Infectious Teaching

1st Explain the concept of microbiology? Microbiology, the science of microscopic living organisms such as bacteria Protozoa, fungi. 2nd Identify and describe the four types of micro-organisms? • Bacteria Smallest creatures (cellular structure but no complete cell nucleus, instead Kernäqievalent) independent metabolism growth, propagation Pus is a sign of a bacterial infection but can not supportive expire. fours° No living beings No metabolic no independent propagation Building envelope protein with DNA Builds their DNA into the genome of infected cells, and can produce up to the underlying cell. Mushrooms,° many cel Spurs trailing Very Resistance capability Duration forms disease mycosis fungal diseases indicate a defensive weakness of the organism out protozoa° Unicellular True cells e.g. Malaria pathogens Amoebae toxoplasmosis (Amoebae Ruhr) Diarrhoeal disease) Infectious Teaching 3rd Describe four types of infection associated with the transmission paths and two clinical examples? smear° Transmission to humans is the smear eg By shaking hands, wet towels especially among children-fäka loral droplets° Be by sneezing or dust transmitted infection More transmission Oral Infection food or° instruments transmission eg. Stitch with contaminated needle Parenteral °Sexual transmission 4th What is the meaning of immunity? Organism has previous pathogens Contact (Passed Infection or vaccination) memory cells; again contact will immediately recognize the pathogen and fended off the disease no longer breaks out.

5th Explain please active vaccination, the passive immunization and the Simultanimpfung? active vaccination° Of a vaccine Deaktivirajo pathogens / exciter component Tot vaccine or is an antigen which is no longer proliferate, but still features Weakened Capable of reproduction pathogens live vaccine, the organism must themselves active antibodies and memory cells are creating an immunity passive immunization° For acute Infection suspected Surrender finished antibodies Onset immediately Effective period three months There is no immunity Therefore should be an active Vaccination connected Be Simultanimpfung Is the gift of passive And active immunization. Together with note Vaccine should be allowed for Simultanimpfung E.g. Tetanol active vaccine Tetagan = passive vaccine

6th STIKO: importance of the concept? Short for Permanent Commission vaccination What tasks? By the Federal Minister of Health appointed commission of experts, established at the Robert Koch Institute (RKI) in Berlin, dealing with vaccinations and infectious diseases in Research and Practice. The STIKO recommendations will be legally effective if they are in different states of the country's top health authorities in the "public recommendations" were taken. General Pathology 7th As the WHO defines the term health? Health is more than just the absence of disease. The World Health Organization (WHO) defines it as a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being 8th What is the difference between good and malignant tumors? benign tumours Slow growth Sharply to the original tissue is limited Well-differentiated No recurrences No metastases After removing cured malignant tumours Rapid growth Blurred, limited Cancer feet Invasive / infiltrative growth Relapse tilt (always comes back

Metastases Can be good poor but also his undifferentiated

9th Explain please according to the TNM classification system? Is the division of cancer after its expansion primary tumor T° N Nodus° Lymphatikus (lymph nodes) tumors are located in closer Surroundings M remote metastases on the blood and other organs Lymph way not°To detectable in primary tumor at No. undetectable lymph node tumor° °Mon not detectable by remote metastases, but may, in the form of Metastatic exist T1-T4, N1, N4 and M1-M4 is the division after the expansion° Various sizes for diagnosis of a tumour°All three characters indicated E.g. Breast cancer T1 N1 = Mo special form is the Carzionoma° in Situ Tis It is strictly to the original tissue is limited Has not yet metastasis Subject only the upper layer of tissue Is already malignant could not only develop For early detection and removal is the Pa. In most cases cured G Grading is the division after differentiation degrees° (degree change) G1 well and slowly growing (similar)° G2 growing° medium growing fast G3 (undifferentiated anaplastisch)°

Inflammation, Reaction of the body to Tissue Damage 10th What are the cardinal symptoms of inflammation (with the technical terms) function loss° pain Dolor° swelling° tumor redness Rubor°

overheating Calor° 11st Depending on the cause of inflammation and immune location of the body, a different inflammatory process. Tell them the course of four forms! °Serous inflammation Drawing by the accumulation of a large amount of protein-rich fluid. The Serösen inflammation, for example under the skin wheal nettle contact or insect stroke. At the mucous membranes are the Serous such as inflammation. Colds pus inflammation° Migration of leukocytes into the area of inflammation associated the area after work together with Tissue debris often than pus be expelled Ulzerierende inflammation° Deep computing couple defect of skin, mucous or inner vessel wall. As with gastric or Duodenum ulcer Proliferative and granulomatous inflammation° Proliferativen inflammation is the formation of new connective tissue Fibroblastenzellen the produce in the foreground. There is excessive Fiber rich Tie tissue often to functional limitation.

12nd What is the difference between subjective and objective clinical signs? subjective symptoms° The disease own sense of sickness objective signs of disease° From the perspective of the doctor it beholder

13rd In what stages runs an infectious disease? It limits the terms epidemic, pandemic, and endemism of each other! • epidemic Local and temporary outbreak of an infectious disease. • Pandemic World-wide spread of infectious disease • Endemic Andemisch / endemic Local limited occurrence of infectious disease pathogens is there at home

14th Bitter explain the terms allergy and autoimmune • • Allergy autoimmune Hypersensitivity reaction hypersensitivity reaction Always from the outside (Antibodies against the body's immune tissue leading to the injury, for example, are stored in the joints and lead to inflammatory reactions

15th Which law governs the handling of infectious diseases? The federal disease Act regulates the obligation to report infectious diseases Infection Act since 2001

Cytology cell Teaching 16th Count the main components of the cell and enter their tasks? • cell consists of Cell nuclear DNA, or DNA Cell organelles - endoplasmatic Retikulim, mitochondria, ribosomes Cell liquid - cytoplasm Cell wall - Membrane • functions of the cell Metabolism, independent propagation, communication and growth. Recording and processing and disposal of substances

17th Explain the difference between mitosis and meiosis! Mitosis • mitosis

As mitosis refers to the process of nuclear division of cells in a living organism Standard cell division Doubling of the cell components and subsequent division. From a mother cell are two identical daughter cells.


Basis of sexual propagation Germ cell has a set of chromosomes haploidem The connects to the haploidem chromosomes of the other germ cell, it comes against a cell with diploid chromosome set

Teaching tissue histology 18th Identify four major tissue groups!

Tissue - the cells cluster of a joint function between the cell is the between cell - or interstitial Interstitium. The Interstitium effect the elasticity or the stability of Tissue substance (eg, bone, tendon) • tissue groups Epithelial tissue surface tissue Binder and supporting Muscle Tissue Nerve tissue 1st Epithelial tissue surface tissue Exterior skin, lining of the organs inside Did various forms and functions of multi interrogated until Insight plate (lining of the vessels) • glandular tissue Merger of cups cell (epithelial tissue give it here Exokrine glands Endocrine Glands • Individual glandular cells The stored in their secretions and on the surface epithelium abgeben (sweat glands, oral mucous glands, sebaceous glands) • exokrine glands Give her secretion on a course of the execution of surface epithelium (salivary gland, liver is the largest gland in the body

• Endocrine Glands Give her secretions to the inside, directly into the blood Hormondrüse Pituitary thyroid glands are endocrine pancreatic gonads There is no interstitial cell substance 2nd Binder and supporting The binder and supporting the interstitial cells is an important factor substance he determines the elasticity of the tissue consistency • loose connective tissue Loosely

Cell boards with a lot of interstitial cell substance Elastic Tie tissue vessels Strict Connective tissue Tapes loose Connective tissue layer between other tissues • connective tissue fibroblasts Are responsible for the education hub scar tissue no longer has the function of the tissue of origin and shows shrinking Denz 3rd Fat tissue • upholstery fabrics Fairing of organ eye socket hand and foot bales Not to energy produced only in times of starvation, these upholstered dismantled Big Storage Insolating fett Subcutaneous fat is used for energy generation • Brown adipose tissue In newborns Is under the skin created and has the ability to generate heat Interior heart pillows can be found in small mammals and animals in the winter snooze 4th Supporting • Cartilage • Bones • cartilage cells Chrondroblasten Cartilage is very elastic substance Hyaline cartilage forms (high water compartment) fibrous cartilage tissue fibers stored Bind Cartilage is found between the joints, spine, ribs, nose, airways, trachea, auricle Regenerate cartilage tissue is very slow (bradytroph) and is not kapilarisiert. The food found on diffusion instead • Bones Osteblasten and osteoclasts Osteblasten build the cartilage on him Osteoklastenbauen OS tissue thus subject to a constant and dissipation important for the development are calcium, exercise, hormone balance, vitamin D Oss Basic substance is Osteoid Z (enamel is the hardest in the body) In the meantime, cellular substance found calcium phosphate minerals

Muscle Tissue • Smooth Muscle Involuntary muscles by the vegetative nervous system acting In the intestinal peristalsis In vessels In bronchi • Cross-striated muscles Arbitrary Musculoskeletal (tired) • Heart Muscle Involuntarily Cross-striated for self-excitation enables some heart muscles To make a special sites excitation system • nerve tissue Nerve cell neuron Fort records Neurone Deposits in the central nervous system DMF in the gray matter A. progress rates To leader Fort sentence Dendrites of one or more per cell B. Way leader Fort sentence Axon Neurit only one per cell Nerves are a continuation rates insulation layer surrounding the myelin Mark divorce important for the excitation of Directors and the forming of CNS white matter