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37, 83–90, 2013
WAVEGUIDE FILTER USING FREQUENCY SELECTIVE SURFACE WITH MINIATURIZED ELEMENT Yuan Yang1 , Hang Zhou1, * , Qian Li2 , and Hao Li3
1 Aeronautics 2 Air 3 The
and Astronautics Engineering College, Engineering University, Xi’an 710038, China Force Equipment Department, Beijing 100843, China Forth Department, Wuhan 430019, China
Air Force Early Warning Academy,
Abstract—In this paper, a waveguide ﬁlter using miniaturizedelement frequency selective surface (FSS) is presented. The proposed FSS is composed of periodic array of metallic patches separated by small gaps and metallic lines. The array of patches constitutes a capacitive surface and the lines a coupled inductive surface, which together act as a resonant structure. At about 5.0 GHz, a narrow bandpass response is designed. Dimensions of the FSS element are much smaller than the operating wavelength, which is less than 1/13λ. For this miniaturized element, grating lobes are restrained and do not appear event to 25 GHz. Moreover, the FSS has stable performances for various incident angles. Design procedure and measurement results of the FSS are presented and discussed. 1. INTRODUCTION Frequency selective surfaces (FSSs) are usually planar periodic structures that function as spatial ﬁlters for electromagnetic (EM) waves [1, 2]. For about 50 years, FSSs have been an attractive topic because of their comprehensive applications, such as ﬁlters, absorbers, polarizers, subreﬂectors, hybrid-radome for radar cross-section (RCS) controlling, etc. [3–15]. For decades, many novel FSS structures have been proposed to design FSSs with excellent performances. Performances of diﬀerent FSS elements and eﬀects of dielectric loading on FSS have been studied by Luebbers and Munk [1, 16]. Isotropic FSS
Received 4 December 2012, Accepted 10 January 2013, Scheduled 14 January 2013 * Corresponding author: Hang Zhou (zh firstname.lastname@example.org).
in which the SIW cavity is formed by arranging metallic via array around each periodic slot. Section 2 describes the process of designing the waveguide ﬁlter. DESIGN AND ANALYSIS Figure 1 illustrates the conﬁguration of the FSS structure.0 GHz. in Section 4 an experiment is taken to verify our design. Convoluted FSS were also proposed in [28–30] to obtain with very small FSS unit cell. Finally. Such miniaturized FSS elements can be arranged much more unit cells in ﬁnite area than conventional FSS structures based on half wavelength resonance. the FSS has stable performance for various incident angles. Miniaturized FSS whose dimensions are much smaller than operating wavelength are poposed in . Waveguide ﬁlters are important in some applications. in ﬁnite area miniaturized FSS are more attractive because they keep much more similar properties to inﬁnite FSS structures. in which two microstrip patches are coupled through an aperture to form a higher-order bandpass ﬁlter. The proposed ﬁlter is composed of periodic array of metallic patches separated by thin air-gaps and metallic lines. Coupledresonator spatial ﬁlter (CRSF) FSS was ﬁrstly introduced in  and further investigated in [21–24]. a narrow bandpass response is designed. The array of metallic patches will constitute a capacitive surface and the metallic lines a coupled inductive surface. The FSS is assumed to be an inﬁnite . The FSS is composed of single-layered metallic structures. which together act as a resonant structure. For this miniaturized element. Moreover. CST Microwave Studio based on Finite Integration Method is used to calculate the performance. grating lobes are restrained and do not appear event to 25 GHz. were proposed in . Substrate integrated waveguide (SIW) technology was proposed by Luo et al.and y directions. which has almost the same performance under arbitrary incident angles and polarizations. 2. [25–27] to design high performance FSSs. Complementary FSSs by using Babinet principle had been investigated in [18. Section 2 gives the analysis of the bandpass response of the FSS. 19]. especially in microwave region. In this paper.84 Yang et al. At about 5. Using such a conﬁguration. Dimensions of the FSS element are much smaller (≤ 1/13λ) than the operating wavelength. we design a bandpass waveguide ﬁlter by using miniaturized FSS element. It is printed with periodic array of metallic patches separated by small gaps and metallic lines. when the single-layered FSS structure are expanded to an inﬁnite structure in the x. Therefore. Moreover. Section 3 discusses the performances of the FSS under various incident angles.
It can be observed that two opposite current ﬂows occurred on the metallic lines and patches.3 mm. The incident plane wave vector k is ﬁxed in the x-z plane and the electric ﬁeld vector E is ﬁxed in the y direction. The four sides of the unit cell are set to be unit cell boundary.Progress In Electromagnetics Research Letters.2 mm.0 GHz. Based on this current distribution.15 mm. g = 0. Vol. 3. It can be seen from Fig.50–5.0 GHz.2. In order to clarify the physical mechanism of FSS. b = 3. the corresponding equivalent circuit model is given in Fig. As the incident angles increase. whose permittivity is 4. The FSS unit cell is excited by incident plane waves with various incident angles. FSS WITH STABLE PERFORMANCES The transmission coeﬃcient of this FSS for diﬀerent incidence angles of TE plane wave with y -direction electric ﬁeld component is illustrated in Fig.025 and thickness h = 2. Front view of the FSS element. The array of metallic patches constitutes a capacitance C . the metallic lines a coupled inductance L1 . 3(b). The insertion loss is about 0.8 mm. a = 3.85 dB. s = 0. It can be found that a bandpass resonance occur at about 5. the two short lines L0 . Geometrical values of the structure are p = 4.0 mm. 37. 3(a) shows the surface current distribution diagrams on the surface of the FSS at 5. periodic structure. w = 0. we will give analysis to the resonance as follows. 4. Figure 2 gives the s-parameters under normal incidence. 2013 p 85 1 w a s b p 2 E g H x y o Figure 1.5 mm. Fig. Figure 2.41 GHz. bandwidths of the passband become . 4 that the passband is rather stable.5 mm. which together act as a resonant structure. loss tangent 0. Simulated sparameters of the structure for normal incidence. The substrate of the FSS is FR4. −3 dB bandwidth of the passband is from 4.
The waveguide cut-oﬀ frequency is about 3. EXPERIMENTS In order to measure the response of the waveguide ﬁlter. a litter narrower.0 GHz and (b) the equivalent circuit model. Transmission responses under diﬀerent incidence angles.549 × 22. Figure 4. It is composed of a HP 8720ES vector network. (a) (b) Figure 5. the equipment shown in Fig. The proposed FSS is fabricated by using FR4 substrates. Nevertheless. (a) Samples and (b) zoom in view. so the overall size of the structure is 40. (a) Surface current distribution at 5. L0 L1 L0 C L1 (a) (b) Figure 3. Dimension of the BJ48 waveguide is 47.5 GHz to 7.5 mm × 18 mm. two cables and a BJ48 waveguide.86 Yang et al. 6 is used. 5. Therefore. which is below the FSS resonance frequency. the resonant frequencies are rather stable even the incident angles up to 60 degrees.18 GHz. . 4. We use the waveguide measuring system to verify the validity of the design .149 mm. Prototype of the fabricated FSS is shown in Fig. Moreover.0 GHz. Prototype of the fabricated ﬁlter. the measured frequencies range of the experiment is from 3. It is made up of a periodic array of 9 × 4 (in the xand y -axis directions) unit cells. grating lobes are restrained and do not appear event to 25 GHz.
The measured resonance frequencies shift to a little higher frequencies than the simulation ones. At about 5. a narrow bandpass response is obtained. Dimensions of the FSS element is less than 1/13λ. 7. 37. Grating lobes are restrained and do not appear event to .0 GHz. Insertion loss is larger than the simulation results. which is about 1.0 GHz.0 mm and is about 1/30λ. Vol. The measured and the simulated results have the same trend. 2013 87 (a) (b) Figure 6. These discrepancies can be attributed to the fabrication precision of the FSS and the losses of waveguide measuring system. but the results still support the hypothesis that the structure functions as waveguide ﬁlter at 5. The measured results are not perfect compared with the simulation ones. 5. (a) Experimental equipment and several kinds of waveguides and (b) a sample in foam model.5 dB. Measured and simulated transmission coeﬃcients are shown in Fig. The proﬁle is only 2. Figure 7. CONCLUSION A bandpass waveguide ﬁlter operating is designed and measured. Measured and simulated responses of the waveguide ﬁlter. but there are some little diﬀerences between them.Progress In Electromagnetics Research Letters.
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