles under gravity .The particle is 10−5 m and density 2650Kg/m3 , ε= 0.8. i. Obtain terminal velocity of a single particle assuming stoke’s law to be valid. ii. Find initial settling velocity (Us ) of the particles in the suspension given by Us =Ut ε 4.6. iii. Calculate the upward velocity of water in the suspension resulting from the settling of particles for ε = 0.8 (b) What do you mean by hindered settling and free settling. 6. Deduce the following expression µt = 2.32 3/2 VoM

εM

[12+4]

Showing all the necessary steps. 1 of 2

[16]

Code No: R050210801 7. (a) Describe the working of reciprocating pump. (b) Explain the phenomena of cavitation and NPSH.

Set No. 2

[8+8]

8. (a) Explain the construction of an oriﬁce meter with a neat sketch. (b) Discuss the pressure recovery in an oriﬁce meter and venturi meter. ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ [8+8]

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Code No: R050210801

Set No. 3

II B.Tech I Semester Regular Examinations, November 2007 FLUID MECHANICS FOR CHEMICAL ENGINEERS (Chemical Engineering) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. Prove that , for static ﬂuid, pressure turns out to be independent of the orientation of any internal surface on which the pressure is assumed to act, (P = Px = Py = Pz ). [16] 2. Deﬁne the following: (a) Steady and Unsteady ﬂow (b) Uniform and Non-Uniform ﬂow (c) Laminar and Turbulent ﬂow (d) Stream lines and stream tube. [4+4+4+4]

3. (a) Deﬁne ’Equivalent diameter’ for ﬂuid ﬂow through ducts of noncircular diameter. (b) Calculate the hydraulic mean diameter of the annular space between a 4 cm and 6 cm tubes. (c) Draw velocity proﬁle for laminar ﬂow in a circular pipe. [5+5+6]

2 4. Considering the variation of velocity with area, prove that ds = du (Nma − 1) and S u explain variation of velocity with change in area for the subsonic and supersonic velocities. [16]

5. (a) Explain in brief the ﬂow through packed beds. (b) A mixture of particles in a packed bed contains the following volume percent of particles and sizes; 15%, 10mm;25%, 20mm;40%,40mm;20%,70mm;.Calculate the eﬀective mean diameter ,if the shape factor is 0.74. [10+6] 6. (a) A Spherical ?bead catalyst of diameter 4.4 mm is to be ﬂuidized with water at 210 C in a 0.1524m diameter column. The catalyst has a density of 1600 Kg/m3 . The originally unexpanded column. height was 0.712m and the voidage associated therewith was ∈ = 0.37. Find the height of the expanded bed when the solids are subjected to an upward water rate of 0.1243 m/sec and the voidage is 0.775. (b) Give the merits and demerits of ﬂuidization. 7. (a) Describe brieﬂy the joints and ﬁttings used in transportation of ﬂuids. [6+10]

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Code No: R050210801

Set No. 3

(b) Describe the working of any one non-return valve with the help of a neat sketch. [10+6] 8. Explain the purpose and working principle of a pitot tube. Derive the expression for calculating the point velocity of an incompressible ﬂuid ﬂowing through a duct using a pitot tube. [16] ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

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Code No: R050210801

Set No. 4

II B.Tech I Semester Regular Examinations, November 2007 FLUID MECHANICS FOR CHEMICAL ENGINEERS (Chemical Engineering) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. A continuous gravity decanter is to separate chlorobenzene, with a density of 1109 kg/m3 , from an aqueous wash liquid having a density of 1020 kg/m3 . If the total depth in the separator is 1 m and the interface is to be 0.6 m from the vessel ﬂoor, (a) what should the height of the heavy-liquid overﬂow leg be; (b) how much would an error of 50 mm in this height aﬀect the position of the interface? [10+6] 2. A pump delivers water from a holding tank at atmospheric pressure to a process equipment at 450 kpa at a ﬂow rate of 6.2 lit/s. The process equipment is located 10 m higher than the holding tank. Calculate the power requirement for the pump if its eﬃciency is 70% , the ﬂuid friction and the changes in kinetic energy are negligible. Take density of water as 995 kg/m3 . [16] 3. Derive Hagen-Poiseuille’s equation. Explain the signiﬁcance of the equation. [16] 4. Write short notes on following: (a) Variable area conduit (b) Shock waves (c) Critical pressure ratio (d) Stagnation Temperature. [16] 5. (a) Air ﬂows through a packed bed of a powdered material of 1cm depth at a superﬁcial velocity of 1.0cm/s.A manometer connected to the unit registers a pressure drop of 1.0cm of water. Void fraction of the bed is 0.4.Assume Kozeny Carman Equation is valid for this range of study. Determine the diameter of the particle (ρair = 1.23Kg/m3 = 1.85 × 10−5 Kg/m − sec) (b) Explain the terms: i. Interstitial velocity in channel ii. Superﬁcial velocity. 6. (a) Explain the applications of ﬂuidization in petroleum industry. (b) A bed of ion-exchange beads of 3.28 m depth is to be washed with water to remove dirt . The average size of particle is 1.1 mm and have a density of 1.24x103 Kg/m3 . What is the minimum ﬂuidization velocity using water at 300 C? What is the corresponding Reynold’s Number of the particles? The beads are assumed to be spherical (φs = 1) and ∈m is taken as 0.40. [8+8] 1 of 2 [8+8]

Code No: R050210801 7. (a) Describe the working of a mechanical seal. (b) Describe brieﬂy diﬀerent types of pumps. 8. (a) Explain the working principle of oriﬁce meter.

Set No. 4

[6+10]

(b) A heavy oil at 20o C having a density of 900 kg/m3 and a viscosity of 6 cp is ﬂowing in 4-in steel pipe. When the ﬂow rate is 0.0174 m3 /s, it is desired to have a pressure drop reading across the manometer equivalent to 0.93x105 Pa. What size oriﬁce should be used if the oriﬁce coeﬃcient is assumed as 0.61? [6+10] ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

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