# Steve Goddard

Mechanical Principles – Assignment 1
1. Using a diagram define Poisson’s ratio and give typical values for
steel, Titanium and Aluminum Alloy.
When a sample of material is stretched in one direction, it tends to get thinner in
the other two directions. Poisson's ratio (v - Greek letter Nu), named after Simeon
Poisson, is a measure of this tendency.
Poisson's ratio is the ratio of the relative contraction strain, or transverse strain
(normal to the applied load), divided by the relative extension strain, or axial
strain (in the direction of the applied load). For a perfectly incompressible material
deformed elastically at small strains, the Poisson's ratio would be exactly 0.5.
Most practical engineering materials have ν between 0.0 and 0.5. Cork is close to
0.0, most steels are around 0.3, and rubber is almost 0.5.
Some materials, mostly polymer foams, have a negative Poisson's ratio; if these
auxetic materials are stretched in one direction, they become thicker in
perpendicular directions.
For the materials in question Poisons ratio is as follows:
Steel – 0.27 – 0.30
Titanium – 0.34
Aluminium Alloy – 0.33
Poisson's ratio values for different materials
material
poisson's
ratio
concrete 0.20
cast iron 0.21-0.26
glass 0.24
clay 0.30-0.45
saturated
clay
0.40-0.50
copper 0.33
cork ca. 0.00
magnesium 0.35
stainless
steel
0.30-0.31
rubber 0.50
foam 0.10 to 0.40
sand 0.20-0.45
auxetics negative
Page 1 of 13
Steve Goddard
2. A bar 300mm long and 30mm diameter is pulled by a tensile load of
40kN. If Poisson’s ratio is 0.3 and the Modulus of Elasticity is 100GN/m
2
,
find the reduction in diameter of the bar.
Firstly I drew out the question:
Next I had to work out the stress applied using the formula:
Stress σ =
Area
Force
I worked out the area:
( )
2 4
4 2
10 06 . 7
4
0028 . 0
4
10 9
4
m
D
A

× · ·
× ×
· ·
π π
2 6
4
3
/ 10 593 . 56
10 06 . 7
10 40
m N
A
F
Stress
x
× ·
×
×
· ·

σ
Strain in the x direction
4 4
9
6
10 697 . 1 10 6593 . 5
10 100
10 593 . 56
− −
× · × ·
×
×
· ·
E
e
x
x
σ
Using
diameter Oringinal
diameter in Change
ey ·
Change in Diameter =
m
diameter original ey
6
4
10 091 . 5
030 . 0 10 697 . 1

× ·
× × ·
×
Page 2 of 13
40kN Ø 30mm
300mm
E = 100GN/m
2
v = 0.3
Steve Goddard
3. A brass plate shown is subjected to stresses as shown below. Find the
changes in the 160mm length and in the 7-mm width if for brass E = 105
GN/m
2
and poisson’s ratio is 0.3.
X Direction
5
4
4 5 4
9
6
9
6
10 5327 . 1
07 . 0 10 1897 . 2
10 1897 . 2 10 857 . 2 10 904 . 1
10 105
10 10 3 . 0
10 105
10 20

− − −
× ·
× × − ·
× ·
× − · × − × − ·
×
× ×

×
×
− ·
− − ·
m
L e x in Change
e
e
E E
e
x
x
y
x
x
σ
υ
σ
Y Direction
6
4
4 5 5
9
6
9
6
10 3808 . 24
16 . 0 10 5238 . 1
10 5238 . 1 10 7142 . 5 10 5238 . 9
10 105
10 20 3 . 0
10 105
10 10

− − −
× ·
× × ·
× ·
× · × + × − ·
×
× ×

×
×
− ·
− ·
m
L e y in Change
e
e
E E
e
y
y
x
y
y
σ
υ
σ
4. The plate shown is made from a metal for which Poisson’s ratio is 0.29
and E=180 GN/m
2
. Find the changes in the 100mm and 45mm direction.
Page 3 of 13
10 MN/m
2
20 MN/m
2
20 MN/m
2
10 MN/m
2
1
8
0
m
m
70mm
E = 105 GN/m
2
V = 0.3
Steve Goddard

Firstly I need to convert the forces into stresses with the equation:
Area
Force
2 6
3
2 6
3
/ 44 . 44 10 44 . 44
) 045 . 0 005 . 0 (
10 10
/ 30 10 30
) 1 . 0 005 . 0 (
10 15
m MN
m MN
x
x
· × ·
×
×
·
· × ·
×
×
·
σ
σ
Now that I have the stresses I can work out the changes in direction.
5. Find the change in volume of a square cross section 80mm by 80mm
and 1.2m long when subjected to an axial load of 20kN.
Take R as 200 GN/m
2
and Poisson’s ratio as 0.3.
Firstly I drew out the problem so it was easier to interpret.
Page 4 of 13
5m
m
1
0
0
m
m
45m
m
10 kN
15 kN
10 kN
15 kN
X Direction
5
5 4
9
6
9
6
10 507 . 9
10 153 . 7 10 666 . 1
10 180
10 4 . 44 29 . 0
10 180
10 30

− −
× ·
× − × ·
×
× ×

×
×
·
− ·
x
x
x
y
x
x
e
e
e
E E
e
υσ
σ
Y Direction
4
5 4
9
6
9
6
10 9827 . 1
10 833 . 4 10 466 . 2
10 180
10 30 29 . 0
10 180
10 44 . 44

− −
× ·
× − × ·
×
× ×

×
×
·
− ·
x
x
x
x
y
y
e
e
e
E E
e
υσ
σ
Steve Goddard
Volumetric Strain =
volume Original
volume in Change
6
3
10 125 . 3
08 . 0 08 . 0
10 20
× ·
×
×
· ·
A
F
σ
Linear Stresses
3 6 6 6 6
6
9
6
6
9
6
6
9
6
10 25 . 6 10 6875 . 4 10 6875 . 4 10 625 . 15
10 6875 . 4
10 200
10 125 . 3 3 . 0
10 6875 . 4
10 200
10 125 . 3 3 . 0
10 625 . 15
10 200
10 125 . 3
m e e e Strain Volumetric
E
e
E
e
E
e
z y x
x
z
x
y
x
x
− − − −

× · × − × − × · + + ·
× − ·
×
× ×
· ·
× − ·
×
× ×
· ·
× ·
×
×
· ·
υσ
υσ
σ
Change in volume = Volumetric Strain x Original Volume
Original Volume =
3
10 68 . 7

×
Volumetric Strain =
6
10 25 . 6

×
3 9 6 3
48 10 48 ) 10 25 . 6 ( ) 10 68 . 7 ( nM · × · × × × ∴
− − −
6. A round steel bar 25mm diameter and 250mm long is loaded with an
axial tensile force of 200kN.
Calculate the change in volume if E=200 GN/m
2
and Poisson’s ratio is
0.32.
Page 5 of 13
80mm
8
0
m
m
1200m
m
20kN
Z
X
Y
E = 200 GN/m
2
V
= 0.3
Steve Goddard
Converting force to stress:
6
4
3
2
3
10 497 . 407
10 908 . 4
10 200
4
025 . 0
10 200
× ·
×
×
·

,
`

.
| ×
×
· ·

π
σ
A
F
Linear Strains:
4 3
4 3
3
9
6
10 52 . 6 10 0375 . 2 32 . 0
10 52 . 6 10 0375 . 2 32 . 0
10 0375 . 2
10 200
10 497 . 407
− −
− −

× − · × × − · ·
× − · × × − · ·
× ·
×
×
· ·
E
e
E
e
E
e
x
z
x
y
x
x
υσ
υσ
σ
Volumetric Strain = ( )
4 4 3
10 335 . 7 10 52 . 6 2 10 0375 . 2
− −
× · × − + × · + +
z y x
e e e
Change in volume = Volumetric Strain x Original Volume
3 9 4 4
90 10 000 . 90 10 227 . 1 10 335 . 7 Nm · × · × × × ∴
− − −
Page 6 of 13
Ø
25mm
250mm
200 kN
E = 200
GN/m
2
V
= 0.32
Steve Goddard
7. A Component in a machine which is submerged in water is subjected,
as a result, to a hydrostatic pressure of 5 bar. The Modulus of Elasticity
of the material of the component is 200GN/m
2
.
If poisson’s ratio is 0.25 and the original volume was 20 x 10
-6
m
3
, find:
7.1 The volumetric strain
( )
( )
3 6
9
3
10 75 . 3 5 . 0 1
10 200
10 500
3
2 1 3
m e
E
e

× − · −
×
×
− ·
− − · υ
σ
7.2 Change in volume
3 11 6 6
10 5 . 7 10 20 10 75 . 3 m
Volume Original Strain Volumetric
− − −
× · × × ×
×
8. Find the value of the Shear Modulus G of a material if the Young’s
Modulus of Elasticity is 210GN/m
2
and poisson’s ratio is 0.3.
( ) ( )
9
9 9
10 769 . 80
6 . 2
10 210
3 . 0 1 2
10 210
1 2
× ·
×
·
+
×
·
+
·
υ
E
G
9. Find the value of the Bulk Modulus of a material if it has an Elastic
Modulus of 200GN/m
2
and poisson’s ratio of 0.3.
( ) ( )
11
9 9
10 666 . 1
2 . 1
10 200
3 . 0 1 3
10 200
1 3
× ·
×
·

×
·

·
υ
E
G
Page 7 of 13
1 Bar = 100
KN/m
2
Steve Goddard
10. A Cylinder 1.5m in length has an internal diameter of 75mm and a
wall thickness of 1.5mm.
Determine
10.1 The Hoop Stress
Hoop stress =
( )
MPa
m
thickness wall
diameter pressure
t
pd
75
5 . 1 2
075 . 0 10 3
2 2
6
·
×
× ×
·
×
×
·
10.2 The Longitudinal Stress
I know longitudinal stress is equal to MPa
Stress Hoop
5 . 37
2
·
To check this I can use the equation:
( )
MPa
t
pd
5 . 37
5 . 1 4
075 . 0 10 3
4
6
·
×
× ×
·
10.3 The percentage increase in internal volume of the tube.
I can calculate this using the following equation ( )V
tE
pd
υ 4 5
4

( )
( )
( ) ( ) ( )
6 3
9
6
10 721 . 4 10 626 . 6 3 . 0 4 5
10 200 0015 . 0 4
075 . 0 10 3
− −
× ·

,
`

.
|
× × × − ×
× × ×
× ×

Percentage increase = % 10 125 . 7
4 −
×
Page 8 of 13
Original Volume
3
2
10 626 . 6 5 . 1
4
075 . 0

× · ×
× π
Steve Goddard
11. A cylindrical air compressor is 2m internal diameter and made of
plate 15mm thick. If the hoop stress is not to exceed 90MN/m
2
and the
axial stress is not to exceed 60MN/m
3
, find the maximum safe air
pressure.
( )
MPa
p
d
t
t
pd
Stress Hoop
h
h
35 . 1 10 35 . 1
2
015 . 0 2 10 90
2
2
6
6
· × ·
× × ×
·
×

·
σ
σ
a
σ Axial Stress =
t
pd
4
( )
MPa
d
t
p
a
8 . 1
2
015 . 0 4 10 60 4
6
·
× × ×
·
×
· ∴
σ
Therefore the maximum safe pressure would be 1.35 Mpa
Page 9 of 13
Steve Goddard
12. A closed cylinder has an internal diameter of 60mm and an external
diameter of 100mm. It is subject to an internal pressure of 20Mpa and
an external pressure of 5Mpa.
Determine the radial and hoop stresses at the inner and outer wall
surfaces and the longitudinal stress experienced at the cylinder wall.
Internal
b a
b
a
r
b
a
r
]
]
]
]
]
]
]
]
]
]
]
]
− · × −
− · × −
− ·
11 . 1111 10 20
03 . 0
10 20
6
2
6
2
σ
External
b a
b
a
r
b
a
r
]
]
]
]
]
]
]
]
]
]
]
]
− · × −
− · × −
+ ·
400 10 5
05 . 0
10 5
6
2
6
2
σ
Subtract equation 1 from equation 2
0211 . 0
11 . 711 10 15
11 . 711 11 . 1111 400
10 15 10 20 10 5
6
6 6 6
·
· × ∴
· + −
× · × + × −
b
b
b b b
Using b in equation 1
4375 . 3
0211 . 0 11 . 1111 10 20
6
·
× − · × −
a
a
Now I can work out the radial and hoop stresses by substituting a and b into the
original equations:
Mpa
Mpa
Mpa
Mpa
i
i
e
i
r
h
r
r
5
05 . 0
0211 . 0
4375 . 3
00 . 20
03 . 0
0211 . 0
4375 . 3
88 . 11
05 . 0
0211 . 0
4375 . 3
88 . 26
03 . 0
0211 . 0
4375 . 3
2
2
2
2
· − ·
· + ·
· − ·
· − ·
σ
σ
σ
σ
Longitudinal Stress:
Page 10 of 13
Equation
1
Equation
2
Steve Goddard
MPa
r r
r p r p
c
4375 . 3
10 4375 . 3
10 6 . 1
12500 18000
03 . 0 05 . 0
05 . 0 10 5 05 . 0 10 20
6
3 2 2
2 6 2 6
2
1
2
2
2
2 2
2
1 1
·
× ·
×

·

× × − × ×
·

·

σ
13. A thick cylinder having an external diameter of 230mm and an
internal diameter of 120mm is subjected to an internal pressure of
48MPa and an external pressure of 9MPa.
Find:
13.1 the maximum direct stress in the cylinder
13.2 the change in the external diameter
Given that E is 200Gpa and Poisson’s ratio is 0.28
13.1
b a
b
a
r
b
a
r
7 . 277
06 . 0
10 48
2 2
6
+ · + · + · × − · σ
b a
b
a
r
b
a
r
614 . 75
115 . 0
10 9
2 2
6
+ · + · + · × − · σ
Subtract Equation 1 from Equation 2
( ) ( )
3
3
6
6 6 6
10 914 . 192
10 914 . 192
163 . 202
10 39
163 . 202 614 . 75 77 . 277
10 39 10 9 10 48
× − ·
× ·
× −
·
→ −
× − → × − − × −
b
b
Substitute b into equation 1
( )
6
6 6
6 3 6
10 587 . 5
10 587 . 53 10 48
10 587 . 53 10 914 . 192 77 . 277 10 48
× ·
× + × − ·
× + · × − × + · × −
a
a
a a
Page 11 of 13
I will call this
Equation 1
I will call this
Equation 2
Steve Goddard
2 6
6 6
2
3
6
2
/ 174 . 59 10 174 . 59
10 587 . 53 10 587 . 5
06 . 0
10 914 . 192
10 587 . 5
m MN
r
b
a
c
c
c
c
· × ·
× + × ·
× −
− × ·
− ·
σ
σ
σ
σ
2 6
6 6
2
3
6
2
/ 174 . 20 10 174 . 20
10 587 . 14 10 587 . 5
115 . 0
10 914 . 192
10 587 . 5
m MN
r
b
a
c
c
c
c
· × ·
× + × ·
× −
− × ·
− ·
σ
σ
σ
σ
6
6 6
2
3
6
2
10 9
10 587 . 14 10 587 . 5
115 . 0
10 914 . 192
10 587 . 5
× − ·
× − × ·
× −
+ × ·
+ ·
r
r
r
r
r
b
a
σ
σ
σ
σ
Change in Diameter
4 5 4
9
6
9
6
10 1347 . 1 10 26 . 1 10 0087 . 1
10 200
10 9 28 . 0
10 200
10 174 . 20
− − −
× · × + × ·
×
× − ×
+
×
×
· + ·
E E
e
r c
υ σ σ
Change in Diameter
m length original e µ 0981 . 26 10 0981 . 26 23 . 0 10 1347 . 1
6 4
· × · × × · ×
− −
Page 12 of 13
Maximum
Direct Stress
Steve Goddard
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