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Wirtgen Surface Mining Manual

Applications and Planning Guide


Wirtgen Surface Mining Manual
Applications and Planning Guide
Wirtgen Surface Mining Manual
This Manual describes the performance and proc-
ess capabilities of the versatile Wirtgen Surface
Miners. It contains information which can help you
to select the most appropriate machine for your
particular jobs and requirements from the range of
Wirtgen Surface Miners.
The data listed in this Manual are average values
based on experience to date in a whole variety of
applications. Technical data always depend on the
specic application concerned and are therefore
subject to change. Since performance data and
consumption are based on these values, this
Manual should exclusively be used for provisional
dimensioning and for comparison.
Since the applications and actual conditions on
site can vary signicantly, particularly when the
properties of natural rock and work processes
are involved, we recommend that you contact
a Wirtgen sales branch or dealer if you require
specic information on the use of Wirtgen
Surface Miners in your particular project.
In collaboration with the Mining Division of
Wirtgen GmbH, your local Wirtgen agent can then
compile more precise performance data for your
specic project based on detailed documentation
and a knowledge of the deposit concerned as well
as the conditions prevailing there.
Wirtgen cannot accept any liability for losses, con-
sequential losses or other claims attributable to the
use of this Manual or parts thereof.
Wirtgen GmbH
Mining Division
Reinhard-Wirtgen-Strasse 2
D-53578 Windhagen
Germany
Phone: +49-2645-131-368
Fax: +49-2645-131-242
E-Mail: mining.division@wirtgen.de
2 // 3
Illustrations are without obligation. Technical details are subject to change without notice. Performance data depend on operating conditions.
Reproduction, in whole or in part, is not permitted. Copyright and all other rights reserved by Wirtgen GmbH.
Translation, storage, duplication and distribution, including copying on electronic data storage devices, such CD-ROM, video disc, etc., as well as
storage in electronic media, such as screen text, Internet, etc., is not permitted without the prior written consent of Wirtgen GmbH. Any liability for
personal injury, material and nancial losses is excluded.
First Edition 2010
Copyright by Wirtgen GmbH
Contents
1 The benets and applications at a glance 9
1.1 Summary 10
1.2 Selective mining 13
1.3 Extracting and crushing material without blasting 14
1.4 Cutting trenches, surfaces and embankments with precision 15
1.5 Production of tunnel floors 16
1.6 Rehabilitation of haulroads 17
2 Which Wirtgen Surface Miner for which job? 19
2.1 Performance ranges of the Wirtgen Surface Miners 20
2.2 Assesment of rock cuttability 21
2.3 Which Wirtgen Surface Miner for which job? 22
3 The main technical data 31
4 Principle of operation and essential design features 37
4.1 Principle of operation 38
4.2 Machine design 41
4.3 Cutting depth adjustment 43
4.4 Steering systems 47
5 Wirtgen cutting technology 49
6 Cutting performance as a function of rock properties 59
7 Gradation 71
8 Planning aids for economic operation 76
8.1 Highly selective extraction 80
8.2 Machine dimensions, turning radii, discharge heights and distances, ambient conditions 81
8.2.1 Machine geometry 81
8.2.2 Cutting in a bend 81
8.2.3 Ambient temperatures 81
8.2.4 Working at higher altitudes 81
8.3 Effective performance as a function of the length of the working area 103
8.4 Working methods, manoeuvring methods and times 105
8.4.1 Working in a pit 105
8.4.2 Progressing along the bench 109
8.4.2.1 Open cut operation 109
8.4.2.2 Trench construction 110
8.4.3 Progressing across the bench 111
8.4.4 Working on benches 113
8.5 Methods and times for turning 115
8.5.1 Straightforward turning in wide working zone 115
8.5.2 Transverse milling in front of end slopes 117
8.5.3 Turning in working zones of medium width 119
8.5.4 Manoeuvring in narrow working zone 121
8.5.5 Turning times 123
8.6 Cutting of ramps 127
8.7 Transverse and longitudinal slopes 128
8.8 Mixing different grades 133
8.9 Selective extraction from inclined or steep seams 134
8.10 Cutting of embankments 136
8.11 Cutting trenches 138
8.12 Cutting floors and benches in tunnels 140
8.12.1 Producing the tunnel floor 142
8.12.2 Cutting benches 144
9 Material transport 147
9.1 System selection 148
9.2 Direct loading onto trucks 149
9.3 Indirect loading 152
9.3.1 Sidecasting the material 152
9.3.2 Windrowing 153
9.4 Processing options depending on the various loading methods 156
4 // 5
10 Tips for practical use 160
10.1 Transport and assembly 162
10.2 Preparing the working zone 164
10.3 One-man operation 165
10.4 Working without damage to the machine 167
10.4.1 Cutting along the milled edge 167
10.4.2 Driving in bends 167
10.4.3 Travelling over long distances 168
10.4.4 Cutting with reduced drum width 168
10.4.5 Belt capacity 168
10.5 Driving in difficult conditions 169
10.6 Cutting depth adjustment and control 170
10.6.1 Forms of adjustment for the rigid axle 172
10.6.2 Levelling surfaces 173
10.6.3 Removing layers of defined thickness 175
10.6.4 Selective mining and creation of defined surface profiles 177
10.6.5 Tracing the existing surface profiles 177
10.6.6 Last pass in a working area 178
10.6.7 Working on a tall embankment without edge protection 179
10.7 Optimization of cutting performance and grain size 180
10.8 Dust suppression 181
10.9 Effective supply of materials and maintenance 182
10.9.1 Fuel 182
10.9.2 Water 182
10.9.3 Maintenance 182
10.9.4 Tool changes 183
10.9.5 Changing the cutting tool holders 183
10.9.6 Communication 183
11 Job-site examples 185
Annex 195
Conversion tables 196
Rock testing methods 200
Point Load Test 200
RQD value 200
Mohs hardness scale 201
Seismic wave velocity 202
Cuttability and rippability, as a function of seismic wave velocity 203
Specific gravity, bulking coefficients 204
Glossary 205
6 // 7
8 // 9
1.1 Summary 10
1.2 Selective mining 13
1.3 Extracting and crushing material without blasting 14
1.4 Cutting trenches, surfaces and embankments with precision 15
1.5 Production of tunnel floors 16
1.6 Rehabilitation of haulroads 17
1 The benets and applications at a glance
Wirtgen Surface Miner technology yields the
following essential advantages:
Mining without blasting
Simplied mining
Better quality of the mined material due to highly
selective mining processes (ROM = run of mine)
Robust, clean cut edges and benches
1.1 Summary
Selective extraction of thin
seams of pay minerals
Mining of rock
without blasting
Production of small grain sizes
directly while mining the material
Production of stable
embankments
Production of
dened surfaces
Production and
rehabilitation of roads
Use in mining
Use in earthworks and con-
struction in rock, as well as
road construction
Wirtgen Surface Miners
Potential uses
Main features
High purity of the pay mineral,
simpler extraction and processing,
lower price per tonne
Main features
Production of precise, stable,
dened proles in the rock
10 // 11
Continuous
cutting
Precise
cutting depth
Clean, level and
stable cut surface
Crushed
aggregate
Direct
loading
Wirtgen Surface Miners cut, crush and load the material in a single operation with just one machine
Wirtgen Surface Miners simplify the complex
multi-stage process of extracting and processing
minerals. Surface Mining is a production system
that extracts, crushes and loads the material in a
single operation.
Advantages:
Higher system availability
Lower operating costs
Only one machine is needed for several work
steps; this simplies coordination and planning
of the mining process, machine use, operation
and maintenance.
These ancillary jobs are no longer required: cleaning, levelling and blockholing
Wirtgen Surface Miner
Drilling Blasting Loading Crushing
12 // 13
One of the most important features of the Wirtgen
Surface Miners is their ability to work highly selec-
tively. Thin seams interspersed with intermediate
rock layers can be mined precisely and economi-
cally, for example.
1.2 Selective mining
Thin coal seams can be mined selectively with Wirtgen Surface Miners
Mining companies throughout the world are ex-
ploiting the advantages of Wirtgen Surface Miner
technology with its extremely precise control of the
cutting depth to extract high-quality mined mate-
rial (ROM) in coal mines, phosphate mines and
gypsum mines.
Selective mining with Wirtgen Surface Miners en-
sures that thin seams of high-grade minerals and
overburden can be mined separately.
Advantages:
Better quality of the mined material
Higher exploitation of the deposit
Better stripping ratio
Less processing required
1.3 Extracting and crushing material
without blasting
With Wirtgen Surface Miners, materials can be mined without blasting in the vicinity of buildings, power cables, etc.
Throughout the world, mining companies and
construction contractors are making use of the
advantages of Wirtgen Surface Miners in a whole
variety of mining applications.
Avoid drilling and blasting
No vibrations
No ying stones
Less noise and dust
Smaller grain sizes are produced directly when
mining
Cut material can immediately be used as
gravel
Pre-crushing is unnecessary
Due to the grain size of the mined material,
it can be loaded onto trucks without causing
damage
Material can be transported by conveyors
without preliminary crushing
A single Wirtgen Surface Miner makes the
equipment for drilling, blasting, loading, pre-
crushing and ancillary jobs, such as blockholing,
unnecessary.
Advantages:
Lower investment costs in comparison to the
equipment required for conventional mining
processes
Lower operating costs as less machinery and
manpower are needed
Only one machine is needed for several work
steps; this simplies coordination and planning
of the mining process, machine use, operation
and maintenance
Better exploitation of the deposit
Improved safety
14 // 15
1.4 Cutting trenches, surfaces and
embankments with precision
Contractors benet from the technical characteris-
tics of the Wirtgen Surface Miners whenever
trenches
tunnel oors
embankments
proled surfaces
have to be precisely cut in limestone, granite or
other medium-hard to hard minerals.
Advantages:
Avoid blasting
Steep, stable surfaces and embankments can
be cut (better utilization)
Dened proles can be cut with great precision
(embankments, surfaces)
Small grain sizes are produced directly dur-
ing the cutting process. The cut material can
immediately be used as gravel on account of its
grain size.
Wirtgen Surface Miners can cut limestone in the inlet section of a water reservoir
1.5 Production of tunnel oors
Mining and the formation of a precise tunnel prole
are time-consuming tasks in view of the conned
working conditions encountered. Blasting causes
problems in many tunnel construction or rehabili-
tation projects. With Wirtgen Surface Miners, the
benches can be mined precisely and carefully, and
the tunnel oor lowered to exactly the required
depth.
Wirtgen Surface Miners make it possible to lower tunnel oors
for modern railway systems with higher capacity
Advantages:
Avoid blasting
Dened oors can be cut with great precision
No excavation below the required prole; this
eliminates the additional work needed for un-
necessary excavation and additional backlling
A single machine extracts, crushes and loads
the rock. This reduces the number of machines
required and boosts productivity.
16 // 17
1.6 Rehabilitation of haulroads
Wirtgen Surface Miners can be used to rehabilitate
the surface of existing roadways in natural rock
both above ground and underground. Ruts, eleva-
tions due to movement of the rock and even very
hard areas which can no longer be ripped can be
removed or levelled with these machines.
Access roads to an open cast mine
Underground roadways
Advantages:
Mine vehicles can travel at higher speeds when
road surfaces have been improved
Less wear on tyres, mechanical parts and
chassis parts
Lower fuel consumption
Greater safety
18 // 19
2.1 Performance ranges of the Wirtgen Surface Miners 20
2.2 Assesment of rock cuttabilit 21
2.3 Which Wirtgen Surface Miner for which job? 22
2 Which Wirtgen Surface Miner
for which job?
2.1 Performance ranges of the
Wirtgen Surface Miners
The performance, tool wear and consequently
the cost-efcient mode of operation of Wirtgen
Surface Miners are decisively dependent on the
mechanical properties of the rock to be cut.
In the following diagram, the performance ranges
of the Wirtgen Surface Miners and cuttability of
the various types of rock are plotted as a function
of the unconned compressive strength of the
respective rock types.
The maximum cutting performances listed in
the table Performance ranges apply for the
respective unconned compressive strengths and
for highly ssured, easily crushed materials. The
actual performance achieved may differ consider-
ably from the values listed here. Further details on
cutting performance can be found in the diagrams
in chapter 6. Please contact the Mining Division
at Wirtgen for an estimate of performance and
operating costs.
Performance ranges of the Wirtgen Surface Miners
C
u
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t
i
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g

p
e
r
f
o
r
m
a
n
c
e

(
b
m
3

p
e
r

h
o
u
r
)
Unconned compressive strength x 10 (MPa)
3,000
2,500
2,000
1,500
1,000
500
0
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
4200 SM
2200 SM / 3800 SM
with windrowing
2500 SM
2200 SM
with windrowing
2200 SM with
conveyor loading
20 // 21
This general summary can be used to estimate the
cuttability of a rock type. Queries concerning the
cuttability of rock and the cutting performance to
be expected with a Wirtgen Surface Miner should
be addressed to the Mining Division of Wirtgen,
together with data and information on the type of
native rock and the open-pit mine.
2.2 Assessment of rock cuttability
M
e
t
a
m
o
r
p
h
i
c

r
o
c
k
M
a
g
m
a
t
i
c

r
o
c
k
S
e
d
i
m
e
n
t
a
r
y

r
o
c
k
= can be cut economically in mining operation
= cannot be cut at present
= can be cut in special applications and for earthworks as well as construction in rock
Quartzite
Serpentinite
Gneiss
Andalusite
Marble
Talc
Basalt
Basalt lava
Diabase
Granite
Tuffaceous rock
Tuff
Graywacke
Sandstone
Iron ore
Bauxite
Dolomite
Limestone, marl
Conglomerate,
pudding stone
Clay schist
Phosphate
Gypsum
Salt rock
Bituminous coal
Lignite
MPa
Rock
Unconfined compressive strength
10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 190 200 210 220 230 240 250 260 270 280 290 300
2.3 Which Wirtgen Surface Miner for which job?
Wirtgen supplies Surface Miners with different
parameters for different applications:
2200 SM
The Wirtgen Surface Miner 2200 SM is a standard
machine. Its modular design gives the machine
great exibility in use. It can be converted for a
variety of jobs, from cutting rock through milling
asphalt to cold recycling.
22 // 23
When cutting rock, the Wirtgen Surface Miner
2200 SM is used to extract minerals as well as for
earthworks and construction in rock:
Continuous duty in soft to medium-hard material
(UCS up to 50 MPa)
Cutting widths ranging from 2.2 m to 3.8 m to
optimize performance in different types of rock
(suitable for subsequent conversion)
Also suitable for smaller projects and for opera-
tions in conned conditions
Loading heavy trucks with capacities of up to
approx. 55 tonnes
Cutting width can be converted from 2.2 m to 3.8 m
Can be converted from conveyor loading to windrowing and vice versa
24 // 25
Can be used on different sites, as the machine
is easy to transport (weights and dimensions
permit transport by road on conventional low-
bed trailers)
Can be converted for milling asphalt pavements
or for cold recycling
2500 SM
The Wirtgen Surface Miner 2500 SM is designed
and built purely for use in mining.
It can be engineered for the particular job in ques-
tion:
Continuous duty in soft to hard material (UCS up
to 80 MPa)
Loading heavy trucks with capacities of up to
approx. 120 tonnes
26 // 27
A windrowing version is specially adapted to the specic requirements encountered in earthworks and construction
in rock
Can be used on different sites (transported on a special-purpose low-bed trailer)
4200 SM
The Wirtgen Surface Miner 4200 SM is designed
and built purely for use in mining.
It can be engineered for the particular job in ques-
tion:
Continuous duty in soft to medium-hard material
(UCS up to 80 MPa)
Designed for high delivery rates
Loading heavy trucks with capacities of up to
approx. 240 tonnes
Can be designed for belt loading or windrowing
28 // 29
Dinting machine 2600
The dinting machine is a special-purpose machine
for servicing underground roadways.
Can cut materials with an unconned compres-
sive strength of up to approx. 30 MPa
Low design
Mounted on wheels for rapid relocation from one
site to another
Can only be used for windrowing
30 // 31
3 The main technical data
Surface Miner 2200 SM
Cutting width 2,200 mm
Cutting depth 0 300 mm
Windrowing mode 0 250 mm
Engine output 708 kW / 963 PS / 949 HP
Operating weight, CE 47,730 49,080 daN (kg)
32 // 33
Surface Miner 2500 SM
Cutting width 2,500 mm
Cutting depth 0 600 mm
Engine output 783 kW / 1,065 PS / 1,050 HP
Operating weight, CE 100,500 daN (kg)
Surface Miner 4200 SM basic machine for medium-hard rock
Cutting width 4,200 mm
Cutting depth 0 830 mm
Engine output 1,194 kW / 1,623 PS / 1,601 HP
Operating weight, CE 211,300 daN (kg)
Surface Miner 4200 SM basic machine for soft rock
Cutting width 4,200 mm
Cutting depth 0 650 mm
Engine output 1,194 kW / 1,623 PS / 1,601 HP
Operating weight, CE 208,300 daN (kg)
34 // 35
Dinting machine 2600
Cutting width 2,600 mm
Cutting depth 0 200 mm
Engine output 273 kW / 371 PS / 366 HP
Operating weight, CE 100,500 daN (kg)
36 // 37
4.1 Principle of operation 38
4.2 Machine design 41
4.3 Cutting depth adjustment 43
4.4 Steering systems 47
4 Principle of operation and
essential design features
Numerous technical design features ensure that
the Wirtgen Surface Miners do their job properly.
Wirtgen Surface Miners are built for efcient, con-
tinuous operation in extracting rock. The machines
are mounted on four crawler tracks of innitely ad-
justable speed. As the machine advances, a rotat-
ing drum studded with carbide-tipped cutting tools
cuts the material and crushes it to sizes suitable
for transport on conveyor belts. The cutting drum
rotates upwards, i.e. conventionally, the helically
arranged cutting tools on the drum transporting
the material towards the centre of the drum from
where it is transferred via the primary belt to the
secondary, discharge belt.
The most important design features of a Wirtgen
Surface Miner are as follows:
Diesel engine
All Wirtgen Surface Miners are driven by a diesel
engine which efciently drives the drum via a ro-
bust belt drive. Other systems (such as the chain
and belt drives) are driven hydraulically.
Centrally arranged cutting drum with
mechanical drive
The cutting drum is located in the middle of the
machine, between the four crawlers, near the
machines centre of gravity. This ensures that the
entire machine weight and the installed power
can be converted into cutting power. As a result,
the machine can cut harder materials with good
cutting performance while at the same time
maintaining its stability.
4.1 Principle of operation
Drive train with cutting drum
in the middle
38 // 39
Up-cutting: gentle and effective
Advantages of up-cutting:
High penetration force in horizontal direction (up
to 1.2 times the total machine weight is trans-
formed into penetration force via the crawler
tracks) ensures that even hard rock can be cut
effectively.
The up-cutting point attack tools generate
an additional vertical force during the cutting
process, with the result that the drum maintains
exactly the set cutting depth, even in hard rock.
The penetration resistance increases from 0 to
maximum during the cutting process.
Low peak loads reduce the stress on all compo-
nents, from the cutting tools through the cutting
and travel drive to the diesel engine.
Result: long component life and high availability.
The last part of the cut freely breaks out up-
wards. This reduces the force and consequently
also the energy required to release the material.
Result: high cutting performance.
Low fuel consumption
Low tool wear
Little mechanical wear (= low repair costs)
Grain size of the cut material can be controlled

The up-cutting (convention-
ally cutting) drum ensures
that the rock is removed
economically in terms of
energy consumption.
The speed of the cutting drum can be varied by
changing the belt pulleys. Speeds which can
normally be realized with these adjustment options
range from 60 to 100 rpm.
The belt pulleys are automatically clamped by a
hydraulic cylinder. This energy-saving, low-main-
tenance system reduces the costs incurred for
operation and maintenance.

Adjustment of the rotational drum speed
40 // 41
4.2 Machine design
The machines:
2500 SM
4200 SM
are designed for rear loading.
Advantages of this concept:
Permits the use of wide belts with high loading
capacity
Belt slewing angle 180
Long booms for loading large heavy trucks
Sidecasting over large distances

Discharge boom,
slewing and
height-adjustable
Crawler tracks, steered and
height-adjustable hydraulically
Scraper plate
with primary belt
Crawler tracks,
steered and
height-adjustable
hydraulically
Cutting drum, mechanically driven
Drivers cab
Drive unit with
diesel engine
Boom
counterweight Slewing ring
Working direction
Mechanical design of a Wirtgen Surface Miner
The 2200 SM is designed for front loading.
Advantages:
Same basic concept as the W 2200 (cold milling
machine for milling asphalt pavements) and
2200 CR (cold recycler); can therefore be con-
verted for several different possible uses
Machine can easily be converted from belt load-
ing to windrowing and vice versa
Compact design, easy to transport
Material can still be loaded even in conned
conditions
Very good overview of the loading process (in
front of the machine)

Drive unit with
diesel engine
Drivers cab
Working direction
Crawler tracks,
steered and
heightadjustable
Crawler tracks,
steered and
heightadjustable
Reinforcing bar
Cutting drum,
mechanically driven
Discharge boom,
slewing and
heightadjustable
42 // 43
4.3 Cutting depth adjustment
Precise adjustment of the cutting depth is a key
requirement to be met by a Surface Miner for
selective mining and for producing level surfaces,
as well as for proling.
Advantages of the concept with drum in the
middle:
Cutting depth and transverse slope can only be
set in a mechanically stable manner and main-
tained at a constant value with this concept of
having the drum in the middle.
Front and rear crawler tracks prevent the drum
cutting deeper than the set cutting depth.
The up-cutting milling drum prevents it from
riding up, even when cutting hard rock.
Cutting depth and transverse slope are set and
controlled by hydraulically adjusting the height of
the crawler tracks. The cutting depth can be read
off on the display of the cutting depth control-
ler. This value describes the cutting depth of the
milling drum in relation to the unworked surface.

Crawler tracks, steered and
hydraulically height-adjustable
Crawler tracks, steered and
hydraulically height-adjustable
Wirtgen Surface Miners can handle the following
jobs with great precision:
Levelling surfaces
Tracing (lowering) existing surface proles
Removing layers of dened thickness
Producing dened surface proles
Wirtgen supplies suitable open and closed-loop
control systems for these jobs:
Manual adjustment of the cutting depth
Side plate with sonic sensor or cable sensor
Cutting depth
control with
height scanning
(e.g. cable sensor)
The side plate scans and traces the existing surface
The multiplex control comprises between 3 and 6 sonic sensors (three on each side of the machine) which measure
the distance from the ground and adjust the cutting depth so that a mean value is obtained. Any unevenness in the
ground is compensated in this way.
Controller
3 sensors on the left
3 sensors on the right
Slope controller
Controller
Multiplex (sonic scanning of the surface)
44 // 45
A depth tolerance in the range of +0.5 cm can be
achieved in practice
Cutting depth is set precisely with lasers
Cutting depth
control with
height scanning
(e.g. with guide wire)
Scanning with guide wire
The cable sensor is combined with a tracer nger
which runs on the wire dening the required
prole. When the work starts, the cutting depth is
set so that the prole is obtained at the required
depth. The signals from the cable sensor are
converted to the respective cutting depths by the
automatic controller so that the required prole is
produced.
Laser
One or two masts equipped with laser receivers
can be installed on the right and left of the opera-
tors platform. These laser receivers are connected
to the automatic cutting depth controller. Very level
horizontal surfaces and slopes can be produced in
this way.
GPS
When a GPS receiver is connected to the automat-
ic cutting depth controller, predened proles can
be cut after programming the receiver accordingly.
These systems can be used effectively in the following applications:
Levelling surfaces
Removing layers
of dened thick-
ness
Tracing existing
surface proles
Producing
dened surface
proles
Manual adjustment of
cutting depth
very highly
suitable
highly suitable unsuitable suitable
Side plate with sonic
or cable sensor
unsuitable
very highly
suitable
very highly
suitable
suitable
Multiplex
very highly
suitable
highly suitable unsuitable unsuitable
Scanning with grade
wire
suitable suitable suitable
very highly
suitable
Laser suitable
very highly
suitable
unsuitable
suitable within
limits
GPS suitable
very highly
suitable
highly suitable
very highly
suitable
46 // 47
4.4 Steering possibilities
Due to the arrangement with drum in the middle of
the machine, the centre of gravity of the machines
is located in the area of the milling drum, i.e. in the
middle between the crawler tracks. This allows
the machines to manoeuvre safely, even on rough
ground. The machines are easy to manoeuvre, as
all four crawler tracks are steered.
During the cutting process, the direction of travel
is sensitively corrected via the front crawler tracks.
The machine can be turned in a small circle by
turning the front and rear crawler tracks in opposite
directions. Turning the front and rear crawler tracks
in the same direction allows the machine to be
accurately positioned sideways (crab steering).
Steering when working
Turning (without cutting)
Manoeuvring / positioning
sideways
Working
direction
48 // 49
5 Wirtgen cutting technology
Cutting technology is the core competence of
Wirtgen. This technology is continuously devel-
oped further and improved by Wirtgen to optimize
the following factors:
Optimum cutting performance
Maximum life of the cutting tools
Minimum operating costs
Controlled grading of the cut material
The cutting performance of a Wirtgen Surface
Miner is determined by the following machine
parameters in particular:
Type of cutting tool
Type of cutting tool holder
Number of cutting tools on the drum
(tool spacing)
Cutting tool angle
Rotational speed of the cutting drum
Cutting depth
Speed at which the machine advances
Wirtgen cutting drum 2200 SM
Wirtgen cutting drum 4200 SM
50 // 51
Cutting process
Forces acting during the cutting process
Wirtgen can supply the most appropriate combi-
nation of drum, cutting tool holder and cutting tool
for each application.
Please consult the Wirtgen Group Parts and More
catalogue for our current range of cutting drums,
toolholders and cutting tools.
The most important selection criteria are as
follows:
Hardness of the rock (unconned compressive
strength)
Rock structure
Abrasivity of the rock
Cutting performance
Grain-size distribution
Operating costs
Tool changing times
Feed force, travel
drive system
Weight of the
machine
Torque, milling
drum drive
Resultant
cutting force
52 // 53
Drum design
The number and arrangement of the cutting tools have a decisive inuence on the cutting performance.
Number and arrangement depend on the tool spacing selected.
Larger tool spacing
Lower cutting performance Higher cutting performance
Finer material grading bend Coarser material grading bend
e.g. milling drum FB2200 HT6 LA38 *
Small tool spacing Large tool spacing
e.g. milling drum FB2200 HT6 LA76
Smaller tool spacing
* FB2200 = Cutting width 2,200 mm
HT6 = Cutting tool holder system HT6
LA38 = Distance between cutting tool lines 38 mm
Optimization in practice
The classication presented here is merely a
recommendation. Additional information, such as
toughness, structure and abrasivity of the material
and required grain size distribution, is needed so
that the most suitable drum can ultimately be se-
lected. On the basis of this information, the milling
drums and cutting tool types are then dimensioned
to meet the requirements of the specic applica-
tion concerned.
Cutting performance in practice can additionally
be optimized by adjusting the following para-
meters:
Type of cutting tool
Cutting depth
Rate of advance
Drum speed

54 // 55
Solid rock, extremely abrasive
Macro-seamy rock, highly abrasive
Micro-seamy rock, low abrasivity
Loose rock, not abrasive
S
p
e
c
i
f
i
c

t
o
o
l

w
e
a
r

(
c
u
t
t
i
n
g

t
o
o
l
s
/
b
m
3
)
UCS (MPa)
10.000
1.000
0.1000
0.0100
0.0010
0.0001
10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 160
Note:
The tool wear values shown here refer to a 2200 SM with 35 mm tool
spacing. A cutting tool with cylindrical carbide tip measuring 15 mm
in diameter has been assumed as reference tool. Loose rock is de-
ned as fragmented or bedded rock with a fracture / bed distance
of less than 5 cm. Solid rock is dened as rock with a fracture / bed
distance of more than 50 cm. A share of up to 10% SiO2 has been
taken into account in the case of solid rock.
Tool wear
Very large and robust cylindrical carbide tip for use
with particularly high impact loads
Special brazing process ensuring a high
strength connection between carbide
and steel body
Hardened pick head for
optimized pick life
Pick head with ridges
for optimum pick rotation
Large pick head for
long service life
Locking ring for dened pick seating
in the toolholder
Pick = 38/30 mm for Surface Miners
The Wirtgen Surface Miners are being used in
numerous mines and construction sites world-
wide. The operating costs arising during use can
be signicantly reduced by using high-quality
milling picks. Here, the Wirtgen and Betek system
partnership, one of the worlds leading carbide
manufacturers, is especially successful.
Selecting the appropriate cutting tool is of decisive
importance for good cutting performance and
even for the cutting tool service life itself.
56 // 57
Very large and robust cylindrical carbide tip for
use with particularly high impact loads
Special brazing process ensuring
a high strength connection between
carbide and steel body
Hardened pick head for
optimized pick life
Pick head with ridges
for optimum pick rotation
Particularly large pick head
for long -service life
Wear plate with outside
diameter 77.5 for low toolholder
wear and optimum pick rotation
Centring function on the wear plate
for low wear toolholder bore
R-sleeve with Twin-Stop retaining
loops for long toolholder life
Thick-walled cylindrical R-sleeve of quenched
and tempered steel for constant tensioning
force, even during long duty periods
Mounting groove for simple pick
installation and removal
Pick = 42 mm for Surface Miners
Wirtgen Surface Miners provide economical and
ecological solutions for mining, earth work and
rock cutting. Rock is cut, crushed and loaded in
one single step. The yearlong experiences gained
in the R-sleeve pick sector while developing the
42 pick series are now also being used in the
mining sector.
The R-sleeve ensures reliable pick holding in the
toolholder. At the same time, installing and remov-
ing the cutting tool has been made much easier.
The robust shaft withstands enormous shearing
forces and impact stress. The wear disk absorbs
most of the wear stress.

Cutting tool changer for surface miners
The new, practical cutting tool changers from
Wirtgen, which are suitable for use with the HT14
quick-change toolholder system, provide a signi-
cant increase in operator comfort. Their intelligent
automatic features considerably facilitate the proc-
ess of replacing cutting tools, which minimizes
the time needed for replacement and therefore
machine stoppages. Customers can choose
between a battery-operated hydraulic tool changer
model and a tool changer that is connected to the
machines on-board hydraulic system.
Practical tools to support machine maintenance
procedures are much sought-after especially in
the mining industry to maintain the availability of
the miners at the highest possible level during one
work shift.
After securing the pressing head, the tool is ex-
tracted from the toolholder from the rear by means
of a hydraulic cylinder. The tool changer can also
be used to insert new cutting tools: the specially
developed surface mining tools, which have a
diameter of 42 mm, are tted with special mount-
ing studs enabling the tool to be inserted into the
HT14 toolholders. In addition, the tool changer can
be adjusted through 360 in order to enable full
accessibility to all tool positions.
58 // 59

6 Cutting performance as a function
of rock properties
Cutting performance, tool wear and consequently
the cost-efcient operation of Wirtgen Surface
Miners depend above all on the mechanical
properties of the rock to be cut.
Wirtgen uses the following parameters to assess
the cutting performance, tool wear and grain size
distribution:
Unconned compressive strength
(DIN 52105 or comparable standards)
Tensile strength
(DIN 22024 or comparable standards)
Abrasivity
(abrasiveness according to DIN 22021)
Density (immersion weighing according to DIN
18125, Part 1)
Rock structure (number, spacing, direction and
cementation of cracks and fractures)
The following supplementary information
is also useful:
Soil classes (DIN 18300)
Seismic wave velocity
RQD (rock quality designation)
Point load test
Crushability (e.g. Bond index)
Assessment of wear
(according to Schimazek or Cerchar)
Modulus of elasticity
Youngs modulus
Porosity
Cohesiveness
The following diagrams illustrate the cutting per-
formance of different machines referred to the un-
conned compressive strength and rock structure.
The ratio of unconned compressive strength to
tensile strength must be taken into account in solid
rock.
The stated performance values include a ratio of
12:1 for the unconned compressive strength to
tensile strength.
Cutting performance is reduced at ratios < 12:1!
A corrected compressive strength (tensile strength
x 12) must therefore be
applied in such cases.
Example:
Material: Marl
Compressive strength: 25 MPa (measured value)
Tensile strength: 4 MPa (measured value)
Ratio of compressive strength to tensile strength:
25:4 = 6.25
Corrected compressive strength from the diagram
for determination of performance:
Measured tensile strength x 12 = 4
MPa x 12 = 48 MPa
60 // 61
Rock structures
In addition to the unconned compressive strength
and tensile strength, the rock structure is of
paramount importance for assessing a materials
cuttability.
1. Solid rock
We dene solid rock as follows:
Wirtgen has dened the following rock structure
classication for dimensioning the cutting per-
formance:
Homogeneous ne-grained rock without visible
fractures
Rock with fracture spaced > 30 cm apart
2. Macro-seamy rock
Macro-seamy rock encompasses:
Solid, coarse-grained rock
Bedded rock, fracture angled >15 <90 (cutting perpendicular or parallel to the fractures)
Rock with fractures >15 cm <30 cm
62 // 63
Cutting with (parallel to) the fractures
Working direction
3. Micro-seamy rock
We dene micro-seamy rock as follows:

Material with horizontal or slightly inclined (<10) layers,
distance between fractures <15 cm
Three-dimensional fractures with a distance between
fractures <15 cm
Cutting against (at right angles to) the fractures Horizontal foliation and cutting against the fractures
Working direction
64 // 65
4. Shattered rock
We dene shattered rock as follows:
Material with fractures <5 cm apart and Material with loose rock formations with fractures
<15 cm apart
Weathered rock (may also contain individual stones
with an edge length of up to 15 cm)
Cutting performance diagrams
These diagrams illustrate the cutting performance.
Cutting performance is dened as the perform-
ance achieved purely for cutting, without including
ancillary times.
It is calculated according to the following formula:
Q = Cutting performance
B = Cutting width
T = Cutting depth
V = Rate of advance
The plotted bends are merely intended as a rough
guide to the performance.
Please contact the Mining Division of Wirtgen
GmbH for a more detailed appraisal of perform-
ance for your specic application.
For this more detailed assessment of performance,
we require all the information available with regard
to the hardness of the rock and the rock structure.
Wirtgen can also analyse rock samples if neces-
sary (unconned compressive strength, tensile
strength, density and abrasivity).
Performance analyses are prepared by Wirtgen
GmbH on the basis of the rock and deposit data
available.
These performance analyses only refer to the spe-
cic application in question and the recommended
Surface Miner.
Wirtgen GmbH cannot accept any liability for
losses, consequential losses or other claims
arising from the use of performance analyses or
parts thereof.
Q (m
3
/h) = B (m) x T (m) x v (m/min) x 60
66 // 67
Cutting performance for the Wirtgen Surface Miner 2200 SM
Windrowing, 3.8 m drum,
loose rock (coal)
Windrowing, 2.2 m drum,
shattered rock
Conveyor loading, shattered rock
Conveyor loading,
macro-seamy rock
Conveyor loading,
micro-seamy rock
Conveyor loading, solid rock
C
u
t
t
i
n
g

p
e
r
f
o
r
m
a
n
c
e

(
b
m
3
/
h
)
UCS (MPa)
1,600
1,400
1,200
1,000
800
600
400
200
0
10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120
Note:
Rock with an unconned compres-
sive strength > 50 MPa can only be
cut under certain conditions.
Please contact Wirtgen.
Cutting performance for the Wirtgen Surface Miner 2500 SM
C
u
t
t
i
n
g

p
e
r
f
o
r
m
a
n
c
e

(
b
m
3
/
h
)
UCS (MPa)
1,400
1,200
1,000
800
600
400
200
0
10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120
Note:
Rock with an unconned compres-
sive strength > 80 MPa can only be
cut under certain conditions.
Please contact Wirtgen.
Shattered rock
Micro seamy rock
Macro seamy rock
Solid rock
68 // 69
Cutting performance for the Wirtgen Surface Miner 4200 SM
Shattered rock
Micro seamy rock
Macro seamy rock
Solid rock
C
u
t
t
i
n
g

p
e
r
f
o
r
m
a
n
c
e

(
b
m
3
/
h
)
UCS (MPa)
10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80
Milling drum dia.: 1,860 mm
Cutting depth: 0 830 mm
Milling drum dia.: 1,400 mm
Cutting depth: 0 650 mm
3,000
2,500
2,000
1,500
1,000
500
0
70 // 71
7 Gradation
Wirtgen Surface Miners crush the material into
small lumps directly as it is cut.
The grain size obtained after cutting is the same
as that obtained after the second or third crushing
stage in conventional comminution processes.
The grain-size distribution bend obtained when
cutting with a Wirtgen Surface Miner depends
above all on the rock structure, the unconned
compressive strength and the toughness (ratio
of unconned compressive strength to tensile
strength).
Basic rule:
A small grain size is obtained with material
meeting the following criteria:
Little or no fractures (solid material)
High unconned compressive strength
High toughness (low ratio of unconned
compressive strength to tensile strength)
A larger grain size is obtained with material
meeting the following criteria:
Distinct fracturing, especially horizontal fractures
Low unconned compressive strength
Low toughness (brittle material with a high ratio
of unconned compressive strength to tensile
strength)

The grain-size distribution bend can be adjusted
to obtain coarser or ner material as required by
the customer, by correspondingly adjusting various
parameters of the Wirtgen Surface Miner, such as:
Cutting depth
Rate of advance
Drum speed
Tool spacing of the cutting tools (see chapter 6)
Type of cutting tool (see chapter 6)
Loading method
The diagrams with grain-size distribution bends
are merely intended for a rst appraisal. Please
send relevant rock data (unconned
compressive strength, tensile strength, rock struc-
ture) to Wirtgen for an assessment referred to a
specic type of rock.
Wirtgen GmbH cannot accept any liability for
losses, consequential losses or other claims
arising from the use of grain-size distribution
bends or parts thereof.
72 // 73
Grain size distribution limestone, gypsum, phosphate
Grain size (mm)
1.2
1
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0
0 0.5 1.0 2.0 4.0 8.0 16.0 31.5 63.0 125.0 > 125.0
Fine grain (solid limestone)
Mean value (bedded limestone)
Coarse grain (shattered limestone)
T
h
r
o
u
g
h
s

i
n

p
e
r
c
e
n
t

b
y

w
e
i
g
h
t
Grain size distribution coal
T
h
r
o
u
g
h
s

i
n

p
e
r
c
e
n
t

b
y

w
e
i
g
h
t
Grain size (mm)
1.2
1
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0
0 0.5 1.0 2.0 4.0 8.0 16.0 31.5 63.0 125.0 > 125.0
Fine grain (solid coal)
Mean value (solid coal)
Coarse grain (broken coal)
74 // 75
Grain size distribution salt
T
h
r
o
u
g
h
s

i
n

p
e
r
c
e
n
t

b
y

w
e
i
g
h
t
Grain size (mm)
1.2
1
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0
0 0.5 1.0 2.0 4.0 8.0 16.0 31.5 63.0 125.0 > 125.0
Fine grain (solid salt)
Mean value (salt)
Coarse grain (salt, coarse-crystalline)
8 Planning aids for economic operation
8.1 Highly selective extraction 80
8.2 Machine dimensions, turning radii, discharge
heights and distances, ambient conditions 81
8.2.1 Machine geometry 81
8.2.2 Cutting in a bend 81
8.2.3 Ambient temperatures 81
8.2.4 Working at higher altitudes 81
8.3 Effective performance as a function of the length
of the working area 103
8.4 Working methods, manoeuvring methods and times 105
8.4.1 Working in a pit 105
8.4.2 Progressing along the bench 109
8.4.2.1 Open cut operation 109
8.4.2.2 Trench construction 110
8.4.3 Progressing across the bench 111
8.4.4 Working on benches 113
8.5 Methods and times for turning 115
8.5.1 Straightforward turning in wide working zone 115
8.5.2 Transverse milling in front of end slopes 117
8.5.3 Turning in working zones of medium width 119
8.5.4 Manoeuvring in narrow working zone 121
8.5.5 Turning times 123
76 // 77
8.6 Cutting of ramps 127
8.7 Transverse and longitudinal slopes 128
8.8 Mixing different grades 133
8.9 Selective extraction from inclined or steep seams 134
8.10 Cutting of embankments 136
8.11 Cutting trenches 138
8.12 Cutting floors and benches in tunnels 140
8.12.1 Producing the tunnel floor 142
8.12.2 Cutting benches 144
Wirtgen Surface Miners extract material by cutting
thin layers (approx. 0.1 to 0.8 m thick) from the
surface.
Deposits are mined by removing successive layers
at the preset cutting depth.
Working in an open-pit mine
Since the cutting depth can be set and controlled
precisely, thin seams can be removed or dened
surface proles produced with the same precision.
The width and direction of the milled lane can
be determined by steering the Wirtgen Surface
Miner. Even slopes with a dened prole can be
produced in this way.
However, the minimum bend radius that can be
milled is limited by the cutting depth and hardness
of the rock.
This chapter outlines typical methods of operation
and their consequences.

78 // 79
Sequence of cuts by a Wirtgen Surface Miner in an open-pit mine
1 2 3
9 10
4 5 6 7 8
11 15 13 14 12 16
17 18 19 23 21 22 20 24
25 26 27 31 29 30 28 32
8.1 Highly selective extraction
Wirtgen Surface Miners are predestined for highly
selective extraction of pay minerals by their princi-
ple of a central drum arrangement.
When cutting along the dividing line between pay
mineral and parting, the milling drum will uctu-
ate around the dividing line with an amplitude of
approx. +7 cm. Both the loss of pay mineral to be
expected, and simultaneous dilution with parting,
will therefore be in the region of approx. 2.5 cm
each.
P
a
y

m
i
n
e
r
a
l
P
a
r
t
i
n
g
Average loss
Actual loss
Average dilution
Actual dilution
80 // 81
8.2 Machine dimensions, turning radii, discharge
heights and distances, ambient conditions
For initial planning purposes, the following param-
eters are illustrated in diagrams on the following
pages:
Machine geometry
Bend radii (turning without cutting)
Discharge height for dimensioning trucks
Discharge distances for sidecasting
Wirtgen Surface Miners also travel round bends
while cutting.
The following radii can be realized:
These radii are theoretical values and apply for
dry, stable, level substrates and bedded material
with an unconned compressive strength of up to
30 MPa. Different values may apply in practice,
depending above all on the compressive strength
and structure of the rock, as well as on the soil
moisture.
Important: Cutting in bends produces banks which
are considerably less steep than when travelling
straight ahead!
Wirtgen Surface Miners are essentially designed
for the following conditions:
Ambient temperature range: -20 C to +45 C
Optional accessories (e.g. use of special oils,
supplementary heating) or individual solutions (e.g.
special cooler, special steel) can be ordered from
Wirtgen if required for higher or lower tempera-
tures, depending on the machine and temperature
range concerned
Wirtgen Surface Miners can work with undimin-
ished performance at altitudes of up to 3,000 m
above sea level. Performance restrictions must
be taken into account when working at higher
altitudes. Contact Wirtgen for precise information
for your specic application.
2200 SM 2500 SM 4200 SM
Travelling in bends without cutting (drum raised) 6.0 m 9.5 m 13 m
Cutting depth up to 100 mm 11 m 20 m 29 m
Cutting depth from 100 mm to 300 mm 56 m 80 m 153 m
Cutting depth from 300 mm to 600 mm 75 m 107 m 205 m
8.2.1 Machine geometry
8.2.2 Cutting in a bend
8.2.3 Ambient temperatures
8.2.4 Working at higher altitudes
9,700
5,900
3,200 1,100 1,500
3
,
0
2
5
4
,
3
5
0
4
,
7
8
0
3
,
0
0
0
*
4
,
8
0
0
2,700
16,900*
2
,
1
0
0
2
,
8
0
0
2
,
2
0
0
16,400
Dimensions in mm
* = Dimensions for loading on a low-bed trailer
Surface Miner 2200 SM
R

2
,
5
0
0
4
5

5
5

82 // 83
Loading material onto trucks
55 t
55 t
Dimensions in mm
Dimensions in feet
9
,
0
0
0
1
0
,
0
0
0
03691
2
1
5
1
8
2
1
2
4
2
7
3
0
3
3
3 6 9 1
2
1
5
1
8
2
1
2
4
2
7
3
0
3
3
21
18
15
12
9
6
3
0
21
18
15
12
9
6
3
0
0369
1
2
1
5
1
8
2
1
2
4
2
7
3
0
3
3 3 6 9
1
2
1
5
1
8
2
1
2
4
2
7
3
0
3
3
8
,
0
0
0
7
,
0
0
0
6
,
0
0
0
5
,
0
0
0
4
,
0
0
0
3
,
0
0
0
2
,
0
0
0
1
,
0
0
0
1,000
0
2,000
3,000
4,000
5,000
6,000
7,000
1,000
0
2,000
3,000
4,000
5,000
6,000
7,000
01
,
0
0
0
2
,
0
0
0
3
,
0
0
0
4
,
0
0
0
5
,
0
0
0
6
,
0
0
0
7
,
0
0
0
8
,
0
0
0
9
,
0
0
0
1
0
,
0
0
0
9
,
0
0
0
1
0
,
0
0
0
8
,
0
0
0
7
,
0
0
0
6
,
0
0
0
5
,
0
0
0
4
,
0
0
0
3
,
0
0
0
2
,
0
0
0
1
,
0
0
00
1
,
0
0
0
2
,
0
0
0
3
,
0
0
0
4
,
0
0
0
5
,
0
0
0
6
,
0
0
0
7
,
0
0
0
8
,
0
0
0
9
,
0
0
0
1
0
,
0
0
0
Dimensions in mm
Dimensions in feet
1
0
,
0
0
0
9
,
0
0
0
03691
2
1
5
1
8
2
1
2
4
2
7
3
0
3
3
3 6 9 1
2
1
5
1
8
2
1
2
4
2
7
3
0
3
3
21
18
15
12
9
6
3
0
21
18
15
12
9
6
3
0
0369
1
2
1
5
1
8
2
1
2
4
2
7
3
0
3
3 3 6 9
1
2
1
5
1
8
2
1
2
4
2
7
3
0
3
3
8
,
0
0
0
7
,
0
0
0
6
,
0
0
0
5
,
0
0
0
4
,
0
0
0
3
,
0
0
0
2
,
0
0
0
1
,
0
0
0
1,000
0
2,000
3,000
4,000
5,000
6,000
7,000
1,000
0
2,000
3,000
4,000
5,000
6,000
7,000
01
,
0
0
0
2
,
0
0
0
3
,
0
0
0
4
,
0
0
0
5
,
0
0
0
6
,
0
0
0
7
,
0
0
0
8
,
0
0
0
9
,
0
0
0
1
0
,
0
0
0
1
0
,
0
0
0
9
,
0
0
0
8
,
0
0
0
7
,
0
0
0
6
,
0
0
0
5
,
0
0
0
4
,
0
0
0
3
,
0
0
0
2
,
0
0
0
1
,
0
0
00
1
,
0
0
0
2
,
0
0
0
3
,
0
0
0
4
,
0
0
0
5
,
0
0
0
6
,
0
0
0
7
,
0
0
0
8
,
0
0
0
9
,
0
0
0
1
0
,
0
0
0
Sidecasting material
84 // 85
Dimensions in mm
3
4

3
4

7
5

2200 SM with edge protection


Gearbox side
Gearbox side
2200 SM without edge protection
490
3
3
0
3
3
0
3
3
0
170
83
6
3

Maximum slope angle


Important: The precautions described
in the safety manual must be observed
when working without edge protection!
3
9

9
0

Dimensions in mm
22,700
5,195 3,545
2,920
4
,
9
3
5 9
7
0
8,740
4
,
3
0
0

7
,
5
0
0
1
1
,3
0
0
Surface Miner 2500 SM
R

8
,
5
0
0
86 // 87
120 t
120 t
Dimensions in mm
Dimensions in feet
1
5
,
0
0
0
1
6
,
0
0
0
1
7
,
0
0
0
1
4
,
0
0
0
1
5
1
2
96303691
2
1
5
1
8
2
1
2
4
2
7
3
0
3
3
3
6
3
9
4
2
4
5
4
8
5
1
5
4
1
5
1
29630369
1
2
1
5
1
8
2
1
2
4
2
7
3
0
3
3
3
6
3
9
4
2
4
5
4
8
5
1
5
4
24
27
30
33
21
18
15
12
9
6
3
0
24
27
30
33
21
18
15
12
9
6
3
0
1
3
,
0
0
0
1
2
,
0
0
0
1
1
,
0
0
0
1
0
,
0
0
0
9
,
0
0
0
8
,
0
0
0
7
,
0
0
0
6
,
0
0
0
1,000
0
2,000
3,000
4,000
5,000
6,000
7,000
8,000
9,000
10,000
1,000
0
2,000
3,000
4,000
5,000
6,000
7,000
8,000
9,000
10,000
5
,
0
0
0
4
,
0
0
0
3
,
0
0
0
2
,
0
0
0
1
,
0
0
0
01
,
0
0
0
2
,
0
0
0
3
,
0
0
0
4
,
0
0
0
5
,
0
0
0
1
5
,
0
0
0
1
6
,
0
0
0
1
7
,
0
0
0
1
4
,
0
0
0
1
3
,
0
0
0
1
2
,
0
0
0
1
1
,
0
0
0
1
0
,
0
0
0
9
,
0
0
0
8
,
0
0
0
7
,
0
0
0
6
,
0
0
0
5
,
0
0
0
4
,
0
0
0
3
,
0
0
0
2
,
0
0
0
1
,
0
0
00
1
,
0
0
0
2
,
0
0
0
3
,
0
0
0
4
,
0
0
0
5
,
0
0
0
5
4

5
4

Loading material onto trucks when working along embankment up to max. 54


(discharge boom slewed 90)
120 t
120 t
Dimensions in mm
Dimensions in feet
1
5
,
0
0
0
1
6
,
0
0
0
1
7
,
0
0
0
1
4
,
0
0
0
1
5
1
2
96303691
2
1
5
1
8
2
1
2
4
2
7
3
0
3
3
3
6
3
9
4
2
4
5
4
8
5
1
5
4
1
5
1
29630369
1
2
1
5
1
8
2
1
2
4
2
7
3
0
3
3
3
6
3
9
4
2
4
5
4
8
5
1
5
4
24
27
30
21
18
15
12
9
6
3
0
24
27
30
21
18
15
12
9
6
3
0
1
3
,
0
0
0
1
2
,
0
0
0
1
1
,
0
0
0
1
0
,
0
0
0
9
,
0
0
0
8
,
0
0
0
7
,
0
0
0
6
,
0
0
0
1,000
0
2,000
3,000
4,000
5,000
6,000
7,000
8,000
9,000
10,000
1,000
0
2,000
3,000
4,000
5,000
6,000
7,000
8,000
9,000
10,000
5
,
0
0
0
4
,
0
0
0
3
,
0
0
0
2
,
0
0
0
1
,
0
0
0
01
,
0
0
0
2
,
0
0
0
3
,
0
0
0
4
,
0
0
0
5
,
0
0
0
1
5
,
0
0
0
1
6
,
0
0
0
1
7
,
0
0
0
1
4
,
0
0
0
1
3
,
0
0
0
1
2
,
0
0
0
1
1
,
0
0
0
1
0
,
0
0
0
9
,
0
0
0
8
,
0
0
0
7
,
0
0
0
6
,
0
0
0
5
,
0
0
0
4
,
0
0
0
3
,
0
0
0
2
,
0
0
0
1
,
0
0
00
1
,
0
0
0
2
,
0
0
0
3
,
0
0
0
4
,
0
0
0
5
,
0
0
0
Loading material onto trucks when working along embankment steeper than 54
(discharge boom slewed max. 45)
88 // 89
Dimensions in mm
Dimensions in feet
1
5
,
0
0
0
1
6
,
0
0
0
1
4
,
0
0
0
1
5
1
2
96303691
2
1
5
1
8
2
1
2
4
2
7
3
0
3
3
3
6
3
9
4
2
4
5
4
8
5
1
5
4
1
5
1
29630369
1
2
1
5
1
8
2
1
2
4
2
7
3
0
3
3
3
6
3
9
4
2
4
5
4
8
5
1
5
4
24
27
30
21
18
15
12
9
6
3
0
24
27
30
21
18
15
12
9
6
3
0
1
3
,
0
0
0
1
2
,
0
0
0
1
1
,
0
0
0
1
0
,
0
0
0
9
,
0
0
0
8
,
0
0
0
7
,
0
0
0
6
,
0
0
0
1,000
0
2,000
3,000
4,000
5,000
6,000
7,000
8,000
9,000
10,000
1,000
0
2,000
3,000
4,000
5,000
6,000
7,000
8,000
9,000
10,000
5
,
0
0
0
4
,
0
0
0
3
,
0
0
0
2
,
0
0
0
1
,
0
0
0
01
,
0
0
0
2
,
0
0
0
3
,
0
0
0
4
,
0
0
0
5
,
0
0
0
1
5
,
0
0
0
1
6
,
0
0
0
1
4
,
0
0
0
1
3
,
0
0
0
1
2
,
0
0
0
1
1
,
0
0
0
1
0
,
0
0
0
9
,
0
0
0
8
,
0
0
0
7
,
0
0
0
6
,
0
0
0
5
,
0
0
0
4
,
0
0
0
3
,
0
0
0
2
,
0
0
0
1
,
0
0
00
1
,
0
0
0
2
,
0
0
0
3
,
0
0
0
4
,
0
0
0
5
,
0
0
0
Sidecasting material
Dimensions in mm
37
6
0

790
346
6
0
0
6
0
0
Slope angle on right with
edge protection = 60
Slope angle on left = 37
7
7

140
6
0
0
Slope angle on right without
edge protection = 77
Surface Miner 2500 SM
Important: The precautions described
in the safety manual must be observed
when working without edge protection!
90 // 91
Dimensions in mm
4,220 5,800
1,910 10,020
4
,
5
2
0
6
,
5
3
0
7
,
6
9
0
5
,
5
0
0
9
0

9
0

24,117
23,490
Surface Miner 4200 SM, conveyor length 12 m
R

1
2
,
5
0
0
4
5

92 // 93
Dimensions in mm
4,220 5,800
1,910 10,020
5
,
7
6
0
6
,
5
3
0
1
0
,
3
4
0
5
,
5
0
0
9
0

9
0

30,370
28,220
Surface Miner 4200 SM, conveyor length 16 m
R

1
2
,
5
0
0
4
5

Loading material onto trucks (conveyor length 12 m)


120 t
5
5

120 t
5
5

Dimensions in mm
4
,
0
0
0
5
,
0
0
0
6
,
0
0
0
7
,
0
0
0
3
,
0
0
0
2
1
2
4
2
7
3
0
3
3
3
6
3
9
4
2
4
5
4
8
5
1
5
4
5
7
6
0
6
3
1
8
1
5
1
2
9 6 3 0 3 6 9 1
2
1
5
1
8
2
1
2
1
2
4
2
7
3
0
3
3
3
6
3
9
4
2
4
5
4
8
5
1
5
4
5
7
6
0
6
3
1
8
1
5
1
2 9 6 3 0 3 6 9
1
2
1
5
1
8
2
1
24
27
30
21
18
15
12
9
6
3
0
24
27
30
21
18
15
12
9
6
3
0
2
,
0
0
0
1
,
0
0
0
01
,
0
0
0
2
,
0
0
0
3
,
0
0
0
4
,
0
0
0
5
,
0
0
0
1,000
0
2,000
3,000
4,000
5,000
6,000
7,000
8,000
9,000
1,000
0
2,000
3,000
4,000
5,000
6,000
7,000
8,000
9,000
6
,
0
0
0
7
,
0
0
0
8
,
0
0
0
9
,
0
0
0
1
0
,
0
0
0
1
1
,
0
0
0
1
2
,
0
0
0
1
3
,
0
0
0
1
4
,
0
0
0
1
5
,
0
0
0
1
6
,
0
0
0
1
7
,
0
0
0
1
8
,
0
0
0
1
9
,
0
0
0
4
,
0
0
0
5
,
0
0
0
6
,
0
0
0
7
,
0
0
0
3
,
0
0
0
2
,
0
0
0
1
,
0
0
00
1
,
0
0
0
2
,
0
0
0
3
,
0
0
0
4
,
0
0
0
5
,
0
0
0
6
,
0
0
0
7
,
0
0
0
8
,
0
0
0
9
,
0
0
0
1
0
,
0
0
0
1
1
,
0
0
0
1
2
,
0
0
0
1
3
,
0
0
0
1
4
,
0
0
0
1
5
,
0
0
0
1
6
,
0
0
0
1
7
,
0
0
0
1
8
,
0
0
0
1
9
,
0
0
0
Dimensions in feet
94 // 95
Dimensions in mm
Dimensions in feet
4
,
0
0
0
5
,
0
0
0
6
,
0
0
0
3
,
0
0
0
2
1
2
4
2
7
3
0
3
3
3
6
3
9
4
2
4
5
4
8
5
1
5
4
5
7
6
0
1
8
1
5
1
2
9 6 3 0 3 6 9 1
2
1
5
1
8
2
1
2
4
2
7
3
0
3
3
3
6
3
9
4
2
4
5
4
8
5
1
5
4
5
7
6
0
1
8
1
5
1
2 9 6 3 0 3 6 9
1
2
1
5
1
8
24
27
30
21
18
15
12
9
6
3
0
24
27
30
21
18
15
12
9
6
3
0
2
,
0
0
0
1
,
0
0
00
1
,
0
0
0
2
,
0
0
0
3
,
0
0
0
4
,
0
0
0
5
,
0
0
0
1,000
0
2,000
3,000
4,000
5,000
6,000
7,000
8,000
9,000
1,000
0
2,000
3,000
4,000
5,000
6,000
7,000
8,000
9,000
6
,
0
0
0
7
,
0
0
0
8
,
0
0
0
9
,
0
0
0
1
0
,
0
0
0
1
1
,
0
0
0
1
2
,
0
0
0
1
3
,
0
0
0
1
4
,
0
0
0
1
5
,
0
0
0
1
6
,
0
0
0
1
7
,
0
0
0
1
8
,
0
0
0
1
9
,
0
0
0
4
,
0
0
0
5
,
0
0
0
6
,
0
0
0
3
,
0
0
0
2
,
0
0
0
1
,
0
0
0
01
,
0
0
0
2
,
0
0
0
3
,
0
0
0
4
,
0
0
0
5
,
0
0
0
6
,
0
0
0
7
,
0
0
0
8
,
0
0
0
9
,
0
0
0
1
0
,
0
0
0
1
1
,
0
0
0
1
2
,
0
0
0
1
3
,
0
0
0
1
4
,
0
0
0
1
5
,
0
0
0
1
6
,
0
0
0
1
7
,
0
0
0
1
8
,
0
0
0
1
9
,
0
0
0
120 t
120 t
Loading material onto trucks with reduced slewing angle when working along steep
embankment (conveyor length 12 m)
5
5

5
5

Dimensions in mm
4
,
0
0
0
5
,
0
0
0
6
,
0
0
0
3
,
0
0
0
2
1
2
4
2
7
3
0
3
3
3
6
3
9
4
2
4
5
4
8
5
1
5
4
5
7
6
0
1
8
1
5
1
2
9 6 3 0 3 6 9 1
2
1
5
1
8
2
1
2
4
2
7
3
0
3
3
3
6
3
9
4
2
4
5
4
8
5
1
5
4
5
7
6
0
1
8
1
5
1
2 9 6 3 0 3 6 9
1
2
1
5
1
8
24
27
21
18
15
12
9
6
3
0
24
27
21
18
15
12
9
6
3
0
2
,
0
0
0
1
,
0
0
0
01
,
0
0
0
2
,
0
0
0
3
,
0
0
0
4
,
0
0
0
5
,
0
0
0
1,000
0
2,000
3,000
4,000
5,000
6,000
7,000
8,000
9,000
1,000
0
2,000
3,000
4,000
5,000
6,000
7,000
8,000
9,000
6
,
0
0
0
7
,
0
0
0
8
,
0
0
0
9
,
0
0
0
1
0
,
0
0
0
1
1
,
0
0
0
1
2
,
0
0
0
1
3
,
0
0
0
1
4
,
0
0
0
1
5
,
0
0
0
1
6
,
0
0
0
1
7
,
0
0
0
1
8
,
0
0
0
1
9
,
0
0
0
4
,
0
0
0
5
,
0
0
0
6
,
0
0
0
3
,
0
0
0
2
,
0
0
0
1
,
0
0
00
1
,
0
0
0
2
,
0
0
0
3
,
0
0
0
4
,
0
0
0
5
,
0
0
0
6
,
0
0
0
7
,
0
0
0
8
,
0
0
0
9
,
0
0
0
1
0
,
0
0
0
1
1
,
0
0
0
1
2
,
0
0
0
1
3
,
0
0
0
1
4
,
0
0
0
1
5
,
0
0
0
1
6
,
0
0
0
1
7
,
0
0
0
1
8
,
0
0
0
1
9
,
0
0
0
Dimensions in feet
Sidecasting material (conveyor length 12 m)
96 // 97
170 t
5
5

170 t
5
5

Dimensions in mm
Dimensions in feet
4
,
0
0
0
5
,
0
0
0
6
,
0
0
0
3
,
0
0
0
2
1
2
4
2
7
3
0
3
3
3
6
3
9
4
2
4
5
4
8
5
1
5
4
5
7
6
0
6
3
6
6
6
9
1
8
1
5
1
2
9 6 3 0 3 6 9 1
2
1
5
1
8
2
1
2
4
2
7
3
0
3
3
3
6
3
9
4
2
4
5
4
8
5
1
5
4
5
7
6
0
6
3
6
6
6
9
1
8
1
5
1
2 9 6 3 0 3 6 9
1
2
1
5
1
8
24
27
30
33
21
18
15
12
9
6
3
0
24
27
30
33
21
18
15
12
9
6
3
0
2
,
0
0
0
1
,
0
0
0
01
,
0
0
0
2
,
0
0
0
3
,
0
0
0
4
,
0
0
0
5
,
0
0
0
1,000
0
2,000
3,000
4,000
5,000
6,000
7,000
8,000
9,000
10,000
1,000
0
2,000
3,000
4,000
5,000
6,000
7,000
8,000
9,000
10,000
6
,
0
0
0
7
,
0
0
0
8
,
0
0
0
9
,
0
0
0
1
0
,
0
0
0
1
1
,
0
0
0
1
2
,
0
0
0
1
3
,
0
0
0
1
4
,
0
0
0
1
5
,
0
0
0
1
6
,
0
0
0
1
7
,
0
0
0
1
8
,
0
0
0
1
9
,
0
0
0
2
0
,
0
0
0
2
1
,
0
0
0
4
,
0
0
0
5
,
0
0
0
6
,
0
0
0
3
,
0
0
0
2
,
0
0
0
1
,
0
0
00
1
,
0
0
0
2
,
0
0
0
3
,
0
0
0
4
,
0
0
0
5
,
0
0
0
6
,
0
0
0
7
,
0
0
0
8
,
0
0
0
9
,
0
0
0
1
0
,
0
0
0
1
1
,
0
0
0
1
2
,
0
0
0
1
3
,
0
0
0
1
4
,
0
0
0
1
5
,
0
0
0
1
6
,
0
0
0
1
7
,
0
0
0
1
8
,
0
0
0
1
9
,
0
0
0
2
0
,
0
0
0
2
1
,
0
0
0
Loading material onto trucks (conveyor length 16 m)
Loading material onto trucks with reduced slewing angle when working along steep
embankment (conveyor length 16 m)
Dimensions in mm
Dimensions in feet
4
,
0
0
0
5
,
0
0
0
3
,
0
0
0
2
1
2
4
2
7
3
0
3
3
3
6
3
9
4
2
4
5
4
8
5
1
5
4
5
7
6
0
6
3
6
6
6
9
7
2
1
8
1
5
1
2
9 6 3 0 3 6 9 1
2
1
5
2
1
2
4
2
7
3
0
3
3
3
6
3
9
4
2
4
5
4
8
5
1
5
4
5
7
6
0
6
3
6
6
6
9
7
2
1
8
1
5
1
2 9 6 3 0 3 6 9
1
2
1
5
24
27
30
33
36
21
18
15
12
9
6
3
0
24
27
30
33
36
21
18
15
12
9
6
3
0
2
,
0
0
0
1
,
0
0
00
1
,
0
0
0
2
,
0
0
0
3
,
0
0
0
4
,
0
0
0
5
,
0
0
0
1,000
0
2,000
3,000
4,000
5,000
6,000
7,000
8,000
9,000
10,000
11,000
1,000
0
2,000
3,000
4,000
5,000
6,000
7,000
8,000
9,000
10,000
11,000
6
,
0
0
0
7
,
0
0
0
8
,
0
0
0
9
,
0
0
0
1
0
,
0
0
0
1
1
,
0
0
0
1
2
,
0
0
0
1
3
,
0
0
0
1
4
,
0
0
0
1
5
,
0
0
0
1
6
,
0
0
0
1
7
,
0
0
0
1
8
,
0
0
0
1
9
,
0
0
0
2
0
,
0
0
0
2
1
,
0
0
0
2
2
,
0
0
0
4
,
0
0
0
5
,
0
0
0
3
,
0
0
0
2
,
0
0
0
1
,
0
0
0
01
,
0
0
0
2
,
0
0
0
3
,
0
0
0
4
,
0
0
0
5
,
0
0
0
6
,
0
0
0
7
,
0
0
0
8
,
0
0
0
9
,
0
0
0
1
0
,
0
0
0
1
1
,
0
0
0
1
2
,
0
0
0
1
3
,
0
0
0
1
4
,
0
0
0
1
5
,
0
0
0
1
6
,
0
0
0
1
7
,
0
0
0
1
8
,
0
0
0
1
9
,
0
0
0
2
0
,
0
0
0
2
1
,
0
0
0
2
2
,
0
0
0
120 t
120 t
98 // 99
Sidecasting material (conveyor length 16 m)
Dimensions in feet
4
,
0
0
0
5
,
0
0
0
6
,
0
0
0
3
,
0
0
0
2
1
2
4
2
7
3
0
3
3
3
6
3
9
4
2
4
5
4
8
5
1
5
4
5
7
6
0
1
8
1
5
1
2
9 6 3 0 3 6 9 1
2
1
5
1
8
2
1
2
4
2
7
3
0
3
3
3
6
3
9
4
2
4
5
4
8
5
1
5
4
5
7
6
0
1
8
1
5
1
2 9 6 3 0 3 6 9
1
2
1
5
1
8
24
27
30
33
21
18
15
12
9
6
3
0
24
27
30
33
21
18
15
12
9
6
3
0
2
,
0
0
0
1
,
0
0
0
01
,
0
0
0
2
,
0
0
0
3
,
0
0
0
4
,
0
0
0
5
,
0
0
0
1,000
0
2,000
3,000
4,000
5,000
6,000
7,000
8,000
9,000
10,000
1,000
0
2,000
3,000
4,000
5,000
6,000
7,000
8,000
9,000
10,000
6
,
0
0
0
7
,
0
0
0
8
,
0
0
0
9
,
0
0
0
1
0
,
0
0
0
1
1
,
0
0
0
1
2
,
0
0
0
1
3
,
0
0
0
1
4
,
0
0
0
1
5
,
0
0
0
1
6
,
0
0
0
1
7
,
0
0
0
1
8
,
0
0
0
1
9
,
0
0
0
4
,
0
0
0
5
,
0
0
0
6
,
0
0
0
3
,
0
0
0
2
,
0
0
0
1
,
0
0
00
1
,
0
0
0
2
,
0
0
0
3
,
0
0
0
4
,
0
0
0
5
,
0
0
0
6
,
0
0
0
7
,
0
0
0
8
,
0
0
0
9
,
0
0
0
1
0
,
0
0
0
1
1
,
0
0
0
1
2
,
0
0
0
1
3
,
0
0
0
1
4
,
0
0
0
1
5
,
0
0
0
1
6
,
0
0
0
1
7
,
0
0
0
1
8
,
0
0
0
1
9
,
0
0
0
Dimensions in mm
5
5

5
5

Dimensions in mm
3
3

6
2

1,000
346 150
6
5
0
6
5
0
6
5
0
Slope angle on right with
edge protection = 62
Slope angle on left = 33
Slope angle on right without
edge protection = 77
Surface Miner 4200 SM, cutting depth 650 mm
Important: The precautions
described in the safety manual
must be observed when working
without edge protection!
7
7

100 // 101
4
0

6
7

1,000
352 160
8
3
0
8
3
0
8
3
0
Dimensions in mm
8
3
0
Slope angle on right with
edge protection = 67
Slope angle on left = 40
Slope angle on right without
edge protection = 79
Surface Miner 4200 SM, cutting depth 830 mm
Important: The precautions described
in the safety manual must be observed
when working without edge protection!
7
9

2
,
6
0
0
2
,
7
0
0
3
,
0
0
0
8,790
Dimensions in mm
Dinting machine 2600
870 3,950 1,850 2,120
102 // 103
The effective performance is dened as the actual
performance achieved with due consideration for
case-specic ancillary times, as well as times for:
Manoeuvring (e.g. turning at the end of each cut)
Changing trucks
General value for other operationally necessary
ancillary times
The effective performance is based on the cutting
performances outlined in chapter 6.
The extent to which effective performance is
inuenced by ancillary times depends on the
length worked (= cutting time).
8.3 Effective performance as a function
of the length of the working area
Effective cutting time as a function of length worked
E
f
f
e
c
t
i
v
e

c
u
t
t
i
n
g

t
i
m
e

(
%
)
Length worked x 100 (m)
100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16
Windrow, hard rock
Loading trucks, hard rock
Windrow, soft rock
Loading trucks, soft rock
The diagram illustrates the proportion of effective
performance (in % of cutting performance) as a
function of the length worked. This relationship is
illustrated by the various graphs for hard and soft
rock in combination with the different methods
of loading material (loading onto trucks or win-
drowing / sidecasting).
The graphs only illustrate the general trend, as
mean values have been applied for the cutting
performance, travel speed, turning time, time for
loading trucks and time for changing trucks.
The effective performance in each case must be
determined individually with due regard for the ba-
sic conditions prevailing in the specic application.
For this reason, please contact Wirtgen if you have
a specic application in mind so that we can pro-
pose a suitable method of working and estimate
the effective production output to be expected.
104 // 105
8.4 Working methods, manoeuvring methods
and times
Working zones of certain types and sizes are regu-
larly encountered both in mining and in earthworks
or construction in rock.
The following chapters describe the various meth-
ods most strongly recommended for the typical
working zones, as well as the methods recom-
mended for manoeuvring..
8.4.1 Working in a pit
Long and wide (> 4 times the bend radius) working
zones in particular can be worked effectively using
the method described here.
The deposit is worked by removing successive lay-
ers with the preset cutting depth.
Harvest mode / working in layers: the Surface Miner is cutting in bends here
Harvest mode / working in layers (schematic illustration)
4
5
6



7

8



9
9
8
7



6

5



4
3
3


5


7


9

4


6



8


1


2







3
A
1
0

1
1
1
2



1
3
1
4


1
5
1
6


1
7
1
8
A

8
m

7
m

6
m

5
m

4
m

3
m

2
m

1
m
106 // 107
Cut 1
Cut 2
Cut 3
Cut 4
T
u
r
n
i
n
g

w
i
t
h
o
u
t
c
u
t
t
i
n
g
Cut 8
C
u
t

1
1
C
u
t

9
Cut 7
Cut 6
Cut 5
C
u
t

1
2
C
u
t

1
0
Removal with
auxiliary units
Removal with
auxiliary units
Removal with
auxiliary units
Removal with
auxiliary units
Cutting while travelling in bends is only recom-
mended in soft, non-abrasive rock. The following
method should be given preference when working
in harder rock:
First cut a number of lanes (approx. 1.5 times the
bend radius of the Surface Miner concerned) at
right angles to the main cutting direction along the
ends of the working zone (see chapter 9.5.2 for
turning methods).
This area can subsequently be used for turning.
The complete area can then be milled lengthwise
in lanes without difculty (see chapter 9.5.1 for
turning methods).
The same procedure is repeated for each subse-
quent layer to be mined.
Before starting to mine a new layer, the Wirtgen
Surface Miner rst cuts a ramp to the new layer
(refer also to the section on ramps).
108 // 109
8.4.2 Progressing along the bench
Ramp
Completed
section (block 1)
Working section (block 2)
Direction of work
Open cut operations and trench construction are
classical examples for working in longitudinal
direction.
8.4.2.1 Open cut operation
Here, the material is removed in several sections in
longitudinal direction. At the beginning and end of
each cut, the Wirtgen Surface Miner cuts a ramp
to provide access to the next section.
Ramp
Block 3
In this way, access to the previously completed
section and to the next section to be worked is
ensured over the full working width.
This method can also be used to selectively mine
different grades of material from the respec-
tive sections or to successively mine a series of
sections one behind the other. Depending on the
width in each case, turning methods 8.5.1 (width >
4 x turning radius) and 8.5.3 (width >2<4 x turning
radius) are recommended.
Sections ranging from approx. 100 m to more than
1 km in length can be milled when cutting trenches
or working in narrow areas (e.g. on benches).
Successive layers are removed over the required
width and length, until the trench reaches the
specied depth.
A ramp is cut at the beginning and end of the
trench section.
Turning and manoeuvring methods are described
in chapter 8.5.5.
8.4.2.2 Trench construction
110 // 111
8.4.3 Progressing across the bench
In zones with certain geological and/or qualitative
features, it may be more appropriate to work in
part-blocks running in transverse direction (width
of the working zone > length of the working zone).
In the rst block, the Wirtgen Surface Miner cuts a
steep slope on the side at which the working zone
ends. It cuts a shallow slope on the side leading to
the second block.
When the second block is worked, this shallow
slope is completely removed by the Wirtgen
Surface Miner and a new shallow slope produced
on the side leading to the third block. This proce-
dure is repeated with each successive new block.
Steep slope at the
beginning of the
open-pit mine
Block 1
Block 1 Block 2 Block 3
Block 2
Shallow slope
Working direction of the Miner
112 // 113
8.4.4 Working on benches
High narrow blocks which have usually been
worked by blasting are frequently encountered in
existing open-pit mines or in rock construction.
Wirtgen Surface Miners can work these blocks
layer by layer over the available width and gradu-
ally transform the operation from block mining to
large-area mining, if desired.
A Wirtgen Surface Miner (on the right) cuts its own ramp
For safety reasons, the Wirtgen Surface Miner
leaves a berm alongside the steep slope, which
must be removed by auxiliary equipment.
The width of the safety berm must be selected in
accordance with applicable safety regulations for
the operation and mining location concerned.
Removing the berm with a hydraulic hammer, for
example.
Cut 1
Cut 2
When the berm has been removed, the
Surface Miner can cut up to this point again.
114 // 115
2.
1.
3.
4.
Turning area
Turning area
Cutting area
8.5 Methods and times for turning
Effective operation of the Wirtgen Surface Miner
depends very strongly on the time taken to posi-
tion the Surface Miner for the next cut.
The following methods are suggested for turning,
depending on the geometry, length and width of
the working zone concerned.
8.5.1 Straightforward turning in wide working zones
Machines can turn without obstruction in long,
wide (>4 x turning radius) working zones. The
ramps at the beginning and end of the milled lanes
are cut at the same time.
Depending on the gradient selected for the ramp,
the turning movement can begin while the ma-
chine is still on the ramp or it can turn entirely on
the ramp.
1:10
or atter
1:10
or atter
The Wirtgen Surface Miner turns through 180 and
then produces the second cut at a distance >2 x
turning radius from the rst cut.
When the second cut is complete, it once again
turns through 180 and produces the third cut
alongside the rst cut.
Advantage: Less effort required for
manoeuvring = saves time
Disadvantage: Ramps and/or turning area >
1.5 x bend radius are needed

1
.

C
u
t
3
.

C
u
t
2
.

C
u
t
In wide working zones with slopes at the head
and/or rear end (see chapter 9.4.2), it may be more
economical in terms of time saved to work cross-
wise in front of these slopes:
a. Cutting while driving round bends
116 // 117
Harvest mode / working in layers: the Surface Miner is cutting in bends here
8.5.2 Transverse milling in front of end slopes
1
.

C
u
t
1
.

C
u
t
2. Cut
Head
slope
Head
slope
b. Manoeuvring without cutting
The machine can manoeuvre if cutting is not
possible or not desired while driving round bends:
Advantage: The area that cannot be worked
by the Surface Miner remains very
small (only corners).
Disadvantage: Slightly more effort is required to
manoeuvre the machine.
118 // 119
1:10 1:10 Turning area
Turning
area
Cutting area
8.5.3 Turning in working zones of medium width (>2 <4 x turning radius)
In working zones of medium width, it is advisable to position the second cut alongside the rst cut.
This can be achieved in two ways:
a. Turning
1
.

c
u
t
2
.

c
u
t
b. Manoeuvring
Disadvantage: More time is required for turning.
2
.

c
u
t
1
.

c
u
t
Disadvantage: An unmilled area with a width of roughly 3x turning radius remains at the end of the cut
and may have to be removed by auxiliary equipment.
120 // 121
2
nd
pass = Reversing
1
st
pass = Cutting
3
rd
pass = Cutting
1:10 1:10 Cutting area
It is impossible or not advisable to turn in narrow
working zones (takes up too much time).
Narrow working zones, such as trenches or
benches, must have ramps at the beginning and/
or end to permit access by trucks and the Wirtgen
Surface Miner. Two methods can be used here,
depending on the length of the working zone:
a. Short working zone (less than approx. 150 m)
In short working zones, it is advisable to reverse
the machine so that it always works in one and
the same direction. If the machine only reverses
for a short distance, less time will be needed for
reversing than for turning.
8.5.4 Manoeuvring in narrow working zones (<2 x turning radius)
Turning circle Turning circle
1.
Turning outside
the working area
Turning outside
the working area
2.
3.
1:10 1:10
b. Long working zones (more than approx. 150 m)
Ramps are needed at both ends of long working zones
122 // 123
Manoeuvring times 2200 SM
M
a
n
o
e
u
v
r
i
n
g

t
i
m
e

(
m
i
n
)
Length travelled (m)
14.0
12.0
10.0
8.0
6.0
4.0
2.0
0.0
25 50 75 100 125 150 175 200
Return travel (see chapter 8.5.4)
360 turn (see chapter 8.5.3.a)
180 turn (see chapter 8.5.1)
Manoeuvring (see chapter 8.5.3.b)
8.5.5 Turning times
Which of the turning and manoeuvring methods
described above is actually used essentially
depends on the time required and on the working
length. The following diagrams show the average
times required for the respective methods as a
function of the working length.
Important: The actual times may differ, depending
on factors such as the following:
Qualications and skill of the machine operator
Nature of the substrate
Gradients
Manoeuvring times 2500 SM
M
a
n
o
e
u
v
r
i
n
g

t
i
m
e

(
m
i
n
)
Length travelled (m)
18.0
16.0
14.0
12.0
10.0
8.0
6.0
4.0
2.0
0.0
25 50 75 100 125 150 175 200
Return travel (see chapter 8.5.4)
360 turn (see chapter 8.5.3.a)
180 turn (see chapter 8.5.1)
Manoeuvring (see chapter 8.5.3.b)
124 // 125
Manoeuvring times 4200 SM, cutting depth 650 mm
M
a
n
o
e
u
v
r
i
n
g

t
i
m
e

(
m
i
n
)
Length travelled (m)
25.0
20.0
15.0
10.0
5.0
0.0
25 50 75 100 125 150 175 200
Return travel (see chapter 8.5.4)
360 turn (see chapter 8.5.3.a)
180 turn (see chapter 8.5.1)
Manoeuvring (see chapter 8.5.3.b)
Manoeuvring times 4200 SM, cutting depth 830 mm
M
a
n
o
e
u
v
r
i
n
g

t
i
m
e

(
m
i
n
)
Length travelled (m)
25.0
20.0
15.0
10.0
5.0
0.0
25 50 75 100 125 150 175 200
Return travel (see chapter 8.5.4)
360 turn (see chapter 8.5.3.a)
180 turn (see chapter 8.5.1)
Manoeuvring (see chapter 8.5.3.b)
126 // 127
2 m
-0.2
-0.2
-0.4
-0.6
2 m cutting width
-0.4
-0.6
0.11 m
0.2 m
A
B
Working direction
8.6 Cutting of ramps
Ramps typically have a gradient between approx.
10% and 15% so that they can still be negotiated
by trucks, even when fully laden. Wirtgen Surface
Miners can cut these ramps directly, both upwards
and downwards.
The down-cutting procedure is illustrated in the
following diagram. The procedure for up-cutting is
exactly reversed, for in this case the cutting depth
must be increased from 0 to maximum.
1. The Wirtgen Surface Miner cuts the uppermost
layer. As soon as it reaches the red line A, it
gradually reduces its cutting depth over the
next two metres. The amount of material cut is
gradually reduced and a ramp with 10% gradi-
ent is produced.
2. When the Miner reaches the green line B in the
second cut, it once again gradually reduces the
cutting depth until the red line is reached. The
cutting depth must be equal to 0 at this point:
from here onwards, the cutting drum must be
above the cut surface and must not cut any
more material.
In this way, the ramp is gradually extended with
each successive cut and the procedure repeated
until the ramp reaches required length.
Example illustrating the procedure for cutting a ramp (upward direction)
8.7 Transverse and longitudinal slopes
Wirtgen Surface Miners can also work on areas
with transverse and longitudinal slopes and produ-
ce the required gradients for:
Successive inclined seams
Cutting precise surface proles in earthworks
and construction in rock
Producing slopes to drain water in open-pit
mines
Because the surfaces cut by Wirtgen Surface
Miners are level, the run-off and drainage of water
from these surfaces can be controlled accordingly.
The surface can be cut in such a way as to give it
a transverse and/or longitudinal slope guiding the
water in a specic direction or to a specic positi-
on. A gradient of 2% or 3% is usually sufcient.
128 // 129
The slope controll sensor is set accordingly to
produce the required transverse slope.
The gradients which can be produced in each
case are specied in the corresponding Technical
Data Sheets.
Steeper slopes can also be produced under
certain conditions. Please contact Wirtgen in such
cases.
Cutting transverse and longitudinal slopes may not
only affect the stability of the machine, but may
also reduce its performance.
2200 SM 2500 SM, 4200 SM
Discharge direction Front-loading Rear-loading
Down-cutting,
conveyor parallel to
machine axis
Higher output, machine pushes
Conveyor slope is reduced
Performance may be reduced, machine
pushes
But: conveyor slope is steeper (reduced
conveyor capacity), see diagram 1
Up-cutting, con-
veyor parallel to
machine axis
Lower output, machine pulls
back: conveyor slope is steeper
Performance may be reduced, machine
pulls back
But: conveyor slope is reduced, see
diagram 2
Cutting up or
down, conveyor
slewed
The slewing angle of the conveyor
should not exceed 45 to prevent
the belt running off-track, see diagram 3
The following basic conditions must be taken into
account in various applications.
a. Cutting in longitudinal direction
Diagram 1:
Diagram 2:
Diagram 3:
130 // 131
b. Producing transverse slopes
Please contact Wirtgen before working on trans-
verse slopes with a gradient of more than 8%!
Depending on the machine conguration, the fol-
lowing methods can be recommended as a matter
of principle:
Machine in windrowing mode,
can lay windrows on transverse slopes with a
gradient of up to approx. 8.
Machine with conveyor belts, gradient < 8%.
When working across a slope, the conveyor capa-
city depends on the position of the discharge belt.
The conveyor capacity can be increased when
discharging material on the valley side, as the belt
is angled less steeply. The belt speed may have
to be increased for this purpose (if the machine is
equipped with this option).
The discharge belt is angled more steeply when
discharging uphill. The belt speed may have to be
reduced in order to prevent material rolling back,
thus reducing the conveyor capacity.
Transverse gradient over 8%
If the transverse gradient is greater than 8%, it is
advisable to cut horizontally or at a slight ang-
le. The working zone should be cut in terraced
fashion.
The actual transverse slope that can be achieved
depends on the selected combination of cutting
width and cutting depth.
Uphill side
Uphill side
Valley side
Valley side
Selected
cutting width
Selected cutting depth
Transverse slope 8%
Transverse slope 8%
132 // 133
Mixing material grades when cutting ramps
Grade 1
Grade 2
Grade 3
8.8 Mixing different grades
Deposits with different grades of material very
often make it necessary to mix material in order to
obtain the required grades be it for the subse-
quent process or for producing saleable minerals.
Several horizontal seams in the deposit can be
mixed by the Wirtgen Surface Miner directly while
cutting. To this end, the machine continuously cuts
along a ramp, cutting through all layers in a single
pass and homogeneously mixing the material at
the same time. This minimizes the requirements
subsequently to be met by the mixing plants.
Seams running at a slight angle
8.9 Selective extraction from inclined
or steep beds
Seams with a transverse slope of up to approx.
8 can be worked, depending on the conditions
prevailing locally. Different methods can be used to
work seams with a steeper angle of inclination:
Seams inclined at a slight angle can be worked
in terraced fashion, as illustrated in the diagram
alongside.
A certain degree of mixing must be expected when
working at the boundary between coal and over-
burden.
Block 1 Block 2
6
0

134 // 135
Several thin, steeply stratied seams. Several steeply stratied, thick seams.
Very steep seams or pockets of pay mineral can
be worked as illustrated in the diagram on the left.
Steep thicker seams can be worked precisely
along the boundary separating the seam of pay
mineral from the interbedded stratum.
When operating in windrowing mode, seams can
be worked selectively even when cutting at right
angles to the seam direction:
Wheeled loaders or excavators can pick up the
material selectively by following the parting lines
between differently coloured material.
Cutting steep embankments
8.10 Cutting of embankments
Wirtgen Surface Miners cut steep embankments
with great precision.
136 // 137
The maximum angle at which embankments can
be cut is shown in the technical job data in chapter
8.2. The maximum slope angle is obtained by
working at the maximum cutting depth. Several
cuts are required to achieve this, especially when
working in hard rock.
If steeper embankments are to be produced,
auxiliary equipment will be required to remove the
small shoulders which remain when cutting with
Wirtgen Surface Miners.
The machine types 2500 SM and 4200 SM have a
hinged counterweight for the discharge booms so
that steep embankments can be cut.
Important: The slewing angle of the dischar-
ge boom is limited when working with folded
counterweight (see operating manual).
8.11 Cutting trenches
Wirtgen Surface Miners cut trenches with precisely
proled banks and bottom. The methods outlined
in chapter 6.8 are used for this purpose.
Depending on the length of the trench, the me-
thods described in chapter 8.4.2 are also used
here.
138 // 139
Cutting steep banks
In narrow trenches, the cut material should be
dumped at the side of the trench.
In trenches with a width greater than approx. 3 x
cutting width, it is advisable to load the cut materi-
al directly onto trucks.
8.12 Cutting oors and benches in tunnels
Particularly in the conned conditions encountered
in tunnels, Wirtgen Surface Miners can be used
most effectively to extract and simultaneously load
the material.
Before a Wirtgen Surface Miner can start work in
the tunnel, the crown must rst be produced by
drilling and blasting, for example, or mechanically
by a boom-type milling machine.
140 // 141
Tunnel operation
Dimensions in mm
Dimensions in feet
1
0
,
0
0
0
1
1
,
0
0
0
1
2
,
0
0
0
9
,
0
0
0
03691
2
1
5
1
8
2
1
3 6 9 1
2
1
5
1
8
2
1
2
4
2
7
3
0
3
3
3
6
24
21
18
15
12 12
12
9
9
6
6
3
3
12
9
6
3
0
24
21
18
15
12
9
6
3
0
0369
1
2
1
5
1
8
2
1 3 6 9
1
2
1
5
1
8
2
1
2
4
2
7
3
0
3
3
3
6
8
,
0
0
0
7
,
0
0
0
6
,
0
0
0
5
,
0
0
0
4
,
0
0
0
3
,
0
0
0
2
,
0
0
0
1
,
0
0
0
1,000
1,000
0
2,000
2,000
3,000
3,000
4,000
5,000
6,000
7,000
1,000
1,000
0
2,000
2,000
3,000
3,000
4,000
5,000
6,000
7,000
01
,
0
0
0
2
,
0
0
0
3
,
0
0
0
4
,
0
0
0
5
,
0
0
0
6
,
0
0
0
1
0
,
0
0
0
1
1
,
0
0
0
1
2
,
0
0
0
9
,
0
0
0
8
,
0
0
0
7
,
0
0
0
6
,
0
0
0
5
,
0
0
0
4
,
0
0
0
3
,
0
0
0
2
,
0
0
0
1
,
0
0
00
1
,
0
0
0
2
,
0
0
0
3
,
0
0
0
4
,
0
0
0
5
,
0
0
0
6
,
0
0
0
A Wirtgen Surface Miner at work lowering a
tunnel oor
and loading the cut material directly onto trains
Floor prole after heading
by blasting
Floor after working with a
Wirtgen Surface Miner
8.12.1 Producing the tunnel oor
Tunnel oors are cut precisely by the Wirtgen
Surface Miner. Both level and proled tunnel oors
can be produced.
Wirtgen Surface Miners accurately remove the
sawtooth prole left behind in tunnels which have
been headed by blasting.
Advantages:
The excavated cross-section needed for
heading by blasting can be reduced.
The amount of levelling concrete needed can
be signicantly reduced or eliminated entirely.
142 // 143
The outer prole is produced automatically as the oor area is removed layer for layer
8.12.2 Cutting benches
Two methods can be used for cutting benches:
a. Horizontal method
This method is recommended for short tunnels
and for wide tunnels with access from both ends.
The Wirtgen Surface Miner removes the middle
part of the bench in successive layers.
The berms which remain on the right and left pro-
vide security and stability. They can be removed
without difculty in successive segments and
the tunnel walls given their nal support in that
segment.
The Surface Miner cuts each successive layer of material down to the required depth.
4.00 m
5.50 m
2
.
0
0

m
144 // 145
Alternative method of cutting the tunnel oor with a Wirtgen Surface Miner
b. Oblique method
The oblique method is recommended for removing
benches in narrow tunnels and in tunnels which
can only be accessed from one end.
Limited space due
to following formwork
tables
Hydraulic excava-
tor I for proling
1. Cutting of tunnel sole with Wirtgen Surface Miner
2. Cutting of tunnel sole with conventional equipment
Hydraulic excava-
tor I for proling
Hydraulic excavator II
for material handling
Wirtgen Surface Miner for
cutting according to prole,
crushing and loading
Part-face heading
machine for cutting
of material
Truck for
material
haulage
Truck for
material
haulage
Hydraulic
excavator III
for material handling
146 // 147
9.1 System selection 148
9.2 Direct loading onto trucks 149
9.3 Indirect loading 152
9.3.1 Sidecasting the material 152
9.3.2 Windrowing 153
9.4 Processing options depending on the various loading methods 156
9 Material transport
Loading options
Loading directly
onto trucks
Indirect loading
Windrowing Rear loading Front loading
2200 SM 2500 SM
4200 SM
Sidecasting
9.1 System selection
Wirtgen Surface Miners offer the following options for loading and conveying material:
Advantages Disadvantages
Direct
loading
No material rehandling.
Direct loading onto trucks is usually the most
economical method if the material is to be
transported over distances of more than
approx. 500 m.
Larger working area needed for trucks
Output is reduced by truck changes
Conveyor belt wear
Side-
casting
Material can be mixed as it is mined
Stockpiling in the mine
No time lost waiting for trucks
Independent operation
Width reduced to between 3 and 5 cuts on
each side of the pile in the mine
Conveyor belt wear
Material must be re-handled for loading
Material may absorb water when stockpiled
on the ground
Windro-
wing
No time lost waiting for trucks
No belt wear / higher availability
Higher production output than when loading
with conveyors
Larger lump sizes
Greater selectivity when working steep and
inclined seams
Most economical method for transport distan-
ces of less than approx. 150 m when handled
by wheeled loaders and approx. 500 m in
scraper operation
Large working area required
Material must be re-handled by a loader or
scraper
Material may absorb water when dumped on
the ground
Comparison of different loading methods:
148 // 149
9.2 Direct loading onto trucks
Direct loading onto trucks
One of the most important features of the Wirtgen
Surface Miners is their ability to load the cut ma-
terial directly onto trucks. Wirtgen Surface Miners
are designed for front loading or rear loading,
depending on the model concerned.
Front loading
On the front-loading 2200 SM, the discharge belt
is mounted at the front of the machine. It can be
slewed to either side and the discharge height
adjusted as required. Depending on the size of the
truck, these machines load the trucks either from
the rear (photo on the left) or from the side (photo
on the right). The operator of the Surface Miner
has a clear view of the truck.
Front loader loading the truck from the rear Front loader loading the truck from the side
Rear loading
Other models, such as the 2500 SM and 4200 SM,
are rear loaders, their discharge conveyor being
mounted at the rear of the machine. The conveyor
can be slewed about 90 degrees to either side and
the discharge height adjusted as required.
The belt weight is balanced by a counterweight.
The counterweight can be raised so that steep
benches can be worked safely. The operator of the
Surface Miner can swivel his seat to the right or
left to ensure that he has a clear view of the truck.
Rear loader 2600 SM discharging material sideways
(model superseded by the new 2500 SM)
Rear loader 4200 SM discharging material sideways
Gently loading trucks with small-sized material
In all cases, the ne grained material cut by the
Wirtgen Surface Miner ensures that the truck body
is loaded uniformly, continuously and completely.
These properties allow the truck size to be selec-
ted as required. Trucks with aluminium bodies and
increased payload can also be used under certain
circumstances, for example.
Straightforward loading of a 27 t truck with
aluminium body and increased payload
150 // 151
Truck changes
To improve productivity and minimize the time lost
waiting for a truck, an empty truck should be wai-
ting alongside the Wirtgen Surface Miner shortly
before loading of the momentary truck is comple-
ted. Depending on the type of Miner and size
of the truck, about 15 30 seconds are needed to
change trucks. The area available for manoeuvring
the trucks and the drivers experience also have an
effect on the time needed for changing trucks.
Optimized truck change for front loaders
The empty truck moves into position alongside
the truck momentarily being loaded by a Wirtgen
Surface Miner with front loading system. All that is
needed in order to start loading the second truck
is to slew the conveyor accordingly. There is no
need to interrupt the cutting process. The photo-
graphs below illustrate this perfect truck change
during the continuous cutting process.
The recommended truck size for a Wirtgen Surface
Miner depends on the following factors:
The maximum loading height on the truck de-
pends on the discharge height of the discharge
boom (see diagrams in chapter 7). It is assumed
here that the Wirtgen Surface Miner and truck
are on the same (cut) level and not inclined in
relation to one another.
The cutting performance achieved by the
Wirtgen Surface Miner in the material concerned.
In order to obtain an economic cycle for loading
trucks and transport, the truck should be dimen-
sioned to permit loading times between 2 and 6
minutes.
Recommended truck size
Truck 1 is still being loaded as truck 2 moves into
position
The Wirtgen Surface Miner slews its conveyor over
truck 2 and truck 1 drives off
9.3 Indirect loading
Sidecasting the material means that a stockpile is
produced by dumping the material from several
cuts on a pile via the belt. Depending on the slew-
ing angle of the conveyor belt, material from 3 to 5
adjacent cuts can be piled up. Depending on the
height of the resultant pile, the material can easily
be picked up again by a front loader.
Advantage:
When sidecasting the material, the Wirtgen
Surface Miner can continue cutting regardless of
whether a truck is available for loading.
2200 SM Sidecasting
2200 SM Sidecasting
9.3.1 Sidecasting the material
152 // 153
Wirtgen Surface Miner windrowing operation
When working in windrowing mode, the cut
material is deposited directly behind the machine
without using the conveyor. This makes the cutting
process independent of any loading processes
(onto trucks). However, the material must subse-
quently be re-handled by a front loader.
9.3.2 Windrowing
Wirtgen Surface Miner windrowing operation
Picking up the windrowed material
Loading the windrowed material
154 // 155
2200 SM with 3.80 m unit
In many cases, the higher productivity achieved by
windrowing as compared with direct loading balan-
ces out the additional costs incurred for renewed
handling of the material (e.g. by wheeled loaders).
Moreover, this method does not give rise to any
belt wear and does not incur operating costs for
the conveyor system.
9.4 Processing options depending on the various
loading methods
In addition to the various loading methods, there
are different options of processing the mining
material:
Material loaded directly into waiting trucks via a
loading conveyor can be immediately transported
to a crushing and/or screening plant without the
need for any intermediate steps. The plant then
produces the specied grain sizes.
Alternatively, the mining material can be transpor-
ted by truck to a stockpile or, in case of selective
mining, to several stockpiles prior to further pro-
cessing in a processing plant.
Material cut in the windrowing mode and left
behind the machine, or material cast to the side of
the machine in a windrow, can be picked up and
loaded into waiting trucks by means of a wheel
loader. Further processing is then carried out as
described above.
Alternatively, the wheel loader can be used to
directly transport the material to a nearby mobile
crushing and / or screening plant.
156 // 157
Processing options with direct loading into trucks
Processing options with material windrowing
158 // 159
Processing options with material sidecasting
10.1 Transport and assembly 162
10.2 Preparing the working zone 164
10.3 One-man operation 165
10.4 Working without damage to the machine 167
10.4.1 Cutting along the milled edge 167
10.4.2 Driving in bends 167
10.4.3 Travelling over long distances 168
10.4.4 Cutting with reduced drum width 168
10.4.5 Belt capacity 168
10.5 Driving in difficult conditions 169
10.6 Cutting depth adjustment and control 170
10.6.1 Forms of adjustment for the rigid axle 172
10.6.2 Levelling surfaces 173
10.6.3 Removing layers of defined thickness 175
10.6.4 Selective mining and creation of defined surface profiles 177
10.6.5 Tracing the existing surface profiles 177
10.6.6 Last pass in a working area 178
10.6.7 Working on a tall embankment without edge protection 179
10.7 Optimization of cutting performance and grain size 180
10.8 Dust suppression 181
10 Tips for practical use
160 // 161
10.9 Effective supply of materials and maintenance 182
10.9.1 Fuel 182
10.9.2 Water 182
10.9.3 Maintenance 182
10.9.4 Tool changes 183
10.9.5 Changing the cutting tool holders 183
10.9.6 Communication 183
10.1 Transport and assembly
High productivity, availability and longevity of the
Wirtgen Surface Miners depend very strongly on
the basic conditions prevailing on site. This chap-
ter contains important information for ensuring
effective operation of the Wirtgen Surface Miner.
All Wirtgen Surface Miners are completely
assembled in the factory where they undergo a
comprehensive program of adjustments and tests.
All Wirtgen Surface Miners are delivered to the
customer ready for operation!
The assembly work required on site depends
on the available means of transport and Wirtgen
Surface Miner model.
The assembly work described below is based on
the assumption that the machine is t to drive on
delivery and that the low-bed trailer has a ramp.
Required assembly work for the various Wirtgen
Surface Miners:
2200 SM with conveyor
Weight and dimensions of the transport units can
be found in the technical specications.
Assembly time: 1 working day (reinforcing
bars, cab if applicable, di-
scharge belt if applicable)
Crane: 10 tonnes
Assembly area: 30 x 15 m
2200 SM without conveyor
(windrowing version)
Weight and dimensions of the transport units can
be found in the technical specications.
Assembly time: 1/2 working day (reinforcing
bars, cab if applicable)
Crane: 10 to
Assembly area: 15 x 15 m
2200 SM / 3800 without conveyor
(windrowing version)
Weight and dimensions of the transport units can
be found in the technical specications.
Assembly time: 1/2 working day (milling
unit, reinforcing bars, cab if
applicable)
Crane: 30 tonnes
Assembly area: 20 x 15 m
The milling unit must be pushed under the machi-
ne. A level concreted surface (approx. 8 m x 2 m)
or steel panels of the same size will be required.
We recommend that the unit be set down on
rollers so that it can be pushed sideways by an
excavator or wheeled loader, for example.
One side of the unit can also be lifted (= relieved)
by a crane.
Alternatively, the entire machine can be lifted over
the milling unit. A crane with a load capacity of at
least 80 tonnes will be
needed in this case.
162 // 163
4200 SM and dinting machine
The available means of transport must be establis-
hed as a matter of principle before these machines
are built so that any special features can be taken
into account in their construction.
Assembly time: The machines are normally
ready for operation within a
week.
Assembly area: Crane capacities must be
selected in accordance with
the part weights required for
transport.
General points concerning assembly
The assembly times mentioned above are based
on the assumption that qualied skilled personnel
and the necessary infrastructure (electricity, com-
pressed air, water, tools) are available. If required,
Wirtgen can also supply appropriately equipped
containers.
We recommend that maintenance and operating
personnel be included in the assembly process.
This time can be used for practical training.
2500 SM
Weight and dimensions of the transport units can
be found in the technical specications.
Assembly time: 1-2 working days
Assembly area: 40 x 20 m
If the machine has to be dismantled further for
transport purposes, please contact Wirtgen so that
an individual solution can be found.
Transport by road or rail Transport by sea
Package 1 Basic machine Basic machine
Package 2
Belt slewing device with
discharge boom
Belt slewing device
Package 3 Discharge boom
Crane 50 t 80 t
10.2 Preparing the working zone
The surface should be as level as possible so that
the Wirtgen Surface Miners can operate efciently.
Topsoil, large loose stones, trees and roots must
be removed before starting to work with a Surface
Miner.
Roots need not be removed from among the rocks
when working with Wirtgen Surface Miners in
windrowing mode.
Troughs and hillocks, as well as steps with a
shoulder height of more than 0.4 m must be
levelled with suitable equipment.
Hillocks with a shoulder of less than 0.4 m can be
cut directly by the Wirtgen Surface Miners.
In other words, the Wirtgen Surface Miners can
nish levelling the surface once it has been roughly
levelled by other appropriate machines.
Always proceed from the highest point in the
area to be milled when removing hillocks and
protruding rocks. The cut material can remain on
the ground and is subsequently pushed into any
remaining troughs.
This very quickly produces large level surfaces on
which the Surface Miners can operate efciently.
The cutting depth is manually set by the machine
operator. For rough levelling, an attendant on the
ground can give directions as to the cutting depth
to be set.
The working zone is levelled in transverse direction
with the aid of the activated tilt controller.
164 // 165
10.3 One-man operation
Wirtgen Surface Miners are designed and built for
effective operation by a suitably trained machine
operator. The cutting process, cutting depth con-
trol and loading via the conveyors are extensively
automated processes.
The machine operator can concentrate on steering
the crawler tracks, controlling the driving speed
and on the loading process. For this reason, the
operators cabin is positioned in such a way as to
ensure that the operator always has a clear view
of the front crawler tracks and discharge area of
the discharge belt. This ensures that he retains
command of the machine and can control the
loading process.
Effective communication with the truck drivers
increases safety and productivity and reduces
downtimes for repairs.
Truck drivers can draw attention to people and
obstacles within the range of the Wirtgen Sur-
face Miner, especially when manoeuvring at the
end of a cutting lane.
Trucks can start and stop in good time during
the loading process.
Close coordination when changing over from a
full truck to an empty truck.
Truck drivers can draw attention to machine
damage, such as
Damaged or loose machine parts
Damage to the conveyor system
Loss of material from the conveyor system
Blockages of material on the conveyor and in
the chute
Corresponding visual communication aids and/or
telecommunication devices are very useful.
Important: This recommendation is no substitute
for conscientious operation, maintenance and
repair of the Wirtgen Surface Miner!
The assistance of an attendant on the ground is
recommended in difcult conditions, such as:
Cutting precise embankments and proles
Working on high or deep embankments
Working and manoeuvring in conned conditions
Safety rule: Eye contact must be maintained at
all times between the attendant and the machine
operator. The machine must be halted immediately
if eye contact is lost!
(Refer also to the safety manual)
166 // 167
Precise driving along the milled edge reduces da-
mage to the crawler tracks and edge protection.
The front crawlers should run on hard subgrade.
Driving over the milled edge (whether upwards or
downwards) should be avoided where possible.
Excessive lateral clearance between the crawler
track and milled edge causes increased friction
(reduces cutting performance) and may damage
the edge protection.
10.4 Working without damage to the machine
Danger of
slipping off
Distance is
too large
Danger of slipping off
as a result of driving over
the milled edge
Optimum driving along the
milled edge
Edge protection damaged by
excessive distance
from the milled edge
10.4.1 Cutting along the milled edge
The machine should preferably only be steered
while driving. Steering while stationary increases
wear on tracks and crawlers. Steering while cutting
increases wear on the drum (end faces, corner ring
cutting tools and cutting tool holders).
10.4.2 Driving in bends
Driving the machine over long distances at high
speed can cause the crawlers to heat up excessi-
vely. The crawler temperature should be checked
regularly. If they heat up to more than 60 C,
the driving speed must be reduced or the machine
halted.
Only part of the drum width is used when working
in very hard material and when cutting off a remai-
ning area. This can result in higher stresses on the
cutting tools and cutting tool holders in use.
It can also lead to increased wear. To reduce this
risk, the rate of advance under part-load should
be no greater than when cutting with the full drum
width.
The belt speed should be sufciently low to ensure
that the volume of material can be discharged
with out material slipping or rolling back on the belt.
An excessively high belt speed increases wear on
the belt and can reduce the conveyor capacity!
10.4.3 Travelling over long distances
10.4.4 Cutting with reduced drum width
10.4.5 Belt capacity
168 // 169
High traction combined with all-track drive and
hydraulic differential lock allows the Wirtgen
Surface Miners to drive and work even on difcult
terrain.
During the cutting process, the rear crawler tracks
run on milled ground, i.e. a stable, clean and there-
fore skid-resistant substrate.
This allows the Wirtgen Surface Miners to operate
on ground which is not accessible to other machi-
nes or vehicles, such as trucks.
In extreme situations, such as when travelling
on snow and ice, the milling drum can also be
switched on and lowered to cut the subgrade for
the rear crawler tracks. This method must also be
employed when displacing the Wirtgen Surface
Miner on very rough ground providing insufcient
ground clearance.
On steep slopes, the Wirtgen Surface Miner can
move across the slope safely by cutting as it
travels.
10.5 Driving in difcult conditions
Procedure:
Switch on slope control
Switch on drum rotation
Lower drum to subgrade level
Switch on forward travel drive

The slope control ensures that the machine always
maintains a stable position.
Machine stability is improved as a matter of
principle by cutting while travelling, due to the
following factors:
Low centre of gravity
Outside edge of the drum becomes the tipping
edge
The load-bearing capacity of the surface and the
lie of the land must always be checked before
travelling over unknown terrain. The procedure
outlined above must be followed without fail when
driving onto unknown or difcult terrain!
>
8
%
(e
.g
. 1
0
%
)
The various systems available for adjusting and
controlling the cutting depth and their suitability for
different jobs are outlined in chapter 4.3.
The principle of operation and adjustment proce-
dure are described below:
Cutting depth and slope are controlled by ad-
vancing and retracting the hydraulic cylinders for
adjusting the crawler tracks.
The controlled crawler tracks are always those to
the right and left of the conveyor belts. In other
words:
The front crawler tracks on the 2200 SM (front
loader),
The rear crawler tracks on the 2500 SM, 3700 SM,
4200 SM (rear loaders).
These crawler tracks are referred to below as the
rigid axle.
The rigid axle is set by means of:
Manual adjustment of cutting depth
or
Cutting depth adjustment with scanning of the
height, both in combination with the
Slope control sensor
The other two crawler tracks in each case act as
a hydraulic oating axle. These crawler tracks are
always adjusted manually.
This adjustment option is only used when cutting
into or out of the ground and to change the longi-
tudinal angle of the Wirtgen Surface Miner.
The recommended principle of operation in the
various applications using the cutting depth
sensors which are installed as standard from the
side plate through guide wire to sonic sensor is
described in the following sections.
The principle of operation of the other open and
closed-loop control systems outlined in chapter
4.3 must be individually agreed with Wirtgen.
Cutting depth
adjustment
with slope
control sensor
Cutting depth
adjustment
with scanning
of the height
(e.g. cable
sensor)
10.6 Cutting depth adjustment and control
170 // 171
Cutting into the ground (downwards)
1.
Cutting out of the ground (upwards)
1.
2. 2.
3. 3.
4. 4.
On 2200 SM: front crawler tracks; on 2500 SM and
4200 SM: rear crawler tracks.
The following forms of adjustment can be selected
for the various applications: options 1 and 2 are re-
commended for manoeuvring the Wirtgen Surface
Miner.
10.6.1 Forms of adjustment for the rigid axle
Left side (in direction of travel =
side with drum drive)
Right side (in direction of travel)
Option 1 Manual Slope control sensor
Option 2 Slope control sensor Manual
Option 3 Automatic Slope control sensor
Option 4 Slope control sensor Automatic
Option 5 Automatic Automatic
172 // 173
Levelling a surface is the simplest mode of
operation: The required mean cutting depth is set
manually, as described under Possible forms
of adjustment. The Wirtgen Surface Miner then
starts moving without automatic control. The
arrangement with drum in the middle ensures that
surface elevations are removed (cutting depth
increases) and indentations are reduced (cutting
depth decreases). The surface gradually becomes
more and more level with each successive pass.
before
after
10.6.2 Levelling surfaces
Removing elevations
Removing indentations
Possible forms of adjustment
Left side Right side
Option 1 Manual Slope control sensor
Option 2 Slope control sensor Manual
before
after
174 // 175
The methods described in chapter 8.4 can be used
to remove layers of dened thickness.
Controller settings:
First pass
10.6.3 Removing layers of dened thickness
Left side Right side
Option 1 Automatic Slope control sensor
Option 2 Slope control sensor Automatic
After turning and before starting the next cut, the
operator must decide which controller is to be
used:
a. Second pass to the left of the rst lane
or
b. Second pass to the right of the rst lane
3
rd
pass 2
nd
pass 1
st
pass
Left side Right side
Slope control sensor Automatic, cutting depth set to 0
Left side Right side
Automatic, cutting depth set to 0 Slope control sensor
176 // 177
When selectively mining thin horizontal layers of
varying layer thickness or when creating dened
surface proles, the cutting depth must conti-
nuously be adapted to the momentary conditions.
The machine operator is informed of the cutting
depth to be selected in each case by the atten-
dant, for example, or by markers in the terrain or a
camera. It is presumed that the seam has a conti-
nuous transverse slope over the full cutting width.
10.6.4 Selective mining and creation of dened surface proles
Manual adjustment of cutting depth
Left side Right side
Option 1 Manual Slope control sensor
Option 2 Slope control sensor Manual
As a rule, existing surface proles are traced when
mining deposits in successive layers or when
lowering existing proles.
10.6.5 Tracing the existing surface proles
Left side Right side
Automatic Automatic
In the cases outlined in sections 10.6.2 to 10.6.6,
the last pass (with a width smaller than that of
the milling drum) should be cut with the following
setting:
10.6.6 Last pass in a working area
Last pass in a working area
Left side Right side
Automatic Automatic
Last pass
178 // 179
The edge protection must be removed on the em-
bankment side (= drum side without drive) in order
to produce steep embankments.
Important: The precautions described in the safety
manual must be observed when working without
edge protection!
Only the left-hand side (= drum drive) can now be
controlled:
10.6.7 Working on a tall embankment without edge protection
With edge protection Without edge protection
Left side Right side
Automatic Slope control sensor
10.7 Optimization of cutting performance
and grain size
As already mentioned in chapters 6 and 7, the se-
lected cutting depth and the rate of advance that
can be achieved at this cutting depth have a de-
cisive impact on the cutting performance and grain
size. These can only be optimized in practice.
Each type of rock has its own optimum.
The respective performance values can be cal-
culated on the basis of trials with different cutting
depths and measurement of the feed rate in each
case:
Q = Cutting performance
B = Cutting width
T = Cutting depth
V = Rate of advance
In hard rock, cutting performance is limited by the
load capacity of the cutting tools.
In soft rock, performance depends above all on
the capacity of the conveyor system or on the rate
of advance that can be controlled.
Trucks can be loaded without difculty (i.e. in
coordinated fashion, without spilling material) up
to feed rates of approx. 15 to 20 m/ min.
The cutting depth can be precisely adjusted to
ensure good selectivity up to approx. 20 m/min.
Q (m
3
/h) = B (m) x T (m) x v (m/min) x 60
180 // 181
10.8 Dust suppression
Wirtgen Surface Miners cut the rock in a closed
compartment. This minimizes the amount of dust
produced by the actual cutting process.
The dust produced on job sites with Wirtgen Sur-
face Miners is attributable to the conveyor loading
process and to dust generated on the surface of
the open-pit mine.
Wirtgen Surface Miners have an integrated water
spray system in the following areas:
Drum
Drum seal
Material transfer between the two conveyor
systems
Discharge of material from the discharge boom.
The nozzles in these areas can be switched on or
off in accordance with individual requirements. As
a rule, the best points and quantities needed to
produce optimum results can only be determined
in practice.
Use of the nozzles should preferably be minimized
in order to minimize water consumption and the
resultant stops for relling.
The water spray system is no substitute for wate-
ring the surface with the aid of tankers which also
water the roadways.
a. Spraying the drum
Spraying water into the drum housing can someti-
mes extend the service life of the cutting tools by:
Cooling the cutting tool tips
Improving rotation of the cutting tools
b. Rinsing the drum seal
(only on 2500 SM and 4200 SM)
Dust and heat stress the gaskets on the drum
bearings. Spraying these areas with water rinses
dust away from the gaskets and cools them.
This rinsing system should always be switched on
when working at temperatures above +5 C.
c. Spraying the belt transfer and discharge areas
Spraying water onto these areas specically
serves to reduce the formation of dust.
Whether effective watering of the ground could
produce a better effect must be investigated so
that this water spray system
can then be switched off.
An effective, well planned supply of materials and
maintenance are essential for effective operation
with a large proportion of cutting time.
The fuel tank is dimensioned for 24 hour operation.
In other words, the machine need only be refuelled
once a day. It is presumed as a matter of principle
that the Wirtgen Surface Miner is refuelled from a
tanker truck with own pump.
The following options are also available from
Wirtgen:
Wiggins Fast Fill tank connection
Electric fuel pump (installed on the Wirtgen
Surface Miner)
Depending on the extent to which water is spray-
ed, the capacity of the water tank on the Wirtgen
Surface Miner is sufcient for 2 to 6 hours ope-
ration. It is presumed as a matter of principle that
the Wirtgen Surface Miner is relled from a tanker
truck with own pump.
The following options are also available from
Wirtgen:
Water pump with hose and lter installed on the
Wirtgen Surface Miner to rell the tank from a
tanker truck, tank, pond or lake.
We recommend that a vehicle supplied with all the
required oils, greases and lters be kept on hand,
preferably with oil and grease pumps.
Storing oils, greases, lters or parts on the Wirtgen
Surface Miner is not advisable.
Efcient maintenance is only possible if all the re-
quired supplies are available in the service vehicle.
Maintenance times can be optimized by using an
optionally available central lubrication system.
10.9 Effective supply of materials and maintenance
10.9.1 Fuel
10.9.2 Water
10.9.3 Maintenance
182 // 183
A full tool complement with intact cutting tools is
the key to high cutting performance and a long
machine life. Worn cutting tools must be replaced
without delay.
It is therefore advisable to keep a permanent supply
of spare cutting tools and the tools needed to
change cutting tools on the Wirtgen Surface Miner.
A drum turning xture and hydraulic cutting tool
ejectors are available from Wirtgen as optional
accessories.
Welded cutting tool holders should be changed
on site if at all possible. Workshop vehicles with
ame cutting and welding equipment as well as
a compressor are needed for this purpose. We
recommend that the worn cutting tool holders be
removed with a gouging blowpipe (ARC-AIR).
Coordination is simplied by communication with
the trucks and control centre.
We recommend that the Wirtgen Surface Miner be
integrated into the mines internal radio network.
10.9.4 Tool changes
10.9.5 Changing the cutting tool holders
10.9.6 Communication
184 // 185
11 On-site examples
2200 SM mining bauxite in the Tsentralanja deposit in
Guinea.
Exploitation of the deposit is improved by mining
bauxite in zones where blasting is prohibited.
Cutting performance: 250 t/h
2500 SM selectively mining bauxite in the Frija deposit
in Guinea.
Simple, cost-effective mining and processing, as
blasting and preliminary crushing are not required.
Cutting performance: 500 t/h
2200 SM simply mining coal in the Mahanadi Coaleld
in India. Wirtgen Surface Miners cut and crush the coal,
which is loaded by wheeled loaders and transported
ready for sale.
Cutting performance: 800 t/h
Heavy-duty mining by a 2200 SM / 3800 in the Mahana-
di Coaleld in India. High conveyor capacity and small-
sized coal with special 3.8 m wide milling unit.
Cutting performance: 1,200 to 2,000 t/h
186 // 187
2200 SM selectively mining coal from sloping seams in
Russia.
Cutting performance: 450 t/h
2100 SM selectively mining thin seams of gypsum and
producing a dened grain size in South Africa. Repeat
order: satised customer who has operated a 1900 SM
since 1983 ordered a 2100 SM in 1998.
Cutting performance: 160 to 650 t/h
Straightforward mining of gypsum. The 2200 SM pro-
duces dened grain sizes for American Gypsum, USA,
directly during the mining process.
Cutting performance: 550 t/h
Rehabilitation of the road to the loading station of the
Red Dog Zinc Mine in Canada.
Stabilization with a WR 2500.
2200 SM mining limestone for cement production
without blasting in Brazil.
Cutting performance: 430 to 560 t/h
Troublefree mining of limestone for cement production
with 2100 SM and 2200 SM in Gujarat, India. Following
a service contract with a 1900 SM in 1993, Gujarat
Ambuja purchased ve 2100 SM machines
and two 2200 SM machines between 1994 and 2004.
Cutting performance 2200 SM: 300 t/h
Mining without blasting directly at the edge of town
and producing material in small lump sizes. 2100 SM in
operation from 1996, replaced by 2200 SM from 2003
onwards; producing crushed stone and gravel from
limestone in England.
Cutting performance with 2200 SM: 150 t/h
2200 SM simply mining limestone in Austria. A single
Surface Miner, a wheeled loader and a screening plant
produce crushed stone and gravel with the required
grain mixture.
Cutting performance: 430 t/h
188 // 189
Selective mining of limestone without blasting, with
2100 SM and 2500 SM in India. Following the success-
ful use of three 2100 SM machines (built in 1994, 1995
and 1997), a 2500 SM machine was purchased in 2000
to increase capacity.
Cutting performance 2500 SM: 545 t/h
2500 SM produces material in small lump sizes and
selectively mines limestone for cement production in
the USA.
Cutting performance: 900 to 1,200 t/h
2200 SM produces material in small lump sizes and
mines marl without blasting in the Netherlands. This
2200 SM was used as a combination machine: as a
road milling machine in summer and after conversion,
as a Surface Miner in winter.
Cutting performance: 1,300 t/h
Precise removal of a thin salt crust with a W 2000 in
Turkey.
Cutting performance: 250 t/h
W 2000 SH removing the salt pan from evaporating
lakes in Australia.
Cutting performance: 650 t/h
Simple production of small-sized material with a
2100 SM in clay schist in Thailand.
Cutting performance: 200 t/h
2600 SM produces a precise and stable embankment in
limestone in Slovenia.
Cutting performance: 40 to 100 bm
3
/h
2100 SM extends the subgrade without blasting and
simultaneously cuts crushed stone and gravel ready for
placement in clay schist in Germany.
Cutting performance: 120 to 330 bm
3
/h
190 // 191
2500 SM at work on a precise prole without blasting in
Japan. A Japanese contractor has been using Wirtgen
Surface Miners for precise removal of rock since 1990.
In the hard granite rock, this is the most economical
means of producing precise proles without blasting.
Ten Wirtgen Surface Miners at work in limestone to pro-
duce the precise prole for pipeline trenches and water
reservoirs without blasting in Libya.
Six 2100 SM machines and one each of the models
2600 SM, 3000 SM, 3700 SM and 4200 SM have cut
many kilometres of trench for pipelines and a water
reservoir.
2500 SM produces level surfaces in limestone for
roads and houses in the USA. Due to the customers
favourable experience with a 3500 SM built in 1985, the
company also purchased a 2500 SM in 1999. The 3500
SM remained in service additionally.
Cutting performance 2500 SM: 100 to 500 bm
3
/h
Fill construction by removing marl beside the ll with a
2500 SM in Kazakhstan.
Cutting performance: 550 bm
3
/h
2100 SM lowering the tunnel oor in dolomite in Italy.
Cutting performance: 30 bm
3
/h
Cutting the middle of the bench without blasting and
producing a precise tunnel oor with the aid of laser
control. 2100 SM in limestone in Germany.
2200 SM at work on a deepening prole in the tunnel
oor in limestone in Austria.
Cutting performance: 50 to 300 bm
3
/h
2100 SM cutting the middle section of the bench wit-
hout blasting, aided by laser control, in sandstone in the
United Kingdom.
Cutting performance: 10 to 30 bm
3
/h
192 // 193
2100 SM cutting the oor and bench without blasting
in sandstone in Switzerland. Continuous transport link
between oor and bench.
Wirtgen 2600 dinting machine servicing an underground
roadway in salt in Germany. Road maintenance with
dinting machines from Wirtgen is state of the art in
German potash and salt mines. Road construction by
cutting is handled by 14 dinting machines from
Wirtgen in all German potash and salt mines.
194 // 195
Annex
Conversion tables 196
Rock testing methods 200
Point Load Test 200
RQD value 200
Mohs hardness scale 201
Seismic wave velocity 202
Cuttability and rippability, as a function of seismic wave velocity 203
Specific gravity, bulking coefficients 204
Conversion tables
Length
Area
Unit in ft yd mile mm m km
1 in 1 0.08333 0.02778 - 25.4 0.0254 -
1 ft 12 1 0.33333 - 304.8 0.3048 -
1 yd 36 3 1 - 914.4 0.9144 -
1 mile 63,360 5,280 1,760 1 - 1,609 1.609
1 mm 0.03937 3.281 * 10
-3
1.094 * 10
-3
- 1 0.001 10
-6
1 m 39.3701 3.2808 1.0936 - 1,000 1 0.001
1 km 39,370 3,280.8 1,093,6 0.62137 106 1,000 1
in = inch, ft = foot, yd = yard, mile = statute mile
in
2
= square inch (sq in), ft
2
= square foot (sq ft), yd
2
= spuare yard (sq yd), mile
2
= square mile (sq mile)
Unit in
2
ft
2
yd
2
mile
2
cm
2
dm
2
m
2
a ha km
2
1 in
2
1 - - - 6.4516 0.06452 - - - -
1 ft
2
144 1 0.1111 - 929 9.29 0.0929 - - -
1 yd
2
1,296 9 1 - 8,361 83.61 0.8361 - - -
1 mile
2
- - - 1 - - - - 259 2,59
1 cm
2
0.155 - - - 1 0.01 - - - -
1 dm
2
15.5 0.1076 0.01196 - 100 1 0.01 - - -
1 m
2
1,550 10.76 1.196 - 10,000 100 1 0.01 - -
1 a - 1,076 119.6 - - 10,000 100 1 0.01 -
1 ha - - - - - - 10,000 100 1 0.01
1 km
2
- - - 0.3861 - - - 10,000 100 1
196 // 197
Volume
Weight
Density
in
3
= cubic inch (cu in), ft
3
= cubic ft (cu ft), yd
3
= cubic yard (cu yd), gal = gallon
Unit in
3
ft
3
yd
3
gal (UK) gal (US) cm
3
dm
3
(l) m
3
1 in
3
1 - - - - 16.3871 0.01639 -
1 ft
3
1,728 1 0.03704 6.229 7.481 - 28.3168 0.02832
1 yd
3
46,656 27 1 168.18 201.97 - 764.555 0.76456
1 gal (UK) 277.42 0.16054 - 1 1.20095 4,546.09 4.54609 -
1 gal (US) 231 0.13368 - 0.83267 1 3,785.41 3.78541 -
1 cm
3
0.06102 - - - - 1 0.001 -
1 dm
3
(l) 61.0236 0.03531 0.00131 0.21997 0.26417 1,000 1 0.001
1 m
3
61,023,6 35.315 1.30795 219.969 264.172 106 1,000 1
Unit lb short ton kg t
1 lb 1 0.0005 0.45359 -
1 short ton 2,000 1 907.185 0.90718
1 kg 2.2046 - 1 0.001
1 t 2,204.6 1.1023 1,000 1
Unit lb/ft
3
short ton/yd
3
kg/dm
3
t/m
3
1 lb/ft
3
1 0.0135 0.016 0.016
1 short ton/yd
3
74.074 1 1.18655 1.18655
1 kg/dm
3
62.43 0.842 1 1.0
1 t/m
3
62.43 0.842 1.0 1
Speeds
Power output
Units of pressure and tension
Unit ft/min mile/h m/s m/min km/h
1 ft/min 1 0.01136 0.00508 0.3048 0.01829
1 mile/h 88 1 0.44704 26.8 1.60934
1 m/s 196.85 2.2369 1 60 3.6
1 m/min 3.28084 0.03728 0.01667 1 0.06
1 km/h 54.68 0.62137 0.27778 16.6667 1
Unit KW PS hp
1 KW 1 1.35962 1.34102
1 PS 0.735499 1 0.98632
1 hp 0.74570 1.0139 1
Unit Pa = N/m
2
MPa =
MN/m
2
=
N/mm
2
bar =
daN/cm
2
at = kp/cm
2
lbf/in
2
=
psi
lbf/ft
2
tonf/in
2
1 Pa = 1 N/m
2
1 10
-6
10
-5
1.0197 * 10
-5
- - -
1 MPa = 1 MN/m
2

= 1 N/mm
2
10
6
1 10 10.197 145.037 20,886 0.06475
1 bar = 1 daN/cm
2
10
5
0.1 1 1.0197 14.5037 2,088.6 -
1 a t= 1 kp/cm
2
98,066.5 0.0981 0.981 1 14.2233 2,048.16 -
1 lbf/in
2
= 1 psi 6,894.76 0.00689 0.0689 0.07031 1 144 -
1 lbf/ft
2
47.8803 - - - - 1 -
1 tonf/in
2
- 15.4443 154.443 157.488 2,244 - 1
198 // 199
Temperatures: degrees Celsius and Fahrenheit
C F C F C F
-40 -40 60 140 160 320
-30 -22 70 158 170 338
-20 - 4 80 176 180 356
-10 14 90 194 190 374
0 32 100 212 200 392
10 50 110 230 210 410
20 68 120 248 220 428
30 86 130 266 230 446
40 104 140 284 240 464
50 122 150 302 250 482
Values in all conversion tables are without obligation
Rock testing methods
The following test methods are frequently applied
in addition to the methods used by Wirtgen for
measuring unconned compressive strength and
compression-tension resistance, as well as for
assessing the rock structure as described in
chapter 7:
Point Load Test
The Point Load Test has been used for many years
as a highly accurate index of rock strength. The
test apparatus is portable and can be used either
in the laboratory or on specimens in the form of
a core, cut block or irregular lumps. For this test,
the specimens are clamped between two conical
platens and subjected to pressure until they break
apart. The point load index (I
S(50)
) is calculated as
follows from the applied force at failure and asso-
ciated penetration distance of the conical tips:
RQD value
The RQD value or RQD number is a value used
in geotechnology and geological engineering to
classify core samples of rock debris and stands for
Rock Quality Designation Index. Rock classica-
tion using the RQD value was described by Deere
in 1963.
Denition
RQD is dened as the quotient:
Suml = Sum of the lengths of core sticks more
than 10 cm long
lges = Total length of the core
The total length also includes lost core sections.
The RQD value should be measured as soon as
possible after drilling.
RQD =
Suml
* 100%

lges
UCS = 1
S(50)
x 22
200 // 201
RQD Rock quality classication Material
<25% Very poor Crushed rock
2550% Poor Micro-seamy rock
5075% Fair Macro-seamy rock
7590% Good Solid rock
90100% Excellent Solid rock
The table can only be used for a rough assessment. Example: A core section with a length of one metre
which breaks up into eleven sections each 9 cm long has an RQD of 0%. However, if it breaks up into
nine sections each 11 cm long, it will have an RQD value of 100%.
1 Talc Can be scratched with a ngernail
2 Gypsum Can be scratched with a ngernail
3 Calcite Can be scratched with a knife
4 Fluorite Can be scratched with a knife
5 Apatite Can be scratched with a knife
6 Orthoclase feldspar Cannot be scratched with a knife
7 Quartz
Scratches window glass, produces sparks
with quartz
8 Topaz
9 Corundum
Corundum and diamond produce sparks
when rubbed
10 Diamond against steel, and scratch window glass
Scratch resistance based on the Mohs hardness scale
Wirtgen Surface Miners can cut material up to a Mohs hardness of approx. 5.
Seismic wave velocity
The seismic wave velocity (Vs) is used to assess
the rippability for mechanical extraction, e.g. by
ripping. Seismic soil analyses provide information
on the rock structure (degree of weathering, com
pactness, dips, faults), as well as on the location
and depth of the rock strata.
Typical seismic wave velocities for different de-
grees of compactness:
G 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Wave velocity
305 m/s
1,220 m/s
3,050 m/s
Rock type
Sedimentary
rock
Weathered
rock
Semi-solid
and
solid rock
202 // 203
Cuttability and rippability, as a function of seismic wave velocity
0 1 2 3 4
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14
Can be ripped
and cut up to
Can only be cut over
2,750 m/s
2,750 m/s
2,800 m/s
2,800 m/s
3,600 m/s
3,450 m/s
3,450 m/s
3,450 m/s
3,250 m/s
3,250 m/s
3,100 m/s
3,600 m/s
3,000 m/s
3,100 m/s
3,250 m/s
3,450 m/s
Velocity in m /s
Velocity in m /s
Boulder clay
Granite
Basalt
Tuff
Shale
Roofing slate
Coal
Iron ore
Shale
Sandstone
Mudstone
Clay stone
Conglomerate
Breccia
Chile saltpeter
Limestone
Rippable Limited rippability
Cannot be ripped,
but
Can be cut
E
r
u
p
t
i
v
e

r
o
c
k
S
e
d
i
m
e
n
t
a
r
y

r
o
c
k
M
e
t
a
-
m
o
r
p
h
i
c
r
o
c
k
M
i
n
e
r
a
l
s
a
n
d

o
r
e
s
Specic gravity, bulking coefcients and Mohs hardness of selected rock types
Values stated without obligation.
Rock
Specific gravity
(g/cm
3
)
Bulking coefficient
Bulk density
(g/cm
3
)
Mohs hardness
Quartzite 2.6 2.7 1.7 1.6 1.7 7.0
Serpentinite 2.4 3.0 2.5 3.5
Gneiss 2.7 3.0 1.6 1.7 1.9
Andalusite 3.0 3.2 7.5
Marble 2.7 2.9 1.7 1.6 1.7
Talc 2.7 2.8 1.0
Basalt 2.7 3.2 1.7 1.7 1.9
Basalt lava 2.2 2.5
Diabase 2.8 2.9 1.7 1.6 1.7
Granite 2.5 2.8 1.7 1.5 1.7
Tuffaceous rock 1.8 2.0
Tuff 1.6 2.0
Graywacke 2.6 2.7 1.6 1.6 1.7
Sandstone 2.0 2.7 1.7 1.2 1.6
Iron ore 3.8 5.3 1.2 3.2 4.5 5.5
Bauxite 2.3 3.5 1.3 1.7 2.6 2 3
Dolomite 2.1 2.9 1.6 1.3 1.8 3.5 4
Limestone, marl 1.7 2.9 1.6 1.0 1.78 3.0
Conglomerate,
pudding stone
1.7 2.6 1.8
Clay schist 1.8 2.8 1.6 1.1 1.8
Phosphate 4.3 4.5 5.0
Gypsum 2.0 2.3 1.6 1.3 1.5 1.5 2
Salt rock 1.6 3.0 2.0
Bituminous coal 1.2 2.5
Lignite 1.0 1.2 1.2 0.8 1.0
S
e
d
i
m
e
n
t
a
r
y

r
o
c
k
M
a
g
m
a
t
i
c

r
o
c
k
M
e
t
a
m
o
r
p
h
i
c

r
o
c
k
204 // 205
Glossary
Working length: Length of a working zone suitable for cutting.
Working zone: Length x width of an area to be cut.
Bulking coefcient: Ratio of volumes and specic gravities of solid material and bulk material.
Exploitation factor: Proportion of time during which production actually proceeds.

U = Utilization (%)
T
t
= Planned working time (sum of the shift times)
T
m
= Time for scheduled maintenance
T
b
= Time for scheduled breaks
T
t
= Time for unscheduled maintenance
Tw = Waiting times, e.g. waiting for:
Trucks
Preparing areas for working and manoeuvring
Fuel
Water
Cutting tools
Service
T
o
= No machine operator available
T
d
= Driving and manoeuvring outside the limits of the optimum turning
procedure
U =
T
t
T
m
- T
b
T
w
T
o
- T
d
x 100 (%)

T
t
T
m
- T
b
Belt operating hours counter: Counts the number of hours during which the discharge belt is in operation.
Loading method: The following loading methods are possible:
Direct loading onto trucks
Windrowing
Sidecasting
Density: Masse of the unit of volume of solid rock, measured in g/cm
3
,
kg /dm
3
or t /m
3
.
Direct loading: Loading material onto trucks directly from the discharge boom of the
Wirtgen Surface Miner during the cutting process.
Effective production: Actual production taking into account ancillary times for truck changes,
manoeuvring at the beginning and end of a cut, cutting upward and
downward ramps.
Travel speed: Speed at which the Wirtgen Surface Miner advances.
Bulk cubic metres: Volume of the solid material (in situ) (bm
3
).
Cutting time: Time during which the Wirtgen Surface Miner actually cuts material.
In situ: Rock structure and quality in its natural, unworked condition.
Longitudinal slope: Slope of the terrain in the direction of cutting or travel.
Tool spacing: Horizontal distance between the cutting lines produced by the cutting
tools.
Loose cubic metres: Volume of bulk material (lm
3
).
ROM quality: Run of mine quality = quality of the material as it leaves the pit.
Cutting performance: Performance of the Wirtgen Surface Miner while cutting, based on the
following parameters: Actual cutting width x actual cutting depth x actual
speed.
Cutting width: Width over which the material is removed.
206 // 207
Cutting depth: Depth to which the material is removed.
Windrowing: Method of depositing the cut material directly behind the milling drum
without using the conveyors on the Wirtgen Surface Miner.
Sidecasting: Method of depositing the cut material beside the Wirtgen Surface Miner
with the aid of the conveyors on the Wirtgen Surface Miner.
Availability: Proportion of time during which the Wirtgen Surface Miner is available for
operation. Availability is calculated with the aid of the following formula:


A = Availability (%)
T
t
= Planned working time (sum of the shift times)
T
m
= Time for scheduled maintenance
T
b
= Time for scheduled breaks
T
t
= Time for unscheduled maintenance
Drum hours counter: Counts the operating hours during which the drum is in operation.
Transverse slope: Slope of the terrain at right angles to the direction of cutting or travel.
A =
T
t
T
m
- T
b
x 100 (%)

T
t
T
m
Illustrations and texts are without obligation. Technical details are subject to change without notice.
Performance data depend on operating conditions. No. 25-12 EN - 03/10 by Wirtgen GmbH 2010 Printed in Germany
Wirtgen GmbH
Reinhard-Wirtgen-Strae 2 53578 Windhagen Germany
Phone: +49 (0) 26 45 / 131-0 Fax: +49 (0) 26 45 / 131-279
Internet: www.wirtgen.com E-Mail: info@wirtgen.de