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circa counter-performance versus border security aff

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http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Y8xmJcmD7_Y&list=PL !"#$%&'! "((D8)&i*+ex=,

clandestine insurgent rebel clown army 1nc


Opposing controls on human migration are the ultimate test of radical politics -- only the abolition of borders can become a starting point for a broader struggle against racism NOII 10-.-)ccess-Date/-0o-1*e-2s-2lle3al/-'4itish-a*ti-immi34atio*5co*t4ols-34oup/-http://www.*oii.o43.u6/ According to the media-a*+-pa4liame*ta4ia*s, immigration controls are basic/-3o+53ive*-fact of life !o suggest their abolition invites violent condemnation for utopic and even dangerous naivety "ven those critical of controls argue that it is necessary to be #pragmatic$, to be #realistic$, to accept that the abolition of controls is unrealistic and to concentrate on trying to ma%e the laws #fairer$-2*-ou4-view-this turns politics on its head &hat is utopic, what is unrealistic, is the idea that controls can be saniti'ed, turned into their opposite and made fairer -2mmi34atio*-co*t4olsa4e-*ot-a-*atu4al-7eatu4e-o7-li7e.-8hou3h-appea4i*3-timeless-they-a4e-4elatively-*ew.-'4itai*-ha+-*o*e-at-all-till9#"(.-!hroughout the world (and controls are global) restrictions on the movement of people is essentially a twentieth century phenomenon * that is a phenomenon of imperialism +ontrols are a total system.-8he-a4e-*ot-:ust-exte4*al-;co*t4olli*3-e*t4y-i*to-a*+-e*7o4ci*3-+epo4tatio*-74om-thecou*t4y<.-8hey-a4e-also-i*te4*al-;li*6i*3-wel7a4e-e*titleme*ts-to-immi34atio*-status<.-=el7a4e-a*+-the-wel7a4estate-a4e-themselves-sup4emely-*atio*alistic-as-they-a4e-p4emise+-o*-immi34atio*-co*t4ols.-2t-is-*o-coi*ci+e*cethat-the-7lowe4i*3-o7-wel7a4e-p4ovisio*-;post-9#"(-a*+-post-9#!"<-coi*ci+e+-with-the-e*actme*t-o7-the-twoma:o4-waves-o7-immi34atio*-co*t4ol->-the-9#"(-)lie*s-)ct-a3ai*st-Jewish-4e7u3ees-a*+-the-9#!,$ommo*wealth-2mmi34a*ts-)ct-a3ai*st-blac6-e*t4a*ts.-)*+-*ow-co*t4ols-a4e-ha4+e*i*3-at-a*-eve45i*c4easi*34ate.-As well as being racist, controls are also inherently authoritarian !hey can never be #fair$ to those sub,ect to them As long as there are immigration laws, there will be people who fall foul of them and are crushed by them -)43ui*3-that-such-+est4uctio*-is-?somethi*3-we-:ust-have-to-livewith@-is-to-7all-i*to-a*othe4-lethal-cate3o4y-e44o4.-8hose-sub:ect-to-co*t4ol:-a4e-huma*-bei*3s-*ot-ve3etables-o4i*a*imate-ob:ects.-'4itai*-*ow-has-a-?state-withi*-a-state@-that/-*ot-lo*3-a3o/-was-i*co*ceivable:-a-stea+ily5 sp4ea+i*3-?Aula3-a4chipela3o@-o7-immi34a*t5p4iso*s/-whe4e-people-a4e-loc6e+-up-i*+e7i*itely/-without-t4ial/sub:ecte+-to-casual-viole*ce/-7o4-+a4i*3-to-set-7oot-o*-ou4-sac4e+-'4itish-soil.-%*ti4e-*ew-ca4ee45st4uctu4es-existi*-the-*ew-+ete*tio*-i*+ust4y.-84a3ically-the-7act-that-co*t4ols-4ep4ese*t-a-total-system-mea*s-that-the-*ewca4ee4-oppo4tu*ities-they-have-3e*e4ate+-exte*+s-i*to-secto4s-which-shoul+-be-opposi*3-co*t4ols.-Bo4-i*sta*cema*y-wo46e4s-withi*-local-autho4ities-*ow-have-to-assess-immi34atio*-status-be7o4e-p4ovi+i*3-se4vices->-suchas-housi*3-a*+-social-se4vice-p4ovisio*.-Ca*y-volu*ta4y-secto4-a3e*cies-;*o*-3ove4*me*tal-o43a*iDatio*s<-a4e*ow-+eeply-implicate+-i*-the-Eome-177iceFs-7o4ce+-+ispe4sal-scheme.-&ithin much of the -eft there hasarisen a strange self-censorship in respect to immigration controls In private the -eft will say it is opposed to all controls .owever at the same time it argues that such a demand is #too advanced$ or #too abstract$ to argue in public &e consider this bi'arre position is based on a pessimism about confronting the hard and popular racism behind immigration controls /acism must assigned pre-eminent value as an impact be re,ected in every instance 0emmi 10-;)lbe4t/-P4o7esso4-%me4itus-o7-Gociolo3y-H-I*v.-17-Pa4isJ-K)$2GC/-t4a*slate+-by-Gteve-Ca4ti*ot/pp.9!&5<G%= 8he-st4u33le-a3ai*st-4acism-will-be-lo*3/-+i77icult/-without-i*te4missio*/-without-4emissio*/-p4obably-*eve4achieve+/-yet-7o4-this-ve4y-4easo*/-it is a struggle to be underta%en without surcease and without concessions One cannot be indulgent toward racism One cannot even let the monster in the house, especially not in a mas% !o give it merely a foothold means to augment the bestial part in us and in other people which is to diminish what is human !o accept the racist universe to the slightest degree is to endorse fear, in,ustice, and violence It is to accept the persistence of the dar% history in which we still largely live It is to agree that the outsider will always be a possible victim-;a*+-which-Lpe4so*M-ma*-is-*ot-Lthemsel7M-himsel7-a*-outsi+e4-4elative-to-someo*eelse?<.-/acism illustrates in sum, the inevitable negativity of the condition of the dominated2 -thatis-it-illumi*ates-i*-a-ce4tai*-se*se-the-e*ti4e-huma*-co*+itio*.-!he anti-racist struggle, difficult though it is, and always in 3uestion, is nevertheless one of the prologues to the ultimate passage from animality to humanity In that sense, we cannot fail to rise to the racist challenge .owever, it remains true that ones moral conduct only emerges from a choice4 one has to want it It is a

choice among other choices, and always debatable in its foundations and its conse3uences -Letus-say/-b4oa+ly-spea6i*3/-that-the-choice-to-co*+uct-o*esel7-mo4ally-is-the-co*+itio*-7o4-the-establishme*t-o7-ahuma*-o4+e4-7o4-which-4acism-is-the-ve4y-*e3atio*.-8his-is-almost-a-4e+u*+a*cy.-One cannot found a moral order, let alone a legislative order, on racism because racism signifies the e5clusion of the other and his or her sub,ection to violence and domination 6rom an ethical point of view,-i7-o*e-ca*+eploy-a-little-4eli3ious-la*3ua3e/-racism is #the truly capital sin $7*,,-2t-is-*ot-a*-acci+e*t-that-almost-allo7-huma*ityFs-spi4itual-t4a+itio*s-cou*sel-4espect-7o4-the-wea6/-7o4-o4pha*s/-wi+ows/-o4-st4a*3e4s.-2t-is-*ot-:ust-aNuestio*-o7-theo4etical-cou*sel-4espect-7o4-the-wea6/-7o4-o4pha*s/-wi+ows-o4-st4a*3e4s.-2t-is-*ot-:ust-a-Nuestio*o7-theo4etical-mo4ality-a*+-+isi*te4este+-comma*+me*ts.-Guch-u*a*imity-i*-the-sa7e3ua4+i*3-o7-the-othe4su33ests-the-4eal-utility-o7-such-se*time*ts.-All things considered, we have an interest in banishing in,ustice, because in,ustice engenders violence and death Of course, this is debatable !here are those who thin% that if one is strong enough, the assault on and oppression of others is permissible 7ut no one is ever sure of remaining the strongest One day, perhaps, the roles will be reversed All un,ust society contains within itself the seeds of its own death -2t-is-p4obablysma4te4-to-t4eat-othe4s-with-4espect-so-that-they-t4eat-you-with-4espect.-?Kecall/@-says-the-bible/-?that-you-we4eo*ce-a-st4a*3e4-i*-%3ypt/@-which-mea*s-both-that-you-ou3ht-to-4espect-the-st4a*3e4-because-you-we4e-a-st4a*3e4you4sel7-a*+-that-you-4is6-becomi*3-o*ce-a3ai*-some+ay.-It is an ethical and a practical appeal 8 indeed, it is a contract, however implicit it might be In short , the refusal of racism is the condition for all theoretical and practical morality 7ecause, in the end, the ethical choice commands the political choice A ,ust society must be a society accepted by all If this contractual principle is not accepted, then only conflict, violence, and destruction will be our lot If it is accepted, we can hope someday to live in peace !rue, it is a wager, but the sta%es are irresistible Our uncompromising position is to spea% from the tactical position of the +landestine /ebel +lown Army +hoosing this starting point is %ey and means we have already won the debate &e have always already become everyone Only our alternative ma%es the border itself into a mista%e of clownish proportions, an accident +I/+A 91:-55-)ccess-Date/-1ctobe4-O)bout-8he-)4myO-http://www.clow*a4my.o43/about/about.html /oll up, roll up - ladies and gentlemen, boys and girls, friends and foes - welcome to the unparalleled, the une5pected, the perfectly parado5ical, the grotes3uely beautiful, the newfangled world of the +landestine Insurgent /ebel +lown Army (+I/+A) &e are cla*+esti*e because we refuse the spectacle of celebrity and we are everyone -'ecause-without-4eal-*ames/-7aceso4-*oses/-we-show-that-our words, dreams, and desires are more important than

our biographies 7ecause we re,ect the society of surveillance that watches, controls, spies upon, records and chec%s our every move .-'ecause-by-hi+i*3-ou4are everywhere 7ecause ideas can be ignored but not suppressed and an insurrection of the imagination is irresistible 7ecause whenever we fall over we rise up again and again and again, %nowing that nothing is lost for history, that nothing is final 7ecause history doesn9t move in straight lines but surges li%e water, sometimes swirling, sometimes dripping, flowing, flooding - always un%nowable, une5pected, uncertain 7ecause the %ey to insurgency is brilliant improvisation, not perfect blueprints &e are 4ebels

i+e*tity-we-4ecove4-the-powe4-o7-ou4-acts.-'ecause-with-34easepai*t-we-3ive-4esista*ce-a-7u**y-7ace-a*+-becomevisible-o*ce-a3ai*.-&e are i*su43e*t because we have risen up from nowhere and

because we love life and happiness more than 9revolution9 7ecause no revolution is ever complete and rebellions continues forever 7ecause we will dismantle the ghost-machine of abstraction with means that are indistinguishable from ends 7ecause we don9t want to change 9the9 world, but 9our9 world 7ecause we will always desert and disobey those who abuse and accumulate power 7ecause rebels transform everything - the way they live, create, love, eat, laugh, play, learn, trade, listen, thin% and most of all the way they rebel &e are clow*s because what else can one be in such a stupid world -'ecause-i*si+e-eve4yo*e-is-a-lawless-clow*-t4yi*3-to-escape.-

'ecause-*othi*3-u*+e4mi*es-autho4ity-li6e-hol+i*3-it-up-to-4i+icule.-'ecause-si*ce-the-be3i**i*3-o7-timet4ic6ste4s-have-emb4ace+-li7ePs-co*t4a+ictio*s/-c4eati*3-cohe4e*ce-th4ou3h-co*7usio*.-'ecause-7ools-a4e-both7ea4some-a*+-i**oce*t/-wise-a*+-stupi+/-e*te4tai*e4s-a*+-+isse*te4s/-heale4s-a*+-lau3hi*3-stoc6s/-scape3oatsa*+-subve4sives.-7ecause buffoons always succeed in failing, always say yes,

always hope and always feel things deeply 7ecause a clown can survive everything and get away with anything &e are an a4my because we live on a planet in permanent war - a war of money against life, of profit against dignity, of progress against the future.-'ecause-a-wa4-that-3o43es-itsel7-o*-+eath-a*+-bloo+-

a*+-shits-mo*ey-a*+-toxi*s/-+ese4ves-a*-obsce*e-bo+y-o7-+evia*t-sol+ie4s.-'ecause-o*ly-a*-a4my-ca*-+ecla4eabsu4+-wa4-o*-absu4+-wa4.-'ecause-combat-4eNui4es-soli+a4ity/-+iscipli*e-a*+-commitme*t.-'ecause-alo*eclow*s-a4e-pathetic-7i3u4es/-but-i*-34oups-a*+-3a33les/-b4i3a+es-a*+-battalio*s/-they-a4e-ext4emely-+a*3e4ous.=e-a4e-a*-a4my-because-we-a4e-a*34y-a*+-whe4e-bombs-7ail-we-mi3ht-succee+-with-moc6i*3-lau3hte4.-)*+lau3hte4-*ee+s-a*-echo.-&e are ci4ca because we are appro5imate and ambivalent, neither here nor there, but in the most powerful of all places, the place in-between order and chaos /;N A&A< 6/O0 !." +I/+;= >OIN !." 6O/+"= O6 !." +-AN?"=!IN" IN=;/@"N! /"7"- +-O&N A/0< Abandon the perverse calculations of the cure-all politics of the 1A+ and re-claim this space of debate by an insistence on pleasure indifferent to the misery of others and the genocidal attempt to perfect society in the image of the "ternal @ood Aote negative to affirm a pleasure without goal, a becoming without end Aaneigem 1BC/-Kaoul/-situatio*ist-philosophe4/-lea+i*3-thi*6e4-i*-the-Gituatio*ist-2*te4*atio*al-?8he-'oo6-o7Pleasu4es@-t4a*s.-Joh*-Bulle4to*/-9#8&http://www.sce*ewash.o43/lobbies/chai*thi*6e4/situatio*ist/va*ei3em/bop/bop.html 6reedom has no worse enemy than these cure-all panaceas which claim to transform society Bo4-these-veils-o7-exo4cist-4itual-simply-se4ve-to-smu33le-the-ol+-wo4l+-bac6-i*.- -awyers for the revolution or sniffers of radical chic, whatever pedigrees these grocers have, they are our adversaries, armour-clad in neurosis, and will bear the full brunt of the violence of those who live without restraint.-2-6*ow-well-the-wise-me*-who-+e*i34ate-su4vival/-havi*3-i*-ma*y-ways-bee*-o*e-o7-them.-I*+e4-thecassoc6-o7-that-hi3h5b4ow-c4iticism-moves-the-secula4-a4m-o7-7a4-mo4e-pemicious-i*Nuisitio*s.-'ut-they-me4elyp4o:ect-the-+is3ust-they-7eel-at-themselves-towa4+s-othe4s.-=ince the system spreads by destroying its producers and thus by destroying itself, the problem is how to avoid becoming an accessory to trade !hose who whimper in pain, unable to rela5 enough to en,oy themselves, give up e5tricating their desires out of the mercantile stranglehold, and ma%e money because they cannot ma%e anything else.-Guch-pote*tial-suici+es-a4e-*otable-7o4-the-way-they-sla3-the%stablishme*tJ-but-howeve4-co*vi*ce+-they-seem/-they-4emai*-its-lac6eys-to-be-+u3-bac6-i*to-the-socialmi++e*.-8hey-have-34ow*-Nuite-use+-to-su77e4i*3-because-thi*3s-+o*Pt-cha*3e/-a*+-have-also-34ow*-to-4espectthei4-*ei3hbou4sP-wish-to-leave-thi*3s-as-they-a4e.-You-ca**ot-tell-apa4t-thei4-7u*e4al-+i43e-74om-the-ol+-wo4l+PsDe-P4o7u*+is.-OLove-a*+-74ie*+ship-a4e-:ust-illusio*s/O-they-whi*e/-s*ivelli*3-se*ilities-o7-the-4ecluse.-0o-+oubtthat-is-why-we-pay-them-so-much-atte*tio*/-these-ossi7ie+-la*+ow*e4s-a*+-+isillusio*e+-civil-se4va*ts.-Decaye**obles.-!oilers for order, toilers for chaos, for inhibition or psychic lib , the auto-

destructive process of trade programmes the curriculum vitae of ine5istence ?eath grabs and you stumble from life, worn out with %eeping the boo%s and balance-sheets of daily misery, or with strutting your stuff li%e a ham politician because of the wonderful way you are managing to die -!hough you loathe power you revere it nonetheless, for from it you have borrowed that

arrogant attitude of re,ection which endorses all your contemptible acts 7ut life moc%s those even with the most wonderful theories Only from pleasures is born audacity and laughter, which rings out at orders and laws and limits2 it will fall upon all who still ,udge, repress, calculate and govern, with the innocence of a child -=hile-i*tellectuals-+evise-i*3e*ious-metho+s-o7slippi*3-th4ou3h-the-6eyhole/-those-with-a-wo4l+-o7-+esi4es-to-achieve-a4e-b4ea6i*3-+ow*-the-+oo4/-a*-act-o7pa4ticula4ly-34oss-behaviou4-7o4-those-7asti+ious-mecha*ics-i*-social-e*3i*ee4i*3-who-thi*6-they-see-li3ht-at-the-

e*+-o7-the-tu**el.-'ut-it is life itself see%ing fulfilment !he increasing abstraction of the commercial process has turned our heads into the last place left to hide2 but even there all that remains is the shadow of power in a tower of s%ulls !he scars of age, source of so much nostalgic reminiscence, are the wounds of self-renunciation, pleasure mutilated and bled to death by a mania for appearances, a need to dominate, and the will to power You4-t4uths-havelittle-but-the-bitte4*ess-which-has-sow*-them/-thei4-e+3e-ho*e+-o*-3e*e4atio*s-who-lea4*e+-to-accept-thi*3so*ly-i7-accompa*ie+-by-6ic6s/-cu77s-a*+-mo4ti7icatio*.-'ut-all-a43ume*ts-cut-both-ways-a*+-set-up-thei4-ow*4ep4essio*.-&hat is %nowledge worth when it is founded on the tacit postulate that oneself is one9s own worst enemyD An influential person 3uic%ly discovers that though he controls others he has no real e5istence for them =hould he hope to safeguard this phantom self Efor the good of his fellow-menE, he loses and deceives himself as well as his public .-8hat-is-why-2-+o-*ot-i*te*+-tot4y-to-co*vi*ce-you:-2-+o-*ot-ca4e-to-a++-sco4*-to-whateve4-co*tempt-you-al4ea+y-have-7o4-othe4s.-Eoweve4-4aptyou4-atte*tio*-to-the-va4ious-messe*3e4s-o7-sel75+est4uctio*/-whom-2-am-su4e-will-4epay-you4-atte*tio*-withi*te4est/-2-p4e7e4/-4athe4-o77ha*+e+ly/-to-wait-u*til-soo*e4-o4-late4-you-34ow-+ea7-to-eve4ythi*3-that-+oes-*oti*c4ease-you4-pleasu4e.-2t-is-much-mo4e-the-lac6-o7-7u*-which-batte4s-us-tha*-ove45abu*+a*ce-a*+-i*+ul3e*ce.Let-the-+ea+-bu4y-the-livi*3-+ea+.-0y well-being does not dine upon virtue and certainly not upon revolutionary virtue I feast upon what is alive and %ic%ing ?ead truths are venomous, as all who give up their desires discover =hatPs-a-boo6-wo4th-which-+oes-*ot-say-mo4e-tha*-all-the-othe4s?=hat-4etu4*s-each-ma*-to-himsel7-is-w4itte*-with-the-taste-o7-ple*ty/-*ot-u*+e4-the-scou43e-o7-+i4ectives.-8he'Book of Pleasures'-is-bou*+-to-be-tai*te+-with-the-li7e-o7-i*tellectualism/-sepa4ate-thou3ht-which-4ules-ove4-thebo+y-a*+-opp4esses-it.-'ut-the-lie-that-we-each-ca44y-ca*-be-+issolve+-o*ly-by-+oi*3-exactly-what-we-wa*t-to-+o/without-Nualm-o4-hesitatio*.-Cay-you4-+esi4es-wipe-out-whateve4-lies-4emai*-he4e/-a*+-e77ace-the-34a*+i*Nuisito4-74om-you4-b4ai*.-In all beings, in all things, in all creation, I ta%e what pleases and leave the rest -Qeep-away/-se4ious-c4iticsR-8his-is-*ot-7o4-you.-=hy-shoul+-you-put-up-with-me-i7-you-ca**ot-sta*+you4selves?-2-+o*Pt-3ive-a-toss-what-you-thi*6-o7-this-boo6J-so-what-you-+o-with-it-is-up-to-you.-2-have-*othi*3-toexcha*3e.-27-you-6*ow-all-this-a*+-bette4/-3o-to-itR-=hoeve4-lea4*s-to-love-himsel7-is-beyo*+-the-plots-a*+-spellso7-shame-a*+-3uilt-a*+-the-7ea4-o7-lovi*3J-a*+-6*ows-too/-that-+espite-my-e44o4s-2-+o-*ot-vee4-a*-i*ch-74om-my+esi4e-to-c4eate-a-society-base+-upo*-the-i*+ivi+ual-will-to-live/-by-3lobally-subve4ti*3-the-society-which-hasstoo+-eve4ythi*3-o*-its-hea+.-&hat could I wish for the present but to ta%e the greatest pleasure in being what I amD !o en,oy myself in such a way that never again do I get bogged down in other people9s misery -27-these-4i3hteous-citiDe*s-6*ew-what-+y*amite-they-humpe+-about-eve4y-step-o7-the-way....EumilityPs-tatte4s-a*+-me3aloma*iaPs-t4umpe4y-have-betwee*-them-success7ully-pe4sua+e+-the-sobe4-howi*si3*i7ica*t-they-a4eJ-loo6-at-them/-they-a4e-so-34aceless/-a*+-thei4-eyes-a4e-+ea+-to-whatPs-le7t-o7-li7e-beyo*+a77ective-bloc6s-a*+-compe*sato4y-bi*3es.-&ho will shatter the roc% that for millenia has

sat upon individual autonomyD 6or so long now learning to live has meant learning to die -O=he*-2-come-to-ma6e-a-wheel/O-sai+-the-wheel4i3ht.-O2-ca*Pt-3o-at-it-slowly/-o4-it-will-

tu4*-out-wea6-a*+-u*ce4tai*.-=he4eas-i7-2-3o-ha4+-at-it/-itPll-be-7i4m-but-34ossly-p4opo4tio*e+.-'ut-i7-2-ta6e-itstea+ily/-at-my-ow*-spee+-a*+-so-that-it-7eels-4i3ht/-it-will-tu4*-out-:ust-as-2-wish.-You-ca*Pt-explai*-the-7eel-7o4-iti*-wo4+s.O-8he-wo4+s-he4e-be3i*-whe4e-my-live+-expe4ie*ce-7alls-sile*t.-27-you-ta6e-these-wo4+s-so-they-P7eel4i3htP/-2-3et-a-cha*ce-to-mesh-with-eve4y-pe4so*Ps-expe4ie*ce-a*+-3o-7o4wa4+-with-it.-1*ly-the-i*+ivi+ual-will-tolive-ca*-ma6e-the-Book of Pleasures-what-it-is-to-me/-a*-u43e-to-have-7u*-that-*othi*3-a*+-*o5o*e-outsi+emysel7-has-impose+-o*-me.-2-li6e-the-Sie**ese-humou4istPs-Nuip:-O8he4e-a4e-a-lot-o7-people-whoP+-love-to-hit-me/a*+-ma*y-whoP+-li6e-to-chat-with-me-7o4-a*-hou4.-8hey-a4e-3e*e4ally-the-same-people.O-$ut-me-o4-lio*ise-me/itPs-a-:o6e-eithe4-wayR-'ut-2-ca*Pt-shiel+-mysel7-74om-the-7eeli*3-that-whoeve4-4ep4esses-himsel7/-4e7usi*3-his-ow*+esi4es-a*+-tu4*i*3-towa4+s-+eath/-a++s-a-shac6le-to-my-ema*cipatio*-2-coul+-well-+o-without-.- !he %ey is

within each of us No instructions come with it &hen you decide to treat yourself as your only point of reference you will cease to be trapped by name-dropping - yours or mine - or by deferring to other people9s opinions, or by the particular way they see things And you will cease to lin%

yourself to the people whose everpresent memories of having ta%en part in a movement in history still prevent them from deriving any personal benefit from the e5perience It is entirely up to us to invent our own lives &e waste so much energy in living vicariously/-it-is-4eally-ha4+-wo46/-when it would be enough/-i7-you-love-you4sel7/-to apply this energy to the achievement and development of the incomplete being /-the-chil+-withi*.-I wish to reach the

anonymity of desire and be carried away on the flood In endlessly denaturing what still seemed natural, the history of trade has reached a point where either we perish with it or recreate nature and humanity completely afresh 7eyond the inversion in which death battens on life, life leaps up, and swiftly s%etches society where pleasure comes of its own accord -)t-a*y-o*e-mome*t/-my-PmeP-is-to-be-7ou*+-ti3htly-ta*3le+-i*-the-+et4itus-o7-what-opp4essesmeJ-heate+-debate erupts in the attempt to disentangle the twisted filaments

and liberate utterly the se5ual impulse as the breath that gives life perpetually It ought never to be stifled -!hat9s why en,oying yourself also presages the end of wor% and holding bac%, e5change, intellectuality, guilt, and the will to power I see no ,ustification - e5cept economic - for suffering, separation, orders, payments,

reproaches or power 0y struggle for autonomy is that of the proletarian against his growing proletarianisation, of the individual against the omnipresent dictatorship of goods for sale, the commodity -ife erupting has %ic%ed a breach in your death-oriented civilisation &e will preempt the permutation by inviting the negative to learn from our +lowning -- of course this still results in a negative ballot, since if they had it their way the debate would be super boring @reen 9B-Jo-)**/-8u4bule*ce-;a4tblo3<-O'o4e+om-Pat4ol-at-)4tivisticO-9"/9# http://tu4bule*ce.o43/blo3/?s=4ebelTclow*Ta4my&x="&y=" 8he-'o4e+om-Pat4ol-o7-the-$la*+esti*e-2*su43e*t-Kebel-$low*-)4my-will-be-at-)4tivistic-,""7-playi*3-with-allthe-othe4-amaDi*3-c4eative-people-who-a4e-comi*3.-8he-'o4e+om-Pat4ol is a gaggle of clowns who utili'e their bodies to create chaos and laughter in the borderlands to combat the dreadful seriousness and straight lines of borders and their enforcers !hen, they ta%e their actions online to public culture spaces li%e <ou!ube, engaging anti-immigrant vigilantes in an online dialog about the politics of immigration, along with anyone else who wants to ,oin in the fun &hat ensues is a networ%ed performance, an impassioned, raucous dialog about contemporary politics of migration, spurred on by the digiti'ation of the bodies of the clowns, vulnerable and silly, face to face with the anti-immigration activists .-Gee-thei4-vi+eos-a*+-:oi*-i*-o*-the-7u*-he4e.-14-eve*-bette4/:oi*-them-i*-Co*t4eal-at-)4tivistic-7o4-the-p4emie4e-o7-thei4-vi+eo-8he-$i4cus-o7-;2m<Ci34atio*-a*+-a-4ebelclow*i*3-wo46shopF

Overview
Our alternative is to clown the border by understanding it as a mista%e of clownish proportions withdraw consent from the state to determine identity by recogni'ing that national identity is the accidental product of the lottery of natality Our framing is a superior strategy for subversion 8 the 1A+ naturali'ation of categories of legal identity only legitimi'es the sovereign ability to foster a ris% society Nyers 1G-Pete4/-Depa4tme*t-o7-Political-Gcie*ce/-CcCaste4-I*ive4sity-?Kis6y-Politics:-Euma*-)3e*cy-i*I*+ocume*te+-Coveme*ts@-Pape4-7o4-the-2G)-$o*ve*tio*-Co*t4eal/-Uuebec-Ca4ch-975,"/ !he rights of citi'enship that come from birth on a sovereign territory always face the ris% of being e5posed as an arbitrary event, an accident -If birth-right is always at ris% of being e5posed as a birth-accident, then the sovereign order also ris%s being revealed as arbitrary and capricious -2-a43ue-that-sovereign power responds to this crisis of legitimacy /-i*-pa4t/-through a securiti'ation of immigrants-.-i*clu+i*3-those-so5calle+-Vacci+e*tal-citiDe*sF-bo4*-to-*o*5citiDe*-pa4e*ts.)s-2-will-a43ue-below/-since the accident implies a relationship with ris% and danger, it has emerged as a central political concept for a mode of governance that is responsive to 8 and constitutive of 8 fears, an5ieties, and insecurities in the population .-2*-this-way/-the arbitrary hold state citi'enship has over human agency can solidify and stabili'e technologies of controlling populations through the management of ris% and threats .-Gecu4ity-a*+-the-Ca*a3eme*to7-)*xieties-=e-saw-above-that-acco4+i*3-to-the-4eceive+-t4a+itio*s-o7-mo+e4*-political-theo4y/- human agency is understood to be the domain of state citi'enship +iti'enship is said to embody claims to liberty, e3uality, rights, autonomy, selfdetermination, individualism, and 8 above all 8 human agency.-8he-citiDe*Fs-capacity-to-act/-mo4eove4/-is-matche+-by-a*-expectatio*-o7-e77icacy/-i.e.-that-thei4+ema*+s-will-be-hea4+/-a*+-thei4-i*te4ve*tio*s-i*-the-political-4ealm-will-have-some-co*seNue*ce.-Eoweve4/-i*the-wa6e-o7-the-viole*t-attac6s-o7-99-Geptembe4-,""9/-the-7ate-o7-the-citiDe*-is-*ow-cau3ht-up-i*-a-+4amatic-a*++a*3e4ous-p4ocess-o7-secu4itiDi*3-political-commu*ities.-2*-this-*e4vous-state-o7-a77ai4s , technologies of surveillance and control are rapidly proliferating, creating severe constraints for the enactment of citi'enship practices -=hile-citiDe*ship-has-always-7ace+-the-p4oblem-o7-exclusive*ess/-theco*tempo4a4y-4elatio*ship-betwee*-secu4ity/-te44ito4y/-a*+-populatio*-is-bei*3-t4a*s7o4me+-i*-ways-that-a4ec4eati*3-*ew-+y*amics-o7-exclusio*-7o4-citiDe*s/-*o*5citiDe*s/-a*+-Nuasi5citiDe*s-ali6e.-Aive*-cu44e*tco*+itio*s/-is-it-*ot-4easo*able-to-as6:-=hatFs-le7t-o7-citiDe*ship?-)*-impo4ta*t-mea*s-by-which-sove4ei3*powe4-claims-le3itimacy-is-th4ou3h-the-p4ovisio*-o7-secu4ity-a*+-p4otectio*-to-its-citiDe*s.-8his-secu4ity-is-sai+to-be-a-*ecessa4y-co*+itio*-7o4-the-pu4suit-o7-civil-4elatio*s-i*-the-my4ia+-e*sembles-o7-huma*-activity/i*clu+i*3-politics.-'ut-i*-the-cu44e*t-Vwa4-o*-te44o4F/-the-p4actices-to-i*c4ease-secu4ity-a4e-the-same-as-thosec4eati*3-i*secu4ity.-&hat, then, remains of the states monopoly claim to be 1protection rac%et for its citi'ensD-2s-it-mo4e-4eleva*t-to-as6/-as-James-De4-De4ia*-su33ests/-whethe4-the-*atio*al-secu4ity-state-hasbecome-a*-Vacci+e*tal-4ac6etF?&!-)cco4+i*3-to-autho4s-such-as-Il4ich-'ec6/-Paul-Si4ilio-a*+-othe4s/- the ha'ards associated with the hegemony of 1ris% society have created a heightened sense of public an5iety and feelings of powerlessness in the face of une5pected contingencies .&7-8imothyCelley-4e7e4s-to-these-7ea4s-o7-powe4less*ess-as-a-7o4m-o7-Va3e*cy-pa*icF/-which-he-+esc4ibes-as-Vthe-pa4a+ox-i*which-suppose+ly-i*+ivi+ualist-cultu4e-co*se4ves-its-i*+ivi+ualism-by-co*ti*ually-ima3i*i*3-it-to-be-i*immi*e*t-pe4il.F&8-8he-wi+esp4ea+-se*se-o7-u*ease-a*+-i*secu4ity-is-itsel7-the-4esult-o7-ce4tai*-politicaltech*olo3ies-at-wo46.-8he-st4uctu4al-u*ce4tai*ty-o7-V4is6-societyF-has-bee*-matche+-by-a-7o4m-o7-political3ove4*a*ce-obsesse+-with-the-i+e*ti7icatio*-a*+-ma*a3eme*t-o7-4is6s.-8his-a-pa4a+oxical-7o4m-o7-4ule-thatclaims-le3itimacy-th4ou3h-assua3i*3-public-7ea4s-a*+-co*tai*i*3-+a*3e4ous-th4eats/-but-is-at-the-same-time+epe*+e*t-upo*-this-*e4vous*ess/-a*+-so-actively-cultivates-public-a*xieties-about-i*secu4ity.-8his-is-whatDi+ie4-'i3o-calls-the-V3ove4*me*tality-o7-u*easeF.-)s-a-7o4m-o7-4ule/-this-mo+e-o7-3ove4*a*ce-4ea77i4ms/-while4eco*7i3u4i*3/-the-sove4ei3*Fs-claim-to-mo*opoliDe-+ebates-about-p4otectio*-a*+-*atio*al-secu4ity.-2t-is-a*histo4ical-exp4essio*-o7-the-+esi4e-o7-sove4ei3*-powe4-to-Vplay-with-the-u*ease/-o4-to-e*cou4a3e-it-i7-it-+oes-*otyet-exist/-so-as-to-a77i4m-thei4-4ole-as-p4ovi+e4s-o7-p4otectio*-a*+-secu4ity-a*+-to-mas6-some-o7-thei4-7ailu4esF.&#;nder the hegemony of ris%, the ob,ect of security is no longer about reacting to specific e5ternal threats, but proactively managing diffuse ris%s that are immanent to the population 8hus/-acco4+i*3-to-'i3o/-the distinctive act of sovereignty today is not so much distinguishing between citi'en and alien, than of enabling e5clusions by employing 1ris% or 1danger as categories. "

Our alternative re-situates undocumented movements by e5posing the arbitrary means by which notions of political agency are constructed as bound to territory that then changes the way that paternalist notions such as a #deserving migrant$ are framed in policy discussions &e are a prere3uisite Nyers 1G-Pete4/-Depa4tme*t-o7-Political-Gcie*ce/-CcCaste4-I*ive4sity-?Kis6y-Politics:-Euma*-)3e*cy-i*I*+ocume*te+-Coveme*ts@-Pape4-7o4-the-2G)-$o*ve*tio*-Co*t4eal/-Uuebec-Ca4ch-975,"/ %xposi*3-the-)cci+e*t-)cco4+i*3-to-JacNues-Ka*ciW4e/-politics-Vexists-whe4eve4-the-cou*t-o7-pa4ts-a*+-pa4ties-o7society-is-+istu4be+-by-the-i*sc4iptio*-o7-a-pa4t-o7-those-who-have-*o-pa4tF.- Holitics/-the4e7o4e, is 1a specific %ind of connection that 1comes about solely through interruption !(-Non-status refugees and migrants, having 1no part in official accounts of political agency, have to interrupt the politicalsecurity field in order to 1connect with the broader public 0ovements by and in solidarity with non-status refugees and migrants are also constructing a 1powerI%nowledge ne5us based on the principles of freedom of movement and political e3uality .-2*-+oi*3-so/-these-moveme*ts-a4ee77aci*3-the-citiDe*/*o*5citiDe*-+ivi+e-whe*-it-comes-to-matte4s-o7-membe4ship/-belo*3i*3/-a*+-.-mostimpo4ta*tly-.-a3e*cy.-0o*5status-4e7u3ees-a*+-mi34a*ts-a4e-ta6i*3-a-lea+i*3-4ole-i*-ma*y-.-but-*ot-all-.-o7these-st4u33les-to-stop-+epo4tatio*s/-to-put-a*-e*+-to-the-p4actice-o7-+etai*i*3-asylum-see6e4s/-a*+-to-4e3ula4iDethei4-status-withi*-thei4-cou*t4ies-o7-4esi+e*ce.-&ith their activism, they are e5posing the arbitrary, accidental means by which citi'enship, and therefore political agency, is allocated .-)s-thema*i7esto-o7-the-B4e*ch-sa*s-papie4s-moveme*t-testi7ies:-V=e-the-Ga*s5Papie4s-o7-B4a*ce/-i*-si3*i*3-thisappeal/-have-+eci+e+-to-come-out-o7-the-sha+ows.-B4om-*ow-o*/-i*-spite-o7-the-+a*3e4s/-it-is-*ot-o*ly-ou4-7acesbut-also-ou4-*ames-which-will-be-6*ow*F.!!-2*-the-case-o7-the-*o*5status-)l3e4ia*s-i*-Co*t4eal/-thei4-politicalactivism-be3a*-by-ta6i*3-the-status-o7-4e7u3ees-7o4-themselves.-8hey-sel75i+e*ti7ie+-a*+-o43a*iDe+-as-4e7u3ees.V2tFs-a-Nuestio*-o7-p4otectio*/-*ot-immi34atio*F/-says-o*e-membe4-o7-$)GG.!7-$laimi*3-4e7u3ee-i+e*tity/-i*-thisse*se/-is-a-7o4m-o7-collective-4is6-ma*a3eme*t.-2t-allows-7o4-the-issues-o7-p4otectio*-.-74om-to4tu4e/-:ail/-+eath/a*+-V+isappea4i*3F-i*-wa45to4*-)l3e4ia-.-to-come-to-the-7o4e74o*t-o7-the-campai3*-7o4-the-4e3ula4iDatio*-o7-thei4status.-In doing so, the prevailing methods of evaluation under which calculations about who is and who is not a refugee-.-a*+-a-political-a3e*t-.-i*-$a*a+a-are being problemati'ed and reformulated. !reat the debate round as a activist training session in rebel clowning -- they can9t permute since the 1ac didn9t perform rebel clowning -- vote negative to educate them by forcing research on tactical form of civil disobedience Only an approach to prefigurative politics can resist repressive policing by preventing affective burnout overcome by the immensity of the struggle Jlepto and "vil 9K-Qolo*el-a*+-Ca:o4-Ip/-4ebel-clow*-o43a*iDe4s-with-$2K$)/-O8E%-$L)0D%G820%20GIKA%08-K%'%L-$L1=0-)KCY-A1%G-81-G$18L)0D-S2)-)-B%=-18E%K-PL)$%GOhttp://www.shutthem+ow*.o43/Kesou4ces/$hX,",9.p+7 !o share and disseminate this form, that we termed 1rebel clowning , +I/+A initiated a series of trainings that mi5ed methodologies from clowning and civil disobedience !he former helps us rediscover an inner playful, childli%e state of generosity and spontaneity, while the latter provides us with effective tools of resistance.-8o-:oi*-$2K$)-it-was-*ecessa4y-to-ta6e-pa4t-i*-a-mi*imumtwo5+ay-t4ai*i*3.-Eavi*3-wo46e+-7o4-ma*y-yea4s-i*-+i4ect-actio*-moveme*ts/-we-ha+-come-to-a-4ealisatio*-thatmo4e-34oups-a*+-moveme*ts-a4e-+est4oye+-by-poo4-34oup-+y*amics-a*+-i*te4*al-7i3hts-tha*-a*y-*umbe4-o7police.-!-8he-state-6*ows-o*ly-too-well-that-the-best-way-to-+is4upt-4a+ical-34oups-is-by-see+i*3-mist4ust-a*+co*7lict-amo*3st-them/-a*+-letti*3-them-+est4oy-themselves.-)s-the-state-viole*ce-i*-Ae*oa-showe+-+u4i*3-theA8-meeti*3s-i*-,""9/-too-much-visible-police-viole*ce-c4eates-moveme*t-ma4ty4s-a*+-bo*+s-betwee*-thelibe4al-le7t-a*+-4a+icals-.-thi*3s-which-te*+-to-st4e*3the*-4athe4-tha*-wea6e*-social-moveme*ts.-1bviously-

police repression against activists is still rife4 mass arrests and beatings are still very much the tragic reality for too many of us, but the ancient 1divide and rule strategy seems to be as active as ever .-7-It is much more effective
for the state to play with the cops in our own heads than to batter our heads with truncheons

;nfortunately radicals are often vulnerable souls 0ost of us became politically active because we felt something profoundly, such as in,ustice or ecological devastation It is this emotion that triggers a change in our behaviour and gets us politicised It is our ability to transform our feelings about the world into actions that propels us to radical struggle 7ut often, what seems to happen is that the more we learn about the issues that concern us, the more images of war we see, the more we e5perience climate chaos, poverty and the everyday violence of capitalism, the more we seem to harden ourselves from feeling too much .-Although feeling can lead

to action, we also %now that feeling too much can lead to depression and paralysis +ombine this with the stress of repression and criminalisation by the state and many activists begin to grow a thic% armour around themselves.-$o*t4olli*3-ou4-7eeli*3s-becomes-a-mecha*ism-o7-su4vival.-8-Yet-i*-such-a-co*t4olle+-state-o7-

bei*3/-it-becomes-+i77icult-to-be-ope*-to-othe4s/-to-liste*-to-o*esel7-a*+-each-othe4.-17te*-we-cove4-up-this-losswith-the-illusio*-o7-b4ave4y.-=e-become-7ea4less-wa44io4s-7o4-the-pla*et/-o7te*-ma6i*3-4ec6less-+ecisio*s-a*+putti*3-ou4selves-o4-othe4s-i*to-+a*3e4ous-situatio*s.-'ut-a-wa44io4-who-is-u*able-to-4eally-7eel-a*+-pe4ceivewhat-is-a4ou*+-he4/himsel7-will-soo*-e*+-up-+ea+-a*+-i*e77ective.-6earlessness comes from escaping our bodies, forgetting we are made of flesh and blood and living in the pure abstraction of a mind 7y wor%ing with the body, rebel clown trainings attempt to peel off this armour (or try to avoid it appearing), to reveal the soft s%in again, to find the vulnerable human being who once felt everything deeply and to give them courage 8 which is about feeling fear and yet deciding to overcome it because your heart tells you it is the right thing to do A %ey aspect of the anticapitalist direct action movement is our desire for what has been termed 1pre-figurative politics A politics that sees no separation between means and ends -8o-pa4aph4ase-Aa*+hi/-wewa*t-to-be-the-cha*3e-we-wa*t-to-see-i*-the-wo4l+.-8he-eco5villa3e-i*-Gti4li*3/-with-its-pe4macultu4e-+esi3*-a*+ho4iDo*tal-7o4ms-o7-+ecisio*5ma6i*3/-was-a-beauti7ul-example-o7-this.-Yet-ou4-expe4ie*ce-has-bee*-that-+espitethese-i*spi4i*3-st4uctu4es/-ou4-behaviou4s/-emotio*al-i*telli3e*ce-a*+-4elatio*ship-to-powe4-a4e-sometimes-*otexamples-o7-the-wo4l+-we-wa*t-to-see.-0eetings or actions often become cold hostile

sites of competitive and even aggressive behaviours and we can be notoriously bad at warmly welcoming strangers into our midst &ith +I/+A, we wanted to challenge this and find a way to bring the personal bac% into the centre of radical political action &e wanted to change the way we thin% and feel as much as the way we fight 6or us the psyche, the body and the street should be seen as e3ually important 'ones of struggle and areas in need of radical transformation -=imply replacing the structures of society with new ones, without changing our own deeper internal structures, will ,ust repeat the mista%es of so many past revolutions, where the very vision of change we had in the first place was destroyed by the re-establishment of an unfeeling rotten order with the same power structures in place &e dont want people to adapt to a new established society, rather we want society to adapt to a new person -Cixi*3-

the-a*cie*t-a4t-o7-clow*i*3-with-co*tempo4a4y-7o4ms-o7-civil-+isobe+ie*ce/-we-+evelope+-a-metho+olo3y-thatt4ies-to-p4ovi+e-tools-7o4-t4a*s7o4mi*3-a*+-sustai*i*3-the-i**e4-emotio*al-li7e-o7-the-activists-as-well-as-bei*3-a*e77ective-tech*iNue-7o4-ta6i*3-+i4ect-actio*.

AL4 Hermutation
Only rebel clowning allows for a ,oyous celebration of the reversibility of opposition -- we have already performed the permutation, the only difference is that we aren9t afraid of being both Jlepto and "vil 9K-Qolo*el-a*+-Ca:o4-Ip/-4ebel-clow*-o43a*iDe4s-with-$2K$)/-O8E%-$L)0D%G820%20GIKA%08-K%'%L-$L1=0-)KCY-A1%G-81-G$18L)0D-S2)-)-B%=-18E%K-PL)$%GOhttp://www.shutthem+ow*.o43/Kesou4ces/$hX,",9.p+7 8he-ea4ly-mo4*i*3-4a+io-4epo4ts-t4a77ic-+is4uptio*-ac4oss-ce*t4al-Gcotla*+.-V)voi+-the-a4ea-i7-you-ca*F/-says-thep4ese*te4-as-she-lists-+oDe*s-o7-4oa+s-a*+-4ailway-li*es-that-have-bee*-bloc6e+-by-p4oteste4s-+u4i*3-the-ope*i*3o7-the-A8-summit.-B4esh-74om-a-little-:au*t-o*-the-)#-moto4way-i*volvi*3-!"-4ebel-clow*s-i*-milita4y-u*i7o4ms/ove4-9""-policeme*-i*-4iot-3ea4/-seve4al-ba46i*3-police-+o3s/-a-7ew-+ele3ates-coaches-a*+-+oDe*s-o7-b4i3hto4a*3e-t4a77ic-co*es/-a-small-3a33le-9-o7-clow*s-is-ma6i*3-its-way-to-the-A8)lte4*atives-ma4ch.-8hey-pass-ove4-ab4i+3e-above-the-moto4way.-.alf a do'en policemen line up, they face the line of clowns and the two groups stare at each other A pair of clowns dressed as cops, part of the hilarious 7ac%wards Intelligence !eam, L start to count down 8 16ive, four, three, two, one 8 goF !he (real) police and clowns rush towards each other, their hands outstretched, faces grimacing and screaming 1Ja'amm !here is a floating moment of confusion and then they run into each others open arms 8 clowns hug cops, cops hug clowns "veryone is a bit surprised, there is a roar of celebratory cheers from the clowns and slightly sheepish and embarrassed applause from the police =omehow, this clown gaggle had managed to persuade the police to play a game with them.-Q*ow*-as-VDwa47s/-=iDa4+s-a*+-Aia*tsF-itFs-a-ve4sio*-o7-pape4scisso4s5sto*e/-but-playe+-i*-teams-withthe-whole-bo+y.-1*e-o7-the-4ules-is-that-i7-both-teams-choose-the-same-cha4acte4/-*o-o*e-wi*s-a*+-they-all-haveto-hu3.-8his-is-exactly-what-happe*e+-as-clow*-a*+-cop-teams-simulta*eously-chose-to-be-VwiDa4+sF.-Pe4hapsthis-is-*ot-behaviou4-o*e-woul+-expect-74om-this-motley-c4ew-o7-activists-who-ha+-bee*-4i+icule+-by-'ob-Ael+o7as-a-bu*ch-o7-Vthu33ish...-lose4sF-with-Vwhite-pai*te+-7acesF-come-to-Vw4ec6F-his-Live8-eve*ts.-&-'ut-i*-ma*y-waysthis-b4ie7-mome*t-o*-a-b4i+3e/-less-tha*-a-mile-away-74om-whe4e-the-A8-we4e-meeti*3-behi*+-thei4-7e*cespat4olle+-by-9(/"""-police/-coul+-be-see*-as-a-beauti7ul-example-a*+-illust4atio*-o7-the-tactics-a*+-theo4y-o74ebel-clow*i*3.-7ehind its whitefaced facade of stupidity, it is a serious attempt to develop a form of civil disobedience that brea%s down the binary and oppositional thin%ing that is still so inherent within protest movements ?ichotomies between the personal and the political, the classic us and them, activist and non-activist, violence and non-violence and, of course, protesters and police, seem outmoded ways of thin%ing in a movement that has been inspired by numerous types of thin%ing (from post-modern, ecological, late feminism or anarchism) which emphasise processes, continuums, relationships, systems and networ%s /ebel clowns refuse all dichotomies4 they are often neither male nor female, neither artist nor activist, neither clever nor stupid, neither mad nor sane, entertainment nor threat !hey %now that these clear oppositions are oppressive and, more importantly, that if we really are to win this fight for the survival of humanity and the earths eco-systems, then one day we will have to convince the cops and soldiers to change sides . Our ,oyful affirmation is a prere3uisite to any effective politics -- the speech act of the 1ac was fundamentally boring and self-negated its own political value !sianos et al 1M Vassilis, teaches sociology at the University of Hamburg, Germany, Dimitris Papadopoulos teaches social theory at Cardiff
University, Niamh Stephenson teaches social science at the University of Ne South !ales" #$scape %outes& Control and Subversion in the '( st Century) Pluto Press

Joy-is-c4ucial-to-this-boo6.-8he-:oy-o7-escape-+e7ies-se4ious*ess-a*+-this/-as-we-t4y-to-show/-is-the-most-c4ucialco*+itio*-7o4-4eveali*3-t4uth.-Pa4aph4asi*3-'a6hti*Ps-;9#8 /-p.-,8(<-4ea+i*3-o7-KabelaisP-co*cept-o7-t4uth/-wecoul+-say-that-behind the sanctimonious seriousness of many e5alted and official concepts of social transformation of the traditional left (and beyond) we find bar%ing instead of acting and laughing /ather than succumbing to bar%ing out the fidelity to the coming event or to the new truth we prefer to en,oy the ways in which truth erupts out of the present -8he-eme43e*ce-o7-Pat4uth-i*wa4+ly-74ee/-3ay-a*+-mate4ialisticP-is-ma+e-possible-by-the-6i*+-o7-lau3hte4-a*+-hila4ity-that-pe4va+esthe-atmosphe4e-o7-the-ca4*ival-ba*Nuet-;'a6hti*-9#8 /-p.-,8(J-see-also-pp.-# 77.<.-)*+-it-is-the-collective-:oy-o7-

eati*3-a*+-+4i*6i*3-i*-a-Pba*Nuet-7o4-all-the-wo4l+P-;'a6hti*-9#8 /-p.-,78<-which-ope*s-the-possibility-topa4ta6e-i*-the-wo4l+-i*stea+-o7-bei*3-+evou4e+-by-it.-8he-lau3hte4-a*+-:oy-o7-those-who-pa4ta6e-i*-the-wo4l++e7ies-se4ious*ess/-+ispe4ses-7ea4/-libe4ates-the-wo4+-a*+-the-bo+y-a*+-4eveals-a-t4uth-escapi*3-the-i*:ustices-o7the-p4ese*t.-8his-lau3hte4-is-the-p4ime-move4-o7-escape.-"scape is ,oyful !his is not an intellectual argument we are advancing in order to resist the ubi3uitous melancholy and mourning of the left /ather we are pointing to an embodied political practice which contests a dominant understanding of social change as the result of a response to suffering +asting action as the force of pain is a terribly "urocentric view It demands that we become, or worse wheel in, a victim whose capacity to act is reduced to a mere response to pain .-=ith-1swal+-+e-)*+4a+e-wep4e7e4-to-tal6-about-the-pleasu4e-o7-a*th4opopha3y-;)*+4a+e/-9##"/-p.-(9<.-Joy7ully-+evou4i*3-the-sac4e+e*emy-i*-o4+e4-to-c4eate-a-*ew-bo+y-a*+-*ew-co*+itio*s-7o4-seei*3-a*+-acti*3-i*-the-wo4l+/-a*th4opopha3yt4i33e4s-p4ocesses-o7-t4a*s7o4matio*-which-simulta*eously-act-at-the-hea4t-o7-a*+-escape-the-p4acticesu*+e4pi**i*3-mo+e4*ity-a*+-postmo+e4*ity-i*-Alobal-0o4th-)tla*tic-societies.->oy mar%s the routes of social transformation >oy is the ultimate proof >ustifying the permutation via survivalism is at odds with literally every part of this criticism -it is the fa%e resistance of opposing regimentation by self-regimenting Aaneigem 1BC/-Kaoul/-situatio*ist-philosophe4/-lea+i*3-thi*6e4-i*-the-Gituatio*ist-2*te4*atio*al-?8he-'oo6-o7Pleasu4es@-t4a*s.-Joh*-Bulle4to*/-9#8&http://www.sce*ewash.o43/lobbies/chai*thi*6e4/situatio*ist/va*ei3em/bop/bop.html No-one will right the world upside down with any part of him which is itself upside down &e have fought the economy too much as economists and used this behaviour as an alibi <ou don9t fight consciously against regimentation by unconsciously regimenting yourself .-8he-+evelopme*to7-i*tellectuality/-which-is-i*he4e*t-i*-t4a+ePs-+evelopme*t/-ma6es-eve4yo*e-willi*3-to-c4iticise-the-ol+-wo4l+with-a-luci+ity-they-*e3lect-to-apply-to-thei4-ow*-i*+ivi+ual-+esti*ies.-8he-i4o*y-o7-the-wo4l+-upsi+e-+ow*co*7i4ms-it-so-well-that-4evolutio*a4y-theo4yPs-best-3ua4+-+o3s/-thou3h-*eve4-ceasi*3-to-ba46-at-the-same-pitch/a4e-tu4*i*3-i*to-powe4Ps-best-3ua4+-+o3s.--&e have lived through the becoming of trade, in a deathly dialectic which is precisely the history of the economy feeding on humanity, the history of an empire which grows and perishes to the e5act e5tent that men produce it and submit to its power, thereby slowly reducing themselves to pure e5change values -Ee4e-we-all-a4e-3athe4e+to3ethe4/-at-its-ext4eme-a*+-7i*al-sta3e-o7-+evelopme*t/-to-assist-at-its-+emise.- &e are, however, condemned to die with it, at least if we remain trapped in the trading refle5, if we allow the possibility which is staring us in the face to slip away, to set up a life dialectic, an evolution in which what is human finally escapes the economy completely ?eath draws power9s lines of perspective so clearly that the feeling for a radically different way of doing things is beginning to catch the enthusiasm of anyone who has not given up living !he feeling starts with private individuals, in their irreducible sub,ectivity, in that part of life on which encouragement to wor% and submit to a particular regime only brea%s its teeth -egal victories cause the state to e5ternali'e institutional pre,udice onto a new scapegoat, intensifying violence ?"-@A?O :-;Kicha4+J-P4o7esso4-o7-Law-.-I*ive4sity-o7-Pittsbu43h/-?$4oss4oa+s-a*+-'li*+-)lleys:-)-$4itical%xami*atio*-o7-Kece*t-=4iti*3-)bout-Kace/-$4oss4oa+s/-Di4ectio*s/-a*+-a-0ew-$4itical-Kace-8heo4y/@-8,-8ex.L.-Kev.-9,9/-0ovembe4/-l/*< -

'y-the-same-to6e*/-'4ow*-v.-'oa4+-o7-%+ucatio**9"#-e*+e+-o77icial-school-se34e3atio*-7o4-)74ica*5)me4ica*-chil+4e*-at-p4ecisely-the-time-whe*-$o*34ess-was-o4+e4i*3-1pe4atio*-=etbac6/-u*+e4-which9.&-millio*-Cexica*s-a*+-Cexica*-)me4ica*s/-ma*y-o7-them-law7ul-I.G.-citiDe*s/-we4e-+epo4te+.-*99"-2*-9#9&/-$ali7o4*iaPs-)lie*-La*+-Law-ma+e-it-ille3al-7o4-alie*s-i*eli3ible-7o4-citiDe*ship-to-lease-la*+-7o4mo4e-tha*-th4ee-yea4s/-a-measu4e-that-p4ove+-+evastati*3-7o4-Japa*ese-7a4me4s.-*999-)-7ew-yea4s-late4/-$o*34ess-ease+-immi34atio*-Nuotas-7o4-Cexica*-7a4mwo46e4s.-*99,-8o+ay/-2*+ia*-t4ibes-have-bee*wi**i*3-a-se4ies-o7-b4ea6th4ou3hs/-establishi*3-the-4i3ht-to-spo*so4-casi*o-3ambli*3-a*+-p4ovi*3-misma*a3eme*t-i*-7e+e4al-t4ust-accou*ts/-all-at-the-ve4y-time-$ali7o4*ia-has-bee*-e*acti*3-a-se4ies-o7-a*ti5

8he-chec6e4boa4+-o7-4acial-histo4y/-with-p4o34ess-7o4-o*e-34oup-couple+-with-4et4e*chme*t-7o4a*othe4/-7eatu4es-i**ume4able-simila4-examples.-=hat-+oes-the-autho4-ma6e-o7-all-this?-2t- is-a-p4o+uct/-he-says/-o7 --the-psycholo3ical-phe*ome*a-o7t4a*s7e4e*ce-a*+-+isplaceme*t/-which-occu4-whe*-7eeli*3s-towa4+-o*e-pe4so*-a4e-4e7ocuse+-o*-a*othe4/-who-is+e7e*seless-o4-mo4e-exploitable.*99 -Ee-also-i*vo6es-the-i+ea-o7-scape3oati*3/-*99(-i*-which-membe4s-o7-powe47ul-34oups+ischa43e-74ust4atio*-o*-*o*membe4s-who-a4e-*ot-the-cause-o7-that-74ust4atio*-but-who-a4e-sa7e4-to-attac6 .Lati*o-ballot-measu4es.-*99&2*ve*ti*3-3hosts-i*-the-machi*e-to-explai*-white-behavio4/-as-this-autho4-+oes/-7ollows-i*-the-7ootsteps-o7-$ha4les-Law4e*ce/-a*-ea4ly-c4itical-4ace-theo4ist-who-applie+-B4eu+ia*-psycholo3y-to-explai*u*co*scious-4acism-a*+-expose-the-+e7icie*cies-o7-a*ti+isc4imi*atio*-lawPs-4eNui4eme*t-o7-p4oo7-o7-a-co*scious-i*te*t.*99!-'ut-is-this-a-use7ul-way-to-p4ocee+?-)-mo4e-tho4ou3h3oi*3-a*alysis-o7-theB4eu+ia*-tu4*-must-await-a-late4-sectio*/-which-a++4esses-the-+e7icie*cies-o7-the-*ew-app4oaches.-*997-'ut-7o4-*ow/-co*si+e4-how-the-immi34atio*-schola4Ps-4ecou4se-to-B4eu+ia*-theo4y-i3*o4es-how-LY9&(M-

ma:o4ity-society-a77i4matively-pits-mi*o4ity-34oups-a3ai*st-each-othe4-i*-eve4y-e4a -a*+-how-the-shi7ti*3-ti+es-o7white-+esi4e/-*ow-7o4-labo4/-*ow-7o4-la*+/-*ow-7o4-ca**o*-7o++e4/-*ow-7o4-political-loyalty-a*+-)me4ica*ism/u*+e4lie-most-ma:o4-shi7ts-i*-mi*o4ity-7o4tu*es.*998-Bo4-example/-sho4tly-a7te4-the-$ivil-=a4/-the-I*ite+-Gtates4ec4uite+-'u77alo-Gol+ie4s/-elite-blac6-7o4ces-o7-the-I.G.-)4my/-to-help-put-+ow*-2*+ia*-4ebellio*s-i*-the-=est .*99#-8he-2*+ia*s/-who-mi3ht-have-expecte+-soli+a4ity/-3ot-t4ai*e+-6ille4s-i*stea+ .-1*e-coul+/-o7-cou4se/-4each-7o4-ast4ai*e+-psycholo3ical-expla*atio*-a*+-posit-that-)me4ica*-society/-which-coul+-*o-lo*3e4-o77icially-opp4essblac6s/-o77e4e+-them-:obs-i*-the-I.G.-)4my/-the*-+ischa43e+-74ust4atio*-at-this-tu4*-o7-eve*ts-o*-the-hapless2*+ia*s.-)-mo4e-li6ely-expla*atio*-is-that-I.G.-elites-simply-covete+-2*+ia*-la*+s-a*+-use+-the-blac6s-as-7o++e4a3ai*st-these-b4ave-wa44io4s.Hermutation arguments that appeal to institutional considerations are antithetical to this notion of criti3ue as liberation -- they only foster a false inclusion that perpetuates marginali'ation +allahan 9G-Ca*ual/-P4o7esso4-o7-Philosophy-at-Eumbol+t-Gtate-I*ive4sity-OZapatismo-'eyo*+-$hiapasO-i*Globalize Liberation: How to Uproot the System and Build a Better World e.+-Davi+-Gol*it-p.-,,,L3oo3leboo6sM !he new international is defined by-di nidad y esperanza! "dignity and hope E E?ignity,E-theZapatistas-asse4t/-Eis that nation without nationality, that rainbow that is also a bridge, that murmur of the heart no matter what blood lives it, that rebel irreverance that moc%s borders, customs and wars E-Gpeci7ically/-the-%ZL0-has/-acco4+i*3-to-%*4iNue-Dussel/-p4ese*te+-a-mo+el-o7commu*ity-Oi*stitutio*aliDe+-th4ou3h-social-mea*s-co*+ucive-to-co*se*sus/-a34eeme*t-a*+-+ecisio*ma6i*3.O-

?ignity cannot be bestowed, rather, it is enacted as one actively participates in a community that ac%nowledges difference E&e define our goal by the way we choose the means of struggling for it E Di3*ity-as-a-class-co*cept/explai*s-Joh*-Eolloway/-Ois-*ot-i*-the-7i4st-place-a-co*7lict-betwee*-two-34oups-o7-people:-it-is-a-co*7lictbetwee*-c4eative-social-p4actice-a*+-its-*e3atio*/-o4/-i*-othe4-wo4+s/-betwee*-huma*ity-a*+-its-*e3atio*/betwee*-the-t4a*sce*+i*3-o7-limits-;c4eatio*<-a*+-the-impositio*-o7-limits-;+e7i*itio*<.O-)-politics-o7-Liste*i*3!hroughout the struggle, the Napatistas have punctuated their statements, especially those circulated through the communi3ues, with calls for democracy, liberty, and ,ustice !hese concepts, ta%en together, may be the most difficult, the most crucial, to engage In the new political spaces all voices, all proposals must be responded to with respect New political

relationships must not be limited by institutions, organi'ations, or ideologies that see% to contain moments of resistance or rebellion -8he-*ew-

4elatio*ships-must-spea6-to-the-collectively-+e7i*e+-obli3atio*s-o7-a-commu*ity-i*-a-+ialo3ue-base+-o*-4espect.Political-p4o:ects-a*+-p4oposals-*ee+-to-eme43e-o43a*ically/-*ot-be-impose+-by-a*-i*+ivi+ual-o4-a-cabal.-8hep4ovocatio*-su33este+-by-this-p4i*ciple-implies-a-4elia*ce-o*-ou4-collective-tale*ts-a*+-abilities-7o4-sel75 3ove4*a*ce-that-t4a*sce*+s-systems-o7-4ep4ese*tative-+emoc4acy.-8he-Zapatistas-have-i*siste+-that- the marginali'ed, forgotten, and faceless are agents of history, and that they cannot be fully included simply by adding them in such a manner that does not alter the political relations that maintains their marginali'ation by elites A EradicalE or participatory democracy re3uires a system that see%s and respects the contribution of everyone, each sharing their own word

AL4 7order /eform 0a%es 0igration 0ore .umane


It9s e5actly these sorts of Ehey ,ust trust usE claims that have lead to border security spilling over to the creeping fascism of society writ large -- we must unflinchingly oppose borders as controls on migration .ayter 10-8e4esa/-w4ite4-a*+-activist-o*-mi34atio*-a*+-a*ti54acism-issues-?1pe*-'o4+e4s:-8he-$ase-)3ai*st2mmi34atio*-$o*t4ols@-p.-9 #59(, !he strongest case against immigration controls is that they impose increasingly harsh suffering on migrants/-i*clu+i*3-4e7u3ees.-2*-the-p4ocess-they-u*+e4mi*e-a-lo*3-list-o7-huma*-4i3hts:-the4i3ht-*ot-to-be-sub:ecte+-to-i*huma*-a*+-+e34a+i*3-t4eatme*t/-the-4i3ht-*ot-to-be-to4tu4e+/-the-4i3ht-*ot-to-bea4bit4a4ily-a44este+-a*+-imp4iso*e+/-the-4i3ht-to-a-7ai4-t4ial-by-a-p4ope4ly-co*stitute+-cou4t/-the-4i3ht-to-7amilyli7e/-the-4i3ht-to-wo46/-amo*3-othe4s.-2mmi34atio*-co*t4ols-as-they-a4e-cu44e*tly-p4actise+-violate-the-p4ovisio*so7-seve4al-i*te4*atio*al-t4eaties-to-which-the-'4itish-3ove4*me*t-is-a-si3*ato4y-;see/-7o4-example/-p.-99!<.-8heyalso-tea4-7amilies-apa4t-a*+-p4eve*t-pa4e*ts-a*+-chil+4e*-visiti*3-eah-othe4/-they-7o4ce-both-mi34a*ts-a*+4e7u3ees-i*to-the-ha*+s-o7-o7te*-u*sc4upulous-a3e*ts/-they-sub:ect-them-to-lo*3-pe4io+s-o7-a4bit4a4y-+ete*tio*a*+-expose-them-to-+estitutio*/-isolatio*-a*+-4acial-ha4assme*t.-Ke7u3ees-a*+-asylum-see6e4s-i*-pa4ticula4-a4epu*ishe+-*ot-7o4-a*ythi*3-which-they-themselves-have-+o*e/-but-i*-a-vai*-attempt-to-+ete4-othe4s.- Hroposals to reform and humanise the asylum system, even supposing they were realistic, would still leave refugees at the mercy of necessarily uncertain decisions on the genuineness of their claims !he only way to ensure that refugees are really protected would be if there were no immigration controls -8he-cu44e*t-postu4e-o7-3ove4*me*ts-appea4s-to-be/-o*-the-co*t4a4y/-to-t4y-to-cut-the*umbe4s-o7-applicatio*s-7o4-asylum/-let-alo*e-accepta*ces/-th4ou3h-the-eve4-ha4she4-applicatio*-o7-ext4emely4ep4essive-immi34atio*-co*t4ols.-Guch-c4uelty-is-i*compatible-with-the-ha4+5-7ou3ht57o4-3ai*s-o7-libe4al+emoc4atic-societies.-8o-stop-immi34atio*-alto3ethe4/-a*+-to-4e+uce-the-*umbe4s-applyi*3-7o4-asylum/-as3ove4*me*ts-appa4e*tly-wish-to/-woul+-imply-still-mo4e-+4astic-measu4es/-still-less-compatible-with-the-aims-o7libe4al-+emoc4acy.-%ve*-the*-they-mi3ht-*ot-succee+.-Guch-measu4es-woul+-a77ect-the-populatio*-as-a-whole/4e+uce-its-+emoc4atic-4i3hts/-a*+-4is6-tu4*i*3-%u4ope-i*to-a-police-state.-)l4ea+y-immi34atio*-o77icials-a*+p4ivate-secu4ity-3ua4+s-at-4e7u3ee-p4iso*s-have-la43e-a*+-u*accou*table-powe4s.-8he-immi34atio*-+ete*tio*ce*t4es-a4e-4emi*isce*t-o7-co*ce*t4atio*-camps.-)s-the-1x7o4+-+o*s-sai+-;see-p.-9&#</-the-cu44e*t-t4eatme*t-o74e7u3ees-amou*ts-to-Va-+a*3e4ous-u*+e4mi*i*3-o7-+emoc4atic-p4i*ciples-a*+-the-4ule-o7-lawF-which-Vcoul+-ope*the-way-to-7u4the4-abusesF !here is a danger of creeping fascisisation of society !he morality of frontiers, where human rights are at their lowest, is threatening to invade the interiors of countries !he e5tension of internal controls will mean an increase in random chec%s, which so far are mainly chec%s on people who loo% foreign, especially blac%s, but which affect blac% citi'ens, and potentially other citi'ens, as well -8his-has-bee*-3oi*3-o*-7o4-some-time-i*-some-%u4opea*cou*t4ies/-especially/-as-a-4esult-o7-the-much-hate+-PasNua-laws/-i*-B4a*ce/-whe4e-police-4ai+s-i*-public-placesa*+-+ema*+s-7o4-0o4th-)74ica*s-i*-pa4ticula4-to-show-thei4-pape4s-a4e-commo*place.-)lthou3h-'4itai*-+oes*ot-yet-have-compulso4y-i+e*tity-ca4+s/-they-may-be-o*-thei4-way.-Cea*while/-blac6-'4itish-people-7i*+-itp4u+e*t-to-ca44y-a4ou*+-p4oo7-o7-thei4-4i3ht-to-be-i*-'4itai*.-)-la43e-amou*t-o7-thei4-time-has-to-be-spe*t-i*ma6i*3-su4e-thei4-+ocume*ts-a4e-i*-o4+e4.-People-have-bee*-cau3ht/-imp4iso*e+-a*+-+epo4te+/-sometimes-a7te4yea4s-o7-livi*3-i*-'4itai*-with-thei4-7amilies/-as-a-4esult-o7-7ailu4e-to-comply-with-some-petty-immi34atio*p4oce+u4e.-8he-+ep4ivatio*-o7-wel7a4e-be*e7its-7o4-some-sectio*s-o7-the-populatio*-is/-simila4ly/-a-slippe4y-slope.)7te4-4e7u3ees/-co*victe+-c4imi*als-who-7ail-to-comply-with-commu*ity-o4+e4s-seem-to-be-*ext-i*-li*e.-Gi*ce-the'4itish-have-a-habit-o7-a+opti*3-0o4th-)me4ica*-p4actices-a7te4-a-time-la3/-si*3le-mothe4s-may-soo*-besub:ecte+-to-a-maximum-two5yea4-limit-o*-be*e7its Immigration controls create illegal wor%ers, who are vulnerable to savage e5ploitation If the treatment of migrants and refugees is not opposed, it could become the norm and spread to other sectors of society -)t-the-B)G82-V%u4ope-'ehi*+'a4be+-=i4eF-co*7e4e*ce-i*-Ca4ch-9##7/-Kola*+-Dyaye/-a-membe4-o7-the-Ga*s5Papie4s-0atio*al-$oo4+i*ati*3$ommittee/-sai+-o7-thei4-moveme*t:-'asically/-this-is-a-st4u33le-a3ai*st-ille3al-wo46i*3.-2lle3al-wo46i*3-i*-acapitalist-system-i*-c4isis-becomes-a*-i*st4ume*t/-a-tool-o7-all-the-*eo5libe4al-7o4ces-to-ma6e-the-wo4l+-o7-wo46mo4e-p4eca4ious.-<esterday removals to countries of the !hird &orld were denounced !here is a new %ind of removal, that is, the continual spread of this form of labour, which costs practically nothing !his is a powerful and fundamental perspective in terms of the capitalist response to the current crisis In simple terms, it is to sub,ect an ever growing proportion of wor%ers to !hird &orld conditions, in the conte5t of what used to be called 1the consumer society !oday,

these people are the sans-papiers. After that, it will spread to include people on income support, homeless people, and so on "ach section of wor%ers will fall under the steam-roller It is in such a conte5t in the &est that fascist forces develop -V%u4ope-'ehi*+-'a4be+-=i4eF-is-also-a%u4ope-whe4e-7ascism-has-bee*-4ebo4*-a*+-is-34owi*3.-2*-the-past/-i*-the-co*text-o7-a*-i*te4*atio*al-c4isis/-o77ascism-come-to-powe4-i*-a-st4o*3-cou*t4y-li6e-Ae4ma*y/-labou4-camps-we4e-t4a*s7o4me+-i*to-+eath-camps.-27this-3oes-o*/-what-will-be-the-7utu4e-o7-these-+ete*tio*-ce*t4es/-o7-these-t4a*sit-Do*es?-8hey-a4e-+umpi*3-peoplethe4e-li6e-cattle/-i*-o4+e4-to-+epo4t-them.-'ewa4eR-2tFs-+epo4tatio*-to+ay/-but-what-will-it-be-tomo44ow?-2*-this34eat-4e34essio*-o7-civilisatio*-that-th4eate*s-%u4opea*-cou*t4ies/-*otably-B4a*ce/-with-those-who-lea+-the7ascist-me*ace-s*i77i*3-the-ai4/-well/-the-sans"papiers moveme*t-is-i*-ma*y-4espects-compa4able-to-the-D4ey7usa77ai4.-2tFs-*ow-o4-*eve4/-7o4-the-+emoc4atic-7o4ces-i*-the-cou*t4y/-to-emb4ace-this-amaDi*3-moveme*t-o7-themost-ma43i*alise+-sectio*-o7-the-wo46i*3-class-a*+-o7-society/-the- sans"papiers! who-have-*o-4i3hts.-Let-the4ebe-some-*ew-Jau4Ws/-some-*ew-Zolas/-a*+-let-the4e-be-some-t4a+es-u*io*-a*+-political-o43a*isatio*s-i*-thewo46i*3-class-that-4ise-up-to-7o4m-a-ba44ie4-to-this-7ea4some-+a*3e4-o7-4e34essio*-i*-society-a*+-civilisatio*.!his is a short-sighted political fantasy 8 the very e5istence of border controls on immigration is racist .ayter 10-8e4esa/-w4ite4-a*+-activist-o*-mi34atio*-a*+-a*ti54acism-issues-?1pe*-'o4+e4s:-8he-$ase-)3ai*st2mmi34atio*-$o*t4ols@-p.-8 Ca*y/-p4obably-most, of those who now believe that immigration controls are an obvious necessity would not see themselves as racist 0any liberal- minded people also say they are opposed to racist immigration controls, or controls which discriminate, as they now do, between different categories of immigrants -8he-cu44e*t-situatio*-i*-'4itai*-is-that-the-ma*y-millio*s-o77o4ei3*e4s-who-a4e-*atio*als-o7-the-%u4opea*-I*io*-o4-who-have-'4itish-pa4e*ts-o4-34a*+pa4e*ts-a4e-74ee-toe*te4-a*+-settle-i*-'4itai*.-1the4s-a4e-*ot.-8he-7o4me4-a4e-mai*ly-white/-the-latte4-o7te*-blac6.-0o*5 +isc4imi*atio*-woul+-imply-eithe4-imposi*3-the-same-4est4ictio*s-o*-%u4opea*s-a*+-white-'4itish$ommo*wealth-citiDe*s-as-a4e-impose+-o*-othe4-7o4ei3*e4s/-o4-allowi*3-vi4tually-74ee-e*t4y-to-all.-'ut- even on the unli%ely supposition that immigration controls ceased to discriminate on mainly racist grounds between foreigners, they would still discriminate against foreigners in general, as opposed to natives !hey are therefore, many believe, inherently racist -Immigration controls embody, legitimate and institutionalise racism !hey have both been caused by and caused a racism which has become deeply embedded and widely manifest in the rich nation states of the &est, and especially so in their apparatus of control, including the police, the immigration authorities and private security guards Immigration controls have their origins in racism !ime and again, in the history of controls, it becomes clear that the reason for them is not e5cessive numbers of immigrants, or any realistic assessment of immigrants effects on ,obs, housing, crime or health, but the supposed 1non-assimilability or 1inferior stoc% of certain immigrants.-Eisto4ically-the-mai*-impetus-7o4-the-i*t4o+uctio*-o7-immi34atio*-co*t4ols-has-come-74om-ope*4acists.-8he-4acist-4i3ht-has-bee*-4ema46ably-success7ul-i*-wi**i*3-its-+ema*+s.-2*-9#"(-a*+-i*-9#!,immi34atio*-co*t4ols/-7i4st-a3ai*st-Valie*sF-o4-Jews-a*+-the*-a3ai*st-Vcolou4e+F-$ommo*wealth-citiDe*s/-we4ei*t4o+uce+-i*-'4itai*-as-the-culmi*atio*-o7-campai3*s-o7-a*ti5immi34atio*-a3itatio*-by-4acists-a*+-the-7a4-4i3ht/who-we4e-i*itially-+ismisse+-as-ext4emists-by-mai*st4eam-opi*io* !he main platform of neo-fascist groups has been opposition to immigration and demands for controls and e5pulsions of nonAryan or non-white people !he 1A+ naively ignores history to argue that smoothing the path through borders can somehow cleanse them of their fascistic function of sovereign control .ayter 10-8e4esa/-w4ite4-a*+-activist-o*-mi34atio*-a*+-a*ti54acism-issues-?1pe*-'o4+e4s:-8he-$ase-)3ai*st2mmi34atio*-$o*t4ols@-p.-,95,, )s-Gteve-$ohe*-puts-it-i*-Workers# $ontrol not %mmi ration $ontrols! VIt is politically naive to imagine that immigration controls which were brought into being through organised fascist activity can now somehow be cleansed and made #non-racist$ F-Bascist-a*+-4i3ht5wi*3-4acist-34oups-have-existe+/with-7luctuati*3-7o4tu*es/-th4ou3hout-the-twe*tieth-ce*tu4y.-2*-988!/-i*-4espo*se-to-the-a44ival-o7-Jewish4e7u3ees/-possibly-the-7i4st-a*ti5immi34a*t-34oup/-the-Gociety-7o4-the-Gupp4essio*-o7-the-2mmi34atio*-o7-

Destitute-)lie*s/-was-set-up.-2t-was-7ollowe+-by-the-)ssociatio*-7o4-P4eve*ti*3-the-2mmi34atio*-o7-Destitute)lie*s-a*+-the-'4itish-'4othe4s-Lea3ue/-the-latte4-set-up-7o4-simila4-pu4poses-i*-9#"9-by-the-$o*se4vative-CP7o4-Gtep*ey-i*-%ast-Lo*+o*/-Ca:o4-=illiam-%va*s5Ao4+o*/-a*+-othe4s.-)7te4-the-Bi4st-=o4l+-=a4-a*ti5 semitism-became-mo4e-viciously-explicit.-8he-V'4ito*sF-we4e-set-up-i*-9#98/-7ollowe+-by-the-2mpe4ial-BascistLea3ue-i*-9#,8/-which-7avou4e+-6illi*3/-ste4ilisi*3/-se34e3ati*3-o4-expelli*3-Jews.-1swal+-Cosley-7ou*+e+-the'4itish-I*io*-o7-Bascists-i*-9#&,/-which-i*timi+ate+-Jews-especially-i*-the-%ast-%*+-o7-Lo*+o*-a*+-4eache+-amembe4ship-o7-possibly-("/"""-i*-9#& .-8he4e-we4e-a-*umbe4-o7-smalle4-7ascist-34oups.-Cost-we4eexti*3uishe+-by-the-Geco*+-=o4l+-=a4.-Cosley-was-i*te4*e+/-7aile+-to-4ebuil+-his-I*io*-Coveme*t-a7te4-thewa4-a*+-we*t-i*to-exile-i*-9#(9.-8he-Lea3ue-o7-%mpi4e-Loyalists-was-7o4me+-i*-9#( -to-oppose-the-e*+-o7empi4e/-but-lost-membe4s-to-the-=hite-De7e*ce-Lea3ue-a*+-the-0atio*al-Labou4-Pa4ty/-which-me43e+-to-set-upthe-'4itish-0atio*al-Pa4ty-i*-9#!".-8he-9#(8-0otti*3-Eill-a*ti5blac6-4iots-we4e-the-p4o+uct-pa4tly-o7-7ascisto43a*isatio*-a*+-i*citeme*t.-2*-the-9#!"s-a-se4ies-o7-a*ti5immi34a*t-o43a*isatio*s-i*-the-Ci+la*+s/-the-mostpowe47ul-o7-which-was-the-'i4mi*3ham-2mmi34atio*-$o*t4ol-)ssociatio*/-campai3*e+-7o4-immi34atio*co*t4ols/-while-avoi+i*3-the-ta3-o7-7ascism/-a*+-p4ovi+e+-the-climate-i*-which-the-a*ti5immi34a*t-8o4yca*+i+ate-Pete4-A4i77iths-wo*-i*-Gmethwic6/-8he-Gouthall-Kesi+e*ts-)ssociatio*-was-set-up-i*-9#!&-with-simila4aims.-8he-0atio*al-B4o*t/-7ou*+e+-i*-9#!!/-was-the-p4o+uct-o7-a-me43e4-betwee*-the-Lea3ue-o7-%mpi4eLoyalists-a*+-the-'4itish-0atio*al-Pa4ty.-After-the-8o4y-Ci*iste4-"noch Howells 1COM speech, threatening 1rivers of blood if immigration was not stopped -;seep.-(&> </-the National 6ront3ai*e+-some-4espectability-a*+-4ec4uits.-2*-the-9#-7"s-it-both- pursued electoral politics and organised violent marches and attac%s in immigrant areas, notably 7ric% -ane and -ewisham, draping itself in the ;nion >ac% -1the4-4i3ht5wi*3-34oups/-i*clu+i*3-$olum*-88-a*+-the-'4itish-Coveme*t/-e*3a3e+i*-pa4amilita4y-activitiesJ-i*-Ja*ua4y-9#89-Ko+e4ic6-Kobe4ts/-a-lea+i*3-'4itish-Coveme*t-o77icial-i*-the-=estCi+la*+s/-was-:aile+-7o4-seve*-yea4s-o*-co*victio*-o7-a4so*/-the-possessio*-o7-7i4ea4ms-a*+-explosives/-a*+co*spi4acy-to-i*cite-4acial-hat4e+.-8his-i*7lue*ce-was-cou*te4e+-by-la43e5scale-a*+-e77ective-campai3*i*3-by-7a4le7t-a*+-libe4al-oppo*e*ts/-a*+-especially-by-the-)*ti50aDi-Lea3ue/-i*-*ume4ous-+emo*st4atio*s/-meeti*3s/4oc6-co*ce4ts-a*+-othe4-a*ti54acist-eve*ts.

LN+ 6lip-=hield
+ounterplan would result in less de-stabili'ing migration 8 empirics prove -iterally all your Eopen borders badE arguments lin% worse to the status 3uo .ayter 1:-8e4esa/-?0o-'o4+e4s:-8he-$ase-a3ai*st-2mmi34atio*-$o*t4ols@-Bemi*ist-Keview/-0o.-7&/-%xile-a*+)sylum:-=ome*-Gee6i*3-Ke7u3e-i*-PBo4t4ess%u4opeP-;,""&</-pp.-!598http://www.:sto4.o43/stable/9&#(#88)ccesse+:-97/"#/,"9"-",: & 24o*ically/-immigration controls may have increased the number of people migrating to 7ritain and settling here ;ntil the threat of immigration controls, migration to 7ritain correlated almost precisely with ,ob vacancies -8he-)ct-e*+e+-the-possibility-7o4-you*3-me*-to-come-7o4-sho4tpe4io+s-a*+-the*-be-4eplace+-by-you*3e4-7amily-membe4s.-=ell-ove4-hal7-the-2*+ia*s-a*+-about-th4ee5Nua4te4so7-the-Pa6ista*is-who-a44ive+-i*-'4itai*-be7o4e-co*t4ols-+i+-so-i*-the-985mo*th-pe4io+-be7o4e-the-9#!,-)ctJ-7o4the-7i4st-time-$a4ibbea*-a44ivals-+i+-*ot-co44elate-with-vaca*cies.-!he Act allowed 9dependents9 to follow their men 7y 1COB over C0 per cent of all +ommonwealth immigrants were dependents !here are similarities for refugees In a survey by /ohini .ensman of =ri -an%an refugees, the vast ma,ority said they would li%e to go home if only they could be sure of being able to return to 7ritain if the situation in =ri -an%a worsened again If people could come and go freely, they would probably do so2 immigration controls have sometimes had the perverse effect of trapping people into settling in places where they would rather not be

AL4 Open 7orders P 6ree 0ar%et Ideology


!his argument treats humans the same as currency*the counterplan is compatible with a struggle to reverse the situation that ma%es the e5ploitation of free mar%et ideology possible 6ree movement of people enables transnational unioni'ing which can resist free mar%et control .ayter 10-8e4esa/-w4ite4-a*+-activist-o*-mi34atio*-a*+-a*ti54acism-issues-?1pe*-'o4+e4s:-8he-$ase-)3ai*st2mmi34atio*-$o*t4ols@-p.-979597, !here is now a flagrant contradiction between the current, regressive, promotion of the ideology of the free mar%et as far as goods and capital are concerned, and its denial where people are concerned 7ut too much should not be made of the analogy 0igrants are human beings, and they should be treated differently from mere material goods and flows of capital !he current situation should, in fact, be reversed It is 3uite possible, and right, to oppose free trade and uncontrolled movements of capital, and the domination of the &orld !rade Organisation by the interests of big capital, and yet to be in favour of the free movement of people -2*-a*-i+eal-wo4l+-i*vestme*t-woul+-be-pla**e+-a*+-+emoc4atically-co*t4olle+-so-that-its-be*e7its-we4ewi+ely-sp4ea+/-to-4e+uce-i*eNuality/-sha4e-*ecessa4y-:obs-a*+-imp4ove-wo46i*3-co*+itio*s-a*+-social-co*+itio*swo4l+wi+e/-a*+-to-p4otect-the-e*vi4o*me*t-a*+-othe4-esse*tial-i*te4ests-which-a4e-*ow-th4eate*e+-by-p4o7it5 see6i*3-p4ivate-capital.-=ithi*-'4itai*-some-a43ue-that-wo46e4s-who-have-bee*-ma+e-4e+u*+a*t-i*-the-0o4th-o7the-cou*t4y/-4athe4-tha*-bei*3-7o4ce+-to-mi34ate-south-whe4e-the4e-a4e-:obs-but-*o-housi*3/-shoul+-have-accessto-:obs-i*-the-0o4th.-'ut-people-shoul+-have-the-4i3ht/-i*te4*atio*ally-as-they-+o-withi*-'4itai*-a*+-the-%I/-tochose-74eely-eithe4-to-stay-whe4e-they-a4e-o4-to-mi34ate.-6ree movement of people will enable wor%ers and the mass of people to share ideas and organise internationally -2t-too-will-4eNui4e-i*te4*atio*ala34eeme*t/-so-that-some-3ove4*me*ts-+o-*ot-mai*tai*-4est4ictio*s-while-othe4s-abolish-them.-8o-+e*y-peoplethe-4i3ht-to-mi34ate-is-ha4sh-a*+-opp4essive/-a*+-is-lea+i*3-to-u*bea4able-ext4emes-o7-c4uelty.- +ultural diversity e5ists within nations In the world as a whole it has e5isted for thousands of years It is to be celebrated.-2t-has-the-pote*tial-to-e*ha*ce-huma*-p4o34ess.-!he opening of borders could ma%e the world a more harmonious and peaceful and less racist place, and ma%e possible cooperation and democracy and greater mutual understanding worldwide Immigration controls should be consigned to the dustbin of history, recognised for what they are4 a cruel but relatively short-lived twentiethcentury aberration .Only opposing immigration controls in every instance can create opportunities for opposing free mar%et ideology .ayter 1:-8e4esa/-?0o-'o4+e4s:-8he-$ase-a3ai*st-2mmi34atio*-$o*t4ols@-Bemi*ist-Keview/-0o.-7&/-%xile-a*+)sylum:-=ome*-Gee6i*3-Ke7u3e-i*-PBo4t4ess%u4opeP-;,""&</-pp.-!598http://www.:sto4.o43/stable/9&#(#88)ccesse+:-97/"#/,"9"-",: & !he abolition of all immigration controls remains necessary to protect immigrant wor%ers from e5ploitation, to enable them to organi'e and to ,oin trade unions, and to prevent any danger that they might be used by employers as a cheap and e5ploitable source of labour and to undermine wages and conditions.-2*-'4itai*/-mi34a*t-wo46e4s-have-*ot-allowe+-themselves-to-be-use+-i*this-way.-1*e-4easo*-is-pe4haps-that-whe*-they-came-he4e-i*-the-9#("s-be7o4e-co*t4ols/-they-ha+-7ull-citiDe*ship4i3hts.-Eoweve4/-with-o4-without-immi34atio*-co*t4ols/-all-the-evi+e*ce-is-that-immi34atio*-is-i*-the-sel75 i*te4est-o7-both-capitalists-a*+-wo46e4s-i*-the-cou*t4ies-they-3o-to/-a*+-that-wo46e4sP-p4ospe4ity/-:obs-a*+-wa3esa4e-*ot-u*+e4mi*e+-by-it/-but-o*-the-co*t4a4y-be*e7it-74om-it.-8o-ta6e-o*e-example/-a7te4-the-Geco*+-=o4l+-=a4the4e-was-*et-immi34atio*-to-B4a*ce-a*+-Ae4ma*y-a*+-*et-emi34atio*-74om-'4itai*.-'oth-eco*omic-p4ospe4itya*+-wa3es-a4e-bette4-i*-B4a*ce-a*+-Ae4ma*y-tha*-they-a4e-i*-'4itai*.

AL4 Open 7orders P +atastrophe


Open borders is inevitable 8 the impact is already occurring 8 only a ris% that removing controls prevents unnecessary racism and suffering 8 and there would be no flood of migration .ayter 10-8e4esa/-w4ite4-a*+-activist-o*-mi34atio*-a*+-a*ti54acism-issues-?1pe*-'o4+e4s:-8he-$ase-)3ai*st2mmi34atio*-$o*t4ols@-p.-9(,59( If freedom to migrate meant that movements of people were so large that they led to catastrophic disruption/-chaos-a*+-+ecli*e-i*-livi*3-sta*+a4+s-i*-the-4ich-cou*t4ies/-the*/-howeve4a+mi4able-the-i+eal/-it would be understandable that it should be opposed 7ut the abolition of immigration controls, although it would doubtless lead to some increase in migration, would not have an overwhelming effect on numbers !his is, first, because immigration controls do not wor% In spite of the ever-increasing paraphernalia of repressive measures, during the 1CC0s the numbers of asylum see%ers have remained roughly constan t.-%u4opea*-3ove4*me*ts-a*+thei4-o77icials-a4e-be3i**i*3-to-4eco3*ise-that-immi34atio*-co*t4ols-will-*eve4-be-ma+e-to-wo46.-8hey-a4ee*3a3e+-i*-a-last5+itch-+e7e*ce-o7-what-4emai*s-o7-*atio*al-sove4ei3*ty/-i*-a-pe4io+-o7-34owi*3-powe4-o7i*te4*atio*al-p4ivate-capital.-8he-attempt-to-mai*tai*-74ee+om-o7-moveme*t-7o4-capital-a*+-p4eve*t-themoveme*t-o7-labou4-will-*ot-i*+e7i*itely-4esist-the-p4essu4es-o7-so5calle+-3lobalisatio*F.- !he water metaphors commonly applied to immigrants can be applied to controls4 controls are li%e a dam2 when one hole is bloc%ed, another one appears somewhere else 0igrants and those who facilitate their migration resort to staggering feats of ingenuity, courage and endurance to assert their right to move and to flee !he 3uestion is how much suffering will be imposed on innocent people, and how much racism will be sto%ed up, in a vain attempt to deny the right to freedom of movement before governments finally abandon the effort -Geco*+/-o77icials-+espai4-atthei4-i*ability-to-+epo4t-people.-Eavi*3-put-4e7u3ees-a*+-mi34a*ts-th4ou3h-mo*ths-a*+-sometimes-yea4s-o7su77e4i*3-a*+-u*ce4tai*ty/-possibly-i*-+ete*tio*-ce*t4es-a*+-p4iso*s/-3ove4*me*ts-the*-ca**ot-+epo4t-the-34eatma:o4ity-o7-those-to-whom-they-4e7use-the-4i3ht-to-stay.-8his-is-because-the-3ove4*me*ts-o7-thei4-cou*t4ies-o7o4i3i*-will-*ot-p4ovi+e-them-with-pape4s-o4-a34ee-to-4ea+mit-them/-because-they-have-+evelope+-7amily-li*6s-i*%u4ope/-because-they-ca**ot-be-7ou*+/-o4-eve*-because-p4oteste4s-succee+-i*-stoppi*3-thei4-ai4-7li3hts.-8he4ea4e-*ot-e*ou3h-+ete*tio*-ce*t4es-to-loc6-up-all-those-whose-cases-a4e-tu4*e+-+ow*/-a*+-most-cou*t4ies-apa4t74om-'4itai*-have-time-limits-o*-+ete*tio*-a*+-must-o7te*-4elease-people-be7o4e-they-ca*-+epo4t-them.-%ve*-i*'4itai*/-lawye4s-have-success7ully-use+-habeas-co4pus-to-3et-people-4elease+-i7-they-+o-*ot-have-+ocume*tse*abli*3-them-to-be-+epo4te+.-Aove4*me*ts-may-the4e7o4e-e*+-up-4eleasi*3-them-o*to-the-st4eets/-sometimeswith-*o-access-to-a*y-7o4m-o7-public-suppo4t-a*+-*o-pe4missio*-to-wo46/-thus-tu4*i*3-them-i*to/-at-best/-ille3alwo46e4s.-)t-a-meeti*3-i*-1x7o4+-a-34oup-o7-%u4opea*-o77icials-+iscusse+-se4iously-how-much-+e*ial-o7-health7acilities-woul+-be-compatible-with-i*te4*atio*al-huma*-4i3hts-obli3atio*s.-2*-the-0ethe4la*+s/-acco4+i*3-to-aDutch-o77icial/-Vthey-a4e-:ust-+umpe+-o*-the-st4eetsF/-i*-a*-attempt-lite4ally-to-sta4ve-them-out/-o4-pe4haps+elibe4ately-to-c4eate-a*-ille3al-a*+-exploitable-wo467o4ce.-8he-policies which are well established in the ;nited =tates, and now appear to be be increasingly contemplated in "urope, are to use the migrants (illegal and therefore cheap) labour, but deprive them of social and political rights !hird, the numbers of people who would migrate if they were free to do so are often e5aggerated =ome have argued that population increases and environmental catastrophes are such that, unless something is done, there will be massive population movements from poor countries to rich countries -1the4s-appea4-to-believe-that-i7-people-we4e-allowe+-to-move-74eely/- ""millio*-2*+ia*s-woul+-emi34ate-e*-masse-to-the-4ich-cou*t4ies-i*-sea4ch-o7-:obs.-14tho+ox-74ee-ma46et-theo4ysu33ests-that/-i7-the4e-was-74ee-moveme*t-o7-labou4/-the4e-woul+-be-la43e5scale-moveme*ts-o7-wo46e4s-u*tileve*tually-wa3es-we4e-eNualise+-th4ou3hout-the-wo4l+.-Neither of these things is li%ely to happen -=hilesome-e*te4p4isi*3-people-move-because-the4e-a4e-:obs-a*+-the-possibility-o7-hi3he4-pay-i*-the-4ich-cou*t4ies/this-+oes-*ot-mea*-that-the-e*ti4e-populatio*-o7-the-8hi4+-=o4l+-woul+-+o-so/-o4-eve*-a-si3*i7ica*t-p4opo4tio*o7-it.-'4itai*/-with-34eat-4elucta*ce/-o77e4e+-,"/"""-visas-to-Eo*3-Qo*3-citiDe*sJ-9"/"""-o7-them-we4e-ta6e*-up.2*-situatio*s-whe4e-the4e-a4e-*o-immi34atio*-co*t4ols/-such-as-74om-the-$ommo*wealth-to-'4itai*-i*-the-9#G1s/-74om-Pue4to-Kico-a*+-$uba-to-the-I*ite+-Gtates-a*+-74om-B4e*ch-1ve4seas-Depa4tme*ts-to-B4a*ce/mi34atio*-has-bee*-la43e-but-4ep4ese*ts-o*ly-a-small-p4opo4tio*-o7-the-populatio*-o7-both-4eceivi*3-a*+-mostse*+i*3-cou*t4ies.-'etwee*-9#("-a*+-9#8"/-7o4-example/-".!-pe4-ce*t-o7-the-populatio*-o7-the-$a4ibbea*emi34ate+-pe4-yea4/-ta6i*3-a+va*ta3e-o7-the-abse*ce-o7-4est4ictio*s-i*-7o4me4-colo*ial-powe4s-a*+-the-I*ite+Gtates.-'ob-Gutcli77e-i*-0aci+o-en otra parte has-ve*tu4e+-a*-estimate-that/-o*-the-assumptio*-that-these-

$a4ibbea*-4ates-o7-emi34atio*-we4e-4epeate+-wo4l+wi+e/-the4e-woul+-be-a*-ext4a-, -millio*-mi34a*ts-pe4-yea4/lea+i*3-to-a-34owth-o7-,. -pe4-ce*t-pe4-yea4-i*-the-populatio*-o7-the-i*+ust4ialise+-cou*t4ies.-P4ovi+e+-such-a*i*c4ease-was-7ai4ly-eve*ly-+ist4ibute+/-which-woul+-imply-i*te4*atio*al-a34eeme*t-to-abolish-co*t4ols/-a*+-i*pa4ticula4-a34eeme*t-amo*3-%u4opea*-cou*t4ies/-such-a*-i*c4ease-coul+-well-come-to-be-see*-as-a-use7ulmea*s-o7-cou*te4acti*3-+ecli*es-i*-the-bi4th-4ate-a*+-a3ei*3-populatio*s.-'ut- it seems unli%ely in any case that people would migrate from other areas at such high rates -Cuch-o7-the-$a4ibbea*-emi34atio*too6-place-i*-yea4s-whe*-u*employme*t-was-hi3h-i*-the-$a4ibbea*-a*+-much-lowe4-i*-the-cou*t4ies-o7+esti*atio*-tha*-it-is-*ow.-Ci34atio*-74om-the-small-isla*+s-o7-the-$a4ibbea*/-whe4e-oppo4tu*ities-a4e4elatively-7ew/-was-7acilitate+-by-the-existe*ce-o7-commu*ities-i*-the-4ecipie*t-cou*t4ies-a*+-commo*-la*3ua3esa*+-e+ucatio*-systems.-2*-ma*y-a4eas-which-+o-*ot-have-these-cha4acte4istics-the4e-has-bee*-vi4tually-*oemi34atio* ?uring the postwar period of free entry for +ommonwealth citi'ens, which was also a period of ,ob abundance in 7ritain, migration was only from a small number of areas It also rose and fell in relation to the numbers of ,ob vacancies, in response to information from already established communities -On the whole most people do not want to uproot

themselves, abandon their families, and suffer the hardships and ris%s of migration to a strange and possibly hostile place in order to do the dirty wor% of the natives And, surprising though it may seem to racists 3ua%ing at the prospect of invading hordes, they li%e their own countries and cultures.-2*-&ourney Without a 'estination Kohi*i-Ee*sma*Nuotes-the-8amil-4e7u3ees-she-i*te4viewe+-3ivi*3-+ep4essi*3-+esc4iptio*s-o7-thei4-expe4ie*ces-o7+ep4ivatio*-a*+-4acism-i*-'4itai*/-a*+-exp4essi*3-thei4-wish-to-3o-bac6-to-G4i-La*6a-as-soo*-as-it-wassa7e-to-+o-so.-%ve*-those-who-ha+-7ou*+-co*+itio*s-i*-'4itai*-mo4e-bea4able-still-wa*te+-to-4etu4*-tothei4-7amilies/-the-climate/-the-social-wa4mth-a*+-*ei3hbou4li*ess/-a*+-pe4haps-thei4-:obs/-la*+-a*+p4ope4ties-i*-G4i-La*6a.-V8he-ove4whelmi*3-ma:o4ityF-o7-he4-i*te4viewees/-she-says/-Vexp4esse+-a-+esi4eto-3o-bac6-i7-peace-was-4esto4e+.F-Ca*y-othe4s-+i+-*ot-leave-at-all/-sayi*3-they-woul+-p4e7e4-to-+ie-i*thei4-ow*-cou*t4y-4athe4-tha*-7lee-to-a-st4a*3e-a*+-hostile-la*+.

AL4 Open 7orders P 7rain ?rain


!he status 3uo lin%s way worse to this argument 8 cherry-pic%ing .ayter 1:-8e4esa/-?0o-'o4+e4s:-8he-$ase-a3ai*st-2mmi34atio*-$o*t4ols@-Bemi*ist-Keview/-0o.-7&/-%xile-a*+)sylum:-=ome*-Gee6i*3-Ke7u3e-i*-PBo4t4ess%u4opeP-;,""&</-pp.-!598http://www.:sto4.o43/stable/9&#(#88)ccesse+:-97/"#/,"9"-",: & Bi7th/-the effect of migration on individual migrants and also on the !hird &orld as a whole is probably positive in spite of the loss of s%illed and enterprising people !he brain drain happens in spite of, or even because of, immigration controls, as governments use their ability to cherry pic% the migrants they want 1*-the-othe4-ha*+/-mi34atio*-ma6es-a-small-+e*t-i*-thei*te4*atio*al-pola4iDatio*-o7-wealth.-/emittances (the money saved and sent home by migrants), even on the officially recorded figures, are bigger than official foreign aid !hey are also better because they are not charity, but the money earned by the hard wor% of the migrants, and because, unli%e most foreign aid, they come without conditions and do not have to be repaid . !his argument is dubious at best 8 inevitable in the status 3uo and bac%wards 8 remittances are redistributive and egalitarian .ayter 10-8e4esa/-w4ite4-a*+-activist-o*-mi34atio*-a*+-a*ti54acism-issues-?1pe*-'o4+e4s:-8he-$ase-)3ai*st2mmi34atio*-$o*t4ols@-p.-9!759!8 )-bi3-Nuestio*-is-whethe4-o4-*ot-mi34atio*-is-i*-the-i*te4est-o7-the-peoples-o7-the-8hi4+-=o4l+.-27-it-is-be*e7icial/o4-at-least-*ot-ha4m7ul/-7o4-the-cou*t4ies-that-the-mi34a*ts-3o-to/-it-coul+-be-that-it-was-+ama3i*3-7o4-thecou*t4ies-they-leave.-8his-a43ume*t-is-sometimes-use+/-eithe4-cy*ically-o4-si*ce4ely/-by-the-p4opo*e*ts-o7immi34atio*-co*t4ols.-Isually-it-is-a-sel75se4vi*3-a43ume*tJ-it-is-ha4+ly-li6ely-that-those-who-4eso4t-to-it3e*ui*ely-believe-that-the-:usti7icatio*-7o4-immi34atio*-co*t4ols/-a*+-all-the-su77e4i*3-they-impose-o*i*+ivi+uals/-is-that-they-help-the-8hi4+-=o4l+.-Quite apart from the 3uestion of the enforced flight of some people for whom the alternative would be death, imprisonment and torture, and the economic benefits to some of the individuals who migrate, it is li%ely that migration leads to some redistribution, however imperfect, of the worlds wealth in favour of the !hird &orld .-1*eo7-the-la43est-i*te4*atio*al-7lows-o7-4esou4ces-i*-the-wo4l+-to+ay-is-V4emitta*cesF/-o4-mo*ey-save+-by-mi34a*two46e4s-a*+-se*t-bac6-to-thei4-7amilies.-8he-amou*ts-a4e-+i77icult-to-estimate.-8he-=o4l+-'a*6-publishes7i3u4es-o*-4emitta*ces-t4a*smitte+-th4ou3h-o77icial-cha**els.-8hese-a4e-wi+ely-co*si+e4e+-to-be-se4iousu*+e4estimates-si*ce-4emitta*ces-a4e-o7te*-ma+e-th4ou3h-u*o77icial-cha**els/-o4-ma+e-i*-6i*+/-ca44ie+-bymi34a*ts-whe*-they-4etu4*-home/-a*+-*ot-4eco4+e+-i*-the-statistics.-2*-a++itio*/-the-7act-that-excha*3e-4atesa4e-o7te*-u*+e4value+-i*-8hi4+-=o4l+-cou*t4ies-ma3*i7ies-the-pu4chasi*3-powe4-o7-the-7o4ei3*-excha*3e4emitte+.-0eve4theless-eve*-the-o77icial-7i3u4es-7o4-4emitta*ces-a4e-hi3he4-tha*-the-7i3u4es-7o4-7o4ei3*-ai+.-8he=o4l+-'a*6-7i3u4e-7o4-4emitta*ces-i*-9##8-was-[(,.8-billio*.-2ts-7i3u4e-7o4-7o4ei3*-ai+-was-[("-billio*/-o7-whicho*ly-[,&-billio*-was-actually-34a*ts-to-+evelopi*3-cou*t4ies.-8he-7i3u4es-a4e-4ou3hly-eNuivale*t-to-9-pe4-ce*t-o7the-*atio*al-i*come-a*+-G-pe4-ce*t-o7-the-expo4ts-o7-all-mi++le5-a*+-low5i*come-cou*t4ies.-Kemitta*ces-a4e-o7cou4se-*ot-eve*ly-+ist4ibute+.-8hey-a4e-co*ce*t4ate+-p4ecisely-i*-the-a4eas-o7-hi3h-emi34atio*/-a*+-the4e7o4e*ot-*ecessa4ily-i*-the-poo4est-cou*t4ies-a*+-4e3io*s.-'ut-they-have-ma*y-a+va*ta3es-ove4-othe4-7o4ms-o7i*te4*atio*al-7i*a*cial-t4a*s7e4s.-8hey-a4e-*ot-the-4esult-o7-a*y-Vcha4ityF-74om-the-4ich-cou*t4ies/-but-a4e-thep4o+uct-o7-the-ha4+-wo46-o7-the-mi34a*ts-themselves/-who-have-come-to-4ecupe4ate-some-small-pa4t-o7-thewealth-that-has-bee*-stole*-74om-them-ove4-ce*tu4ies-o7-impe4ialism.-8hey-a4e-without-+oubt-p4e7e4able-to-ai+74om-the-=o4l+-'a*6/-the-2*te4*atio*al-Co*eta4y-Bu*+-;2CB<-a*+-othe4-o77icial-sou4ces.-I*li6e-ba*6-loa*sa*+-most-o77icial-ai+/-they-+o-*ot-have-to-be-4epai+.-)lthou3h-4emitta*ces-a4e-*ot-a-secu4e-7o4m-o7-i*come/-*o4a4e-ai+-a*+-7o4ei3*-ba*6-loa*s.-)*+-4emitta*ces-come-without-co*+itio*s.-8hey-a4e-*ot-tie+-to-pu4chases-o7+oubt7ully-use7ul-3oo+s-a*+-se4vices-74om-the-cou*t4ies-74om-which-they-come.-=he4eas-7o4ei3*-ai+-a*+-theco*+itio*s-attache+-to-it-have-o*-bala*ce-impove4ishe+-4athe4-tha*-helpe+-the-peoples-o7-the-8hi4+-=o4l+/4emitta*ces-3o-+i4ect-to-the-7amilies-o7-the-people-who-have-emi34ate+/-to-use-as-they-thi*6-7it.-=ith-thei4-usualsel75se4vi*3-hypoc4isy/-the-autho4ities-a*+-some-o4tho+ox-eco*omists-o7-the-4ich-cou*t4ies-a43ue-that4emitta*ces-a4e-misuse+.-Cuch-the-same-a43ume*t-is/-w4o*3ly/-use+-to-:usti7y-tyi*3-ai+-to-p4o:ects-chose*-byV+o*o4sF-a*+-the-co*+itio*s-attache+-to-it.-8he-4ecipie*ts-o7-4emitta*ces-a4e-accuse+-o7-usi*3-them-7o4co*sumptio*-4athe4-tha*-i*vestme*t.-'ut-the-a43ume*t-ma6es-little-se*se.-8he-*ative-i*habita*ts-o7-the-

i*+ust4ialise+-cou*t4ies-a4e-*ot-expecte+-to-i*vest-thei4-wa3es/-a*+-thei4-7ailu4e-to-+o-so-is-*ot-use+-as-a:usti7icatio*-7o4-*ot-payi*3-them.-8he-4eality-is-that-4emitta*ces-a4e-use+-7o4-a-va4iety-o7-pu4poses/-4a*3i*3-74omthe-satis7actio*-o7-eleme*ta4y-*ee+s-to-the-acNuisitio*-o7-co*sume4-+u4ables-a*+-sometimes-7o4-i*vestme*t/-i*pa4ticula4-to-buy-la*+.-Kemitta*ces-may-at-times-cause-some-eco*omic-p4oblems/-but-it-is-u*li6ely-that-they-+oso-mo4e-tha*-othe4-sou4ces-o7-7o4ei3*-excha*3e/-i*clu+i*3-expo4ts.-)*+-alte4*ative-sou4ces-o7-7o4ei3*-excha*3e/supe4io4-o4-othe4wise/-may-i*-a*y-case-*ot-be-available.-8he-c4iticisms-o7-the-eco*omic-e77ects-o7-4emitta*cesa4e-i*-4eality-yet-a*othe4-example-o7-the-way-i*-which-the-3e*e4al-p4e:u+ice-a3ai*st-immi34atio*-is-4e7lecte+-i*a-c4itical-assessme*t-o7-its-e77ects.-2*-the-cu44e*t-u*eNual-state-o7-the-wo4l+/-emi34atio*-a*+-the-4esulti*34emitta*ces-a4e-p4obably-o*e-o7-the-best-mecha*isms-cu44e*tly-available-7o4-4e+ist4ibuti*3-the-wo4l+Fs-i*comei*-7avou4-o7-poo4e4-cou*t4ies.-1the4s-+isplay-co*ce4*-that-mi34atio*-causes-a-loss-to-the-8hi4+-=o4l+-o7-s6ille+a*+-e*te4p4isi*3-people/-eve*-a-*ew-7o4m-o7-pilla3e-o7-the-8hi4+-=o4l+/-usi*3-the-b4ai*s-a*+-s6ills-o7-its-peoples7o4-the-be*e7it-o7-the-4ich-cou*t4ies.-$alculatio*s-o7-VlossesF-a4e-ma+e-o*-the-basis-o7-totti*3-up-the-costs-o7e+ucati*3-the-mi34a*ts-i*-thei4-cou*t4ies-o7-o4i3i*.-8his-co*ce4*-is-ha4+ly-compatible-with-the-7act-that-existi*3immi34atio*-co*t4ols-impose-7ew-4est4ictio*s-o*-the-moveme*t-o7-people-with-s6ills-that-a4e-*ee+e+-o4-+esi4e+i*-the-i*+ust4ialise+-cou*t4ies/-such-as-scie*ti7ic/-busi*ess/-me+ical/-computi*3/-a4tistic/-cultu4al-a*+-spo4ti*3s6ills.-It is estimated, for e5ample, that in the period up to 1CMB sub-=aharan Africa lost :0 per cent of its highly 3ualified people through legal emigration -2t-is-the-u*s6ille+-whose-moveme*ts-a4e4est4icte+-o4-p4eve*te+-alto3ethe4.-8o-be-co*siste*t/-this-co*ce4*-ou3ht-to-imply-that-4est4ictio*s-o*-themoveme*t-o7-u*s6ille+-people-shoul+-be-4emove+/-while-s6ille+-people-shoul+-be-7o4ce+-to-stay-whe4e-they-a4e;which-o7-cou4se-woul+-co*t4ave*e-the-p4ovisio*s-o*-74ee-moveme*t-i*-the-I*ive4sal-Decla4atio*-o7-Euma*Ki3hts<.-2t-is-t4ue-that-ma*y-immi34a*ts-who-wo46/-sometimes-ille3ally/-i*-u*s6ille+-:obs-i*-the-i*+ust4ialise+cou*t4ies-a4e-people-who-a4e-e*te4p4isi*3-a*+-sometimes-also-hi3hly-e+ucate+-a*+-s6ille+-i*-a-7o4mal-se*se.8his-is-pa4ticula4ly-the-case-with-asylum-see6e4s-a*+-4e7u3ees.-2*-thei4-case-it-mi3ht-eve*-be-a43ue+-that-theyshoul+-stay-at-home-a*+-ca44y-o*-thei4-st4u33le-a3ai*st-4ep4essive-a*+-co44upt-4e3imes.-'ut-it-is-*ot-up-to-the3ove4*me*ts-o7-4ich-cou*t4ies-to-ma6e-the-+ecisio*-that-they-shoul+-*ot-mi34ate.-People-have-ma*y-4easo*s-7o4+oi*3-so-a*+/-i*-a++itio*/-thei4-mi34atio*-may-ma6e-a-co*t4ibutio*-to-the-+evelopme*t-a*+-well5bei*3-o7-thei4ow*-cou*t4ies/-7o4-example-i7-they-4emit-thei4-savi*3s/-o4-i7-they-4etu4*-home-with-a++itio*al-s6ills-a*+expe4ie*ce/-o4-i7-they-help-to-i*c4ease-oppo4tu*ities-7o4-those-who-4emai*/-o4-pe4haps-i7-they-help-to-o43a*isepolitical-oppositio*-to-thei4-3ove4*me*ts-while-they-a4e-i*-exile.-2mmi34atio*-co*t4ols-ma6e-it-less-li6ely-thatthe-s6ills-a*+-expe4ie*ce-o7-those-who-emi34ate-ca*-be-use+-to-be*e7it-thei4-cou*t4ies-o7-o4i3i*/-si*ce-they-te*+to-7o4ce-people-to-stay-i*-the-cou*t4ies-they-have-mi34ate+-to-4athe4-tha*-4is6-leavi*3-them-a*+-*ot-bei*3-ableto-4etu4*-i7-*ecessa4y.-8he-alte4*atives-to-mi34atio*-may-be-+eath/-to4tu4e-a*+-lo*3-imp4iso*me*t/-as-well-as74ust4atio*/-bloc6e+-oppo4tu*ities/-u*employme*t-a*+-34eate4-pove4ty.-8he-a43ume*ts-put-the-suppose+/-butla43ely-u*p4ove*/-i*te4ests-o7-8hi4+-=o4l+-*atio*s-above-those-o7-the-i*+ivi+uals-who-live-i*-them.-)bove-all/-itis-clea4-that-the-autho4itiesF-4easo*s-7o4-+e*yi*3-74ee+om-o7-moveme*t-have-*othi*3-to-+o-i*-4eality-with-a*yco*ce4*-about-the-well5bei*3-o7-the-i*habita*ts-o7-the-8hi4+-=o4l+.-It will not do to argue, as some do, for immigration controls on the grounds of opposition to the so-called 1brain drain Opponents of immigration sometimes place their hopes for stopping or reducing it on the promotion of development in the !hird &orld !here are at least two problems with this argument One is that its adoption can be politically and morally dubious, since it implies acceptance of the notion that migration and an increased diversity of peoples are evils -4athe4-tha*-a-si3*-o7-huma*p4o34ess.-Le-Pe*/-lea+e4-o7-the-7ascist-0atio*al-B4o*t-i*-B4a*ce/-is-i*-7avou4-o7-+evelopme*t-ai+.-Kece*tlyattempts-have-bee*-ma+e-to-ma6e-%I-ai+-to-associate+-cou*t4ies-co*+itio*al-o*-thei4-3ove4*me*ts-co*t4olli*3emi34atio*:-Vco5+evelopme*tF-was-a+opte+-as-%I-policy-at-the-8ampe4e-summit-i*-1ctobe4-9###.-84a+e-accessto-the-%I-has-bee*-ma+e-co*+itio*al-o*-3ove4*me*ts-a34eei*3-to-ta6e-bac6-Ville3alF-immi34a*ts.-8he-B4e*chGocialist-3ove4*me*t-has-bee*-*e3otiati*3-bilate4al-co5+evelopme*t-+eals-with-)74ica*-3ove4*me*ts.-8heBeb4ua4y/Ca4ch-9###-issue-o7-La (oi) des sans"papiers ca44ies-a*-a4ticle-hea+e+-V$o5+evelopme*t/-ai+-7o44epat4iatio*:-=ho-a4e-they-t4yi*3-to-7ool?-)4e-immi34a*ts-:ust-a-cu44e*cy?F/-i*-which-P4ime-Ci*iste4-Jospi*-isNuote+-as-co*sta*tly-4epeati*3-o*-his-tou4-o7-)74ica-that-Vco5+evelopme*t-is-o*e-o7-the-mea*s-which-the3ove4*me*t-will-use-to-co*t4ol-mi34ato4y-7lowsF.-8he-a4ticle-comme*ts-that-while-Jospi*-was-assu4i*3-theCalie*-3ove4*me*t-that-he-woul+-*o-lo*3e4-use-cha4te4-pla*es-to-+epo4t-its-citiDe*s/-he-was-as6i*3-the-)74ica*3ove4*me*ts-to-help-him-to-co*t4ol-immi34atio*.-8o-put-it-mo4e-clea4ly/-ai+-mo*ey-was-to-be-co*+itio*al-o*-thewilli*3*ess-o7-the-cou*t4ies-o7-o4i3i*-to-exe4cise-ti3ht-co*t4ol-ove4-emi34atio*-to-B4a*ce.-)74ica*-3ove4*me*tswe4e-i*-a-se*se-bei*3-calle+-upo*-to-sell-thei4-*atio*als:-to-stop-those-who-wishe+-to-leave-without-theu*attai*able-visa/-a*+-to-accept-the-e*7o4ce+-4etu4*-o7-i44e3ula4-mi34a*ts.-

AL4 .ayter Not Qualled


.ayters gonna hayte =teiner 1:-0i6laus/-I*ive4sity-o7-0o4th-$a4oli*a-.-$hapel-Eill:-2*te4*atio*al-Ci34atio*-Keview/-Sol.-&7/-0o.- /8he-Butu4e-o7-the-Geco*+-Ae*e4atio*:8he-2*te34atio*-o7-Ci34a*t-Youth-i*-Gix-%u4opea*-$ou*t4ies-;=i*te4/,""&</-pp.-9&"#59&9"Publishe+-by:-8he-$e*te4-7o4-Ci34atio*-Gtu+ies-o7-0ew-Yo46/-2*c.Gtable-IKL:http://www.:sto4.o43/stable/&""&78"9)ccesse+:-97/"#/,"9"-",: & 2t-is-74om-withi*-this-co*text-that-o*e-shoul+-app4oach- !eresa .ayter9s boo% Open 7orders4 !he +ase Against Immigration +ontrol.-8he-value-o7-he4-boo6-is-that-it-offers an e5cellent introduction into one side of the asylum controversy .-=he captures well the mood of her activist camp as it is embroiled in the polari'ing asylum debate in 7ritain in the 1CC0s .-8he-esse*ce-o7-he4-a43ume*t-isthat-O2mmi34atio*-co*t4ols-embo+y/-le3itimate-a*+-i*stitutio*aliDe-4acismO-;p.-,9<.- =he begins by offering a good summary of the history of immigration-i*to-'4itai*/-citi*3-va4ious-impo4ta*t-wo46sJ-to-this-list/-2woul+-a++-'e4*a4+-Po4te4Ps-7asci*ati*3-8he-Ke7u3ee-Uuestio*-i*-Ci+5Sicto4ia*-Politics-;$amb4i+3e/-9#7#<..ayter then painsta%ingly describes what she perceives as in,ustices in the 7ritish government9s handling of refugees and asylum-see%ers -Ghe-is-especially-i*te4este+-i*-the-$amps7iel+Dete*tio*-$e*te4/-which/-acco4+i*3-to-he4/-Ohas-the-aspect-o7-a-co*ce*t4atio*-campO-a*+-which-she-a*+-he4collea3ues-t4ie+-to-shut-+ow*.-)*othe4-chapte4-+esc4ibes-the-34ass4oots-oppositio*-i*-'4itai*-a*+-elsewhe4e-i*%u4ope-to-the-ti3hte*i*3-o7-asylum-policies.-Bi*ally/-she-poi*ts-out-the-hypoc4isy-a*+-i*e77icie*cies-she-sees-i*'4itai*Ps-i*c4easi*3ly-4est4ictive-asylum-policy-a*+-u43es-a-4eve4sal/-a43ui*3-that-the-o*ly-way-to-e*su4e-that4e7u3ees-a4e-4eally-p4otecte+-woul+-be-i7-the4e-we4e-*o-immi34atio*-co*t4ol.-Ghe-co*clu+es-O2t-is-time-7o4-thei+ea-o7-i*te4*atio*al-mi34atio*-to-be-4escue+/-a*+-e*sh4i*e+-i*-i*te4*atio*al-+ecla4atio*s-as-a-*o4mal-a*+*atu4al-huma*-4i3htO-;p.-9(9<.

AL4 7lac%I&hite 7inaries


7lac% isnt ,ust s%in but the use of blac% rhetorically is the best way to challenge white supremacy

-ewis C Eope-Lewis/-Law-P4o7esso4-H-0o4theaste4*-I*ive4sity-i*-2*te4*atio*al-Law-De7i*i*3-Kace84a*s*atio*al-Dime*sio*s-o7-Kace-i*-)me4ica-)lba*y-Law-Keview-,""#8his-essay-asse4ts-that-4ace/-a-6ey-co*cept-i*-i*te4*atio*al-huma*-4i3hts-law-a*+-policy-74om-the-be3i**i*3/shoul+-still-be-hi3h-o*-to+ayPs-3lobal-p4io4ity-list.-Eoweve4/-to-4emai*-a-use7ul-co*cept-i*-ou4-i*c4easi*3lycomplex-wo4l+/-4ace-must-be-+e7i*e+-a*+-explo4e+-as-a-t4a*s*atio*al-a*+-multi+ime*sio*al-social-co*st4uct.*97-2-4e7lect-speci7ically-he4e-o*-the-complex-*atu4e-o7-O'lac6*ess.O-2-su33est-that-i*te4*atio*al-huma*4i3hts-law-shoul+-e*3a3e-i*t4a54acial-+ive4sity-amo*3-'lac6s-alo*3-cultu4al/-3e*+e4/-political/-eco*omic/-a*+eth*ic-li*es.-'ecause-O'lac6*essO-itsel7-is-a-p4o+uct-o7-popula4-social-co*scious*ess/-2-+4aw-he4e-o*-popula4accou*ts-o7-I.G.-'lac6-mi34atio*-a*+-sto4ies-about-the-P4esi+e*tial-ca*+i+acy-o7-'a4ac6-1bama.-Guchsto4ies-4eveal-i*-sta46-4elie7-how-p4oblematic-a*-ove4simpli7ie+-app4oach-to-+e7i*i*3-the-bo4+e4s-o7'lac6*ess-ca*-be.-)*ec+otes-ca*-have-limite+-applicatio*-i*-compa4iso*-with-b4oa+5base+-social-scie*ti7ic+ata.-'ut-evocative--LY9"" M--sto4ies-*eve4theless-ca*-help-ma6e-p4eviously-ma43i*aliDe+-expe4ie*ces-a*+pe4ceptio*s-mo4e-visible.-1*ce-visible/-such-i*st4uctive-sto4ies-a*+-sou4ces-ca*-the*-become-a-mo4ele3itimate-7ocus-o7-7u4the4-le3al-a*+-i*te4+iscipli*a4y-4esea4ch.-I*+e4lyi*3-my-+iscussio*-is-the-bac634ou*+belie7-that-i*t4a54acial-political-a*+-cultu4al-st4ate3ies-a*+-a*alyses-that-a4e-c4oss5cultu4al-a*+multi+ime*sio*al-*98-4emai*-4eleva*t-a*+-help7ul-i*-the-co*tempo4a4y-3lobal-eco*omy.-Guch-app4oaches/howeve4/-*ee+-*ot-be-i*app4op4iately-exclusio*a4y-o4-esse*tialist.-Kathe4/-they-ca*-co*t4ibute-to-c4oss5 cultu4al-e*3a3eme*t-a*+-e*4ich-ou4-ability-to-p4otect-a*+-7ul7ill-huma*-4i3hts.-22.-=hy-'lac6*ess?--2-chooseto-7ocus-o*-the-t4a*s*atio*al-a*+-multiple-+ime*sio*s-o7-O'lac6*ess/O-*ot-because-2-believe-that-4ece*t)74ica*5+esce*t-co*st4ucte+-i*-histo4ical-a*+-co*tempo4a4y-oppositio*-to-Owhite*essO-o4-%u4opea*-+esce*tco*stitutes-the-e*ti4e-4a*3e-o7-4acial-mea*i*3.-Ca*y-$4itical-Kace-theo4ists/-i*clu+i*3-some-o7-theoutsta*+i*3-schola4s-at-this-symposium/-have-al4ea+y-challe*3e+-a*+-complicate+-a*-ove4simpli7ie+-'lac65 =hite-pa4a+i3m-Nuite-e77ectively.-*9#-Kathe4/-my-lo*35te4m-p4o:ect-is-to-exami*e-the-implicatio*s-o7-O'lac6+ive4sityO-*,"-o4-multi+ime*sio*ality-withi*-'lac6*ess.-8he--LY9""(M--4ich*ess-a*+-+epth-o7-'lac6e*3a3eme*t-with-t4a*s*atio*al-co*texts-i*-p4e5a*+-post584a*s)tla*tic-slave4y-is-bei*3-explo4e+-byhisto4ia*s/-sociolo3ists/-a*+-a*th4opolo3ists/-but-much-4emai*s-to-be-+o*e.-*,9-Gpeci7ically/-2-hope-toexami*e-mo4e-+eeply-i*-7utu4e-wo46-the-implicatio*s-o7-the-complexity-o7-'lac6*ess-7o4-i*te4*atio*alhuma*-4i3hts-st4ate3ies-as-tools-i*-the-st4u33le-7o4-3lobal-social-:ustice.

AL4 &e =hould be +olorblindIOur Holicy is +olorblind


+olorblindness fails to recogni'e structural discrimination which means that their evaluation of the lin% debate would only re-entrench white privilege and legitimi'e racism

.ing C, Hrofessor of -aw at ;+ ?avis 'ill-1*3/-?2*stitutio*al-Kacism-2$%-Kai+s-a*+-2mmi34atio*-Ke7o4m-?-I*ive4sity-o7-Ga*-B4a*cisco-LawKeview-Ball-,""#


I*+e4sta*+i*3-that-the-*atio*Ps-laws-a*+-e*7o4ceme*t-policies-4esulte+-74om-i*stitutio*aliDe+-4acism-le*+sa-wholly-sepa4ate-4atio*ale--LY& 8M--7o4-immi34atio*-4e7o4m.-*9 ,-%stablishi*3-a-case-o7-i*te*tio*al+isc4imi*atio*-u*+e4-the-challe*3i*3-sta*+a4+s-4eNui4e+-by-the-Gup4eme-$ou4t-i*-4acial-+isc4imi*atio*cases-woul+-be-+i77icult.-*9 &-Yet-whe*-se4ious-*e3ative-4acial-e77ects-o7-laws-a*+-policies-a4e-evi+e*t/-eve*-i7u*i*te*+e+-o4-u*co*scious/-the*-4i3ht-thi*6i*3-policy-ma6e4s-a*+-lea+e4s-ca*-be-motivate+-to-+o-the-4i3htthi*3/-le3islatively-a*+-a+mi*ist4atively/-7o4-mo4al-a*+-p4actical-4easo*s.-$o*templati*3-c4eative-ways-to4eme+y-the-+ama3e-is-app4op4iate.-2*-7aci*3-st4uctu4al-4acism/-)**e-Qubisch-e*cou4a3es-us-to-be-bol+:O8hou3h-the-st4uctu4al-app4oach-may-seem-Ptoo-bi3/P-we-i3*o4e-it-at-ou4-pe4il-a*+-e*+-up-placi*3-u*4ealisticexpectatio*s-o*-*a44ow/-p4o34ammatic/-ba*+ai+5li6e-solutio*s.-2*stea+/-we-must-be-ambitious-a*+-c4eativeabout-st4ate3ies-...-.O-*9 -8he-p4emise-that-4e7o4m-is-*ee+e+-to-4ecti7y-the-e77ects-o7-i*stitutio*al-4acismchalle*3es-us-to-come-up-with-i**ovative-solutio*s.-'ecause-i*stitutio*s-a4e-*ot-4ace5*eut4al/-+isma*tli*3st4uctu4al-4acism-4eNui4es-us-to-be-4ace5co*scious-i*-ou4-solutio*s/-*ot-colo4bli*+.-2*-the-visa-co*text/-wecoul+-ta6e-a-pa3e-74om-the-+ive4sity-p4o34am-that-was-exte*+e+-to-24ish-a*+-ma*y-othe4-weste4*-%u4opea*immi34a*ts-i*-the-9#8"s-a*+-9##"s-a*+-c4eate-a*-a77i4mative-actio*-e77o4t-to-7i*ally-3ive-7ai4-a*+-eNuitablet4eatme*t-to-immi34a*ts-o7-colo4.-Aive*-what-we-*ow-6*ow-about-the-evolutio*-o7-the-immi34atio*-selectio*system/-i*itial-atte*tio*-shoul+-be-pai+-to-the-*umbe4-o7-visas-that-a4e-available-to-Lati*-a*+-)sia*cou*t4ies.-

AL4 Aictimi'ation
!he alternative is a pre-re3uisite to ending the system of victimology bell hoo%s 1CCO-/-)utho4/-Bemi*ist/-P4o7esso4-at-'e4ea-$olle3e/*illin +a e: ,ndin +a-ism/-pp.-(7578 8he-blac6-chu4ch-has-always-bee*-a-place-i*-the-I*ite+-Gtates-whe4e-)74ica*-)me4ica*s-have-lea4*e+oppositio*al-ways-o7-thi*6i*3-that-e*ha*ce-ou4-capacity-to-su4vive-a*+-7lou4ish.-'lac6-libe4atio*-theolo3yalways-i*te4ve*e+-i*-a*y-te*+e*cy-to-elevate-huma*s-to-the-status-o7-all5powe47ul-bei*3s.-8his-i*siste*ce-o*-thelimitatio*s-o7-huma*s-was-c4ucial-7o4-blac6-people-su77e4i*3-at-the-ha*+s-o7-white-opp4esso4s-a*+/o4-exploite4s.8he-assumptio*-that-thei4-powe4-was-limite+/-sub:ect-to-7o4ces-beyo*+-co*t4ol/-eve*-a-belie7-i*-the-mi4aculous/was-a*-empowe4i*3-wo4l+-view-4u**i*3-cou*te4-to-the-teachi*3s-o7-white-colo*iDi*3-7o4ces.-)s-4eli3io*becomes-less-ce*t4al-to-the-lives-o7-co*tempo4a4y-)74ica*-)me4ica*s/-pa4ticula4ly-to-youth/-those-7o4ms-o7oppositio*al-thi*6i*3-a4e-*ot-tau3ht.-=ithout-alte4*ative-belie7-systems-blac6-7ol6s-emb4ace-the-values-o7-theexisti*3-system/-which-+aily-4ei*7o4ce-lea4*e+-helpless*ess.-Cass-me+ia-co*ti*ually-bomba4+-us-with-ima3es-o7)74ica*-)me4ica*s-which-sp4ea+-the-messa3e-that-we-a4e-hopeless/-t4appe+/-a*+-u*able-to-cha*3e-ou4ci4cumsta*ces-i*-mea*i*37ul-ways.-0o-wo*+e4-the*-that-a-3e*e4atio*-o7-blac6s-who-lea4*-much-o7-thei46*owle+3e-o7-4ace-a*+-st4u33les-to-e*+-4acism-74om-movies-a*+-televisio*-see-themselves-as-victims.-14-thatthey-see-the-o*ly-way-out-o7-bei*3-a-victim-is-to-assume-the-4ole-o7-victimiDe4.-=hile-Ghelby-Gteele-chastise+blac6-7ol6s-7o4-accepti*3-the-eNuatio*-o7-blac6*ess-as-victimiDatio*>?to-be-blac6-is-to-be-a-victimJ-the4e7o4e/-*otto-be-a-victim-is-*ot-to-be-blac6@>he-+oes-*ot-exami*e-white-i*vestme*t-i*-this-eNuatio*.-Yet-those-blac6-7ol6swho-emb4ace-victim-i+e*tity-+o-so-because-they-7i*+-it-me+iates-4elatio*s-with-whites/-that-it-is-easie4-to-ma6eappeals-that-call-7o4-sympathy-4athe4-tha*-4e+4ess-a*+-4epa4atio*s.-)s-lo*3-as-white-)me4ica*s-a4e-mo4ewilli*3-to-exte*+-co*ce4*-a*+-ca4e-to-blac6-7ol6s-who-have-a-?victim57ocuse+-blac6-i+e*tity/@-a-shi7t-i*pa4a+i3ms-will-*ot-ta6e-place.

AL4 "ssentialism
"ssentialism of cultures allows for better understanding*it is the only way it can be grasped A'oulay, 1CCB/-assistant professor of anthropology and chair of the Africana =tudies Hrogram at @rinnell +ollege, ;Qatya-Aibel/-?%xpe4ie*ce/-empathy-a*+-st4ate3ic-%sse*tialism/@http://www.i*7o4mawo4l+.com/smpp/title\co*te*t=t79&!8 87&--Loo6i*3-at-cultu4e-74om-a*othe4-pe4spective/-lite4a4y-c4itic-$h4istophe4-Ee4be4t-a43ues-7o4-a*-a*alysis-o7-thecultu4e-co*cept-a3ai*st-the-bac634ou*+-o7-Sicto4ia*-%*3la*+-;9##9<.-Ee-+emo*st4ates-that-the-cultu4e-co*ceptwas-a-cou*te45*a44ative-to-theolo3ical-belie7s-co*ce4*i*3-o4i3i*al-si*-a*+-its-i*he4e*t-existe*ce-i*-ma*/-i*-the7o4m-o7-u*co*t4ollable-+esi4e.-,!-Kea+i*3-the-texts-o7-=esleya*-missio*a4ies-i*-the-Gouth-Paci7ic/-Ee4be4tt4aces-the-cultu4e-i+ea-as-it-sli+es-alo*3-a-co*ti*uum-74om-4eli3io*-to-secula4-scie*ce.-8he-missio*a4ies-a44ive+with-p4eco*ceptio*s-a*+-a-co*victio*-that-the-social-lives-o7-the-+a465s6i**e+-isla*+e4s-we4e-cha4acte4iDe+-bybehaviou4-that-4ep4ese*te+-the-i*ca4*atio*-o7-si*-a*+-vice.-2*-o4+e4-to-ca44y-out-thei4-4eli3ious-p4o:ect/-themissio*a4ies-ha+-to-establish-a-4appo4t-with-thei4-p4ospective-co*ve4ts.-8hey-ha+-to-lea4*-the-local-la*3ua3ewhich-the*-became-a-vehicle-o7-e*t4y-i*to-the-society.-Gpeci7ically/-to-co*ve4t-the-locals-to-$h4istia*ity/-themissio*a4ies-ha+-to-become-co*scious-o7-the-existe*ce-o7-a*-o4+e4.-8hi*6i*3-i*-te4ms-o7-cultu4e-co*seNue*tlyp4ovi+e+-the-6ey-7o4-a-st4ate3y-o7-co*ve4sio*:-8he-missio*a4iesP-will-to-powe4-lea+s-+i4ectly-i*-this-way-to-the+isti*ct-7o4mulatio*-o7-the-p4i*ciple-o7-the-i*+ivisible-i*te34ity-o7-cultu4e.-;Ee4be4t/-9##9:-.//<-8he-socialvocabula4y-o7-cultu4e-is-thus-4elate+-to-policies-o7-+omesticatio*-which-4eNui4e+-6*owle+3e-o7-a-pa4ticula434oup-o7-people.-Siewi*3-Pcultu4eP-as-a*-o43a*iDi*3-mecha*ism-+emo*st4ates-the-p4ocess-th4ou3h-which-theexiste*ce-o7-the-alie*-othe4-mi3ht-be-comp4ehe*+e+-a*+-explai*e+.-2*-this-co*text/-2-su33est-that-the-issue-o7how-+i77e4e*ce-is-to-be-P34aspe+P-a*+-b4ou3ht-u*+e4-co*t4ol-co*ti*ues-to-be-both-a*-exhausti*3-i*tellectualp4o:ect-as-well-as-a*-i*t4actable-a+mi*ist4ative-p4oblem.-2*-the-ambi3uous-+iscou4se-o7-+ive4sity/-cultu4e-is-stillcalle+-upo*-to-cla4i7y-+i77e4e*t-social-p4actices-a*+-explai*-social-a*ta3o*isms.-=he*-cleava3es-i*-the-social7ab4ic-a4e-t4eate+-as-i7-they-we4e-4oote+-i*-Pcultu4alP-+i77e4e*ces-5-i*-othe4-wo4+s/-att4ibute+-to-mea*i*3-systems4athe4-tha*-the-politics-o7-i*eNuality-5-the-social-vocabula4y-o7-cultu4e-is-a-hi*+4a*ce-4athe4-tha*-a*-ai+-toexami*i*3-the-4elatio*ship-betwee*-the-political-a*+-mate4ial-co*+itio*s-as-they-ope4ate-at-local/-*atio*al-a*+3lobal-levels.-

"ssentialism allows for the inclusion of the Other and grants voices A'oulay, 1CCB/-assistant professor of anthropology and chair of the Africana =tudies Hrogram at @rinnell +ollege, ;Qatya-Aibel/-?%xpe4ie*ce/-empathy-a*+-st4ate3ic-%sse*tialism/@http://www.i*7o4mawo4l+.com/smpp/title\co*te*t=t79&!8 87&-Political-philosophe4-Geyla-'e*habib-+4aws-o*-the-i*si3hts-o7-Ea**ah-)4e*+t/-the-Jewish-political-theo4ist-a*+4e7u3ee-74om-0aDi-Ae4ma*y.-)3ai*st-a-t4a+itio*-o7-u*ive4salism-which-mas6s-eth*oce*t4ism/-'e*habibp4oposes-a-mo+el-o7-mo4al-co*ve4satio*-whose-3oal-is-the-p4ocess-o7-+ialo3ue/-co*ve4satio*-a*+-mutualu*+e4sta*+i*3/-not co*se*sus.-)-mo4al-co*ve4satio*-i*sta*tiates-a-4eve4sal-o7-pe4spectivesJ-Pthat-is/-thewilli*3*ess-to-4easo*-74om-the-othe4Ps-poi*t-o7-viewP-;'e*habib/-9##,<.-8his-7o4mulatio*-5-thi*6i*3-74om-thesta*+poi*t-o7-othe4s-5-acce*tuates-the-e3alita4ia*-a*+-pote*tially-4a+ical-possibilities-7o4-public-cultu4e.-)s'e*habib-4emi*+s-us/-the-mo+e4*-public-sphe4e-*o-lo*3e4-allows-a-+isti*ctio*-betwee*-Pthe-socialP-a*+-PthepoliticalP-p4ecisely-because-the-st4u33le-to-ma6e-somethi*3-public-is-i*t4i*sically-a-st4u33le-7o4-4eco3*itio*/i*clusio*-a*+-:ustice.-8he-public-sphe4e/-the*/-is-the-i*te4sectio*-o7-i*te4actio*/-i*te4commu*icatio*-a*+i*te4cultu4al-e*cou*te4s.-,7-)3ai*st-this-bac634ou*+/-as-'e*habib-pe4suasively-claims/-Pthe-sel75ce*te4e+pe4spective-o7-the-i*+ivi+ual-is-co*sta*tly-challe*3e+-by-the-multiplicity-a*+-+ive4sity-o7-pe4spectives-thatco*stitute-public-li7eP-;'e*habib/-9##,:-9 9<.-2*-othe4-wo4+s/-the-pa4ticula4ity-a*+-othe4*ess-o7-a*-i*+ivi+ualca*-be-6*ow*-o*ly-th4ou3h-he4-sel7+e7i*itio*-which/-i*-tu4*/-4eNui4es-that-she-have-a-voice.-2-have-4aise+-thec4itiNue-o7-libe4alism-to-4e+i4ect-atte*tio*-to-the-sha4p-co*t4ast-betwee*-i*clusio*-a*+-multivocality-5-i*-the7i4st/-i*clusio*/-the-1the4-is-always-the-outsi+e4/-the-o*e-who-is-always-al4ea+y-+e7i*e+-as-+i77e4e*t-a*+the4e7o4e-is-4espo*sible-7o4-accommo+ati*3-to-the-situatio*-i*-which-s/he-is-e*te4i*3.-2*clusio*-the4e7o4emea*s-pe4missio*-to-e*te4-5-a-pe4missio*-which-ca*-always-be-4esci*+e+.-8he-space-has-al4ea+y-bee*-ca4ve+out-by-the-powe47ul-pa4ticipa*ts-5-membe4s-o7-the-+omi*a*t-34oup.-Kebels-a*+-4esisto4s-a4e-ma43i*aliDe+-o4exclu+e+.

RRRR

criti3ue of overcoming reification through signifying or politici'ing S insert whatever the aff tal%s aboutT as social space

reification of signs 1nc


Our challenge is with the signification of 9space9 as an image of thought and moreover with the attempt to substitute the signified ob,ect as a void for the immanence of the cosmos ;nbeing becomes a substitution that offers us a fissure for an engagement, to ma%e a commitment to the te5t that goes beyond admissibility, beyond a reification of self through sterile attachments and towards an impossible view of language as movement without meaning -- to re-configure the topology of te5tual relations &here the 1ac focuses on the presence of E7eingE, we demand an engagement with unbeing @roves 9C-).-Gta*ley-A4oves-is-a-w4ite4/-poet/-musicia*-a*+-a4tist-a*+-a-ca*+i+ate-7o4-a-PhD-i*$ommu*icatio*/-Ce+ia-8heo4y-a*+-Philosophy-with-the-%u4opea*-A4a+uate-Gchool/-Gaas-5-Bee/-GwitDe4la*+%ma inality: $on0ersant and ,s-haton /-)t4opos-P4ess-p.-9 59( =hat-2-have-be3u*-to-see-i*-this-wo46/-i*itially-w4itte*-7o4-the-%u4opea*-A4a+uate-Gchool/-is-a-possibility-7o4what-2-call-Oco*ce*t4ic-he4me*euticsO.-2t-Ps-wo4thy-to-*ote- ,s-haton a*+-es-hatolo y a4e-si3*i7ica*t-wo4+s-i*li3ht-o7-such/-so-2-wish-to-a++4ess-a-possible-c4itiNue-o7-this-wo46-as-pa4t-o7-the-P4etu4*-o7-the-4eli3ious-P.-2t-woul+be-+i77icult-to-co*si+e4-such-c4iticism-*othi*3-mo4e-tha*-:u+3eme*ts-o7-a-philosophical-7ashio*-police-...-such-a*otio*-seems-a6i*-to-the-4et4ea+-i+eas-7ou*+-i*-ou4-co*tempo4a4y-ma46et-o7-i+e*tity-*ostal3ia.-0o-matte4-how4epulse+/-o4-how-ha4+-we-a4e-co*+itio*e+-P-*ot5to-P/-we-must-pass-th4ou3h-wo4+s-a*+-i+eas-7ully.-8he-P-4eli3iousP-is-*ot-ove4-*o4-ca*-such-be-i3*o4e+.-)*ythi*3-less-4etu4*s-a-7amilia4-4ep4essio*-/-the-4etu4*-to-4obust-i+eolo3ya*+-i+e*tity-politics.-27-we-have-lea4*e+-a*ythi*3-about-P-the-4eli3ious-P/-itPs-that-4ep4essio*-3ives-i+e*tity-a*+4easo*-the reason1 'oth-have-i*7i*ite-ma*i7estatio*s-a*+-co*seNue*ces.-8he-*asty-emb4ace-shoul+-be-a-:oy7ul4elease-74om-that-which-+e7i*es-us-i*-the-+a46-o7-ou4-la*3ua3e.-$o*ce4*i*3-philosophy-a*+-the-absolute/-thei*e77able-a*+-*e3ative-theolo3y/-this-boo6-+oes-*ot-aim-to-ali3*-with-such.-)*+-*o-o*e-shoul+-a34ee-with-thistext.-Philosophical-boo6s-a4e-at-thei4-best-whe*-they-i*spi4e/-*ot-wei3h-the-mi*+-with-co*te*t-a*+-solicit-7o4believe4s.-=e-must-3et-out-7i]om-the-u*+e4belly-o7-the-w4itte*-a*+-be3i*-to-4ethi*6-how-we-app4oach-it-all.=hat-mea*s-to-thi*6-*ot-what-mea*s-to-mea*:-that-is-the-poi*tR-Eow-else-to-move-beyo*+-the-i+eaJ-tou*+e4sta*+-sculpti*3-o7-the-i+ea-we-seem-co*7i*e+-to-a*+-co*7use+-i*?-!he 3uestion here can be thought as a search for a pre-cogni'ing 9 liberation 9 from the determination of image-regimes and the baleens of the cosmos !his thin%ing is affirmative in the most arrested sense /-the-a77i4matio*co*ti*ues-with-its-4ea+e4s.-A shift down on the impulse and refraction left in this te5t attempts to define itself within itself Our thesis4 two surfaces present a third surface from the view of the image that moves a single image between ?espite the fact such remains in the idea, the whole "schaton remains the te5t (here) that ciphers an impossibility of the "schaton to-come without being and metaphysics (there).-Ca*i7ol+.-'ei*3-a*+-metaphysics-a4e-co*ceptual-a*+-*ecessa4y/-but-*otthe-e*+/-such-3oes-o*.-Bollowi*3-Gchi4mache4-we are concerned here with the remains of being left in language, as unbeing behind and ahead an unknown familiar we call conversant portending. A possible prior utterance and the possibility of the impossible view of language as an idea .-'ehi*+=-ea4th/-ahea+-=-wo4l+/-betwee*-=-eschato*.-+an one as% at the unraveling and e5pansion of the ideaD !he idea into e5istence that reconfigures such against world as the world completely in the worldD !he world of the falling ceilingD !he in-forming world of deadly pressure and compressionD !here are pressures behind and ahead of this world Hressures that give surface and the lissen between at the threading of the idea -issen can be imaginality, not image, that is to say4 blowing smo%e through a fence, the screen and fence of the te5t, the written And what of this te5tD !his te5t re3uires commitment A commitment to the content, but not so far as what it means/-but-that-ob:ects-mea*s-itself a-+eli4ium-a*+-+ysto*ia-o7-the-su47ace-a*+-4ea+e4/6alei+oscopically.-!hat re3uires a commitment to move beyond one-self, by the topography of the te5t with imaginality =pace as liberated from temporality renders the movement of time into an ob,ect of sterile signification -- the future is becomes automatic, the a5ioms of causal determinism displace our conscious e5perience of reality to eliminate affect with mere mechanism-- this ma%es us migrant among our own memories and destroys the finitude that gives freedom to e5istence -vote negative to articulate relationality outside of EspaceE as a signification

0artino 910-J.).-Ca4ti*o-4eceive+-he4-'.).-i*-%*3lish-74om-the-I*ive4sity-o7-1ttawa/-$a*a+a/-i*-,"" /-a*+he4-Caste4Fs-i*-%*3lish-74om-the-I*ive4sity-o7-1ta3o/-0ew-Zeala*+/-i*-,""8.-Ee4-4esea4ch-i*te4ests-i*clu+eB4e*ch-existe*tial-philosophy-a*+-its-p4ecu4so4s/-)me4ica*-wa4-*ovels/-a*+-lite4atu4e-o7-the-Lati*5)me4ica*'oom.-Ghe-will-be3i*-+octo4al-stu+ies-i*-,"99.-O 'illy-Pil34imFs-Cotio*-Gic6*ess:-$h4o*esthesia-a*+-Du4atio*-i*Slau hterhouse"2i0eO Philament B3+',+S! +,G%34S! W3+L'S 5 6u ust 78.8 7illys denial of e5perience, his shutting down in the face of the admittedly overwhelming horrors of war and death, is 3uite within the realm of sympathy .-8he-thou3ht-o7-a*-escape-74om-aKussia*-wi*te4-i*-a-p4iso*e45o75wa4-camp-is-*ot-without-its-me4its/-but-'illyFs-se4e*ity-comes-at-the-p4ice-o7-his74ee+om.-.e floats in a #dream-li%e state devoid of temporal roots, significant e5perience, and meaning .e is calm and untroubled, but isolated from his own e5perience,$ including his own death. &-)s-So**e3ut-has-show*-th4ou3h-his-cap4icious-use-o7-the-ph4ase-?so-it-3oes/@-+eath-is-a-7u*+ame*taltheme-o7-*ot-o*ly-this-*ovel/-o4-o7-existe*tial-lite4atu4e/-but-o7-all-existe*ce.- 7illys disavowal of linear time means that he re,ects the one thing common to all living things, the one thing that connects everything and everyone 7y denying death, 7illy removes himself completely from the realm of the human2 in his desire to be eternal, he loses the universal .e avoids death by dismantling linear temporality, to which all humans are sub,ect and on which conscious freedom depends, and thus e5pels himself from humanity .e becomes a citi'en of his own memories, an internal migrant, thereby missing the one thing that ma%es life worthwhile .-2*-his-essay-o*-time-t4avel-i*lite4atu4e/-Da*iel-$o4+le-states-that-So**e3ut-chooses-a-*o*5li*ea4-tempo4ality-i*-o4+e4-to-7o4ce-the-4ea+e4-to?4eco*si+e4-the-+i77e4e*t-so4ts-o7-mea*i*3s-that-a4e-associate+-with-cha*3e-ove4-time/@ -4athe4-tha*+ismissi*3-it-as-mea*i*3less.-2-a43ue-that-'illyFs-situatio*-i*-the-bubble-o7-his-+u4atio*-st4ips-his-li7e-o7-mea*i*3alto3ethe4/-a*+-that-his-spatialiDatio*-o7-the-hete4o3e*eity-o7-+u4atio*-u*+e4mi*es-the-possibility-o7-themea*i*3-i*he4e*t-i*-cha*3e-ove4-time.-2*-a-li*ea4-view-o7-time/-o*e-eve*t-7ollows-a*othe4.-8his-mea*s/-7o4-allp4actical-pu4poses-a*+-7o4-the-sa6e-o7-a43ume*t-he4e/-that-each occurrence has an effect on what happens ne5t, and that situations have a more or less traceable lineage bac%wards 8 though not forwards 8 through time In a 7ergsonian view, at least, this is certainly the case In addition to providing us with our near-absolute freedom 8 we create ourselves as we go, and yet the self is not merely an accumulation of the past because in the perpetual flow of linear time, e5istence is continual creation, so there is always room for the unforeseen 8 a linear time frame also allows for events to have meaning, to be caused by or to cause another event, and to gain relevance through the causal relationship -=ithout-this-type-o7-tempo4ality/-the4e-is-*o-lo*3e4-a*y-such-thi*3-as-asystem-o7-cause5a*+5e77ect/-because-7o4-eve*ts-to-exe4cise-i*7lue*ce-o*-o*e-a*othe4/-they-must-7ollow-o*ea*othe4-i*-a-seNue*ce.-)s-$o4+le-*otes-with-a-smi46:-?the-hac6*eye+-+ema*+-that-sto4ies-have-a-be3i**i*3/-ami++le/-a*+-a*-e*+-is-su4ely-7ou*+e+-o*-the-assumptio*-that-it-is-i*-a-t4a+itio*al-seNue*ci*3-o7-eve*ts-thatmea*i*3-4esi+es.@ (-2-woul+-a43ue-that-$o4+le-is-co*7lati*3-the-li*ea4-seNue*ci*3-o7-eve*ts-i*-hi*+si3ht-withthe-psycholo3ical-+ete4mi*ism-that-'e43so*-4e7utes/-the-view-that-claims-eve*ts-exist-i*-time-to-be-e*cou*te4e+whe*-app4op4iate.-Bo4-'illy-Pil34im/-a*+-7o4-huma*-bei*3s-i*-3e*e4al/-this-+ema*+-is-*ot-hac6*eye+-i*-theleast:-the-mea*i*3-i*he4e*t-i*-ch4o*olo3y-is-ve4y-4eal.-$o4+le/-pa4aph4asi*3-the-)me4ica*-evolutio*a4ybiolo3ist-a*+-paleo*tolo3ist-Gteve*-Jay-Aoul+/-:usti7ies-his-+ismissal-th4ou3h-the-compa4iso*-o7-the-huma*+esi4e-7o4-li*ea4-p4o34essio*-i*-*ovels-with-the-+esi4e-to-believe-that-evolutio*-itsel7-is-li6ewise-li*ea4-a*+teleolo3ical.-Ee-a43ues-that-the notion that there is a clear path, a direct line from the primordial sludge to the ascension of humanity, and that humanity itself is the ultimate goal of evolution, contributes a great deal to our ability to ascribe meaning and purpose to our e5istence GO 6or .enri 7ergson, however, the appearance of following a distinct path is only a retrospective phenomenon, because to assume that there are two or more possible paths and that one of these is chosen is to create the future before it happens 6or this path-theory to wor%, the future must be constructed, whole and waiting ,ust out of sight, for us to come across at the designated point in time -7ergson disagrees with this on a fundamental level, believing that if time is structured in this manner, human freedom becomes a parody -!he future is not chosen/-'e43so*-says/-but created.-8his/-o7-cou4se/-is-also-the-7ault-with-the !ralfamadorian view of human temporality4 it is dependent on their notion that all moments are structured at all times, which directly conflicts with 7ergsonian notions of consciousness and freedom .-8he-illust4atio*-o7a-huma*-st4appe+-to-a-7latca4-is-theo4etically-7easible-o*ly-whe*-p4e+icate+-o*-the-expectatio*-that-time-+oes*ot-move/-huma*s-+o:-as-with-'e43so*Fs-4e7utatio*-o7-the-path-theo4y/-it-mea*s-that-eve4y-mome*t-al4ea+y-

exists/-a*+-we-have-the-mis7o4tu*e-o7-bei*3-able-to-app4ehe*+-o*ly-o*e-mome*t-at-a-time/-i*-a-set-o4+e4.- !his

entails a mathematical representation of time as space4 a depiction of cloc%-time, rather than the time of consciousness !o 7ergson, this is a fallacious illustration because, as he says, humans create time in the processing of memories and their accumulation as past !he freedom inherent in a linear time frame is reliant on the possibility of change, on the e5istence of space for the unforeseen -8he-84al7ama+o4ia*-view-o7-time-is-i*-7act-a-

+e*ial-o7-time/-i7-time-is-the-co*st4uctio*-o7-cha*3e/-possibility/-34owth/-a*+-i*te4actio*-as-it-is-+e7i*e+-i*-the'e43so*ia*-se*se.-8ime-o*-84al7ama+o4e/-as-a-mathematical-co*st4uctio*/-i3*o4es-the-tempo4al-7lux-a*+moveme*t-that-cha4acte4ises-the-*atu4e-o7-time-to-huma*-bei*3s.-8his-is-a-time74ame-i*ve*te+-by- 7illy Hilgrim/-which-74ees-him-74om-the-4espo*sibilities-o7-74ee+om-a*+-co*ti*ual-c4eatio*:-he-+isma*tles-hisco*scious*ess/-his-+u4atio*/-4emoves-it-74om-the-li*ea4-7low-o7-time-o*-which-74ee+om-+epe*+s/-a*+4eco*st4ucts-it-co*c4etely.-Ee-dismantles time itself, as it is defined by each moments connection to a particular and uni3ue state of being4 by revisiting them in their original states, without learning or changing at all, he is in effect rearranging time through his shuffling of memory .-8hetime-'illy-spe*+s-4elivi*3-ol+-memo4ies-is-*ot-accumulative/-but-4athe4-ceaselessly-4epetitive:-?Ee-7ou*+himsel7-e*3a3e+-a3ai*/-wo4+-7o4-wo4+/-3estu4e-7o4-3estu4e/-i*-the-a43ume*t-with-his-+au3hte4-with-which-thistale-be3a*.@ 7-2*-a+opti*3-the-84al7ama+o4ia*-view/-'illy-4emoves-a*y-cha*ce-to-lea4*-a*+-34ow-a*+-cha*3e-i*the-wo4l+:-he-is-co*+em*e+-to-4e5expe4ie*ce-mome*ts-?without-the-possibility-o7-cha*3e/-si*ce-his-6*owle+3eo7-the-7utu4e-is-useless-i*-te4ms-o7-its-applicatio*-to-the-p4ese*t.@ 8-8hou3h-$olema*-applies-the-theo4ies-o7Joh*-Dewey-;which-sha4e-a-*umbe4-o7-i+eas-with-'e43so*ism</-he-*o*etheless-a34ees-that-'illy-?is-i3*o4a*t-o7the-mea*i*3-o7-his-expe4ie*ces/-that-is/-how-his-expe4ie*ces-a4e-4elate+.@ #-Kathe4-tha*-bei*3-able-to-a++memo4ies/-to-allow-the-passa3e-o7-time-to-3ive-mea*i*3-to-the-eve*ts-o7-the-past-a*+-shape-his-4eactio*s-i*-the7utu4e/-he-has-i*stea+/-i*-his-+esi4e-to-escape-the-ho44o4s-o7-the-wa4/-t4appe+-himsel7-i*-a-7ishbowl-o7-shi7ti*3tempo4ality-that-at-a*y-mome*t-coul+-+eposit-him-4i3ht-bac6-i*to-the-mi+st-o7-the-ve4y-thi*3-he-is-t4yi*3-toescape.-%+elstei*-a43ues-that-the-?space5t4avel-to-84al7ama+o4e-a*+-what-'illy-Pil34im-lea4*s-the4e-about-timep4ovi+e-him-with-a-74amewo46-i*-which-he-ca*-ma6e-peace-with-both-the-ho44o4s-o7-his-past-a*+-the-ho44o4s-o7his-impe*+i*3-ol+-a3e/-a*+-i*-which-his-e*ti4e-li7e-has-mea*i*3@.("-)34eei*3/-Philip-C.-Kube*s-w4ites-o7-the?ty4a**y-o7-li*ea4-time@-a*+-claims-that-?ma*6i*+-LisM-t4appe+-i*-a-li*ea4/-+ete4mi*istic-u*ive4se.@(9-2-a43uethe-co*t4a4y:-the framewor% 7illy Hilgrim assembles scrubs his life of meaning,

placing him within a circle of time around the inside of which he shuffles at random It removes him from the unifying, humani'ing e5perience of death, turns his living, changing consciousness into a solid, concrete thing, and renders him unfree -Ee-ca**ot-ma6e-peace-with-his-impe*+i*3-ol+-a3e/-because-7o4-'illy/-it-is-

*ot-impe*+i*3.-2t-is-the4e/-existe*t-a*+-whole/-7o4-him-to-visit-at-4a*+om-a*+-pote*tially-i*oppo4tu*e-mome*ts4athe4-tha*-a*-immi*e*t-a*+-u*6*ow*-sta3e-i*-his-7utu4e.-Li6ewise-the-ho44o4s-o7-wa4:-he-is-liable-to-be-th4ow*at-a*y-mome*t-bac6-i*to-the-ho44o4s-o7-D4es+e*/-a*+-as-such-*eve4-has-the-time-a*+-+ista*ce-that-woul+e*able-him-to-heal.-1*-a-lo*3-e*ou3h-timeli*e/-it-is-sa7e-to-assume-that-'illy-will-have-to-pat4o*ise-all-hismome*ts-at-o*e-poi*t-o4-a*othe4/-helplessly-watchi*3-himsel7-4e5play-ol+-co*ve4satio*s-without-bei*3-able-to34ow/-to-lea4*-a*ythi*3-*ew/-o4-to-cha*3e-a*ythi*3.-Kathe4/-he-is-t4appe+-7o4eve4-i*-the-e*+less-4epetitio*-o7his-memo4ies/-a*+-?a*-e3o-which-+oes-*ot-cha*3e/-+oes-*ot-e*+u4e.@(,-'illy-e*+s-up-4oote+-*ot-i*to-themome*t-o7-the-7i4esto4m-itsel7/-but-those-that-imme+iately-7ollow:-those-mome*ts-o7-4ealiDatio*-a*+4eco3*itio*/-o7-i*c4easi*3-awa4e*ess-o7-the-scale-a*+-scope-o7-what-has-:ust-bee*-wit*esse+.-)43uably/-these-a4emo4e-pai*7ul-tha*-the-mome*ts-o7-the-7i4esto4m-itsel7/-7o4-which/-as-So**e3ut-says/-?Ee-was-+ow*-i*-the-meatloc6e4-.-.-.-8he-meat-loc6e4-was-a-ve4y-sa7e-shelte4.-)ll-that-happe*e+-+ow*-the4e-was-a*-occasio*al-showe4-o7calcimi*e.@(&-8he-bi4+-call-that-be3a*-the-boo6-is-the-o*e-to-e*+-it/-closi*3-the-ci4cle-o7-time-i*-which-the*a44ative-is-co*tai*e+/-a*+-t4appi*3-'illy-Pil34im-7o4eve4-i*-that-mome*t-o7-his-memo4y-imme+iately-a7te4-the7i4esto4m/-a-mome*t-a7te4-the-massac4e-whe*-?eve4ythi*3-is-suppose+-to-be-ve4y-Nuiet-.-.-.-a*+-it-always-is/except-7o4-the-bi4+s.-)*+-what-+o-the-bi4+s-say?-)ll-the4e-is-to-say-about-a-massac4e/-thi*3s-li6e-VPoo5tee5 weet?F@( -!he structure of the boo% echoes the sealing of 7illys own consciousness inside a bubble where all moments e5ist at once, and therefore he is responsible for nothing, and cannot be free !ime may not heal all wounds, but its passage allows for the perspective and reflection that are necessary to the process of recovery 7illy, in his desperation for relief, removes himself from the natural progression of linear time in order to escape the horrors that

wound him In so doing, 7illy also denies himself the possibility of healing any of those wounds and negates the conscious freedom inherent in linearity &retched in his need to flee the destruction around him, he divorces himself from the world and from humanity and so lives only within the circle of his own memories -?8he-i4o*y/@-as-So**e3ut-says/-?is-so 34eat.@((

Lnc space-as-a-figurative-sign
Overcoming the 9space9 regime of signs as a mere surface is vital to wor% against the stultifying imprisonment of rational selfhood -- typified through an understanding of 9world9 as a system of images who we master without responsibility -- towards an ethics of conversance capable of affective infinition @roves 9C-).-Gta*ley-A4oves-is-a-w4ite4/-poet/-musicia*-a*+-a4tist-a*+-a-ca*+i+ate-7o4-a-PhD-i*$ommu*icatio*/-Ce+ia-8heo4y-a*+-Philosophy-with-the-%u4opea*-A4a+uate-Gchool/-Gaas-5-Bee/-GwitDe4la*+%ma inality: $on0ersant and ,s-haton /-)t4opos-P4ess-p.-&&-55-& !he transfer of the image on to EotherE surfaces, the analysis used to e5plain them , and the technologies that have risen in order to understand the earth (rendering earth into the world of image machines) means our relation ship to the things we create is at its very genesis built upon our singular ability with image/-mo4e/-how-we-abi+e-with-such-.-Our birthright by virtue of conversant means we are masters to be of image worlds -9#-8o-a-ce4tai*-+e34ee-somethi*3-;eve*-*o5 thi*3<-4emai*s-i*-the-i*te44e3*um-o7-sub:ect-a*+-e3o-;a+ult-a*+-chil+-i7-o*e-p4e7e4s</-ove4-the-7iel+-+ista*ce+74om-existe*ce-a*+-ima3e-i*te4io4ly/-a*+-the-co*si3*i*3-o7-ima3es-exte4io4ly.-=e-call-this-%schato*-su47ace.8hat-is-the-ima3i*a4y-i*-pa4t/-that-is-*ot-7ully-+eco*st4ucti*3-itsel7/-o4-*ot-autho4i*3-74om-*othi*3-but-74omsomethi*3.-0o-matte4/-%schato*-p4esi+es-the-3ap-o7-co*ical-ima3es.-Guch-ca*-be-swoo*e+-by-whateve45 whe4eve4.-=4iti*3-i*volves-a-4elatio*ship-+evelope+-by-ima3e-a*+-each-became-meta-co+e-o7-the-othe4.-,"Image articulates a first falling into thought from the body, an image e5tension of other surfaces, a creation of world and a virtual &e are %indred with such and certainly concede our fascination with images, a di stance and articulation of the fall from our bodies eventually toward the heavens- that became the metaphysics of going to hell that no less must be thought in a corporeal manner -!he image has no limits in this regard !ruth remains discovering the lie that creates truth !ruth is discovering the ultimate sensesolvent that eliminates its own concept, time, and margin !opological e5istence we note as a simple dot or period -)-pe4io+icse*te*ce-pe4haps.-)-stai4case-*ewel-o7-ellipses/-*o-less/-co*es-that-ope*-poles-o7-a-su47ace-o4-4eveal-the-mosaicembossi*3-o7-a-textPs-c4eato45-we-+o-such-by-authorin 1 Guch-we-po4te*+-with-a*+-e*te4-a-st4uctu4e-be*eath-itssi3*-a*+-4e7e4e*ce/-this-is-the-4ea+i*3-o7-the-a*alytic5apa4t.-Guch-is-sel7appa4e*t/-si*3ula4/-*o-less-the-issue-o7i*tellectio*-a*+-t4a*smissio*-4emai*s-ou4-cu4iosity-he4e.-One9s image is solely their own through aesthetic reasoning-o4-ima3i*ality.-)*+-it-is-i*-this-that-we-a77i4m-ou4-tech*iNueme+iati*3-text.-0o-less/-we-w4ite-i*-+ies5cove4i*3/-lyi*3-ou4-way-th4ou3h5t4uth-to-come/-splitti*3-t4uth-a*+happily-4etu4*i*3-;absu4+ly-i7-*ee+-be<.-)*alytic-apa4t-;ima3i*a4y-apa4t<-is-a-su47ace5apa4t-that-ca44ies-ima3es*ot-+eco*st4ucte+.-8hey-+o-*ot-possess-sel7+eco*st4uctio*-i*-te4ms-o7-co*ve4sa*t/-*o-less-the4e-is-abe3uileme*t-o7-the-wo4l+-su47ace5apa4t.-9ransmission is not :passion: or :0ehi-le: in this -ase! rather -on0ersant remains ori inless and perhaps 0ehi-le for now1 8he-i+ea-o7-o4i3i*-is-a-locatio*-itsel7/-a*+-it-shoul+be-aba*+o*e+-i*-that-co*ce4*-;as-i7-it-4esi+es-i*-the-apa4t-i*-the-st4uctu4e-o7-a-i*te4p4etatio*-that-is-always+ete4mi*e+-be7o4e<.-;)*+-7o4-that-matte4-what-excuse-woul+-we-assi3*-7o4-the-o4i3i*-o7-music-i7-we-t4ulyco*si+e4e+-such-to-be-the-sou4ce-o7-it-all/-as-i7-we-t4uste+-a-se*se-to-be-without-a*-o4i3i*-that-4emai*s+epe*+e*t-o*-+i77e4e*ce-a*+-li3ht?<-'ut-let-us-4etu4*:-&hat we call sophisticated forms of discussing and thin%ing about images- analysis- has typified the brac%eting and disciplining of people and their image Lr !his has typified history and created hierarchies LL .istory has emphasi'ed the struggle of images to place their own view within hierarchy L: Adherence to corrected regimes of image machinery (societies, identities) have inevitably consisted an eschatological media system of the world at-large as the world withinDG &e must consider originary surface that gives compensatory imagination as a sub,ect to change in this regard It is our view that the only worthy hi story is "schaton between body and its stream image where the 9being for the world9 is configured as a comple5 of finite eschaton among surface .-=e-a4e-*ot-o*ly-ima3e-hi-sto4y/we-*ee+-move-7o4wa4+-74om-the-temple-i*-this-thou3ht.,(-'y-aesthetic-4easo*i*3-o*-co*ve4sa*t-the-empi4e-o7ima3e-ca*-be-4i3htly-autho4e+-i*to-o*ePs-ow*-wo4l+-o7-the-su47ace-t4a*smo34i7ie+/-a*+-yet- the listen! a*+-toabi+e/-a*+-the do ;7acts<-a4e-a3ai*-hallma46s-we-shoul+-i*vesti3ate.-1*e-*ee+-co*si+e4-si*uous-su47acep4esuppose-the-+ete4mi*ative-4oute-o7-eschatolo3ical-su47aces/-that-is/-the-a4c-o7-co*ve4sa*t-po4te*+s-th4ou3hsu47ace-as-a-7iel+-betwee*-co*siste*t-poles-be*eath-such.-;%xiste*ce-is-*ot-a-me4e-su47ace/-*o4-%schato*-p4ope4/existe*ce-4emai*s-a-metaphysical-wo4l+-7o4-'ei*3-a*+-bei*3-7o4-such-wo4l+/-eve*-i7-its-place-hol+e4-4emai*s-

*othi*3-o4-the-apa4t-4ep4ese*ti*3-*othi*3-i*-ta*+em<.-8o-34asp-such-is-to-3ai*-access-to-autho4ity:-autho4i*3-o7othe4-su47ace-as-embossi*3-upo*-by-o4i3i*a4y-ima3i*atio*.-)*+-it-is-such/- even restricted here in an idea, that we open the idea of conversant and portending as imaginality4 a 9way out9 =uch re3uires the impossible notion to catch transmission intercepting revelatory surface of the converse &e are intrigued by natality and in that we feel failure to recogni'e a mind-independent reality in terms of hospitality would result in the clearest and furthest alienation from one9s surface in that regard ,!-=e-*ote-this-sweep-away-7i]om-the-positio*-o7-ima3e5existe*ce-4eveals-the-7ab4icatio*-o7su47aces.-8his-thi*6i*3-li*6s-to-the-su4p4isi*3-hi-sto4y-o7-o*ePs-ow*-7i*itu+e-as-a*-i*7i*itio*-i*-ima3i*ality-thatmust-be-u*+e4stoo+-a*+-ca4e+-7o4-i*-li3ht-o7-thi-s.-Guch-sta4ts-with-7i*ite-thi*6i*3-as-a*-ima3e5existe*ce/-a*+the-voice-to-be-co+i7ie+-a*+-the-voice-to-abi+e-by/-whethe4-7alse-abi+i*3-o4-*ot.,7-A dividual must consider itself in-dividual, consisting as a surface and surface dividually sub,ect to tenor and authoring such LM

aL4 permutation
=trategies of reading are sub,ectivity-producing -- we become assemblages of the images of thought sociali'ed by the grammar of our te5tual ecologies 9=pace9 is an image of the world constructed through alienated language !he only way to produce encounters with the substance of space is to e5plore behind the image !his means we are a necessary starting point to the 1ac @roves 9C-).-Gta*ley-A4oves-is-a-w4ite4/-poet/-musicia*-a*+-a4tist-a*+-a-ca*+i+ate-7o4-a-PhD-i*$ommu*icatio*/-Ce+ia-8heo4y-a*+-Philosophy-with-the-%u4opea*-A4a+uate-Gchool/-Gaas-5-Bee/-GwitDe4la*+%ma inality: $on0ersant and ,s-haton /-)t4opos-P4ess-p.-,7-55-&" .ow you read is how you live-reading /eading will only produce what you live--how one enters te5t and encounters portending with te5t4 surface to surface, image to image -Kea+i*3-is-*othea4i*3/-but-liste*i*3/-*ot-74om-a-supposi*3-o7-the-a7te4-but-o7-be7o4e-he4e/-behi*+-that-is-the-P7utu4eP-to5come.2*-a-pa3e-the4e-a4e-voices-to-acNui4e.-Hhilosophy must consider the point of view of image out-there2 the other side image from one9s own surface4 from eschaton that preside in variability on the converse and originary surface -=ePve-co*7i3u4e+-t4a*sce*+e*ce-;ima3i*a4y<-as-7alli*3-to-a*+-74omsu47ace-as-the-6ey*ote-passa3e-o7-t4a*smo34i7icatio*.- &e transform surface, and surface transforms bac%4 the 3uestion is what of the brane and conversant arc that gives such before world into worldD &hat magneti'es the echo between polarities, and what sculpts such nonsense alogon, arkhe, revelation? !his view-process of transmontana remains our attempt to describe the converse by arc and spires- components of concentricity &e elect poetry and a few mediations to illuminate possibilities -0o-less-we-O3ive-ea4O-to-such-7utu4es.--anguage as such e5pands the estranged relationship with the cosmos, that is our thoughtless body of the converse, and the hallucination of music.-=hat-we-call-music-coul+-be-po4te*+i*3-thou3h-o4i3i*a4y-a*+-as-such-4eveals-thebloom54oot-stem-se*te*ce-be7o4e-a*+-th4ou3h-si*us-as-si*uosity-;o4-the-si*uous/-a*+-si*ew<.-'loom-is-the-i+eao7-the-si*us.--anguage could be thought to e5ample the imaginal pattern (%aleidoscopical) of such a thing beyond its e5pansion, as pulling forth on to its very fabric, a production beyond that idea forming still !his is perhaps a poetics that does not survive the limitation of the language assigned by the regime of sensuality, that no less gives one a window beyond the absurd noumena of pre,udice that is no less historical thin%ing -8he-se*ses-have-alte4e+-ou4-baseexpe4ie*ce-o7-hea4i*3-towa4+-a-liste*i*3/-which-is-*ot-a-hea4i*3-at-all/-7o4-that-+e*otes-se*suality/-a*+-weshoul+-*ote-Oto-3ive-ea4-toO-a*+-Owith-two-ob:ects:-8o-hea4-somethi*3O/-is-p4ecisely-the-liste*i*3/-a*+-mo4eimpo4ta*tly-Oto-liste*O.-9!-One should meditate on the 3uestion4 if we have ever

heard the presupposition of a spasm, (before utterance) that becomes our ownD One could as% if language is an image of the body, or if we have always tried to compensate for a brevity of language with the anti-thought of imagining -97-1*e-must-as6-why-musi- ca**ot-be-w4itte*?/-yet-it-is-4ea+-by-the listen a*+-is o7-a-lissen1

=e-shoul+-as6-i7-music-w4ites-ima3e5-as-we-+esc4ibe-it-he4eo4-i7-the-ima3e-w4ites-the-bo+y-a*ew-a*+-i7-the4ecou4se-is-4esista*ce-to-w4iti*3-i*-this-ma**e4-by-liste*i*3?-=hat-o7-musicPs-7o4ms-a*+-patte4*s-i*to-a-w4itte*/what-coul+-be-co*si+e4e+-by-the-p4esuppose+-thou3ht-o7-the-i+ea-o7-la*3ua3e-as-its-ba44ica+e?-)-w4itte*-is-theima3e-o7-the-halluci*atio*-o7-music-acco4+i*3-to-the-thou3ht-o7-la*3ua3e-a*+-sculpti*3-by-the-mouth.S-hopenhauer would remind that su-h mouths will always assume credit for the knowledge and creation of the rest of the body. Not music, nor poetry, can be a music a%in to a Esupreme fictionE, as a crossing, as a view or %aleidoscopical techni3ue -that-is-wo4l+5o4ie*te+.-Go-the4e-4emai*so*ly-that-behi*+-us-as-a-be7o4e-al4ea+y/-limite+-by-ima3e-thi*6/-a-su47ace-a3ai*st-a-music-which-+ete4mi*essu47ace.-)-situatio*-that-u43es-a-*otio*-o7-7aith-as-the-%schato*-su47ace/-o*e-that-claims-a-bei*3-apa4t-as-thebei*3-o7-the-o4i3i*a4y.-)*+-pe4haps-this-is-ou4-34eatest-Nuestio*-o7-authe*ticity-a*+-:u+3me*t.-8o-p4o+uce-asu47ace-7o4-music-is-to-p4o+uce-a-mi44o4-that-4e7lects-o*ly-what-is-co*7i*e+-to-optics-a*+-the-thi*6i*3-o7-such.?errida 9s specula above the open body, the array of an image of the interior design And as we define image here it would define itself as e5istence and include sub,ect, and would be 3uasimechanic imaginality into "schaton If it ma%es music, it rather happens the possibility of opening a music to its ta%eror its bidden, as one abides without choice- the music of the listen and the do. !hat is to say, there is only one fact No one hears anything, but is made an ear of

music as a "schaton surface 7oth surfaces assists this e5pansion and transformation =omething as between the earth and the world, (this ever-near compressing world) also presents a new being against the old, and it is in this imaginality that music plays a role for our interest !he 3uestion then is such same-being-falsely-spea%ingD &e must note then that language- before language properly set- e5pands beyond margins slipping in a negative array out of the consensus of the possible .-'4i*3i*3-i*to-li3ht-+oes-expa*+-la*3ua3e/-such-obscu4es-music-i*tosu47aces/-it-is-the*-ou4-tas6-to-u*+e4sta*+-besi+es-such-o*-the-co*ve4se.-1u4-scie*ces-ca*-*ot-atiiculate-the-sai+without-al4ea+y-co*7i3u4i*3-such-to-the-se*ses-a*+-the-se*se5slave+-i+ea-o7-utte4a*ce-that-4etai*-us-all-i*-asha+owe+5histo4y/-a-what! a-still-a4chaic5-but-*ot-a4ca*e-histo4y-o7-i*sta*ces-that-ca*-be-hea4+-but-have-*odistan-e o7-the-listen as-lissen1 Bo4-that-we-must-a++4ess-philosophy-a*+-that-all-philosophy- is! that-4emai*sco*7i*e+-to-la*3ua3e-p4esupposi*3-all-o7-philosophical-i*Nui4y.-8he4e-is-the*-o*ly-a77i4matio*-that-is-music-tous.-A what that fills the moment and the hint in the bow-arch of fatigue that stamps the instant as image 7eneath (rather besides) we can portend a conversant, only if we are challenged to thin% the possibility of a new view despite the contemporary problems, despite views as historical posture that posit and disfigure language, the problem of a reversed black and agracious movement of a before to be thought as 'presupposition' and pinned to the dirt as a house of sense certainty. Despite-such-ima3-i*3-co*ve4sa*t-woul+-possess-a-po4te*+-i*3-pe4haps-as-theliste*5-o4-the-4eve4se5-a*+-that-is-;o7-cou4se-e4ei3*es<-ou4-ow*-4emai*-s/-a*+-%schato*.-98

ethico-politics da
!he gesture of the 1ac is to defer ethical responsibility for response to the Other9s suffering onto bureaucratic state institutions --- this displacement is fundamentally unethical -- turns the aff

;/=+.&"-- 9:-L)+am-8hu4schwell/-)sst.-P4o7.-o7-Law/-$levela*+-Gtate-I*ive4sity/-?0ietDsche-a*+-Le3al-8heo4y-;Pa4t-22</@-, +oDo-L.-Kev.-99#&/-Ca4ch-o7-,""&J-L/0M

,",M--8hus/-as-De44i+a-puts-it/-Oethics-e*:oi*s-a-politics-a*+-a-law-...-.-but-the-political-o4-:u4i+ical-co*te*t-that-is-thus-assi3*e+mai*s-u*+ete4mi*e+/-still-to-be-+ete4mi*e+-beyo*+-6*owle+3e/-beyo*+-all-p4ese*tatio*/-all-co*cepts-...-.O-*,!-0o-+ete4mi*atete*t-issues-74om-the-ethical-+ema*+-because-ethics/-i*-De44i+aPs-;a*+-Levi*asPs<-se*se/-is-*o*5*o4mative.-8o-+e4ive-a-le3al-o4itical-4ule-o7-+ecisio*-74om-o*ePs-ethical-4espo*sibility-woul+-be/-pa4a+oxically/-to-+isplace-that-4espo*sibility-o*to-a-Ocalculatio* +-thus-woul+-itsel7-be-u*ethical-p4ecisely-to-the-exte*t-that-it-4elieves-o*e-o7-7u4the4-4espo*sibility-7o4-the-+ecisio*-i*-a*y-3ive*-ca ics-the4e7o4e-+ema*+s-a-le3al/political-+ecisio*-that-ca*-o*ly-4est-o*-somethi*3-li6e-a-Omystical-7ou*+atio* -/O - --*,7-si*ce-such-aisio*-ca* -*ot - --be- -7ou*+e+-o*-a*y-+ete4mi*able-4ules/-4easo*s-o4-values-without-aba*+o*i*3-its-claim-to-ethical-status -.-)cco4+i*3 -le3al/political-+ecisio*-ca*-o*ly-be-O+ete4mi*e+-beyo*+-6*owle+3e/-beyo*+-all-p4ese*tatio*/-all-co*cepts -O-*,8-5-which-is-to-say e4mi*e+-o*-the-basis-o7-somethi*3-that-4esembles-pu4e-7aith -. !he Other9s ethical engagement is an act of assimilation -- it strips the Other of their Otherness by a false universalist appeal to common humanity that only erects a new periphery that ma%es unending annihilation vital Odysseos 8/-I*ive4sity-o7-Gussex-Depa4tme*t-o7-2*te4*atio*al-Kelatio*s/
LD4.-LouiDa/-)3ai*st-%thics?-2co*o34aphies-o7-%*mity-a*+-)cts-o7-1bli3atio*-i*-$a4lGchmittFs - 8heo4y - o7- the - Pa4tisa*/ - P4actices - o7 - %thics: - Kelati*3/Kespo*+i*3 - to- Di77e4e*ce - i* - 2*te4*atio*al - Politics - )**ual - $o*ve*tio*/ - 2*te4*atio*al - Gtu+ies )ssociatio*/-Ca4ch-,,M2*-8he-$o*cept-o7-the-Political-Gchmitt-ha+-al4ea+y-i*+icte+-the-i*c4ease+-usa3e-o7-the-te4mi*olo3y-o7-Vhuma*ityF-by-both-theo4ists-a*+-i*stitutio*al-acto4s-such-asthe-Lea3ue-o7-0atio*s-;9##!a<.-Eis-i*itial-c4itiNue-allows-us-to-illumi*ate-7ou4-+isti*ct-c4iticisms-a3ai*st-co*tempo4a4y-wo4l+-politicsF-ethical-4ecou4se-to-the+iscou4se-o7-huma*ity-;c7.-1+ysseos-,""7b<.-8he-7i4st-ob:ectio*-a4ises-74om-the-locatio*-o7-this-+iscou4se-i*-the-libe4al-u*ive4se-o7-values.-'y-usi*3-the-+iscou4se-o7huma*ity/-the project of a universal ethics reverberates with the nineteenth century ringing proclamations of

disinterested liberal principle-;Aowa*-,""&:-(&<-th4ou3h-which-Vliberalism-Nuite-success7ully-conceals its-politics/-which-is-the-politics-o7getting rid of politicsF-;DyDe*haus-9##8:-9 <.-Bo4-Gchmitt/-the focus o7-libe4al-mo+e4*ity-on moral questions aims to ignore or surpass questions of conflict altogether:-it is-the4e7o4e-Vthe battle against the political 5-as-Gchmitt-+e7i*es-the-politicalF/-in terms of the permanency of social antagonism in politics ;Gax-,"",:-("9<.-8he-seco*+-c4iticism-a43ues-that-Vhumanity is not a political concept, and no political entity corresponds to it. 8he-ei3htee*th-ce*tu4y-huma*ita4ia*-co*cept-o7-huma*ity-was-a-polemical-+e*ial-o7-the-the*-existi*3a4istoc4atic-7eu+al-system-a*+-the-p4ivile3es-accompa*yi*3-itF-;Gchmitt-9##!a:-((<.-1utsi+e-o7-this-histo4ical-locatio*/-whe4e-+oes-it-7i*+-co*c4ete-exp4essio*-but-i*the-politics-o7-a-politically-*eut4al-Vi*te4*atio*al-commu*ityF-which-acts/-we-a4e-assu4e+/-i*-the-i*te4est-o7-huma*ity?-;c7.-'lai4-9###<.-8he-Vi*te4*atio*al-commu*ityis-coexte*sive-with-huma*ity^Lit]possesses the inherent right to impose its will^and to punish its violation, not because of a

treaty/-o4-a-pact-o4-a-cove*a*t/-but because of-a*-i*te4*atio*al-need/-a-*ee+-which-it-ca*-only determine as the secularized church of common humanity@F-;Kasch-,""&:-9&7/-citi*3-James-'4ow*-Gcott<.,-)-thi4+-ob:ectio*/-still/-has-to-+o-with-the-impositio*-o7-pa4ticula4-6i*+-o7-mo*ism:despite the lip-service to plurality/-ta6e*-74om-the-ma46et-;Qalyvas-9###</-Vliberal pluralism is-i*-7act-not in the least pluralist but reveals itself to be an overriding-mo*ism/-the-monism of humanityF-;Kasch-,""&:-9&!<.-Gimila4ly/-cu44e*t-universalist perspectives, while praising customary or cultural differences, think of them but-asethical-o4-aesthetic material for a unified polychromatic culture-.-a-*ew-si*3ula4ity-bo4*-o7-a-ble*+i*3-a*+-me43i*3-o7-multiple-local-co*stitue*tsF-;'4e**a*-,""&:- 9<.1*e-o7t5+iscusse+-+iscipli*i*3e77ect-is-that/-politically/-the ethics of a universal humanity shows little tolerance for what is regarded as intolerant politics,which-is-any politics that moves in opposition to its ideals, rendering political opposition to it illegitimate-;Kasch-,""&:-9&!<.-8hisis-compou*+e+-by-the-7act-that-liberal ethical discourses are-also-defined by a claim to their own exception and superiority.-They naturalise the historical origins of liberal societies, which are no longer regarded as contingently established and historically conditioned forms of organizationJ-4athe4/-they become the universal standard against which other societies are judged. Those found wanting are banished, as outlaws, from the civilized world.-24o*ically/-one of the signs of their outlaw status is their insistence on-auto*omy/-o*-sovereignty-;ibi+.:9 9J-c7.-Do**elly-9##8<.-Cost-impo4ta*tly/-a*+-4elate+-to-this-co*ce4*/-the4eis the relation of the concept of humanity to the other, and to war and violence.-2*-its-histo4ical-locatio*/-the-huma*ity-co*cept-ha+c4itical-pu4chase-a3ai*st-a4istoc4atic-p4e4o3ativesJ-yet-its utilisation by liberal ethical discourses within a philosophy of an absolute humanity/-Gchmitt-7ea4e+/-coul+-bring about new and unimaginable modes of exclusion-;9##!a/,""&/ ,"" /,""7<:-By virtue of its universality-a*+-abst4act-*o4mativity/-it has-*o-localiDable-polis/-no clear distinction between what is inside and what is outside.-Doeshuma*ity-emb4ace-all-huma*s?-)4e-the4e-*o-3ates-to-the-city-a*+-thus-*o-ba4ba4ia*s-outsi+e?-27-*ot/-a3ai*st-whom-o4-what-+oes-it-wa3e-its-wa4s?-;Kasch,""&:9&(<.-VHumanity-as-suchF/-Gchmitt-*ote+/-Vcannot wage war because it has no enemy/;9##!a:-( </-i*+icati*3-that-humanity is a

polemical word that negates its opposite-;Qe**e+y-9##8:-# J-emphasis-a++e+<.-2*-8he-$o*cept-o7-the-Political-Gchmitt-a43ue+-that- humanity excludes the concept of the enemy, because the enemy does not cease to be a human being-;9##!a:-( <.-Eoweve4/-i*-his9#("-boo6-with-a*-i*te4*atio*al-7ocus/-8he-0omos-o7-the-%a4th/-Gchmitt-*ote+-how- only when man appeared to be the embodiment of

absolute humanity, did the other side of this concept appear in the form of a new enemy: the inhuman-;,""&a:-9" <.-2tbecomes-appa4e*t-that/-histo4ically-exami*e+/- the concept of humanity engenders a return to a discriminatory concept of war/-bywhich-Gchmitt-mea*t-that-it reintroduces the legitimacy and need for substantive causes of justice in war-;Gchmitt-,""&b:-&75(,<.This-i*-tu4*-disallows the notion of-:ustus-hostis/-o7-a just enemy-.-explo4e+-i*-sectio*-th4ee-.-associate+-with-the-*otio*-o7-*o*5+isc4imi*ato4yi*te4state-wa4-which-too6-the-shape-o7-3ue44ee*-7o4-me-;Gchmitt-,""&a:-9 ,59 <.-8he-co*cept-o7-huma*ity/-the4e7o4e/-shatte4s-the-7o4mal-co*cept-o7-:ustus-hostis/allowi*3-the enemy-to-now-be-designated substantively as an enemy of humanity as such. This leaves the enemy of

humanity with no value and open to dehumanisation and political and physical annihilation-;Gchmitt-,""

:-!7<.-2*-+iscussi*3-theLea3ue-o7-0atio*s/-Gchmitt-hi3hli3hts-that/-compa4e+-to-the-6i*+s-o7-wa4s-that-ca*-be-wa3e+-o*-behal7-o7-huma*ity/-the-i*te4state-%u4opea*-wa4s-74om-989(-to-9#9 i*-4eality-we4e-4e3ulate+J-they were bracketed by the neutral Great Powers and were completely legal procedures in

comparison with the modern and gratuitous police actions against violators of peace, which can be dreadful acts of annihilation ;Gchmitt,""&a:-98!<.-Enemies of humanity cannot be considered just and equal.-Co4eove4/-they cannot claim neutrality:-o*e-ca**ot-4emai*-*eut4al-i*-the-call-to-be-7o4-o4-against humanity or its freedomJ-o*e-ca**ot/-simila4ly/-claim-a-4i3ht-to-4esist-o4-+e7e*+o*esel7/-i*-the-se*se-we-u*+e4sta*+-this-4i3ht-to-have-existe+-i*-the-i*te4*atio*al-law-o7-%u4ope-;the-:us-publicum-%u4opeaum<.- Such a denial of selfdefence and resistance can presage a dreadful nihilistic destruction of all law-;ibi+.:-987<.-=he*-the-e*emy-is-*ot-acco4+e+-ap4oce+u4al-:ustice-a*+-7o4mal-eNuality/-the notion that peace can be made with him is unacceptable/-as-Gchmitt-+etaile+-th4ou3h-his-stu+y-o7the-Lea3ue-o7-0atio*s/-which-ha+-+ecla4e+-the abolition of war,-but-i*-4esci*+i*3-the-co*cept-o7-*eut4ality- only succeeded in the dissolution of peace@F-;ibi+.:-, !<.-It is with the dissolution of peace that total wars of annihilation become possible, where the other cannot be assimilated, or accommodated, let alone tolerated: the friend/enemy distinction is-*ot-lo*3e4-ta6i*3-placewith-a-:ustus-hostis-but-4athe4-between good and evil, human and in human/-whe4e-Vthe-*e3ative-pole-o7-the-+isti*ctio*-is-to-be-7ully-a*+-7i*allyco*sume+-without-4emai*+e4F-;Kasch-,""&:-9&7<.-Bi*ally/-the ethical discourse of a universal humanity can be discerned in the tendency to normalise diverse peoples through legalisation and individualisation. The-pa4amou*t-emphasis placed on legal instruments and entitlements-such-as-huma*-4i3hts-transforms diverse subjectivities into rights-holders. [T]he

other is stripped of his otherness and made to conform to the universal ideal of what it means to be human/-mea*i*3-that-Vthe term human is not descriptive, but evaluative. To be truly human/-o*e*ee+s-to-be-co44ecte+F-;Kasch-,""&:-9 "-a*+-9&7J-c7.-You*3-,"",JEop3oo+-,"""<.-=hat-+oes-this-co44ectio*-i*-its-Vmulti7o4m-tacticsF/-which- include-CichelBoucaultFs-p4ope4-te4ms-o7-discipline ;i*-its-sel75i*te4est<subject

and training/-aim-to produce?-8he-a*swe4-may-well-be-the proper, free-;maste47ul</-equal and rationalof rights, of capitalism and the governmentalised state-;Boucault-,""9a<.-)s-Ail-)*i+:a4-*otes/-the operation o7-the-t4a+itio*al-bi*a4y-sovereign/enemy is transformed-Vi*-the-+iscipli*a4y-society-;which-si3*als/-acco4+i*3-to-Boucault/-the-+issolutio*-o7-sove4ei3*powe4<-into disciplinary regime/criminality@-;o4/-7o4-that-seco*+-te4m/-le3al-sub:ect/-sub:ect-o7-the-law/-a*+/-o7-cou4se/-?ma*@<F-;)*i+:a4-,"" : ,Jemphasis-a++e+<.-17-eNually-34eat-impo4ta*ce-is-t4a*s7o4matio*-that-7ollows-i*-the-t4a*sitio*-74om-a-+iscipli*a4y-to-a-3ove4*me*tal-eco*omy-o7-powe4:-this-is-whatwe-a4e-at-the-mome*t-co*74o*ti*3-a*+-must-a*alyse:-what-a4e-the-paths-towa4+s-which-the-othe4-as-e*emy-is-+i4ecte+-by-;a-3lobal<-3ove4*me*tality-a*+/-mo4eove4/what-7o4ms/-sub:ectivities/-etc./-is-the-Ve*emyF-e*cou4a3e+-to-ta6e-i*-the-7o4m-o7-a*-u*avoi+able-74ee+om/-alo*3-the-li*es-a4ticulate+-by-Boucault-u*+e4-the-hea+i*3o7-Vsel7-3ove4*me*tF;,""7b<.

Lnc ethico-politics
&ielded by saints -evinasian ethics still participates in a logic of e5termination against the intolerant but wielded by venal policy-ma%ers it legitimi'es atrocities in the name of humanitarian intervention 0eister K-;Ceiste4/-Kobe4t.-OO0eve4-)3ai*O:-8he-%thics-o7-the-0ei3hbo4-a*+-the-Lo3ic-o7-Ae*oci+e.OPostmo+e4*-$ultu4e-9(.,-;,""(<-P4o:ect-CIG%< 2t-is/-o7-cou4se/-possible-to-attac6-L_vi*as-usi*3-$a4l-GchmittPs-a43ume*t-a3ai*st-the-+iscou4se-o7-huma*ita4ia*i*te4ve*tio* --7ollowi*3-the-84eaty-o7-Se4sailles:-that-it-c4eates-a-casus-belli-a3ai*st-the-7o4ces-o7-Oi*huma*ity/Oespecially-whe*-they-claim-to-be-pu4sui*3-histo4ical-:ustice-i*-ways-that-+istu4b-the-peace-by-t4eati*3-theOothe4O-as-the-OsameO-;Gchmitt/-8he-$o*cept-o7-the-Political-79<.-Guici+e-bombi*3s --woul+ --seem-to-be-apa4a+i3matic-example --o7-this:-e*cou*te4i*3-the-othe4-as-a-+is3uise+ --huma*-bomb-woul+-su33est-that-7ea4 --o7- he4-a*+-7ea4-7o4-he4-a4e-*ot-as-7u*+ame*tally-+isti*ct-as-L_vi*as --himsel7-claims -. (--=he*-we-4escue-the --suici+ebombe4-a4e-we-savi*3-he4-o4-ou4selves?-)*+-i7-we-mu4+e4-he4-i*stea+/-what-becomes-o7-us?-Do-we-4evealou4selves/-li6e-those-whom-L_vi*as-co*+em*s/-to-be-mo4e-a74ai+-o7-+yi*3-tha*-o7-6illi*3?-=hat-+oes-it-mea* --7o4 - -he4-to-be-eNually-u*a74ai+ --o7-both -?-)*+-+oes --he4- -sel75chose*-+eath-Nuali7y-he4-as-a-ma4ty4-o4-a-mo*ste4 -/whethe4-o4-*ot-she-succee+s --i*-b4i*3i*3-i**oce*t-othe4s-to-thei4-+eaths-alo*3-with-he4 -?-2*-ce4tai*-politicalO*ei3hbo4hoo+s/O-L_vi*asPs-co*cept-o7-the-ultimately-u*6*owable-huma*-7ace-ca*-be-both-ethical-a*+-aw7ul-i*ways-that-4eope*-the-possibility-o7-a-ho44i7yi*3-4espo*se.-8he-ethical-temptatio*-to-t4eat-suici+e-bombe4s-asOi*huma*sO-i*-huma*-+is3uise-applies-a-7o4tio4i-to-the-politics-o7-thi4+5pa4ty-i*te4ve*tio*-4aise+-at-thebe3i**i*3-o7-this-essay:-whe*-*ei3hbo4s-6ill-*ei3hbo4s/-whom-+o-we-4escue-a*+-whom-+o-we-attac6?-2s-thethi4+-pa4ty-i*-this-situatio*-:ust-a*othe4-*ei3hbo4?-2t-is-*ot-clea4-that-L_vi*as-woul+-co*+o*e-huma*ita4ia*i*te4ve*tio*-by-7o4ce-as-what-23*atie77-woul+-call-a-Olesse4-evil/O-but-it-is-clea4-that-7o4-L_vi*as-su77e4i*3-a*+eve*-+yi*3-7o4-othe4s-have-ethical-value-7o4-the-pe4so*-who-u*+e43oes-them-i*-a-way-that-*o-othe4-su77e4i*3+oes-;OIseless-Gu77e4i*3O-# J-see-also-23*atie77/-8he-Lesse4-%vil<.-Ee-calls-this-value-Opatie*ce/O-a-6i*+-o7mo4ally-valuable-su77e4i*3-that-is-the-exceptio*-to-his-ethical-co*+em*atio*-o7-su77e4i*3-i*-3e*e4al.!heir drive to redeem the fallen world through ethics becomes a supposition for genocidal politics =chiff :-.-P4o7esso4-o7-Political-Gcie*ce-at-the-I*ive4sity-o7-$hica3o-;Jacob/-Joh*-Eop6i*s-I*ive4sity-P4ess/?Politics-)3ai*st-Ke+emptio*:-Ke4ea+i*3-Levi*as-7o4-$4itical-2*te4*atio*al-8heo4y/@-p3.-& (5&(8/http://ptw.uchica3o.e+u/schi77"&.p+7< Levi*asF-accou*t-o7-4e+emptio* -/ - -me+iate+-by-his-co*ve4satio*-with-the-Kabbis-a*+-Gamuel/-su33ests --that-i+eals -o7-pu4ity-a*+-+elive4a*ce --a4e-*ot-co*7i*e+-to-4eli3ious-o4-theolo3ical-matte4s/-but-o7te*-pe*et4ate-politicalco*ve4satio*s/-a*+-this-is-why-2-call-politics-that-a4e-a*imate+-by-such-i+eals-?4e+emptive-politics@.-Ke+emptivepolitics --wo46-i*-the-se4vice-o7-p4o:ects-that-most-people-woul+-p4obably-4eco3*iDe-as-?3oo+@557o4-i*sta*ce/-i*- calls-to-e*+-all-wa4 --;I01P2/-9#!(J-Lips6y/-9#79</-3e*oci+e/-hu*3e4/-pove4ty/-homeless*ess/-+4u3-use/-4acism/a*+-viole*t-c4ime -.-'ut-4e+emptive-politics-also-wo46-i*-the-se4vice-o7-p4o:ects-that-most --people-woul+-p4obably4eco3*iDe-as-?ba+ -@.-Bo4-i*sta*ce/-4e+emptive-politics-seem-to-u*+e4pi*-3e*oci+e.-Du4i*3-the-Kwa*+a*3e*oci+e/-Eutu-ext4emists-4e7e44e+-to-8utsis-as-i*ye*Di/-o4-coc64oaches/-as-pests-that-*ee+e+-to-beexte4mi*ate+-;P4u*ie4/-9##(<.-Gimila4ly/-0aDi-i+eolo3y-po4t4aye+-Jews-as-+i4ty -/-a-pla3ue-i*7esti*3-Ae4ma*stoc6.-8hese-+epictio*s-tie+-3e*oci+al-campai3*s-to --the-achieveme*t-a*+-mai*te*a*ce-o7-pu4ity --7o4-a-3ive*i+e*tity/-whethe4-Kwa*+a*-o4-Ae4ma*.!-Bu4the4mo4e/-ma*y-schola4s-have-cha4acte4iDe+-3e*oci+al-p4o:ects-i*4e+emptive-te4ms.-Leo-Qupe4/-7o4-i*sta*ce/-has-hi3hli3hte+-scape53oati*3-i*-3e*oci+es-;9#89:- &<.-2*-times-o7social-a*+-eco*omic-tu4moil -55say/-Ae4ma*y-i*-the-9#&"s55it-is-easy-to-blame --p4omi*e*t-mi*o4ity-34oups-7o4 -social/-eco*omic/-a*+-political-ills. --8hat-which-we-ca**ot-abi+e ->milita4y-+e7eat/-eco*omic-+ep4essio*-a*+-soo*>we-may-cast-o77-by-locati*3-4espo*sibility-7o4-ou4-co*+itio*-elsewhe4e.7-Ko*al+-)4o*so*-;9#8,:9 <-has-cha4acte4iDe+-3e*oci+e-as-?a6i*+-o7-ultimate-+e*ial-o7-4eality:-a-ma+*ess-o7-those-i*-powe4-who-a4e-impote*t-to-use-that-powe4-e77ectively-to-cha*3e-4eality/-a*+-who/-lost-i*-visio*s-o7-om*ipote*ce/-i*stea+-see6-to-+est4oy-it@.-Bi*ally/Kobe4t-Jay-Li7to*-has-a43ue+-that-3e*oci+e-i*volves-?a-pe4ceptio*-o7-collective-ill*ess/-a-visio*-o7-cu4e/-a*+-a-se4ies-o7-motivatio*s/-expe4ie*ces/-a*+-4eNui4eme*ts-o7-pe4pet4ato4s-i*-thei4-Nuest-7o4-thatcu4e@-;Li7to*-9#8!/-p.- !7J-i*-Bei*/-9##&/-p. !<.-Gcape53oati*3/-+e*ial-o7-4eality/-a*+-metapho4s-o7-ill*ess-a*+-cu4e-all-call-up-+4ivesto-pu4i7icatio* --that-a4e-symptomatic-o7-4e+emptive-politics. -

otheri'ation case 1nc


"5tinction is not inevitable -- global violence receding due to modern economics- overwhelming consensus @at 11:-;)Z)K-A)8/-DPhil-i*-Eisto4y-;I*ive4sity-o7-1x7o4+/-9#8!<J-%De4-=eitDma*-P4o7esso4-o7-0atio*al-Gecu4ity/-Political-Gcie*ce-Depa4tme*t/-8el)viv-I*ive4sityJ-4ece*t-boo6s:-=a4-i*-Euma*-$iviliDatio*-;1x7o4+-I*ive4sity-P4ess/-,""!<J-Sicto4ious-a*+-Sul*e4able:-=hy-Democ4acy-=o*-i*-the-,"th$e*tu4y-a*+-Eow-2t-2s-Gtill-2mpe4ile+-;Eoove4-2*stitutio*/-Kowma*-&-Little7iel+/-,"9"<J-0atio*s:-8he-Lo*3-Eisto4y-a*+-Deep-Koots-o7-Political-%th*icitya*+-0atio*alism-;$amb4i+3e-I*ive4sity-P4ess/-,"9&<.-2s-wa4-+ecli*i*3-.-a*+-why?-)Da4-Aat -Depa4tme*t-o7-Political-Gcie*ce/-I*ive4sity-o7-8el-)vivaDa43atHpost.tau.ac.il-/-Ca4ch-9#th-,"9&<

=he*-Nuite-a number of scholars-simultaneously and independently-o7-o*e-a*othe4-a44ive-at-very similar conclusions-o*-a*-issue of cardinal theoretical and practical significance /-thei4-thesisdeserves/-a*+-has-4eceive+/-great attention.-8he-thesis-is-that-war and violence --i*-3e*e4al-havep4o34essively-decreased in recent times, during the modern era, and -eve*-throughout history 17cou4se/-+espite-thei4-u*a*imity/-all-these-schola4s-coul+-still-be-w4o*3.-2*+ee+/- each-o7-them-tells-a-simila4-sto4y-o7-peopleFsdisbelief at their findings/-most-*otably-that-we live in the most peaceful period in-huma*-history.-Gomeo7-them-eve*-explai*-the-3e*e4al-i*c4e+ulity-by-the-7i*+i*3s-o7-evolutio*a4y-psycholo3y-acco4+i*3-to-which-wete*+-to-be-ove4ly-optimistic-about-ou4selves-but-ove4ly-pessimistic-about-the-wo4l+-at-la43e.-Eavi*3-mysel7w4itte*-about-the-ma46e+-+ec4ease-i*-+ea+ly-huma*-viole*ce-;Aat/-,""!</-2-a34ee-with-the-autho4sF-3e*e4al -

thesis.-Eoweve4/-thei4-u*a*imity-7alte4s-ove4/-a*+-they-a4e-less-clea4-about/-the-histo4ical-t4a:ecto4y-o7-a*+-the-4easo*s-7o4-the-+ecli*e-i*-viole*ce-a*+-wa4/Nuestio*s-that-a4e-as-impo4ta*t-as-the-3e*e4al-thesis-itsel7.-P4evious-Gectio*-0ext-Gectio*-Eobbes-was-4i3ht/-a*+-Kousseau-w4o*3/-about-the-state-o7*atu4e-Gteve*-Pi*6e4Fs-8he-'ette4-)*3els-o7-1u4-0atu4e-;,"99<-towe4s-above-all-the-othe4-boo6s-su4veye+-he4e-i*-siDe/-scope/-bol+*ess/-a*+-schola4lyexcelle*ce.-2t-has-+ese4ve+ly-att4acte+-34eat-public-atte*tio*-a*+-has-become-a-best5selle4.-Cassively-+ocume*te+/-this-8""5pa3e-volume-is-lavishly7u4*ishe+-with-statistics/-cha4ts/-a*+-+ia34ams/-which-a4e-o*e-o7-the-boo6Fs-most-e77ective-7eatu4es.-8he-boo6/-spa**i*3-the-whole-huma*-past-as-7a4-bac6as-ou4-abo4i3i*al-co*+itio*/-poi*ts-to-two-ma:o4-steps-i*-the-+ecli*e-o7-viole*ce.-8he-7i4st-is-the-sha4p-+ecli*e-i*-viole*t-mo4tality-which-4esulte+-74om-the4ise-o7-the-state5Leviatha*-74om-a4ou*+-(/"""-yea4s-a3o.-8his-co*clusio*-is-base+-o*-the-most-comp4ehe*sive-stu+ies-o7-the-sub:ect-publishe+-ove4-thepast-9(-yea4s-;Qeeley/-9##!J-Le'la*c/-,""&J-Aat/-,""!</-which-+emo*st4ate-o*-the-basis-o7-a*th4opolo3ical-a*+-a4chaeolo3ical-evi+e*ce-that-EobbesFspictu4e-o7-the-a*a4chic-state-o7-*atu4e-as-a-ve4y-viole*t-o*e-was-7u*+ame*tally-t4ue.-Pi*6e4-4i3htly-summa4iDes-that-viole*t-mo4tality-with-the-4ise-o7states-+4oppe+-74om-a-sta33e4i*3-estimate+-9(X-o7-the-populatio*/-,(X-o7-the-me*/-i*-p4e5state-societies/-to-about-9.(X.-8he-mai*-4easo*-7o4-this-+4op-isthe-e*7o4ceme*t-o7-i*te4*al-peace-by-the-Leviatha*/-but-also/-less-*ote+-by-Pi*6e4/-lowe4-mobiliDatio*-4ates-a*+-a-smalle4-exposu4e-o7-the-civilia*populatio*-to-wa4-tha*-with-t4ibal-34oups/-as-will-be-explai*e+-sho4tly.-8his-co*clusio*-4e3a4+i*3-the-+4amatic-+4op-i*-viole*t-mo4tality-with-thet4a*sitio*-to-the-state-is-at-o++s-with-the-claim-ma+e-by-Jac6-Levy-&-=illiam-8hompso*-i*-thei4-boo6/-8he-)4c-o7-=a4-;,"99<.-)s-the-boo6Fs-title-implies/Levy-&-8hompso*-posit-a-34eat-i*c4ease-i*-wa47a4e-+u4i*3-histo4y/-be7o4e-a-+ec4ease-+u4i*3-the-past-two-ce*tu4ies.-8hus/-the-boo6-claims-that-mo4talityi*-7i3hti*3-34eatly-i*c4ease+/-Vaccele4ate+F-i*-the-autho4sF-la*3ua3e/-with-the-t4a*sitio*-to-the-state.-8hey-4each-this-co*clusio*-by-ma6i*3-seve4almista6e*-assumptio*s.-Bi4st/-althou3h-p4o7essi*3-i3*o4a*ce-about-the-+ista*t-past-because-o7-the-lac6-o7-evi+e*ce-o*-the-behavio4-o7-hu*te453athe4e4societies-be7o4e-the-a+optio*-o7-a34icultu4e-some-9"/"""-yea4s-a3o/-they-cite-a*+-a4e-heavily-i*7lue*ce+-by-the-ol+-Kousseauite-a*th4opolo3y-o7-the3e*e4atio*-a7te4-the-9#!"s/-which-4ece*t-stu+ies-have-4e7ute+.-1bviously/-o*e-+oes-*ot-have-to-accept-the-above-7i*+i*3s-4e3a4+i*3-the-pe4vasive*ess-a*+34eat-lethality-o7-p4ehisto4ic-wa47a4e.-'ut-Levy-&-8hompso*-simply-+o-*ot-e*3a3e-with-them.-8hey-accept-as-t4ue-the-Kousseauite-p4emise-that-spa4sehuma*-populatio*-coul+-*ot-possibly-have-ha+-that-much-to-7i3ht-about.-Eoweve4/-4ece*tly-exta*t-hu*te453athe4e4-societies-p4ove-the-opposite.-)ust4aliais-ou4-best-labo4ato4y-o7-hu*te453athe4e4-societies/-because-that-vast-co*ti*e*t-was-e*ti4ely-populate+-by-them-a*+-Vu*pollute+F-by-a34icultu4alists/pasto4alists-o4-states-u*til-the-a44ival-o7-the-%u4opea*s-i*-9788.-)*+-the-evi+e*ce-shows-that-the-)ust4alia*-t4ibes-7ou3ht-i*cessa*tly-with-o*e-a*othe4.%ve*-i*-the-$e*t4al-)ust4alia*-Dese4t/-whose-populatio*-+e*sity-was-as-low-as-o*e-pe4so*-pe4-&(-sNua4e-miles/-amo*3-the-lowest-the4e-is/-co*7lict-a*++ea+ly-7i3hti*3-we4e-the-4ule.-Cuch-o7-that-7i3hti*3-ce*te4e+-o*-the-wate45holes-vital-7o4-su4vival-i*-this-a4ea/-with-the-viole*t-+eath-4ate-the4e-4ec6o*e+to-have-bee*-seve4al-times-hi3he4-tha*-i*-a*y-state-society.-2*-most-othe4-places/-hu*ti*3-te44ito4ies-we4e-mo*opoliDe+-a*+-7ie4cely-+e7e*+e+-by-hu*te45 3athe4e4s-because-they-we4e-Nuic6ly-+eplete+.-%ve*-amo*3-the-2*uit-o7-)4ctic-$a*a+a/-who-we4e-so-spa4se-as-to-expe4ie*ce-*o-4esou4ce-competitio*/7i3hti*3-to-6i+*ap-wome*-was-pe4vasive/-4esulti*3-i*-a-viole*t-+eath-4ate-9"-times-hi3he4-tha*-the-IG)Fs-pea6-4ate-o7-9##"/-itsel7-the-hi3hest-i*-the+evelope+-wo4l+.-2*-mo4e-hospitable-a*+-+e*sely-populate+-e*vi4o*me*ts-casualties-ave4a3e+/-as-al4ea+y-me*tio*e+/-9(X-o7-the-populatio*-a*+-,(X-o7the-me*/-a*+-the-su4vivi*3-me*-we4e-cove4e+-with-sca4s-;Aat/-,""!:-chs-,/-!<.-=e-a4e-*ot-+eali*3-he4e-with-a-piece-o7-exotic-cu4iosity.-0i*ety57ivepe4ce*t-o7-the-histo4y-o7-ou4-species-Eomo-sapie*s-sapie*s-.-people-who-a4e-li6e-us-.-was-spe*t-as-hu*te453athe4e4s.-8he-t4a*sitio*-to-a34icultu4e-a*+the-state-is-ve4y-4ece*t/-the-tip-o7-the-icebe43/-i*-huma*-histo4y.-Bu4the4mo4e/-the-huma*-state-o7-*atu4e-tu4*s-out-to-be-*o-+i77e4e*t-tha*-the-state-o7*atu4e-i*-3e*e4al.-Ee4e-too/-scie*ce-has-ma+e-a-complete-tu4*about.-Du4i*3-the-9#!"s-people-believe+-that-a*imals-+i+-*ot-6ill-each-othe4-withi*-thesame-species/-which-ma+e-huma*s-appea4-li6e-a-mu4+e4ous-exceptio*-a*+-7e+-speculatio*s-that-wa47a4e-eme43e+-o*ly-with-civiliDatio*.-Gi*ce-the*/howeve4/-it-has-bee*-7ou*+-that-a*imals-6ill-each-othe4-exte*sively-withi*-species/-a-poi*t-p4esse+-o*-eve4y-viewe4-o7-televisio*-*atu4e-+ocume*ta4ies.8he4e-is-*othi*3-special-about-huma*s-i*-this-4e3a4+.-8hus/-lethal-huma*-7i3hti*3-+i+-*ot-Veme43eF-at-some-poi*t-i*-histo4y/-as-Levy-&-8hompso*-posit.P4evious-Gectio*-0ext-Gectio*-Siole*t-+eath-sha4ply-+ec4ease+-with-the-4ise-o7-the-Leviatha*-)s-me*tio*e+-ea4lie4-a*+-as-Pi*6e4-well-4ealiDes/-viole*tmo4tality-actually-+4oppe+-steeply-with-the-eme43e*ce-o7-the-state5Leviatha*.-Ee4e-is-whe4e-Levy-&-8hompso*-ma6e-a-seco*+-mista6e.-Bo4-measu4i*3the-lethality-o7-wa47a4e-they-use-evi+e*ce-o7-battle-mo4tality/-but-this-is-hi3hly-mislea+i*3-7o4-va4ious-4easo*s.-Bi4st/-p4e5state-t4ibesF-mai*-7i3hti*3-mo+eswe4e-*ot-the-battle-but-the-4ai+-a*+-the-ambush-.-captu4i*3-the-e*emy-by-su4p4ise-a*+-o7te*-a**ihilati*3-e*ti4e-sleepi*3-camps:-me*/-wome*/-a*+chil+4e*.-Geco*+/-the-siDe-o7-battles-me4ely-i*+icates-the-siDe-o7-the-states-a*+-thei4-a4mies/-which-a4e-obviously-la43e4-tha*-t4ibal-34oups-i*-absolutete4ms.-Yet-the main 3uestion is relative casualties /-what-pe4ce*ta3e-o7-the-populatio*-+ie+-viole*tly.-)*+-he4e-the-7act-is-thatwhile-states-a*+-thei4-a4mies-34ew-by-a-7acto4-o7-te*s/-hu*+4e+s/-a*+-thousa*+s/-3ivi*3-a-spectacula4-imp4essio*-o7-la43e5scale-7i3hti*3/ -relative casualties actually decreased --u*+e4-the-state/-a*+-*ot-o*ly-because-o7-i*te4*al-peace.-2*+ee+/-casualties-+ec4ease+-

p4ecisely-because-states-34ew-la43e.-8a6e-%3ypt/-7o4-example/-pa4t-o7-the-Vaccele4atio*F-o7-wa4-with-the-eme43e*ce-o7-states-i*-Cesopotamia/-%3ypt/A4eece/-a*+-$hi*a/-acco4+i*3-to-Levy-&-8hompso*.-8he-siDe-o7-the-%3yptia*-a4my-with-which-Pha4aoh-Kamses-22-7ou3ht-the-Eittite-empi4e-at-the-'attleo7-Qa+esh-;commo*ly-+ate+-9,7 -'$%<-was-,"/""".,(/"""-sol+ie4s.-8his-was-a-ve4y-la43e-a4my-by-the-sta*+a4+s-o7-the-time.-Yet-the-total-populatio*-o7%3ypt-was-about-,.&-millio*/-so-the-a4my-co*stitute+-9X-o7-the-populatio*-at-most.-8his-was-ve4y-much-the-sta*+a4+-i*-la43e-states-a*+-empi4esth4ou3hout-histo4y-because-o7-the-34eat-7i*a*cial-a*+-lo3istical-p4oblems-o7-mai*tai*i*3-la43e-a4mies-7o4-lo*3-pe4io+s-at-34eat-+ista*ces-74om-home.8hus/-i*-compa4iso*-to-the-hi3h-milita4y-pa4ticipatio*-4ates-o7-small5scale-t4ibal-societies/-pa4ticipatio*-4ates/-a*+-he*ce-wa4-casualties/-i*-la43e-statesFa4mies-we4e-much-lowe4.-Co4eove4/-i*-co*t4ast-to-the-34eat-vul*e4ability-o7-wome*-a*+-chil+4e*-i*-small5scale-t4ibal-wa47a4e/-the-civilia*-populatio*-o7%3ypt-was-shelte4e+-by-+ista*ce-74om-the-theate4s-o7-milita4y-ope4atio*s-a*+-*ot-o7te*-expose+-to-the-ho44o4s-o7-wa4.-Guch-4elative-secu4ity/-i*te44upte+o*ly-by-la43e5scale-i*vasio*s/-is-o*e-o7-the-mai*-4easo*s-why-societies-expe4ie*ce+-34eat-+emo34aphic-34owth-a7te4-the-eme43e*ce-o7-the-state.-2t-is-alsothe-4easo*-why-civil-wa4/-whe*-the-wa4-4a3es-withi*-the-cou*t4y/-te*+s-to-be-the-most-lethal-7o4m-o7-wa4/-as-Eobbes-ve4y-well-4ealiDe+.-=a47a4e-a*+-7eu+s-

=e-*ow-move-to-the-+ecli*e-o7-wa4/-which-is-ou4-mai*-co*ce4*-he4e.-Cost-people-a4e-su4p4ise+-to-lea4*-that-theoccu44e*ce-o7-wa4-a*+-ove4all-mo4tality-i*-wa4-sha4ply-+ec4ease+-a7te4-989(/- most-*otably-i*-the-+evelope+-wo4l+.-8heVLo*3-PeaceF-amo*3-the-34eat-powe4s-a7te4-9# (-is-mo4e-4eco3*iDe+-a*+-is-wi+ely-att4ibute+-to-the-*uclea47acto4/-a-+ecisive-7acto4-to-be-su4e/-which-co*ce*t4ate+-the-mi*+s-o7-all-the-p4ota3o*ists-wo*+e47ully.-8he;i*te45<+emoc4atic-peace-has-bee*-eNually-4eco3*iDe+.-'ut-i*-actuality/-the-decrease in war had been verymar%ed before the nuclear era-and encompassed both democracies and non-democracies .-2*-thece*tu4y-a7te4-989(/-wars among economically advanced countries declined in their fre3uency to about-one-third of-what-they-ha+-bee*-i*-the-previous centuries, an unprecedented change .-2*+ee+/-theLo*3-Peace-a7te4-9# (-was-p4ece+e+-by-the-seco*+-lo*3est-peace-amo*3-the-34eat-powe4s/-betwee*-9879-a*+-9#9 /-a*+-by-the-thi4+-lo*3est-peace/betwee*-989(-a*+-98( -;Aat/-,""!:-(&!.(&7/-!"8<.-8hus/-the-th4ee-lo*3est-pe4io+s-o7-peace-by-7a4-i*-the-mo+e4*-34eat-powe4s-system-all-occu44e+-a7te4989(.-$lea4ly/-o*e-*ee+s-to-explai*-the-e*ti4e-t4e*+/-while-also-accou*ti*3-7o4-the-3la4i*3-+ive43e*ce-74om-it:-the-two-=o4l+-=a4s.-P4evious-Gectio*-0extGectio*-2s-mo+e4*-wa4-mo4e-lethal-a*+-+est4uctive-tha*-be7o4e?-2*-his-ea4lie4-wo46s/-Levy-;9#8&<-was-amo*3-the-7i4st-to-+ocume*t-the-much54e+uce+74eNue*cy-o7-wa4-a7te4-989(.-'ut-what-b4ou3ht-about-this-cha*3e?-Levy-&-8hompso*-assume-.-this-is-pe4haps-the-most-*atu4al-hypothesis-.-that-wa4s+ecli*e+-i*-74eNue*cy-because-they-became-too-lethal/-+est4uctive/-a*+-expe*sive.-Guppose+ly/-a-t4a+e5o77-o7-so4ts-was-c4eate+-betwee*-the-i*te*sity-a*+74eNue*cy-o7-wa47a4e:-7ewe4/-la43e4-wa4s-suppla*ti*3-ma*y-smalle4-o*es.-8his-hypothesis-ba4ely-hol+s/-howeve4/-because/-a3ai*/-4elative-to-populatio*a*+-wealth-wa4s-have-*ot-become-mo4e-lethal-a*+-costly-tha*-ea4lie4-i*-histo4y.-Bu4the4mo4e/-as-Levy-&-8hompso*-4i3htly-+ocume*t/-the-wa4s-o7-the9#th-ce*tu4y-.-the-most-peace7ul-ce*tu4y-i*-%u4opea*-histo4y-.-we4e-pa4ticula4ly-li3ht/-i*-compa4ative-te4ms/-so-the4e-is-*o-t4a+e5o77-he4e.-84ue/-the=o4l+-=a4s/-especially-=o4l+-=a4-22/-we4e-ce4tai*ly-o*-the-uppe4-scale-o7-the-4a*3e-i*-te4ms-o7-casualties.-Yet/-as-al4ea+y-*ote+/-they-we4e-7a4-74om-bei*3exceptio*al-i*-histo4y.-1*ce-mo4e/-we-*ee+-to-loo6-at-4elative-casualties/-3e*e4al-huma*-mo4tality-i*-a*y-*umbe4-o7-wa4s-that-happe*-to-4a3e-a4ou*+-thewo4l+/-4athe4-tha*-at-the-a334e3ate-c4eate+-by-the-7act-that-ma*y-states-pa4ticipate+-i*-the-=o4l+-=a4s.-2-have-al4ea+y-me*tio*e+-the-Co*3ol-i*vasio*s/but-othe4-examples-abou*+.-2*-the-7i4st-th4ee-yea4s-o7-the-Geco*+-Pu*ic-=a4/-,98.9!-'$%/-Kome-lost-some-("/"""-citiDe*s-o7-the-a3es-o7-97. !/-out-o7-atotal-o7-about-,""/"""-i*-that-a3e-+emo34aphic-;'4u*t/-9#79<.-8his-was-4ou3hly-,(X-o7-the-milita4y5a3e-coho4ts-i*-o*ly-th4ee-yea4s/-the-same-4a*3e-as-theKussia*-a*+-hi3he4-tha*-the-Ae4ma*-4ates-i*-=o4l+-=a4-22.-8his/-a*+-the-+evastatio*-o7-KomeFs-74ee-peasa*t4y-+u4i*3-the-Geco*+-Pu*ic-=a4/-+i+-*ot4e+uce-KomeFs-p4ope*sity-7o4-wa4-the4ea7te4.-Du4i*3-the-8hi4ty-Yea4s-=a4-;9!98. 8<-populatio*-loss-i*-Ae4ma*y-is-estimate+-at-betwee*-o*e57i7th-a*+o*e5thi4+-.-eithe4-way-hi3he4-tha*-the-Ae4ma*-casualties-i*-=o4l+-=a4-2-a*+-=o4l+-=a4-22-combi*e+.-People-o7te*-assume-that-mo4e-+evelope+milita4y-tech*olo3y-+u4i*3-mo+e4*ity-mea*s-34eate4-lethality-a*+-+est4uctio*/-but-i*-7act-it-also-mea*s-34eate4-p4otective-powe4/-as-with-mecha*iDe+a4mo4/-mecha*iDe+-spee+-a*+-a3ility/-a*+-+e7e*sive-elect4o*ic-measu4es.-177e*sive-a*+-+e7e*sive-a+va*ces-3e*e4ally-4ise-i*-ta*+em.-2*-a++itio*/-it-is-alltoo-o7te*-7o43otte*-that-the-vast-ma:o4ity-o7-the-ma*y-millio*s-o7-*o*5combata*ts-6ille+-by-Ae4ma*y-+u4i*3-=o4l+-=a4-22-.-Jews/-Goviet-p4iso*e4s-o7wa4/-Goviet-civilia*s-.-7ell-victim-to-i*te*tio*al-sta4vatio*/-exposu4e-to-the-eleme*ts/-a*+-mass-executio*s-4athe4-tha*-to-a*y-sophisticate+-milita4ytech*olo3y.-2*sta*ces-o7-3e*oci+e-i*-3e*e4al-+u4i*3-the-,"th-ce*tu4y/-much-as-ea4lie4-i*-histo4y/-we4e-ca44ie+-out-with-the-simplest-o7-tech*olo3ies/-as-theKwa*+a-3e*oci+e-ho44i7ically-4emi*+e+-us.-0o4-have-wa4s-+u4i*3-the-past-two-ce*tu4ies-bee*-eco*omically-mo4e-costly-tha*-they-we4e-ea4lie4-i*-histo4y/a3ai*-4elative-to-ove4all-wealth.-=a4-has-always-i*volve+-massive-eco*omic-exe4tio*-a*+-has-bee*-the-si*3le-most-expe*sive-item-o7-state-spe*+i*3-;e.3.massively-+ocume*te+/-'o**ey/-9###<.-%xamples-a4e-cou*tless/-a*+-it-will-su77ice-to-me*tio*-that-both-9!th5-a*+-97th5ce*tu4y-Gpai*-a*+-98th5ce*tu4yB4a*ce-we4e-eco*omically-4ui*e+-by-wa4-a*+-sta33e4i*3-wa4-+ebts/-which-i*-the-B4e*ch-case-b4ou3ht-about-the-Kevolutio*.-Bu4the4mo4e/-+eath-bysta4vatio*-i*-p4emo+e4*-wa4s-was-wi+esp4ea+.-P4evious-Gectio*-0ext-Gectio*-2s-it-peace-that-has-become-mo4e-p4o7itable?-Go-i7-wa4s-have-*ot-becomemo4e-costly-a*+-+est4uctive-+u4i*3-the-past-two-ce*tu4ies-the*- why-have-they-4ece+e+/-pa4ticula4ly-i*-the-+evelope+-wo4l+ ?-8he-

i*-the-p4e5-a*+-ea4ly5mo+e4*-e4as-Levy-&-8hompso*-7u4the4-posit-that-betwee*-the-9 th-a*+-ea4ly-9#th-ce*tu4ies/-%u4ope-was-the-sce*e-o7-a-seco*+Vaccele4atio*F-i*-the-histo4ical-t4a:ecto4y-o7-viole*ce.-8his-is-ve4y-much-i*-li*e-with-the-p4evaili*3-pe4ceptio*s-4e3a4+i*3-ea4ly-mo+e4*-%u4opea*-histo4y/but-these-pe4ceptio*s-a4e-most-p4obably-w4o*3/-a*+-7o4-the-same-4easo*-as-be7o4e:-Levy-&-8hompso*-cou*t-absolute-battle-casualties/-a*+-obviouslystates-became-mo4e-ce*t4aliDe+-+u4i*3-this-pe4io+-a*+-a4mies-34ew-i*-*umbe4/-so-battles-also-34ew-i*-siDe.-Yet-it-was-the-a*a4chy-a*+-7eu+al74a3me*tatio*-i*-%u4ope-betwee*-the-7all-o7-the-Koma*-%mpi4e-a*+-9,""-that-we4e-4espo*sible-7o4-the-pe4vasive-i*secu4ity-a*+-e*+emic-viole*ce-thatcha4acte4iDe+-the-Da46-)3es-a*+-4esulte+-i*/-amo*3-othe4-thi*3s/-a-sha4p-+emo34aphic-+ecli*e.-)3ai*/-small5scale-usually-mea*t-mo4e/-*ot-less/-viole*tmo4tality.-8he-7ocus-o*-ea4ly-mo+e4*-%u4ope-is-mislea+i*3-also-i*-a*othe4-way:-i*-the-late-Ci++le-)3es-the-Co*3ol-co*Nuests-i*7licte+-o*-the-societies-o7$hi*a/-$e*t4al-)sia/-a*+-%aste4*-%u4ope-casualties-a*+-+est4uctio*-that-we4e-amo*3-the-hi3hest-eve4-su77e4e+-+u4i*3-histo4ical-times.-%stimates-o7-thesha4p-+ecli*e-expe4ie*ce+-by-the-populatio*s-o7-$hi*a-a*+-Kussia/-7o4-example/-va4y-wi+ely.-Gtill/-eve*-by-the-lowest-estimates-they-we4e-at-least-as-34eat/a*+-i*-$hi*a-almost-+e7i*itely-much-34eate4/-tha*-the-Goviet-I*io*Fs-ho44i7ic-4ate-i*-=o4l+-=a4-22-o7-about-9(X.-8he-4ece+i*3-o7-me+ieval-a*a4chy-i*-the7ace-o7-the-34owi*3-%u4opea*-state5Leviatha*s-was-the-7i4st-step-towa4+s-a-steep-+ecli*e-i*-the-co*ti*e*tFs-viole*t-mo4tality-4ate-be3i**i*3-i*-ea4lymo+e4*ity-a*+-co*ti*ui*3-to-the-p4ese*t-+ay.-8he-stu+ies-a*+-+ata-cite+-by-Pi*6e4-with-4espect-to-the-+omestic-aspect-o7-this-t4e*+-a4e-st4i6i*3lypa4allele+-by-those-o7-Kobe4t-Cuchemble+Fs-Eisto4y-o7-Siole*ce-;,"9,<.-8he-wo46-o7-a-histo4ia*/-the-boo6-meticulously-+ocume*ts/-o*-the-basis-o7B4e*ch-le3al-4eco4+s/-a-,"57ol+-+ec4ease-i*-homici+e-4ates-betwee*-the-9&th-a*+-,"th-ce*tu4ies.-%a4lie4-stu+ies-o7-othe4-pa4ts-o7-%u4ope/-sta4ti*3-withAu44-;9#89</-have-come-up-with-simila4-7i*+i*3s.-Li6e-Pi*6e4/-Cuchemble+-att4ibutes-the-steep-+ecli*e-to-the-stateFs-34owi*3-autho4ity/-as-its-:usticesystem-e77ectively-4eplace+-a*+-+ete44e+-Vp4ivate-:usticeF/-ve*+etta/-a*+-pe4vasive-viole*ce/-all-o7-them-e*+emic-i*-u*4uly-societies.-$o44espo*+i*3ly/a3ai*-li6e-Pi*6e4/-Cuchemble+-i*vo6es-0o4be4t-%liasFs-;,"""<-VciviliDi*3-p4ocessF/-whe4eby-the-+e7e*se-o7-ho*o4-by-swo4+-a*+-6*i7e/-a-social-*o4m-a*+impe4ative-i*-most-t4a+itio*al-societies/-is-34a+ually-3ive*-up-amo*3-both-the-*obility-a*+-the-3e*e4al-populace.-8he-civiliDi*3-p4ocess-is-pa4tly-a-7u*ctio*o7-the-34owi*3-autho4ity-o7-the-stateFs-4ule-a*+-:ustice-system.-'ut-the4e-we4e-othe4-7acto4s-i*volve+/-which-Pi*6e4-excels-i*-i+e*ti7yi*3-a*+-weavi*3to3ethe4.-)lthou3h-he-is-*ot-a-histo4ia*/-his-histo4ical-sy*thesis-is-exempla4ily-4ich-a*+-*ua*ce+.-Ee-speci7ies-the-34owi*3-huma*ita4ia*-se*sibilities-i*%u4ope-o7-the-%*li3hte*me*t/-which-he-t4aces-to/-amo*3-othe4-thi*3s/-the-34a+ual-imp4oveme*t-i*-livi*3-co*+itio*s/-34owi*3-comme4cial-spi4it-a*+/above-all/-the-p4i*t-4evolutio*-with-the-atte*+a*t-values-a*+-habits-o7-4easo*i*3/-i*t4ospectio*/-a*+-empathy-that-it-i*culcate+-amo*3-the-4ea+i*3-elites.)s-Pi*6e4-poi*ts-out/-*ot-o*ly-+i+-homici+e-4ates-+ecli*e-but-also-othe4-p4eviously-commo*-7o4ms-o7-viole*ce/-such-as-:u+icial-+isembowelme*t-a*+to4tu4e/-we4e-becomi*3-u*acceptable-by-the-98th-ce*tu4y.-8his-was-the-be3i**i*3-o7-a-co*ti*uous-p4ocess-which-+u4i*3-the-7ollowi*3-ce*tu4ies-woul+b4i*3-about/-amo*3-othe4-thi*3s/-the-abolitio*-o7-slave4y-a*+-the-+ecli*e-o7-capital-pu*ishme*t/-ty4a**y/-a*+-political-viole*ce-i*-the-+evelope+-wo4l+-.most-*otably-i*-the-a4eas-whe4e-the-values-o7-%*li3hte*me*t-huma*ita4ia*ism-t4iumphe+.-'oth-Pi*6e4-a*+-Cuchemble+-i+e*ti7y-a-cha*3e-i*-the-t4e*+towa4+s-i*c4ease+-viole*ce-a*+-homici+e-4ates-i*-the-I*ite+-Gtates-a*+-%u4ope-74om-the-9#!"s-o*.-8hey-att4ibute-this-cha*3e-;Pi*6e4-is-pa4ticula4lyelabo4ative-he4e<-to-the-e4osio*-o7-public-autho4ity-a*+-some-4eve4sal-o7-the-VciviliDi*3-p4ocessF-with-the-cults-o7-youth-cultu4e/-+e7ia*ce-o7-autho4ity/4a+ical-i+eolo3ies-o7-viole*ce-by-the-Vopp4esse+F/-a*+-the-74a3me*tatio*-o7-the-stable-7amily-st4uctu4e.-Pi*6e4-i+e*ti7ies-a-4etu4*-to-a-+ow*wa4+-t4e*+-i*viole*ce-74om-about-9##"-o*/-which-he-att4ibutes-to-a*-ebbi*3-o7-much-o7-the-above-th4ou3h-4easse4te+-state-actio*-a*+-cha*3es-i*-the-public-moo+.-)last-poi*t-wo4th-me*tio*i*3-i*-this-co*text:-Cuchemble+-4eveals-that-th4ou3hout-the-steep-+ecli*e-i*-homici+e-4ates/-74om-me+ieval-times-to-thep4ese*t/-#"X-o4-mo4e-o7-all-cases-have-bee*-pe4pet4ate+-by-me*/-especially-betwee*-the-a3es-o7-,"-a*+-&"-yea4s-ol+.-)s-Daly-&-=ilso*-;9#88:-9 (.9 #<have-show*/-this-4atio-is-7ou*+-i*-each-a*+-eve4y-society-stu+ie+-a4ou*+-the-3lobe/-74om-hu*te453athe4e4s-to-a34icultu4al-a*+-i*+ust4ial-societies/i44espective-o7-the-vastly-+i77e4e*t-homici+e-4ates-amo*3-them.-P4evious-Gectio*-0ext-Gectio*-8he-+ecli*e-o7-wa4-a*+-the-th4ee-`Lo*3-PeacesP-a7te4-989(-

a*swe4-is-the-advent of the industrial8commercial revolution -a7te4-989(/-the-most-p4o7ou*+-t4a*s7o4matio*-o7-huma*society-si*ce-the-0eolithic-a+optio*-o7-a34icultu4e.-8he-co44elatio*-betwee*-the-+ecli*e-o7-wa4-i*-the-+evelope+-wo4l+-a*+-the-p4ocess-o7-mo+e4*iDatio*/both-u*7ol+i*3-si*ce-989(/-is-su4ely-*ot-acci+e*tal/-a*+-the-causatio*-is-*ot-+i77icult-to-locate.-2*-the-7i4st-place/-3ive*-explosive-34owth-i*-pe4-capitawealth/-about-&"5-to-("57ol+-thus-7a4/-the-Calthusia*-t4ap-has-bee*-b4o6e*.-=ealth-*o-lo*3e4-co*stitutes-a-fundamentally finite-

3uantity/-a*+-wealth-acNuisitio*-p4o34essively-shifted away from a 'ero-sum game.-Geco*+ly/-eco*omiesa4e-*o-lo*3e4-ove4whelmi*3ly-auta46ic/-instead having become increasingly interconnected -byspecialiDatio*/-scale/-a*+-excha*3e.-$o*seNue*tly/- 7o4ei3*-+evastatio*-pote*tially-+ep4esse+-the-e*ti4e-system-a*+-was-thusdetrimental to a states own wellbeing.-8his-4eality/-al4ea+y-*ote+-by-Cill-;98 8/9#!9:-(8,</-sta46ly-ma*i7este+-itsel7-a7te4-=o4l+=a4-2/-as-Qey*es-;9#,"<-ha+-a*ticipate+-i*-his-c4iticism-o7-the-4epa4atio*s-impose+-o*-Ae4ma*y.-8hi4+ly/- 34eate4-eco*omic-openness hasdecreased the li%elihood of war by disassociating economic access from the confines of political borders and sovereignty.-2t-is-*o-lo*3e4-*ecessa4y-to-politically possess a territory in order benefit 74om-it.-17-the-above-th4ee-7acto4s/-the-seco*+-o*e-.-comme4cial-i*te4+epe*+e*ce-.-has-att4acte+-most-o7-theatte*tio*-i*-the-lite4atu4e.-'ut-the-othe4-two-7acto4s-have-bee*-*o-less-si3*i7ica*t.-8hus/-the-34eate4-the yieldof competitive economic cooperation, the more counterproductive and less attractive conflict becomes -.-Kathe4-tha*-wa4-becomi*3-mo4e-costly/-as-is-wi+ely-believe+/-it is in fact peace that has beengrowing more profitable Ke7e44i*3-to-my-a43ume*t-i*-this-4e3a4+/-Levy-&-8hompso*-;,"99:-7,.7(<-excuse+-themselves-74om-+eci+i*3-o*the-issue-o*-the-34ou*+s-o7-i*su77icie*t-i*7o4matio*-4e3a4+i*3-the-cost-o7-p4emo+e4*-wa4.-'ut-as-al4ea+y-*ote+/-the-i*7o4matio*-o*-the-sub:ect-is-Nuiteclea4.

"nvironment and poverty getting better -omborg 11


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siDable-with+4awals-o*-*atu4eFs-7ixe+-allowa*ce/-a*+-u*less-we-cha*3e-ou4-ways/-a*+-soo*/-we-a4e-+oome+-to-a*-ab4upt-e*+.-8a6e-the4ece*t-p4oclamatio*-74om-the-I*ite+-0atio*s-%*vi4o*me*t-P4o34am/-which-a43ue+-that-3ove4*me*ts-shoul+-+4amatically-cut-bac6-o*-the-use-o74esou4ces.-8he-ma*t4a-has-become-commo*place:-ou4-cu44e*t-way-o7-livi*3-is-sel7ish-a*+-u*sustai*able.-=e-a4e-w4ec6i*3-the-wo4l+.-=e-a4e-3obbli*3-upthe-last-4esou4ces.-=e-a4e-cutti*3-+ow*-the-4ai*7o4est.-=e-a4e-polluti*3-the-wate4.-=e-a4e-polluti*3-the-ai4.-=e-a4e-6illi*3-pla*ts-a*+-a*imals/-+est4oyi*3the-oDo*e-laye4/-bu4*i*3-the-wo4l+-th4ou3h-ou4-a++ictio*-to-7ossil-7uels/-a*+-leavi*3-a-+evastate+-pla*et-7o4-7utu4e-3e*e4atio*s.-2*-othe4-wo4+s/-huma*ityis-+oome+.-2t-is-a-compelli*3-sto4y/-*o-+oubt.-It is also fundamentally wrong/-a*+-the-co*seNue*ces-a4e-seve4e.-84a3ically/-

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