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L.

E College Morbi
B.E. Semester III (ELECTRICAL)
ELECTRICAL MACHINES - 1

IND E X

SR. TITLE
NO.
1
To study the d.c.shunt motor
starter.
2

Study of D.C.machine components

To find the efficiency and regulation


of a single phase transformer by
direct loading method.
To find efficiency and regulation
of a single phase transformer by
indirect loading method (o.c & s.c
test)
To determine external and internal
characteristics of a d.c.shunt
generator
To determine external and internal
characteristics of a d.c. series
generator
To determine external and internal
characteristics of a d.c. compound
generator.
To study the performance of singlephase transformers connected in
parallel.
Speed control of a D.C.shunt motor
by
(i) Armature voltage control
(rheostatic control) and
(ii) Field control.
To determine the parameters of an
equivalent circuit of a single-phase
transformer.
To study the construction and
principle of operation of poly phase
induction motors.
To find the polarity of transformer
windings by test.
To determine the regulation of an
alternator by synchronous

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FROM

DATE
TO

Page No.

SIGN

MARKS

impedance method

Page No.

EXPERIMENT NO: - 1

AIM: -

DATE:-_________

To study the d.c.shunt motor starter.

NECESSITY OF STARTER:
The current drawn by the motor is given by
Ia = V - Eb
Ra
Where V = supply voltage
Eb = back e.m.f.
Ra = armature resistance
Back e.m.f. is directly proportional to the speed of rotation. At zero speed when motor
is just connected to d.c. supply, back e.m.f. is zero. Hence supply voltage directly
appears across the armature winding causing extremely large current through the
armature winding. This excessive current may damage the motor. This current can be
limited to a safe value by adding external resistance in the armature circuit. The starting
resistance is gradually cut out as the motor gains speed and develops the back e.m.f.
which then regulates its speed.
THREE POINT STARTER:-Figure shows a three point starter for a d.c. shunt
motor. To start the motor the main switch is first closed and then the starting arm is
slowly moved to the right. As soon as the arm makes contact with stud no.1, the field
circuit is directly connected across the line and at the same time full starting resistance
Rs is placed in series with the armature.
The starting current drawn by the armature = V/(Ra + Rs).
As the arm is further moved, the starting resistance is gradually cut out till when the arm
reaches the running position, the resistance is all cut out. The arm moves over the
various studs against a strong spring. There is a soft iron S attached to the arm, which in
the running position (ON position) is attracted and held by an electromagnet Energized
by the field current. It is known as HOLD-ON coil or NO-VOLT release. When the arm
is in on position the starting resistance Rs will be in the field circuit. This results in slight
decrease of shunt current. This defect can be overcome by using a brass arc. The arm
makes contact with the stud no.1 and the arc simultaneously. The field circuit is
completed through this arc.
D.C. starters are provided with two protective devices:1. No Volt release
2. Overload release
NO VOLT RELEASE: -The no volt release consists of an electromagnet with proper
winding on it. The winding of the electromagnet is connected in series with the field
winding. The normal function of it is to hold on the arm in the running position. In case
of failure of the supply or break in the field circuit, the electromagnet gets demagnetized
and releases the starter arm to the "OFF" position by the action of the spiral spring.
Hence the no volt release safeguards the motor from the above two types of dangers in
addition to holding the starter arm in the running position of the motor.
Page No.

OVER LOAD RELEASE:-It consists of an electromagnet with a proper winding over it.
It is connected in series with the armature circuit so that the current flowing in the
electromagnet winding is equal to the armature current. If motor becomes overloaded
drawing an over current from the lines, the electromagnet of the overload release gets more
magnetized and as a result attracts the iron part G, thus short circuiting the hold on coil
(No Volt release coil) which gets demagnetized and releases the starter arm to return to its
"OFF" position. When motor is to be stopped, switch off the main switch only. It will cause
the current in the holding coil to die down and electromagnet of the no volt release would
release the starter arm to return to its "OFF" position. The three-point starter has a serious
drawback in case of motors with large variation of speed by adjustment of field rheostat.
In such cases, field current may become very low (because N1/1/If) because of the
insertion of high resistance to get a high speed. A very low field current will make the
electromagnet (E) too week to overcome the force exerted by starter arm even during the
normal operation of the motor which is not desirable. This difficulty can be overcome by
using a four-point starter. The basic difference in the circuit of four-point starter as
compared to three-point starter is that the holding coil has been removed from the shunt
field circuit and has been connected directly across the mains with a current limiting
resistance in series.

QUIZ:
1.
2.
3.

A 250 V, 5 KW dc shunt motor has an armature resistance of 0.5 ohm.


Find its full load current.
If the above motor is directly connected to supply of 250 volts, what will
be the current at instant of switching?
In above case, what should be the value of starting resistance if starting
Current is to be limited to full load current?
Page No.

4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

Why starting current drawn by d.c. motor is high if is directly connected to


rated supply voltage?
What are the effects of high starting current?
Which are the protective devices provided in starter?
Why resistance of armature winding is low?
What is the difference between three-point starter and three-point starter?

EXPERIMENT NO: -

DATE:-__________

AIM: - Study of D.C. machine components.


D.C. machine consists of the following essential parts.
1. Magnetic frame or yoke.
2. Pole cores and pole shoes.
Page No.

3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

Field coils or pole coils.


Armature core.
Armature winding or conductors.
Commutator.
Brushes and bearings.

(1) YOKE:It provides mechanical support to the poles and acts as a protecting cover for the whole
machine. It also carries the flux produced by the poles. It is made up of cast iron for
small machines while for large machines cast steel or rolled steel is employed.
(2) POLE CORES AND POLE SHOES:The field magnets consist of pole cores and pole shoes. The pole shoes spread out the
flux in the air gap and support the exciting coil. The retentivity of the material used for
pole cores should be higher in case of generator action. Both pole cores and pole shoes
are laminated and riveted together under hydraulic pressure. The thickness of the
laminations varies from 1 mm to 0.25 mm.
(3) FIELD COILS:The field coils or pole coils, which consist of copper wire or strip, are former wound for
the correct dimension. The wound coil is put into place over the core as shown in the
figure. When current passes through the coil, the coil magnetizes the poles which
produce the necessary flux that is cut by revolving armature conductors.
(4) ARMATURE CORE:It houses the armature conductors or coils and causes them to rotate and hence cut the
magnetic flux of the field magnets. It also provides a path to the flux at very low
reluctance from N-pole to S-pole. It is cylindrical or drum-shaped, laminated from the
circular sheet steel. The slots are punched on the outer periphery of the stampings. For
large machines where cooling is essential, axial ventilating ducts shown in the figure are
provided.
(5) ARMATURE WINDINGS: Armature windings are first wound in the form of rectangular coils and are then pulled
into their proper shape in a coil puller. Various conductors of the coils are insulated
from each other. The conductors are placed in the armature slots, which are lined with
tough insulating material. It is secured in place by special hard wooden or fiber wedges.
(6) COMMUTATOR:The function of the commutator is to facilitate collection of current from the armature
conductors. It converts the alternating current induced in the armature conductors into
unidirectional current in the external load circuit in case of generator. It is of
cylindrical structure and built up of wedge shaped segments shown in the figure
insulated from each other by thin layers of mica. The number of segments is equal to
Page No.

the number of armature coils. Each commutator segment is connected to the armature
conductor by means of a copper lug or riser (strip).
(7) BRUSHES:The function of brushes is to collect current from commutator or to draw current to
commutator. They are usually made of carbon and are in the shape of rectangular block.
These brushes are housed in brush holders usually of the box type variety shown in
figure. The brushes are made to bear down on the commutator by a spring whose
tension can be adjusted by changing the position of lever in the notches. A flexible
copper pig tail mounted at the top of the brush conveys current from the brushes to the
holder.
(8) BEARINGS:Ball bearings are frequently employed due to their reliability, though for heavy duties, roller
bearings are preferable. The ball and roller are generally packed in hard oil for quieter
operation and for reduced bearing wear, sleeve bearings are used.
QUIZ:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

Why is armature and yoke of dc machine laminated?


What is normally the thickness of armature lamination?
Which material is used for brushes in D.C. machine?
Which type of material is used in commutator?
What is the function of commutator in dc machine?
Why is air-gap between pole shoe and armature kept very small?
Why are brushes staggered?

EXPERIMENT NO: -

DATE:-_______

AIM: - To find the efficiency and regulation of a single phase transformer by direct
test.
MACHINE SPECIFICATION:-

Page No.

APPARATUS: -

THEORY: - Efficiency of an apparatus is defined as the ability of a device to convert


energy from one form to other. In other words it is the ratio of the useful power output to
the input power. While converting energy, some losses take place in the device. Losses
are more in case of rotating machines due to friction and windage. The transformer is a
static device so its efficiency is in the range of 96 to 99%. In transformer there are mainly
two types of losses (1) constant loss (iron loss) (2) variable loss (copper loss). Constant
losses are constant for a given frequency and voltage. Variable loss depends on the square
of the load current. In large transformers iron losses are in between 0.5 to 1.0% and Cu
losses between 0.5 to 1.5% of its capacity. To find efficiency at any load, we require
evaluating output and hence inputting. This can be done by actually loading the
transformer, known as load test. In this case keeping power factor constant, load
impedance is varied and for different values of load output in KVA. Corresponding input is
measured. Thus in this case, there is no necessity of calculating the losses separately.
Voltage regulation is defined as the change in magnitude of the secondary (terminal)
voltage form no-load to full-load.
V2o - V2.fl
i.e. voltage regulation (%) = --------------- X 100
V2.o
Where V2o = secondary voltage when load is thrown off.
V2.fl = rated secondary voltage at full load and specified p.f.

Page No.

PROCEDURE:1. Connect the transformer to supply system through single phase variac by including
appropriate meters as shown in circuit diagram.
2. Connect lamp banks on secondary side of the transformer. Very load to give load
current equal to 20 %, 40 % 60 % 80 % and 100 % of the full load current in steps.
For each step, measure input power and output power. At each load condition see that
the input voltage to primary of the transformer remains normal. For this purpose make
use of variac.
3. To determine regulation, set rated conditions and disconnect the load. Measure
secondary no load voltage (V2o) with primary voltage held constant.
4. Draw the graph of efficiency v/s load current (I2) or output (W2) and comment.

OBSERVATION TABLE:SR
NO

V1

VOLTS

INPUT
I1
W1
AMPS.

WATTS

V2

VOLTS

OUTPUT
I2
W2
AMPS.

WATTS

EFFICIENCY REGULATION
= V20 - V2 fl
= W2 100
V2 fl
W1

1
2
3
4
5
6

CALCULATION:Reading no: ___


(1) (%) = W1 / W2 100 =
(2) Percentage Regulation = V 20 - V2 fl
V 2 fl

GRAPH:- plot the graph of efficiency v/s load.


CONCLUSION:1. Comment on the nature of graph.
2. Discuss about the value of regulation obtained.

RELEVANT IS:1. IS 13956: 1994 testing of transformers


2. IS 10028
Part I: 1985 code of practice for selection of transformer
Part II: 1985 code for installation of transformer
Part III: 1981 code for maintenance of transformer

Page No.

%
* 100

QUIZ: 1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

What is the aim of performing a load test on transformer?


Under what circumstances, this method of testing is not advisable?
Why the efficiency of transformer is so high?
What is the range of efficiency of large power transformer?
What is the effect of power factor on regulation?
What is the effect of frequency on performance of a transformer?
State the effect of power factor on Cu loss.
State the methods to minimize hysteresis and eddy current loss.
State the condition for maximum efficiency in a transformer.
Is it possible to get the negative regulation?

Page No.

EXPERIMENT.NO:-

DATE:-_________

AIM:-To find efficiency and regulation of a single phase transformer by


indirect loading method (o.c & s.c test)
MACHINE SPECIFICATION:APPARATUS:-

THEORY: - Efficiency of a single phase transformer at a particular load and power factor is
defined as the output divided by input both being measured in the same unit. In indirect
method, losses are predicted at different loads and power factors without actually
loading the transformer in order to evaluate the efficiency and regulation. Open circuit
test (O.C) and short circuit test (S.C) are performed to predict the losses.
OPEN CIRCUIT TEST :- In this test one of the winding is connected to supply at
rated voltage while the other winding is kept open circuited. From the point of view
of convenience and availability of supply, the test is usually performed from the L.V side
while the H.V side is kept open circuited as shown in fig.1 As the no load current is
hardly 3 to 5 percent of the full load current, the copper losses under this test will be
negligible. Hence the wattmeter reading represents practically the core loss(iron loss)
under no load condition. This loss is same for all loads. So iron losses are also known as
constant losses. This test also serves the purpose of determining the shunt branch
parameters.
SHORT CIRCUIT TEST:- For convenience of supply arrangement and current to be
handled, the test is usually performed from the H.V side while the L.V side is short
circuited as shown in fig.2 Since the transformer resistance and leakage reactance
are very small the voltage (Vsc) required to circulate the full load current under short
circuit is approximately 5 to 8 percent of the rated voltage. As Vsc is very low, iron losses
are negligible and hence wattmeter reading represents full load copper losses of the
transformer. This test also serves the purpose of determining the series parameters of the
transformer. From the knowledge of losses, efficiency can be evaluated and regulation
can be obtained from the knowledge of series parameters.

PROCEDURE:Page No.

(1) Connect the transformer to supply system through single phase variac by including
appropriate meters as shown in fig.1
(2) Keep the secondary (H.V) open circuited and adjust input voltage to a rated value and
note down the various readings of the meters
(3) Connect the circuit as shown in fig.2 for short circuit test. Adjust the input voltage
(Vsc) such that rated full load current flows in the windings. Note down the various
readings of the meters.

OBSERVATION TABLE:Table: 1 Open circuit test.


Vo(Volts)

Io(Amps)

Wo(Watts)

Table: 2 Short circuit test.


Vsc(Volts)

Isc(Amps)

Wsc(Watts)

CALCULATIONS:(1) Wi

= Wo = __________ watts

(2) Wcu-fl = Wsc = __________ watts


(3) =

m rated output cos


.
2
(m rated output cos ) + Wi +( m Wcu-fl)
where m= Fraction of the full load
=

_______________________

(4) Zo2 = Zsc = Vsc / Isc = ________ ohm


Zo 1 = Zo2 / K2 =
ohm
(5) Ro2 = Rsc = Wsc / Isc2 = ________ ohm
Ro1 = Ro2 / K2 =
ohm
(6) Xo2 = Xsc = Zsc2 Xo 1 = Xo2 / K2 =

Rsc2 =
ohm

KVA 100
V1
(8) I1 Ro1 = __________ volts
(7) I1

(9) I1 Xo1 = __________ volts

Page No.

ohm

(10)Percentage regulation = I1 Ro1 cos I1 Xo1 sin


___________________________
V1

*100 %

+ ve for lagging p.f.


- ve for leading p.f.

RESULT TABLE:SR.
NO

FRACTION
OF
LOAD

LOAD
POWER
FACTOR

Wi
WATTS

Wcu
WATTS

OUTPUT
WATTS

INPUT
WATTS

EFFICIENCY

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11

GRAPH: - Plot the graph of efficiency v/s load.


CONCLUSION:1. Discuss the effect of load and pf on regulation.

QUIZ:1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

Which loss is neglected in O.C. test? Why?


Which loss is neglected in S.C. test? Why?
State the factors affecting the voltage regulation.
State the condition for zero voltage regulation.
Why the power factor of the transformer on no load is poor?
State the percentage no load current compared to full load current?
Why copper losses are neglected in O.C. test?
Why iron losses are neglected in S.C. test?

Page No.

REGULATION

EXPERIMENT NO:- 5

DATE:- _________

AIM:- To determine external and internal characteristics of a d.c. shunt


Generator.
MACHINE SPECIFICATION:3 HP, 1500 RPM , 230 V D.C. SHUNT MOTOR. COUPLED WITH 2.2 KW, 230
V, D.C. SHUNT GENERATOR.

APPARATUS:1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Voltmeter (MC) 300V


Voltmeter (MC) 30V
Ammeter (MC) 10A
Ammeter (MC) 1A
Rheostat 366 ohms,1.2 A
Tachometer

1
1
1
1
1
1

THEORY:- The external characteristic of a d.c. generator expresses the relationship


between the terminal voltage and the load current at a constant speed. The external
characteristics clearly indicate the terminal voltage maintained by the generator at a
particular load. The shape of the characteristics depend on (i)armature reaction
(ii)voltage drop in the armature winding, series ,interpole and compensating
winding and (iii) voltage drop at the brush contact. In shunt wound generator the field
winding is connected across the armature winding. The voltage across the shunt
field winding is equal to the terminal voltage of the generator. The terminal voltage
of the generator falls down due to armature reaction and ohmic drop in the armature
winding as the load on the generator increases. As a result voltage across the field
winding also decreases with increase in the load which causes a decrease in the
exciting current. The terminal voltage further falls. Hence the total decrease in the
voltage in case of shunt generator is much greater than that in the separately excited
generators. The internal characteristic express the relationship between the e.m.f
(Ea) actually induced in the armature(after allowing for the demagnetizing effect of
armature reaction) and the armature current.

PROCEDURE:1. Connect the circuit as shown in circuit diagram of fig.1


2. Switch on the supply and adjust the excitation such that generator develops rated
voltage at rated speed on no load condition. Note down the readings as per table.1.
Page No.

3. Increase the load gradually and at suitable intervals note down the various readings
at constant speed.
4. Reduce the load to zero and switch off the supply.
5. Connect the circuit as shown in fig.2. Switch on the supply and take various
readings by changing the load. Note down the readings in table.2.

Page No.

OBSERVATION TABLE:TABLE 1
SR. TERMINA
NO.
L
VOLTAGE
Vt(Volts)
1
2
3
4
5

LOAD
FIELD
CURRENT CURRENT
IL(Amps)
Ish(Amps)

TABLE - 2
SR. VOLTAGE
NO. Va
Volts

ARMATUR
E
CURRENT
Ia = IL + Ish

INDUCED
E.M.F.
Ea = Vt + Ia.Ra.

- CURRENT - Ia Ra = Va / AVERAGE
Amps
Ia
Ra Ohms
Ohms

CALCULATION:For reading no :______


(1) Ia = I L + Ish = ________

= __________

(2) Ea = Vt + IaRa = ________ = __________


Plot the graph of Vt v/s IL and Ea v/s Ia

CONCLUSION:Mention both the characteristics and discuss the nature of the graph and also mention
about the drops occurring.

RELEVENT IS:
IS 489:1968
Mehtod of determination of efficiency of rotating electrical machine.

QUIZ: 1. What is meant by internal and external characteristic of d.c. generator?


2. What is essential condition for voltage build-up of self excited shunt generatoe?
Page No.

3. Why does saturation curve start from some value higher than zero?
4. State the reasons for the droop in terminal voltage of shunt generator when it is
loaded.
5. Why the field winding of D.C series motor is thicker than D.C shunt motor ?

EXPERIMENT NO:- 6

DATE:-____________

AIM:-To determine external and internal characteristics of a d.c. series


generator.
MACHINE SPECIFICATION:3 HP, 1500 RPM , 230 V D.C. SHUNT MOTOR. COUPLED WITH 2.2 KW, 230 V,
D.C. SERIES GENERATOR.
Page No.

APPARATUS:(1)Voltmeter 0-300 V(MC)


(2)Voltmeter 0-30 V(MC)
(3)Ammeter 0-10 A(MC)
(4)Lamp bank
(5)D.P.S.T. Switch

1
1
1
1
1

THEORY:- The external characteristic of a d.c. generator expresses the reletionship


between the terminal voltage and the load current at a constant speed. The external
characteristic clearly indicate the terminal voltage maintained by the generator at a
particular load. The internal characteristic expresses the relationship between the
e.m.f.(Ea) actually induced in the armature(after allowing for the demagnetising
effect of the armature reaction.
In d.c. series generator, the field winding is connected in series with the armature
so that the armature current, field current and load current are the same. When the
generator is run at its rated speed on no load, no current passes through the field
and hence the induced emf is due to residual magnetism. When the generator is
loaded the current passes through the field. If the series field is properly connected so
as to aid the residual flux, the terminal voltage increases with load current. This increase
in the terminal voltage continues to increase up to the certain value of the load current.
Any further increase in the load current reduces the terminal voltage. Induced voltage is
also reduced due to the armature reaction at large value of the load current.
The series generators are not used in applications where constant voltage is required
because of their rising external characteristic but these generators are generally used as
boosters to compensate for the resistive voltage drop in the feeders of the d.c.
distribution systems such generators are also used in arc welding.

PROCEDURE:1. Connect the circuit as shown in circuit diagram of fig. 1


2. Switch on the supply and adjust the speed of the motor to the rated speed of the set.
Initially the generator will have small voltage due to residual magnetism. Note down
the readings and record them in the table.1.
3. Load the generator in steps preferably for loads 10%, 25%, 50%, 75%, 100% and
110% approximately by adjusting the resistance of the load. Speed must be maintained
constant at its rated value during the test. Observe the various readings and record them
in table.1.
4. Reduce the load gradually to zero and switch off the supply.
5. Connect the circuit as shown in connection diagram of fig.2.
6. Take various readings by changing the resistance of the lamp bank and record them in
table 2.

OBSERVATION TABLES:TABLE-1
SR.
NO.

TERMINAL
VOLTAGE
Vt(Volts)

LOAD
CURRENT
IL(Amps)

VOLTAGE
ACROSS
SERIES
FIELD

ARMATURE
DROP
Va = Ia.Ra

Page No.

INDUCED
E.M.F.
Ea = Vt + Vse + Va

Vse(Volts)

1
2
3
4
5
6
TABLE - 2
SR. VOLTAGE
NO. Va
Volts

- CURRENT - Ia Ra = Va / AVERAGE
Amps
Ia
Ra Ohms
Ohms

CALCULATIONS:-

Reading No:______

1. Ra = Va / Ia (From table no.2)


2. Armature drop Va = Ia.Ra
3. Induced e.m.f. (Ea) = Vt + Vse + Va

GRAPH :Terminal voltage (Vt) v/s load current (IL)


2. Induced e.m.f. (Ea) v/s armature current(Ia)
1.

CONCLUSION:-

RELEVENT IS:
IS 4889:B9168
Method of determination of efficiency of rotating electrical machine.

QUIZ:1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

What are the reasons for the failure of a d.c. series generator to build up voltage?
Why series generator is not suitable for general electric supply?
Can a series generator be operated on no load?
Can a series motor be operated on no load?
Mention applications of d.c.generator.

Page No.

EXPERIMENT NO:- 7

DATE:-___________

AIM:-To determine external and internal characteristics of a d.c. compound


generator.
MACHINE SPECIFICATION:3 HP, 1500 RPM , 230 V D.C. SHUNT MOTOR. COUPLED WITH 2.2 KW, 230 V,
D.C. COMPOUND GENERATOR.

APPARATUS:(1)Voltmeter 0-300 V(MC)


(2)Voltmeter 0-30 V(MC)
(3)Ammeter 0-10 A(MC)
(4)Ammeter 0-1 A(MC)
(5)Lamp bank
(6)Tachmeter
(6)D.P.S.T. Switch

1
1
1
1
1
1
1

THEORY:- The external characteristic of a d.c. generator expresses the reletionship


between the terminal voltage and the load current at a constant speed. The external
characteristic clearly indicate the terminal voltage maintained by the generator at a
particular load. The internal characteristic expresses the relationship between the
e.m.f.(Ea) actually induced in the armature(after allowing for the demagnetising
effect of the armature reaction) and the armature current.
Compound generator is provided with two field windings, shunt and series. The shunt
winding consists of a large number of turns of thin wire. It has a high resistance and is
connected in parallel with the armature terminals. The series field winding consists of
few turns of thick wire. It has a low resistance and connected in series with the
armature.
Depending upon the method of connection of the field windings, compound generators
are classified as ( i ) long shunt type and ( ii ) short shunt type.
In short-shunt type compound generator, the shunt winding is connected directly across
the armature alone. The current through the series winding is the load current ( I L)
which is equal to armature current(Ia) minus shunt field current (Ish) . In long shunt
compound generator, the series field is directly in series with the armature and carries
the armature current. The shunt field winding is connected across the series combination
of armature and series field.
The shunt and series field windings are on the same pole. If the flux due to series field
winding ( s) aids the flux due to shunt field winding(sh) connection is said to be a
cumulative connection. If the flux due to series field winding(s) opposes the flux due
to shunt field winding(sh), it is said to be a differential connection.
Based on the combination of the connections and the directions of currents through the
field windings, compound generators are further classified as:1.
2.
3.

Long shunt cumulative compound generator


Long shunt differential compound generator
Short shunt cumulative compound generator
Page No.

4.

Short shunt differential compound generator

In d.c. compound generator, the series field winding is generally arranged to assist the
shunt field winding. The manner in which the terminal voltage varies with the load
current depends upon the relative strengths of the two windings as well as on the initial
no-load voltage.
By suitably selecting the number of turns on the series winding, the terminal voltage can
be made practically constant when the load varies from no-load to full load, the
generator is said to be flat(level) compound generator. The characteristic is shown by
curve A in fig.1.
By using relatively strong series field winding it is possible to off-set the voltage drop in
the armature and the series field windings. The terminal voltage then rises with an
increase in the load current as shown by curve B in fig.1, and the generator is said to be
over compounded. If a series field is not strong, the terminal voltage decreases with the
load current as shown by curve C in fig.1 and the generator is said to be under
compound.

PROCEDURE:1. Connect the circuit as shown in circuit diagram of fig.2.


2. Switch on the supply and start the motor. Adjust the speed of the motor to the rated
speed of the set.
3. Excite the shunt field till the e.m.f. on open circuit or on no load is the rated voltage.
Note down the various readings and record them in the table.1.
4. Load the generator in steps preferably 10%, 25%, 50%, 75%, 100% and 110% load
approximately by adjusting the resistance of the lamp bank. Observe the various
readings during each step of load and record them. The speed of the set must be
maintained at its rated value during the test.
5. Decrease the load gradually to zero and switch off the supply.
6. Connect the circuit as shown in connection diagram of fig.3.
7. Take various readings by changing the resistance of the lamp bank and record them
in table 2.

OBSERVATION TABLES:TABLE.1
SR.
NO

TERMINAL
VOLTAGE
Vt(Volts)

LOAD
CURRENT
IL(Amps)

SHUNT
FIELD
CURRENT
Ish(Amps)

ARMATURE
CURRENT Ia
= IL + Ish

VOLTAGE
ACROSS
SERIES
FIELD
Vse(Volts)

Page No.

ARMATURE
DROP
Va = Ia.Ra

INDUCED
EMF
E = Vt + Vse +
Va

1
2
3
4
5
6

TABLE - 2
SR.
VOLTAGE NO.
Va
Volts

CURRENT Ia
Amps

Ra = Va / Ia
Ohms

CALCULATIONS:1.
2.

3.
4.

AVERAG
E
Ra Ohms

Reading No:___

Ra = Va/Ia (From table no 2.)


Ia = IL + Ish
Va = Ia.Ra
E = Vt + Vsc + Va

CONCLUSION:Discuss about the machine used, also discuss the characteristics and nautre of the graph.

RELEVENT IS:IS 4889:1968


Mehtod of determination of efficiency of rotating electrical machines
IS 9320:1979
Guide for testing of direct current.

QUIZ:Page No.

1. What is meant by cumulative and differential compound generator?


2. Name the various types of compound generators, based upon their external
characteristic.
3. Which generator is used for arc welding purpose? Why?
4. Which dc generator gives constant terminal voltage at all loads?
5. What type of generator is used for general power supply?

EXPERIMENT NO: 8

DATE:_________

AIM:-To study the performance of single phase transformers


parallel.

connected in

MACHINE SPECIFICATION:Two transformers:- 1-phase, 1.5 KVA, 230/115 Volts, 50 Hz.

APPARATUS:(1) Voltmeter (MI) 300V


(2) Ammeter (MI) 20A
(3) Ammeter (MI) 10A
(4) Lampbank
(5) SPST switch

1
1
2
1
1

THEORY:-

For supplying a load in excess of the rating of an existing transformer,a


second transformer may be connected in parallel. For this, primary windings are
Page No.

connected to the same supply busbars and secondary windings are connected to
the load busbars. It is essential that terminals of similar polarities are joined to the
same busbars. If this is not done, the two emfs induced in the secondaries will act together
in the local secondary circuit resulting in a dead short-circuit, even on no load condition.
There are certain definite conditions which must be satisfied in order to avoid local
circulating current and to ensure that the transformers share the common load in
proportion to their KVA ratings.
The conditions are as under:1. Primary windings of the transformers should be suitable for supply system voltage
and frequency.
2. The transformers should be properly connected with regard to polarity.
3. The transformers should have the same transformation ratio.
4. The percentage impedances should be equal in magnitude and have the same
X/R ratio in order to avoid circulating currents and operation at different power
factors.
5. The equivalent impedance should be inversely proportional to the individual KVA
rating in order to avoid circulating current in case of transformers having different
KVA ratings.
From the above conditions, condition 1 and 2 are absolutely essential. If condition 3 is not
satisfied, it results in some circulating current. When secondaries are loaded,
circulating current will tend to produce unequal loading condition. So full KVA
output can not be taken from the parallel connected group. If condition 4 is not satisfied
powerfacter at which the transformers operate will be different.So the transformers will
not share the load in proportion to their KVA ratings so for satisfactory operation,
the above conditions should be satisfied.

Page No.

PROCEDURE:1. Connect the circuit as shown in figure.


2. Keep the switch "S" open. Switch on the supply. If voltmeter connected across
the switch "S" indicates twice the secondary
side
voltage, interchange one of
the transformer connections. If voltmeter indicates zero close the switch "S".
3. Increase the load gradually and at suitable intervals of the load, note down the
various readings.
4. Make the load zero and switch off the supply.

OBSERVATION TABLE :SR. LOAD CURRENT


NO.
FROM
TRANSFORMER1
I1 (Amps)
1
2
3
4
5
6
7

GRAPH: - (1) I1 v/s I and

LOAD CURRENT
TOTAL
FROM
LOAD
TRANSFORMER-2 CURRENT
I2 (Amps)
I(Amps)

(2) I2 v/s I ( on the same graph.)

CONCLUSION: Comment on the nature of the graph and load sharing by each transformer.

RELEVANT IS:1.
2.

IS 13956: 1994 testing of transformers


IS 10028:
Page No.

Part I: 1985 code of practice for selection of transformer


Part II: 1985 code for installation of transformer
Part III: 1981 code for maintenance of transformer

QUIZ:1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Why parallel operation of transformer is required ?


State the necessary conditions for parallel operation.
What is meant by circulating current with regard to parallel operation of transformer?
How is the load shared if percentage impedances of the transformers are different ?
Which is the most essential condition for two transformers in parallel?

Page No.

EXPERIMENT NO:- 9

DATE:-________

AIM:- To control Speed of a D.C.shunt motor by


(i ) armature voltage control (rheostatic control ) and
(ii) field control.
MACHINE SPECIFICATION:3 HP, 1500 RPM , 230 V D.C. SHUNT MOTOR.

APPARATUS:(1) Voltmeter (MC) 300V


(2) Ammeter (MC) 3A
(3) Rheostat 366 ohm, 1.2A
(4) Rheostat 100 ohm, 5A
(5) Tachometer

1
1
1
1
1

THEORY:- The speed of a D.C.motor is given by


N=

( V - IaRa )(A) (60)


---------------------Z. (P)

( V - IaRa )
Eb
K --------------- = K ------

(1)

Where V = applied voltage (V),


Ia = armature current (A)
= flux per pole (Wb) ,
Ra = resistance of armature circuit (ohms)
It is obvious that the speed can be controlled by varying
(i) resistance of armature circuit (Ra)-rheostatic control
(ii) flux per pole () -flux control
(iii) applied voltage (V) - voltage control

FLUX CONTROL METHOD :From equation (1)


N = K/ (assuming other parameters constant)
The equation indicates that the speed of the motor is inversely proportional to the flux per
pole . Flux is proportional to the field current (up to saturation). So the speed is inversely
proportional to the field current. Thus the speed can be increased by decreasing the flux
or shunt field current which can be achieved by inserting a rheostat in the field circuit of
the motor. Field current is 4 to 10 percent of full load current so losses are minimum.
Normally speed higher than rated values are obtained by using this method of control. For
specially designed motors this method can give a large variation of speed even of the
order of 2:1 .

Page No.

RHEOSTATIC CONTROL (ARMATURE VOLTAGE CONTROL):speed of the motor is given by


V - Ia(Ra+ R)
N = K --------------- r.p.m.

(where R = external resistance)

The above equation clearly indicates that the voltage drop in the armature circuit
increases even for a particular value of the load current resulting in a reduced voltage
available across the armature terminals of the motor. As a result , the speed of the motor
decreases with an increase in the value of external resistance R. Thus this method of speed
control can only lower the speed of the motor below the rated speed. Speeds above the
no load speed can not be obtained by this method. The speed regulation is very poor. A
further disadvantage is the excessive wastage of power in the external resistance,
which lowers the efficiency of the motor considerably. This method is used where
frequent speed control is not needed and reduction in speed is of the order of 30 to 50
percents.

PROCEDURE:1. Connect the circuit as shown in the circuit diagram


2. For rheostatic control first adjust the normal speed of the motor without extra
resistance in the armature circuit. Note down the reading.
3. Vary the external resistance(R) connected in armature circuit. Note down the various
readings for each variation.
4. For field control, first adjust the normal speed of the motor without extra resistance
in the field circuit. Note down the various readings
5. Vary the field current by external resistance connected in the field circuit. and note
down the various readings for each variation.
6. Draw the graph of N v/s Va and N v/s If.

OBSERVATION TABLE:RHEOSTATIC CONTROL


SR.
NO.

ARMATURE
APPLIED VOLTAGE
Va(volts)

SPEED
IN
R.P.M.

1
2
3
4
5

Page No.

FIELD
CURRENT
If (Amps)

FIELD CONTROL
SR.
NO.

FIELD
CURRENT
If (Amps)

SPEED
IN
R.P.M.

ARMATURE
APPLIED VOLTAGE
Va(volts)

1
2
3
4
5
GRAPH:-

(1) N Vs If

(2) N Vs Va

CONCLUSION:Mention in brief both the methods of speed control and also discuss the
nature of the graph.

QUIZ:1. What is back e.m.f.?


2. State the different methods used for speed control of d.c. shunt motor.
Page No.

3.
4.
5.
6.

Compare the field control method with rheostatic control method?


Is it possible to obtain speed control by field in a d.c.series motor ? How?
How can we change the direction of rotation of d.c. motor?
In above experiment, what will happen if the field circuit breaks down?

EXPERIMENT NO :- 10

DATE:- _________

AIM:-To determine the parameters of an equivalent circuit of a single phase


transformer.
MACHINE SPECIFICATION:1-phase, 1.5 KVA, 230/115 V, 50 Hz TRANSFORMER.
Page No.

APPARATUS:1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Voltmeter 0-300 V (MI)


Voltmeter 0-60 V (MI)
Ammeter 0-10 Amp(MI)
Ammeter 0-1 Amp(MI)
Wattmeter 0-300-600 V,
0-1.5-3Amp,
0-200W 0.2 p.f
6. Wattmeter 0-150-300 V,
0-10-20 Amp,
0-200 Watt
7. Single phase variac

1
1
1
1
1
1
1

THEORY:- It is useful to describe the behavior of an electrical equipment in terms of


its equivalent circuit. The equivalent circuit is quite helpful in predetermining
the behavior under various conditions of operation from the known parameters of the
equivalent circuit. The transformer can be assumed to be an ideal alongwith
the additional impedances inserted between the supply and the primary winding and
between the secondary winding and load as shown in fig.1. R1 and R2 represent the
resistances of the primary and secondary windings respectively of the actual
transformer. Similarly
X1 and X2 represent the actual values of
the
leakage reactances. The no-load current Io which is equal to the phasor sum of the
magnetizing component Im and active component Iw is equivalent to that drawn by a
resistance Ro and reactance Xm connected in parallel as shown in fig.1. The value of
Ro is such that it takes the current Iw so that Iw 2 Ro is equal to the core loss of the
actual transformer. Similarly the value of Xm is such that it takes a current equal to the
magnetising current of the actual transformer. It is more convenient to solve the circuit
by taking the values of resistance and leakage reactance referred to one side
either primary or secondary than considering them in a mixed manner. This reduces
the equivalent circuit in simple form. Let R2' be the resistance added in the primary
circuit to cause the same copper loss as caused by the resistance R2 in
the secondary circuit. Since the current I2 when transferred to primary appear as I2',
this additional resistance causes a copper loss (I2')2.R2'
Therefore
(I2')2.R2' = I22.R2
R2'= (I2/I2')2.R2 But
I2/I2' = N1/N2
2

R2'= R2.(N1/N2)

Page No.

R2
is called the resistance of secondary referred to the primary.
and,
X2' = X2(N1/N2)2
X2' is called the leakage reactance of secondary referred to the primary.
Similarly load impedance (Zl) can also be transferred to the primary side. Fig.2 shows
the exact equivalent circuit with all parameters transferred to the primary side.
Similarly parameters of the primary side can be transferred on the secondary side.
The parameters when transferred to secondary side are given as
R1'= R1(N2/N1)2 and
X1'= X1(N2/N1)2
APPROXIMATE EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT:- As the no-load current Io is hardly
3 to 5 percent of the full load current, parallel branch consisting of Ro and Xm can be
shown across the supply as shown in fig.3. The circuit of fig.3 can be further reduced as
shown in fig.4. In fig.4,
R01 = R1 + R2' = R1 + R2(N1/N2)2
X01 = X1 + X2' = X1 + X2(N1/N2)2
R01 = equivalent resistance referred to primary
X01 = equivalent reactance referred to primary
The above parameters can be obtained from O.C. and S.C. test. Ro and Xm can be
obtained from the o.c. test while R01 and X01 can be obtained from s.c. test.
O.C.TEST:-Usually low voltage side is exited. The core loss is the same measured
on either side provided the rated voltage of that winding is applied. Nevertheless if the
measurements were made on the high voltage side, the required voltage would
be rather high and the current Io would be inconveniently small. It is pertient to add
that the power factor under no-load condition is very low(around 0.3 or so). Therefore
it is advisable to use a low power factor wattmeter to ensure accurate value of the noload loss.
Let Vo, Io and Wo be the readings of no-load voltage,current and power.
Wo
Then
Cos o =
-----------(1)
Vo.Io
Core loss component (active component of no-load current)
Iw = Io.Cos o
----(2) and
magnetising current(reactive component of no-load current)
Im = Io.Sin o
----(3)
Ro = Vo/Iw and Xm = Vo/Im
----(4)

Page No.

S.C.TEST:-This test is conducted to find out the equivalent resistance and leakage
reactance of the windings. In this test, normally low voltage(LV) side is shorted and the
high voltage(HV) side is excited by a suitable voltage so that rated full-load current
may flow in the windings. Only a few percent of the rated voltage need be applied.
Core losses are negligible. Therefore the wattmeter reading is equal to the full-load
copper losses of both the windings provided full-load current is flowing.
Let Vsc, Isc and Wsc be the readings of voltmeter, ammeter and wattmeter then
Zo1 = Vsc/Isc

------(1)

Ro1 = Wsc/Isc2

------(2)

Xo1 = Zo12 - Ro12 ---(3)


Where Zo1, Ro1 and Xo1 denote the equivalent impedance, resistance and
leakage reactance respectively referred to the primary side.

PROCEDURE:1. Connect the circuit as shown in fig.5 for o.c. test.


2. Apply rated voltage to the low voltage side keeping high voltage side open.
Note down the various readings and record them in the observation table.
3. Connect the circuit as shown in fig.6 for s.c. test.
4. Apply suitable voltage such that full load current flows in the windings. Note
down the various readings and record them.

OBSERVATION TABLE:O.C.TEST:Vo(Volts)

Io(Amps)

Wo(Watts)

S.C.TEST:Vsc(Volts)

Isc(Amps)

Wsc(Watts)

CALCULATIONS:-

Reading No:__

O.C.TEST:N1/N2 = V1/V2 = ____________


No load current referred to the primary(H.V.) side
Io' = Io(N2/N1) = Io(V2/V1)
Cos o = Wo/V1.I1' (V1 = primary rated voltage)
Iw = Io'Cos Oo

Im = Io'Sin Oo

Ro = V1/Iw

Xm = V1/Im

S.C.TEST:Page No.

Zo1 = Vsc/Isc
__________

Ro1 = Wsc/Isc 2

Xo1 = Zo12 - Ro12

CONCLUSION:The parameters of the equivalent circuit are as under


Ro = _________ ohm
Xm = _________ ohm
Ro1 = _________ ohm
Xo1 = _________ ohm
Zo1 = _________ ohm

RELEVENT IS:
IS 13956:1994
Testing of transformer

QUIZ:
1.
2.
3.
4.

Which parameters of the equivalent circuit can be found from O.C. test?
Which parameters of the equivalent circuit can be found from S.C. test?
What is phasor relationship between Im and I?
What is the value of p.f. transformer at no load condition?
Page No.

5. Which parameters will be affected if we conduct above tests at 60 Hz in place of 50


Hz?

EXPERIMENT NO:- 11

DATE:-__________

AIM:-To study the construction and principle of operation of


induction motors.
CONSTRUCTION:The main parts of the induction motor are the stator and rotor.
STATOR:Page No.

Polyphase

The stator core is laminated and is slotted on its inner cylindrical surface. It is made
of sheet steel laminations usually of 0.40 to 0.50 mm thickness. They are insulated
by varnish or oxide coating produced by heat treatment. The large size motors use
open slots where as small size motors use semi-enclosed slots. Three phase winding is
housed in these slots.
ROTOR:The rotor core is also laminated. The rotor winding may be in the form of bars or a
complete 3-phase winding. Accordingly motors are known squirrel cage and wound
type (slip ring) induction motors.
Squirrel cage rotor:-It has a number of conducting bars placed in the rotor slots.
These bars are short circuited at both ends by the conducting end rings. If these end
rings are not provided, current would not be able to flow in the rotor bars and the
motor would not develop torque. Copper or aluminum is used as conductor
material. In case of aluminum, the cast rotor construction is common. The
aluminum alloy bars in the rotor slots and end rings are cast together and form an
integral part. It is known as squirrel cage rotor because it looks like one of the
exercise wheels of squirrel. The cage winding is adaptable to any number of poles. It is
cheep and robust. Its starting torque is low. Squirrel cage motors are used
comparatively for small and medium size motors. The slots in the squirrel cage motors
are not always parallel to the shaft but are given twist through an angle. This is
known as skew angle. The skewing of the rotor eliminates cogging and noise in the
motor.
Wound rotor:-A wound rotor has a laminated core with slots on its outer surface.
These slots carry 3-phase rotor winding. which is similar to stator winding. Both the
stator and rotor are designed for the same number of poles. The number of slots in the
rotor have to be chosen properly to avoid dead points. The 3-phase rotor winding is
usually star connected. The ends of three phases are connected to slip rings mounted on
the motor shaft. The rotor windings are shorted through brushes which ride on the
sliprings. Thus rotor currents are accessible at these brushes. When running normally
the three sliprings are short circuited but at the time of starting, resistance can be
introduced in the rotor which is also star connected. The resistance can be varied and
finally short circuited under running condition. This extra resistance is usually necessary
to give a high starting torque. When a high starting torque is required, slipring type or
wound rotor type induction motors are used.
THE AIR GAP:The stator and rotor of the motor are separated by air gap. The air gap should be made
as small as is mechanically possible so that the primary and secondary leakage fluxes
are low. In very small size motors, the air gap about 0.5 mm and in large ones it is
about 1 mm. The stator and rotor must be circular and concentric. The large air
gap increases the magnetising current necessary to produce the required air gap flux
which results in a low power factor of the motor.
FRAME:The frame and the end shields serve to carry the bearings and support the core. The
choice of frame depends on the operating conditions and environments. Some
commonly used frames are; (i) open type (ii) totally enclosed type (iii)
totally enclosed fan cooled (TEFC)type (iv) enclosed self-ventilated type and drip proof
type etc.
Page No.

PRINCIPLE OF OPERATION:The stator winding is connected to a 3-phase a.c. supply. The flow of currents in the
stator winding produces a rotating field. This field rotates at synchronous speed.
The relative motion between this field and rotor conductors induces an e.m.f. in
the rotor conductors. As the rotor is closed one, currents flow in the rotor winding.
The rotor current produces a rotor m.m.f. The interaction of stator and rotor fields
produces a torque and rotor starts rotating in the same direction as the stator rotating
field. The motor thus works on the induction principle and is known as induction
motor. When the rotor is stand still, the frequency of rotor e.m.f. (proportional to
relative speed between stator rotating field and rotor speed) is equal to the supply
frequency. As the rotor starts moving, the frequency of rotor e.m.f. and the magnitude
of rotor e.m.f. are reduced due to decrease in the relative speed. However the rotor
speed can not become equal to synchronous speed because if it does so, the e.m.f.
induced in rotor conductors would become zero. Therefore the speed will always
remain a bit lower than the synchronous speed. At no load, the difference between
rotor speed and synchronous speed is only about 1 %, under full load condition, the
difference is about 3 to 5 %. In an induction motor, the rotor speed cannot be
equal
to synchronous speed. Therefore this machine is also known
as asynchronous machine.
SLIP:The difference between the synchronous speed and rotor speed is known as slip. This
term is descriptive of the manner in which the rotor slips back from the synchronous
speed and is given as
Ns - N
S = -------Ns

Where Ns = synchronous speed in r.p.m.


N = rotor speed in r.p.m.
S = slip

or N = Ns (1 - S)
When rotor at stand still, S = 1, slip cannot be zero because when S = 0, N=Ns and
hence the electromagnetic torque is zero. If the rotor is driven by external prime mover
such that N is greater than Ns, slip is negative and the machine acts as induction
generator. The variation in slip and therefore speed from no-load to full-load is very
small. Thus a 3-phase induction motor is known as a constant speed motor.

RELEVENT IS:
IS 325:1996
Three phase induction motor

Page No.

QUIZ:
1. What are the main parts of induction motor?
2. What are the various types of three-phase induction motor as per the rotor
construction?
3. What are the advantages of induction motor?
4. What is the frequency of emf induced in rotor of three-phase induction motor?
5. How can you reverse the direction of rotation of an induction motor?
6. What is the value of slip at starting condition ?
7. Why the air-gap is made very small?
8. Why an induction motor cannot run at synchronous speed?

Page No.

EXPERIMENT NO:- 12

DATE:-__________

AIM:-To find the polarity of transformer windings by test.


MACHINE SPECIFICATION:1-phase, 1.5 KVA 230/115 V, 50 Hz TRANSFORMER

APPARATUS:1. Single phase transformer


2. Voltmeter 0-300V (MI)
3. Single phase variac

1
2
1

THEORY:- The two primary terminals of a single phase transformer are alternately
positive and negative. Likewise the secondary terminals are also alternately positive
and negative. When two transformers are to be connected in parallel on the primary
and secondary sides, it is essential that terminals which have identical instantaneous
polarity are connected together. The terminals are distinguished by suffixing numbers in
such way that the same sequence of numbers represent the same direction of
the induced e.m.f. both in primary and the secondary winding at any instant.
Accordingly the H.V. terminals are marked as A1,A2 and L.V. terminals as a1 a2.
These markings indicate that when instantaneous voltage is directed from A1 to A2
in the H.V. winding, it is directed from a1 to a2 in the L.V. winding i.e. when A1 is
positive with respect to A2, a1 will be positive with respect to a2 at that instant. For
test, connect the adjacent H.V. and L.V. terminals A1 and a1 together and connect the
single phase supply to A1,A2. Connect the voltmeter across A2 and a2 as shown in
Page No.

fig.1. If the direction of induced emfs in primary and secondary is the same, the
voltmeter connected between A1 and a2 will read the difference of V1 and V2 i.e. V =
V1 - V2. In this case polarity is subtractive (ref fig.2). This will result if the primary and
secondary windings are wound on the magnetic core in the same direction. If the
windings are wound in the opposite direction on the core, V1 and V2 will be in
the opposite direction and the voltmeter will read the sum of voltages i.e. V = V1 +
V2. Then the polarity is termed as additive polarity (refer fig.3 ) Generally polarity
used is subtractive

PROCEDURE:1. Connect the connection diagram as shown in fig.4.


2. Apply suitable voltage to the H.V. winding and note down the voltage V1 from
supply side, voltage V2 on the secondary side and the voltage V between the
other two open terminals of the transformer windings. At one end, the two
winding terminals are connected together.
3. Similarly take two to three sets of readings and tabulate them.

Page No.

OBSERVATION TABLE:SR.
NO.

PRIMARY
VOLTAGE
V1(Volts)

SECONDARY
VOLTAGE
V2(Volts)

VOLTAGE WITH
OPEN
TERMINALS
V(Volts)

1
2
3

CALCULATION:-

Reading No:___

V = V1 + V2

CONCLUSION:Compare the results obtained from additive and subtractive


Polarity tests.

RELEVENT IS:
IS 1180 (PT 1); 1989
Three distribution transformers upto and including 100 KVA, 11 KV.

QUIZ:1. What is meant by the polarity of a transformer ?


2. Where is this information necessary ?
Page No.

3. Can the transformer with subtractive polarity operate in parallel with transformer
having additive polarity?
4. What is the effect of wrong polarity on the parallel connected transformer?

EXPERIMENT NO:- 13

DATE:-_________

AIM:-To determine regulation of an alternator


impedance method.
MACHINE SPECIFICATION:Page No.

by

synchronous

3 HP, 1500 RPM , 230 V D.C. SHUNT MOTOR COUPLED WITH 2.2 KW, 3, 50 Hz 400 V CYLINDRICAL ROTOR TYPE ALTERNATOR.

APPARATUS:(1) Voltmeter (MI) 300V


(2) Voltmeter (MC)
30V
(3) Ammeter (MI)
10A
(4) Ammeter (MC)
3A
(5) Rheostat , 366 ohm,1.2A

1
1
1
1
1

THEORY:- If the field excitation and speed is kept constant, the change in the terminal
voltage when the full load is thrown off is called the regulation of the alternator. It
is expressed as a percentage of full load terminal voltage.
E-V
The percentage regulation = -------- X 100
V
Where E = no load e.m.f.
V = rated voltage at full load
The regulation of the alternator depends not only on the load but also on the power
factor of the load. The regulation is greater for lagging p.f than at unity p.f and it is
negative for leading p.f. Regulation depends on resistance, leakage reactance and on
the armature reaction. For salient pole alternators, its value is 10 to 15 percent for unity
p.f and 20 to 25 percent with 0.8 p.f lagging. The regulation of the alternator can be
found out by the following methods.
1. Direct loading
2. Synchronous impedance method
3. M.M.F. method
4. Zero power factor method
In synchronous impedance method, the regulation calculated is higher than the actual
value and hence it is called the pessimistic method. The m.m.f. method gives better
voltage regulation compared to the actual tests and thus it is called the optimistic
method. The Zero power factor method is fairly reliable for the determination of
regulation.
SYNCHRONOUS IMPEDANCE METHOD:- In order to find regulation by this
method, following data is required,
(1) The resistance of stator winding per phase.
(2) Open circuit characteristic of the alternator at synchronous speed
(3) Short circuit characteristic of the alternator.
The resistance of the stator winding per phase can be determined by voltmeter ammeter method using a d.c. supply. For the purpose of calculating the
regulation, the value of synchronous impedance corresponding to full load current is
usually taken.
Synchronous impedance,
Zs = Eph/Iph
Page No.

Where Iph = short circuit current(equal to full loadcurrent)


corresponding to a certain excitation.
Eph = Open circuit voltage corresponding to the same
excitation.
Synchronous reactance , Xs = Zs2

Ra2

From the vector diagram diagram, Eph= (Vph.cos + IaRa)2 + (Vph.sin + IaXa)2
Eph - Vph
Percentage regulation = ------------ X 100
Vph

PROCEDURE:1. Connect the circuit diagram as shown in fig.1 for open circuit characteristic.
2. Switch on the supply and run the alternator at synchronous speed.
3. Vary the excitation in steps and note down the corresponding open circuit voltage.
Tabulate the readings as per table no.1
4. Continue to increase excitation till an open circuit voltage reaches to 25 to 30
percent higher than the rated voltage.
5. For short circuit test, the speed of the motor should be constant (synchronous)
and stator is short circuited by a switch `S' through an ammeter. Refer fig. 1.
6. Increase the excitation in steps and note down the corresponding armature current,
tabulate the readings in table. 2.
7. Continue to increase the excitation until the armature current reaches the full load
value.
8. For measurement of stator winding resistance per phase, connect the circuit as
shown in fig.2 Take various readings by changing the load. Note down the readings
in table 3.

OBSERVATION TABLES:TABLE NO 1:
SR.
NO.

OPEN CIRCUIT

FIELD
CURRENT
If (Amps.)

CHARACTERISTIC

OPEN CIRCUIT
VOLTAGE
E(volts)

OPEN CIRCUIT
VOLTAGE PER PHASE
Eph = E/3 (volts)

1
2
3
4
TABLE NO 2: SHORT CIRCUIT CHARACTERISTIC
SR.

FIELD CURRENT

ARMATURE CURRENT
Page No.

NO
1
2

If (Amps.)

Ia (Amp.)

TABLE NO 3: MEASUREMENT OF ARMATURE RESISTANCE


SR.
NO.

ARMATUR
E
VOLTAGE
Va(Volts)

ARMATUR
E
CURRENT
Ia(Amps.)

ARMATURE
RESISTANCE
Ra=Va/Ia

AVERAGE
ARMATURE
D.C.
RESISTANCE
Rdc/phase
(ohms)

AVERAGE
ARMATURE
A.C.
RESISTANCE
Rac/phase
=1.2Rdc(ohms)

1
2
3

CALCULATION :From the characteristic,


(1) Zs =

Eph / Iph = __________

Eph =

Where Iph = short circuit current


(equal to full load current)
corresponding to a certain excitation.

(2) Xs =

Open circuit voltage per


excitation.
_________
Zs2 - Ra2 = ____________

phase corresponding to the same

(3) Eph =

__________________________________
(Vph.cos + IaRa)2 + (Vph.sin + IaXa)2

= _____________________________________
= ___________
Eph - Vph
(4) Percentage regulation = ----------- 100
Vph
= ____________
= ____________

RESULT TABLE:SR.

FRACTION OF

POWER
Page No.

REGULATION

NO.
1
2
3
4
5

LOAD

FACTOR

CONCLUSION:1. Discuss the effect of pf and load on regulation.


2. Comment on the value of regulation obtained by this method.

RELEVENT IS:
IS 13364 (PT!) : 1992
AC generators rated upto 20 KVA

QUIZ:1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Define voltage regulation of alternator.


What are the reasons of drop of terminal voltage due to load in case of alternator?
Can the terminal voltage raise under load?
State the type of rotor in case of hydro alternator.
What is difference between cylindrical and salient pole rotor machines?
What is the effect of power factor on voltage regulation of alternator?

Page No.

NIRMA UNIVERSITY
INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY
B.Tech. Semester III (Electrical), Year: 2004-05
ELECTRICAL MACHINES - 1
IN D E X
SR.
NO.
1
2
3

5
6

TITLE

PAGE
FROM

TO

To study the d.c.shunt motor


starter.
Study of D.C.machine components
To find the efficiency and
regulation of a single phase
transformer by direct loading
method.
To find efficiency and regulation
of a single phase transformer by
indirect loading method (o.c & s.c
test)
To determine external and internal
characteristics of a d.c.shunt
generator
To determine external and internal
characteristics of a d.c. series
generator
Page No.

DATE

SIGN

REMARKS

7
8
9

10
11
12
13

To determine external and internal


characteristics of a d.c. compound
generator.
To study the performance of
single-phase
transformers
connected in parallel.
To control speed of a D.C.shunt
motor by
(i) Armature voltage control
(rheostatic control) and
(ii) Field control.
To determine the parameters of an
equivalent circuit of a single-phase
transformer.
To study the construction and
principle of operation of poly
phase induction motors.
To find the polarity of transformer
windings by test.
To determine the regulation of an
alternator by synchronous
impedance method

Page No.