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Department of Chemical Engineering University of California, Santa Barbara

ChE 110A Winter 2014

Problem Set No. 2 Due: Wednesday, January 15, 2014 by the end of class Objective: Note: To understand and perform calculations using fundamental mechanical relations in thermodynamics. Numerical values for some problems have been changed from those in the book.

Problem 1 (thought problem) You remove an ice cube from your refrigerator and place it on the kitchen counter. It melts. During the melting process, is any work done? If so, what is its sign? Draw a force diagram for this system.

Problem 2 (Smith, van Ness, Abbott, 1.7, page 16) The reading on a mercury manometer at (open to the atmosphere at one end) is 42.8 cm. What is the absolute pressure in being measured, in atmospheres? If the temperature were higher and you measured the same height, would the pressure that you calculate increase or decrease? Note that the density of mercury decreases with temperature.

Problem 3 (Smith, van Ness, Abbott, 1.16, page 17) A gas is confined in a 1.1 diameter cylinder by a piston, on which rests a weight. The mass of the piston and weight together is 200 lb-mass. The local acceleration of gravity is , and atmospheric pressure is 30.12 . (a) (b) (c) What is the force in exerted on the gas by the atmosphere, the piston, and the weight, assuming no friction between the piston and cylinder? What is the pressure of the gas in psia? If the gas in the cylinder is heated, it expands, pushing the piston and weight upward. If the piston and weight are raised 1.0 , what is the work done by the gas in ? What is the change in potential energy of the piston and weight?

Problem 4 According to, the 2013 Tesla Model S luxury electric car can reach 60 mph starting from rest in 5.9 seconds. Neglecting frictional resistances, what is the average power, in , required to accomplish this feat? Note that the Model S has a mass of 4647 . How many old-style 60 electric light bulbs is this equal to? If the mass of the car were less, clearly less energy would be required. What likely contributes significantly to its mass?

Problem 5 (Smith, van Ness, Abbott, 1.25ab, page 19) Chemical-plant equipment costs rarely vary in proportion to (i.e., linearly with) size. In the simplest case, cost varies with size according to the allometric equation, The exponent is typically between 0 and 1. For a wide variety of equipment types, it is approximately 0.6. (a) (b) For , show that cost per unit size decreases with increasing size, resulting in an economy of scale. Consider the case of a spherical storage tank. The size is commonly measured by internal volume . Show that . On what parameters or properties would you expect the quantity to depend?

Problem 6 (Smith, van Ness, Abbott, 2.2, page 56) A nonconducting container filled with 11 kg of water at 20 C is fitted with a stirrer, which is made to turn by gravity acting on a weight of mass 24 kg. The weight falls slowly through a distance of 4 m in driving the stirrer. Take the heat capacity of the container to be equivalent to 2.5 kg of water ( ) and the local acceleration of gravity to be . Determine: (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) the amount of work done on the water-container system, the internal-energy change of the water-container system, the final temperature of the water-container system, the amount of heat that must be removed from the water-container system to return it to its initial temperature, the total energy change of the universe because of (1) the process of lowering the weight, (2) the process of cooling the water-container system back to its initial temperature, and (3) both processes together. If the container had a negligible heat capacity, would the final temperature of the water be higher or lower?