You are on page 1of 2

Transitions from school to work and gender: proof of youth inequality in Argentina.

Consequences for youth policy



Ana Miranda
Summary

Over the last three decades, youth studies have held that transitions towards adulthood are
becoming more extended, complex and non-standarized. Arguments are sustained contrary
to what is considered the core features of post-war youth transitions: lineal, homogeneous,
standarized features1. Some concepts are key to construe such transitions: globalization,
individuation, biographization, post-modernity (Beck U. 1998; Bendit R., Hahn M. and A.
(editors) 2008).
Furthermore, researches have also pointed out that the greatest heterogeneity of transitions
towards adulthood is developed within a context of great social uncertainty and
vulnerability. Individual family resources are acquiring greater significance within a
framework of lesser social protection (Castel R. 1997; Biggart A., Bendit R., Cairns D.,
Hein K. and Morch S. 2004; Machado País J. 2004).
Due to these trends, the analysis of transitions between education and work of youths in
Latin America acquires greater complexity rising from a set of particularities which belong
to peripheric societies themselves. Particularities are related to the existence of wide
poblational groups which survive within a wide deprivation context and which do not
participate in the dynamics of formal work. Latin American literature has developed
significant contributions to understand such phenomena (Prebisch R. 1988; Cardoso FH
and Faletto E. 1990; Portes A. 1994; Nun J. 1999).
In Argentina, globalization and individuation processes have strongly impacted to widen
the gap of opportunities and accesses of youths from different social sectors. For example,
at present there are groups of youths connected to global communication and consumption
networks living with groups of youths from peripheric locations where the “barrio” is the
only known reality (Kessler G. 2004; Miranda A. 2007).
This paper attempts to prove inequality of living conditions of youths in Argentina rising
from an analysis on the transition between education and work of youths from different
social sectors and gender. Analysis is performed on the basis of primary quantitative
information gathered in a youth survey applied in four Argentine cities having well


Ph D in Social Sciences. Researcher of the National Council for Scientific and Technological Research of
Argentina. Academic Coordinator of Youth Research Program, Latin American School of Social Sciences
(FLACSO) Argentina. http://www.flacso.org.ar/investigacion_ayp_contenido.php?ID=16
1
It is necesary to highlight that some studies show that youth condition in the second post-war has not been
deeply researched, passages were as homogenous as supposed to be. Pursuant to these studies, during the
fifties youths changed many times their jobs, and during recession periods they experienced increasing
employment problems. Biggart A., Furlong A and Cartmel F. (2008). Biografías de elección y linealidad
transicional: nueva conceptualización de las transiciones de la juventud moderna. Los jóvenes y el futuro:
procesos de inclusión social y patrones de vulnerabilidad en un mundo globalizado. Bendit R, Hahn M. and
Miranda A. Buenos Aires, Prometeo.
differentiated social and geographical features: Buenos Aires, Neuquén, Posadas and Salta.
The purpose was to contribute with information substantial for the preparation of youths
programs and policies promoting the widening of opportunities among youths.

Bibliography

Beck U. (1998). La sociedad del riesgo: hacia una nueva modernidad Barcelona, Paidos.
Bendit R., Hahn M. and Miranda A.(editors) (2008). Los jóvenes y el futuro: procesos de
inclusión social y patrones de vulnerabilidad en un mundo globalizado. Buenos Aires,
Prometeo.
Biggart A., Furlong A. and Cartmel F. (2008). Biografías de elección y linealidad
transicional: nueva conceptualización de las transiciones de la juventud moderna. Los
jóvenes y el futuro: procesos de inclusión social y patrones de vulnerabilidad en un
mundo globalizado. Bendit R., Hahn M. and Miranda A. Buenos Aires, Prometeo.
Biggart A., Bendit R., Cairns D., Hein K. and Morch S. (2004). Families and Transitions in
Europe: State of the art report. Ulster, FATE Research Project. School of Social and
Community Sciences, University of Ulster.
Cardoso FH and Faletto E. (1990). Dependencia y desarrollo en América Latina. Mexico,
XXI Century.
Castel R. (1997). La metamorfosis de la cuestión social: una crónica del salariado. Buenos
Aires, Paidos Publishers.
Kessler G. (2004). Sociología del delito amateur. Buenos Aires, Paidos Tramas Sociales.
Machado País J. (2004). "Los bailes de la memoria: cuando el futuro es incierto."
JOVENES Magazine, Year 8 No. 20.
Miranda A. (2007). La nueva condición joven: educación, desigualdad y empleo. Buenos
Aires, Octubre Foundation.
Nun J. (1999). "El futuro del empleo y la tesis de la masa marginal." Desarrollo Económico
vol. 38 No. 152.
Prebisch R. (1988). "Dependencia, interdependencia y desarrollo." CEPAL Magazine No.
34.