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Dr. Deepa Kundur

Texas A&M

Reference: Chapter 4 of Singh and S. Srinivasan, Digital Signal Processing: Implementation Using DSP Microprocessors with Examples from TMS320C54XX, Brooks/Cole, Belmont, California, 2004.

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A DSP is a specialized microprocessor for the purpose of real-time DSP computing. DSP applications commonly share the following characteristics:

Algorithms are mathematically intensive; common algorithms require many multiply and accumulates. Algorithms must run in real-time; processing of a data block must occur before next block arrives. Algorithms are under constant development; DSP systems should be exible to support changes and improvements in the state-of-the-art.

Programmable DSPs should provide for instructions that one would nd in most general microprocessors. The basic instruction capabilities (provided with dedicated high-speed hardware) should include:

arithmetic operations: add, subtract and multiply logic operations: AND, OR, XOR, and NOT multiply and accumulate (MAC) operation signal scaling operations before and/or after digital signal processing

RAM; i.e., on-chip memories for signal samples ROM; on-chip program memory for programs and algorithm parameters such as lter coecients on-chip registers for storage of intermediate results

Dr. Deepa Kundur (Texas A&M) Architectures for Programmable DSPs Fall 2010 4 / 57

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Multiplier

Multiplier Shifter Multiply and accumulate (MAC) unit Arithmetic logic unit

speed decided by architecture which trades o with circuit complexity and power dissipation accuracy decided by format representations (number of bits and xed/oating pt) dynamic range decided by format representations

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Parallel Multiplier

Consider the multiplication of two unsigned xed-point integer numbers A and B where A is m-bits (Am1 , Am2 , . . . , A0 ) and B is n-bits (Bn1 , Bn2 , . . . , B0 ):

Advances in speed and size in VLSI technology have made hardware implementation of parallel or array multipliers possible. Parallel multipliers implement a complete multiplication of two binary numbers to generate the product within a single processor cycle!

m 1

A =

i =0 n 1

Ai 2i ; 0 A 2m 1, Ai {0, 1} Bj 2j ; 0 B 2n 1, Bi {0, 1}

j =0

B =

Generally, we will require r-bits where r > max((m), n) to represent the product P = A B ; known as bit expansion.

Dr. Deepa Kundur (Texas A&M) Architectures for Programmable DSPs Fall 2010 7 / 57 Dr. Deepa Kundur (Texas A&M) Architectures for Programmable DSPs Fall 2010 8 / 57

Q: How many bits are required to represent P = A B ? Let the minimum number of bits needed to represent the range of P be given by r . An r -bit unsigned xed-point integer number can represent values between 0 and 2r 1. Therefore, 0 P 2r 1. Pmin = Amin Bmin = 0 0 = 0 Pmax = Amax Bmax = (2m 1) (2n 1) = 2n+m 2m 2n + 1

Rephrased Q: What is the minimum r Z+ such that (2n+m 2m 2n + 1) (2r 1)? A: We must nd an r in terms of m and n such that r 1 bits are insucient to represent Pmax , but r bits are sucient: (2r 1 1)

max w/ r 1 bits

<

(2n+m 2m 2n + 1)

Pmax

(2r 1)

max w/ r bits

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Recall: (2n+m 2m 2n + 1) (2r 1) need to nd min r Consider m, n Z+ , then: (2n+m 2m 2n + 1) < (2n+m 1) let r = m + n

<1

Therefore for r = n + m and large m, n (of practical value): (2r 1 1) < (2n+m 2m 2n + 1) (2r 1) Thus, r = n + m is the minimum number of bits required to fully represent the range of P .

Is r = m + n the minimum required to represent Pmax ? Consider m, n large, then: (2n+m 2m 2n + 1) 2n+m (2m+n1 1) < 2n+m (2n+m 2m 2n + 1)

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Parallel Multiplier: n = m = 4

Example: m = n = 4; note: r = m + n = 4 + 4 = 8.

41 41

Parallel Multiplier: n = m = 4

Recall base 10 addition. Example: (3785 + 6584)

CARRY-OVER

= AB =

i =0

Ai 2i

1 i =0 A2 22

Bi 2i + A3 23 B0 20 + B1 21 + B2 22 + B3 23

A0 2 + A1 2 +

= A0 B0 20 + (A0 B1 + A1 B0 )21 + (A0 B2 + A1 B1 + A2 B0 )22 +(A0 B3 + A1 B2 + A2 B1 + A3 B0 )23 + (A1 B3 + A2 B2 + A3 B1 )24 +(A2 B3 + A3 B2 )25 + (A3 B3 )26 = P0 20 + P1 21 + P2 22 + P3 23 + P4 24 + P5 25 + P6 26 + P7 27

1 3 + 6 1 0

1 7 5 3

0 8 8 6

0 5 4 9

CARRY-OVER

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Parallel Multiplier: n = m = 4

Example: m = n = 4; note: r = m + n = 4 + 4 = 8.

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Parallel Multiplier: n = m = 4

Need to compensate for carry-over bits! Bi 2i + A3 23 B0 20 + B1 21 + B2 22 + B3 23 P0 P1 P2 = A0 B0 = A0 B1 + A1 B0 + PREV CARRY OVER = A0 B2 + A1 B1 + A2 B0 + PREV CARRY OVER . . . = A3 B3 + PREV CARRY OVER =

PREV CARRY OVER

= AB =

i =0

Ai 2i

i =0 A2 22

A0 20 + A1 21 +

= A0 B0 20 + (A0 B1 + A1 B0 )21 + (A0 B2 + A1 B1 + A2 B0 )22 +(A0 B3 + A1 B2 + A2 B1 + A3 B0 )23 + (A1 B3 + A2 B2 + A3 B1 )24 +(A2 B3 + A3 B2 )25 + (A3 B3 )26 = P0 20 + P1 21 + P2 22 + P3 23 + P4 24 + P5 25 + P6 26 + P7 27 Need to compensate for carry-over bits!

P6 P7

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Example: structure of a 4 4 Braun multiplier; i.e., m = n = 4

operand carry-in

+

carry-out sum

operand

+ + + +

+ +

+ + +

+ +

Speed: for parallel multiplier the multiplication time is only the longest path delay time through the gates and adders (well within one processor cycle) Note: additional hardware before and after the Braun multiplier is required to deal with signed numbers represented in twos complement form.

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Parallel Multiplier

Bus Widths: straightforward implementation requires two buses of width n-bits and a third bus of width 2n-bits, which is expensive to implement

Multiplier

Shifter

required to scale down or scale up operands and results to avoid errors resulting from overows and underows during computations Q: When is scaling useful?

Computing sum of N numbers, each represented by n-bits; the overall sum will have n + log2 N bits to avoid overow can scale down each of the N numbers by log2 N bits before conducting the sum to obtain actual sum scale up the result by log2 N bits when required trade-o between overow prevention and accuracy

program bus can be reused after the multiplication instruction is fetched bus for X can be used for Z by discarding the lower n bits of Z or by saving Z at two successive memory locations

Dr. Deepa Kundur (Texas A&M) Architectures for Programmable DSPs Fall 2010 19 / 57

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Shifter

Barrel Shifter

Shifting in conventional microprocessors is implemented by an operation similar to one in a shift register taking one clock cycle for every single bit shift.

Conducting oating point additions, where each operand should be normalized to the same exponent prior to addition one of the operands can be shifted to the required number of bit positions to equalize the exponents

Many shifts are often required creating a latency of multiple clock cycles.

Barrel shifters allow shifting of multiple bit positions within one clock cycle reducing latency for real-time DSP computations.

input

Shifter

left/right

control inputs

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Barrel Shifter

Implementation of a 4-bit shift-right barrel shifter:

Input Bits

Barrel Shifter

Implementation of a 4-bit shift-right barrel shifter:

Input A3 A2 A1 A0 A3 A2 A1 A0 A3 A2 A1 A0 A3 A2 A1 A0

Output (B3 B2 B1 B0 ) A3 A2 A1 A0 A3 A3 A2 A1 A3 A3 A3 A2 A3 A3 A3 A3

logic circuit takes a fraction of a clock cycle to execute majority of delay is in decoding the control lines and setting up the path from the input lines to the output lines

Output Bits

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Barrel Shifter

Input Bits

multiply and accumulate (MAC) unit performs the accumulation of a series of successively generated products common operation in DSP applications such as ltering

Output Bits

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Multiplier Product Register

Multiplier Product Register

ADD/SUB

can implement A + BC operations clearing the accumulator at the right time (e.g., as an initialization to zero) provides appropriate sum of products

multiplication and accumulation each require a separate instruction execution cycle however, they can work in parallel

when multiplier is working on current product, the accumulator works on adding previous product

ADD/SUB

Accumulator

Accumulator

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Multiplier Product Register

MAC Unit

during the rst multiply, the accumulator is idle during the last accumulate, the multiplier is idle since all N products have been computed

Q: If a sum of 256 products is to be computed using a pipelined MAC unit and if the MAC execution time of the unit is 100 ns, what is the total time required to compute the operation? A: For 256 MAC operations, need 257 execution cycles. Total time required = 257 100 109 sec = 25.7s

ADD/SUB

Accumulator

to compute a MAC for N products, N + 1 instruction execution cycles are required for N 1, works out to almost one MAC operation per instruction cycle

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Multiplier Product Register

arithmetic logic unit (ALU) carries out additional arithmetic and logic operations required for a DSP:

add, subtract, increment, decrement, negate AND, OR, NOT, XOR, compare shift, multiply (uncommon to general microprocessors)

accumulator guard bits (i.e., extra bits for the accumulator) added; implication: size of ADD/SUB unit will increase barrel shifters at the input and output of MAC unit needed to normalize values saturation logic used to assign largest (smallest) values to accumulator when overow (underow) occurs

ADD/SUB

status ags for sign, zero, carry and overow overow management via saturation logic register les for storing intermediate results

Accumulator

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Address

Processor

Data

Memory

Bus architecture and memory play a signicant role in dictating cost, speed and size of DSPs. Common architectures include the von Neumann and Harvard architectures.

program and data reside in same memory single bus is used to access both Implications:

slows down program execution since processor has to wait for data even after instruction is made available

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Harvard Architecture

Address Data Address Data

Program Memory Data Memory

Address Data Address

Processor

Processor

Data Address

program and data reside in separate memories with two independent buses Implications:

faster program execution because of simultaneous memory access capability

Data

suited for operations with two operands (e.g., multiplication) Implications: requires hardware and interconnections increasing cost

hardware complexity-speed trade-o needed!

Dr. Deepa Kundur (Texas A&M) Architectures for Programmable DSPs Fall 2010 35 / 57

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On-Chip Memory

On-Chip Memory

help in running the DSP algorithms faster than when memory is o-chip

dedicated addresses and data buses are available

Wish List:

all memory should reside on-chip! separate on-chip program and data spaces on-chip data space partitioned further into areas for data samples, coecients and results

speed: on-chip memories should match the speeds of the ALU operations size: the more area chip memory takes, the less area available for other DSP functions

Implication: area dedicated to memory will be so large that basic DSP functions may not be implementable on-chip!

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for DSP algorithms requiring repeated executions of a single instruction (e.g., MAC):

instructions can be placed in external memory and once fetched can be placed in the instruction cache the result is normally saved at the end, so external memory can be employed only two data memories for operands can be placed on-chip

using dual-access on-chip memories (can be accessed twice per instruction cycle):

can get away with only two on-chip memories for instructions such as multiply instruction fetch + two operand fetches + memory access to save result can all be done in one clock cycle can congure on-chip memory for dierent uses at dierent times

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Data Addressing

Data Addressing

ecient way of accessing data (signal sample and lter coecients) can signicantly improve implementation performance exible ways to access data helps in writing ecient programs data addressing modes enhance DSP implementations

circular bit-reversed

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operand is explicitly known in value capability to include data as part of the instruction Instruction ADD #imm Operation #imm + A A

operand is always in processor register reg capability to reference data through its register Instruction ADD reg Operation reg + A A

#imm: value represented by imm (xed number such as lter coecient is known ahead of time) A: accumulator register

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Data Addressing

Data Addressing

operand is always in memory location mem capability to reference data by giving its memory location directly Instruction ADD mem Operation mem + A A

operand memory location is variable operand address is given by the value of register addrreg operand accessed using pointer addrreg Instruction Operation addrreg + A A

mem: specied memory location provides operand (e.g., memory could hold input signal value) A: accumulator register

ADD addrreg

addrreg : needs to be loaded with the register location before use A: accumulator register

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Bit-Reversed Addressing:

Circular Addressing Mode: circular buer allows one to handle a continuous stream of incoming data samples; once the end of the buer is reached, samples are added to the beginning again Bit-Reversed Addressing Mode: address generation unit can be provided with the capability of providing bit-reversed indices

Input Index 000 = 0 001 = 1 010 = 2 011 = 3 100 = 4 101 =5 110 = 6 111 = 7

Output Index 000 = 0 100 = 4 010 = 2 110 = 6 001 = 1 101 = 5 011 = 3 111 = 7

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Speed Issues

Speed Issues

Speed Issues

Hardware Architecture

high speed instruction operation large throughputs

dedicated hardware support for multiplications, scaling loops and repeats, and special addressing modes are essential for fast DSP implementations Harvard architecture signicantly improves program execution time compared to von Neumann on-chip memories aid speed of program execution considerably

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Parallelism

Parallelism means: provision of function units, which may operate in parallel to increase throughput

multiple memories dierent ALUs for computations on data and address computation

Pipelining

architectural feature in which an instruction is broken into a number of steps

a separate unit performs each step at the same time usually working on dierent stage of data

advantage: algorithms can perform more than one operation at a time increasing speed disadvantage: complex hardware required to control units and housekeeping required to make sure instructions and data can be fetched simultaneously

advantage: if repeated use of the instruction is required, then after an initial latency the output throughput becomes one instruction per unit time disadvantages: pipeline latency, having to break instructions up into equally-timed units

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Speed Issues

Speed Issues

Pipelining Example

Five steps: Step 1: instruction fetch Step 2: instruction decode Step 3: operand fetch Step 4: execute Step 5: save Time Slot Step 1 t0 Inst 1 t1 Inst 2 t2 Inst 3 t3 Inst 4 t4 Inst 5 t5 Inst 6 . . . . . . Simplifying assumption: Step 2 Inst 1 Inst 2 Inst 3 Inst 4 Inst 5 . . . all steps Step 3 Step 4 Step 5 Result

Consider 8-tap FIR lter:

7

y (n)

=

i =0

. . .

can be implemented in many ways depending on number of multipliers and accumulators available

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x(n) x(n-1) x(n-2) x(n-3) x(n-4) x(n-5) x(n-6) x(n-7)

x(n) x(n-1) x(n-2) x(n-3) x(n-4) x(n-5) x(n-6) x(n-7)

8T

8T

8T

8T

8T

8T

8T

h(0)

T

h(1)

T

h(2)

T

h(3)

T

h(4)

T

h(5)

T

h(6)

T

h(7)

Multiplexer

y(n)

MAC Unit

y(n)

Multiplexer

h(0)

h(1)

h(2)

h(3)

h(4)

h(5)

h(6)

h(7)

T : time taken to compute one product term and add it to accumulator new input sample can be processed every 8T time units

Dr. Deepa Kundur (Texas A&M) Architectures for Programmable DSPs Fall 2010 55 / 57

T : time taken to compute one product term and add it to accumulator new input sample can be processed every T time units (8 times faster!)

Dr. Deepa Kundur (Texas A&M) Architectures for Programmable DSPs Fall 2010 56 / 57

Speed Issues

h(0) h(1) h(2) h(3) h(4) h(5) h(6) h(7)

Multiplexer

Multiplexer

MAC Unit

MAC Unit

Multiplexer

Multiplexer

4T

x(n) x(n-1)

4T

x(n-2)

4T

x(n-3)

4T

x(n-4)

4T

x(n-5)

4T

x(n-6)

4T

x(n-7)

+

y(n)

T : time taken to compute one product term and add it to accumulator new input sample can be processed every 4T time units

Dr. Deepa Kundur (Texas A&M) Architectures for Programmable DSPs Fall 2010 57 / 57

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