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CONTENTS 1. RISAT-1 Satellite Overview 2. Mission Overview 2.1 Mission S p e c i

CONTENTS

1. RISAT-1 Satellite Overview

2. Mission Overview

2.1 Mission Specifications

2.2 Mission elements

3. RISAT Specifications

3.1 RISAT-1 Orbit

3.2 RISAT Subsystems with

heritage / new element

3.3 Mechanical

Systems

3.3.1 Structure

3.3.2

Coordinate

System

&

Panel

Nomenclature

3.3.3 Mechanisms

3.4 Thermal

3.5 BDH

3.6 SSR

3.7 RF Systems

3.7.1

TTC RF

3.7.2

X-Band RF

3.8 SPS

3.9 Power Systems

3.10 On

Board

Computer

(OBC)

3.11 AOCS

3.12 Actuators

4. Data Reception Systems

4.1 Introduction

4.2 Station requirements to track and receive RISAT-1 data

4.3 IMGEOS configuration

4.4 Data reception station specifications

configuration 4.4 Data reception station specifications 4.4.1 Brief description of data reception station 4.5

4.4.1 Brief description of data reception station

4.5

Detailed

functional

reception

of

 

data

4.6

reception station Antenna and tracking pedestal 4.6.1 Antenna 4.6.2 Pedestal 4.6.3 Drive chain

4.7

4.6.4 Azimuth housing 4.6.5 Elevation housing Technical specifications

4.8

Dual

Polarized

S/X

band

feed

&

RF

systems

 

4.8.1 Dual

Polarized

 

S/X band Feed

 

4.8.2 Feed Specifications

4.8.3 X-band

 

DPC

 

(Divider,

Phase,

Shifter, Coupler)

 

4.8.4 S-band DPC

4.8.5 X-band Up/Down Converter

4.8.6 X-band

 

down

 

Converter

 

4.8.7 X-band

 

Up

Converter 4.8.8 S-band

Down

 

Converter

 

4.8.9

Integrated tracking system

4.9

IF

and

Base

band

Systems

 
 

pg. 1

4.9.1 Programmable 8.4 Radiometric check   IF matrix 8.5 Band to band 4.9.2 IF Fiber
4.9.1 Programmable 8.4 Radiometric check   IF matrix 8.5 Band to band 4.9.2 IF Fiber

4.9.1 Programmable

8.4

Radiometric check

 

IF matrix

8.5

Band

to

band

4.9.2 IF Fiber optic link

registration (BBR)

 

4.9.3 High

data

rate

9

Data

Access

and

demodulators

Distribution

 

4.10 Digital

servo

control

9.1

Services

 
 

system

9.1.1 Polygon

based

4.11 Antenna drive unit

 

query / ordering/

 

4.11.1

Antenna

 

collects

 

control unit

 

9.1.2 Map

sheet

4.12 tracking

network

 

number

based

 

configuration

 

query

4.12.1

Station

9.1.3

Location

name

automation

 

based query

system

 

9.1.4 Point (Lat-Long )

4.13 Station

Control

 

based query

 

computer

 

9.1.5 Search

for

5 Level ‘ 0 Systems

images

based

5.1 Introduction

 

on shape file

5.2 Station

work

flow

9.1.6

Search

for

 

manager

 

images

based

5.3 Data ingest system

5.4 Timing systems

on date of pass/ ordering

5.4.1 IRIG-G

time

9.2

Product

status

 

code translator

 

monitoring

6 SAR payload for RISAT

 

9.3

Services

for

offline

6.1

Modes of operation

 

users

RISAT

7 data

products

and

10 Payload Programming

formats

10.1 Introduction

7.1 Raw

signal

products

10.1.1

Registered

(Level-0)

users

7.2 Ellipsoid

Geocoded

10.1.2

Offline

Products (Level-2)

users

7.3 Value added products

10.1.3

Ground

7.4 Image

parameters

Quality

8 Product quality control

8.1 Meta file verification

station users 10.2 Payload Programming activity

10.2.1 Options for

8.2 Format validation

placing

the

8.3 Geometric check

 

pg. 2

programming request 10.2.2 Request status 10.2.3 PPS- System 11 Applications 11.1 Forestry 11.2 Crop 11.3

programming

request

10.2.2 Request

status

10.2.3 PPS-

System

11 Applications

11.1 Forestry

11.2 Crop

11.3 Agricultural

11.4 Flood

11.1 Forestry 11.2 Crop 11.3 Agricultural 11.4 Flood 1. RISAT-1 SATELLITE OVERVIEW RISAT mission is envisaged

1. RISAT-1 SATELLITE OVERVIEW

RISAT mission is envisaged to fly a SAR

imaging payload for supplementing to the needs of remote sensing data users across the globe. With its

pg. 3

capabilities to operate in day, night and all weather conditions, SAR is an important sensor,

capabilities to operate in day, night and all weather conditions, SAR is an important sensor, which either in stand- alone mode or as complementary to electro-optical sensors, will cater to diverse resources and environmental monitoring applications even during cloud cover times. The basic nature of data, which is a function of a microwave returned signal, will significantly enhance the scope of satellite remote sensing and develop newer applications. RISAT will be launched by ISRO’s own PSLV launch vehicle, as the launch parameters are well within the capabilities. The interface of the satellite with the launch vehicle is through circular merman band clamp (937VB Version) to match with PSLV launcher interface.

2. Mission 2.1Mission Objectives The objectives of RISAT are, i)To develop a multimode, agile SAR payload operating in scanSAR, strip and spot modes to provide images with coarse, fine and high spatial resolutions respectively.

coarse, fine and high spatial resolutions respectively. ii) To develop and operate a compatible satellite to

ii) To develop and operate a compatible satellite to meet the mission requirements operating in three axis stabilized mode in 536.38 km circular sun synchronous orbit. iii) To establish ground segment to receive and process SAR data. iv) To develop related algorithms and data products to serve in well established application areas and also to enhance the mission utility.

2.2Mission elements To meet the defined mission objectives, various components as required by the mission including SAR payload, satellite, orbit, satellite management in orbit and data handling on ground have been defined.

SAR mission will be operational in nature. Mission specifications are similar to contemporary international missions. SAR payload has a multi-mode capability for catering to Continuous fine resolution strip mode for initial reconnaissance, infrastructure development applications, disaster management etc. ,

pg. 4

• Wide swath scanSAR mode for agriculture, forestry, flood mapping, geological applications etc.
• Wide swath scanSAR mode for agriculture, forestry, flood mapping, geological applications etc.

Wide

swath

scanSAR

mode for

agriculture, forestry, flood mapping, geological applications etc.

High

resolution

spotlight

mode

for

A polar sun synchronous orbit at 536.38

kms altitude and inclination of 97.554

deg. with repetivity cycle of 377 orbits in

25 days with a descending node local

special applications

time of 6:00 AM +/- 5 min is chosen .

The satellite is fabricated to have agility

for maximizing the imaging in high-

orbit for RISAT-1 is achieving a global

resolution mode, with Data

transmission in real time as well as in

storage mode. RISAT technology has

been chosen so that the continuity is

maintained in follow-on missions of

RISAT.

view. Orbit parameters are planned to

be variable as per mission operation

presented in Figure :1 , and these will

result in theDevelopment of user-

modes. friendly data products and data archival. 3.2RISAT Subsystems with

Mission Elements of RISAT-1 are

presence of atomic oxygen and

as interferometric applications, the

given swath. Other considerations such

coverage in a systematic way for a

Main guiding parameter for choosing the

atmospheric drag have also been kept in

requirements for various imaging

Fig.1 Mission Elements of RISAT-1

3RISAT Specifications
3RISAT Specifications

3.1RISAT-1 Orbit:

heritage /new elements

RISAT-1 has 13 new sub systems, and

hertitage and past experience exists for

remaining 10 subsystems. Power Sub

systems works on 70 V bus, generated

from CFRP based solar panels and 70

AH Ni-H battery. Miniaturized version of

TTC-RF sub systems and High data rate

modulator, Phase locked loop based

Xband system are used. Phase array

antenna is used for SAR data

transmission using Dual polarized wave

pg. 5

guide radiating elements. SPS sub system is same as used in Carto-2 mission. INSAT type

guide radiating elements. SPS sub system is same as used in Carto-2 mission. INSAT type SPSS, two axes DSS, IRS-P6 Star sensor with improvement in update rate, package density and satellite interface to MIL- STD-1553B interface, Conventional conical earth sensor are used. 50NMS & 0.3NM Torque wheels , IRU sub systems as in Carto-2 and (8+1) 11 N Thrusters are used as actuators. SAR payload is based on TR module based architecture. BDH and SSR are new type of sub systems for RISAT-1.

3.3 Mechanical systems

Radar Imaging satellite (RISAT) is built around a bus for ongoing IRS missions in the weight class of 2000kg. RISAT weight is 1850 kg out of which SAR payload weight is around 950 kg. 3.3.1 Structure The main structure of RISAT consists of one single cylinder of 2.77 m height (approx). The bottom side of the cylinder has a truncated triangular structure to hold the SAR antenna and major bus service elements. At the topside of the cylinder a cuboid

service elements. At the topside of the cylinder a cuboid structure to accommodate the solar arrays,

structure to accommodate the solar arrays, majority of the sensors and antennae is provided. The triangular structure with SAR antenna is identified as PAYLOAD module and the cuboid structure with solar arrays is called as SOLAR PANEL module. Sufficientgap is available between the payload module and the solar panel module so that there is no interference between the solar array and the SAR antenna in launch configuration as well as on-orbit configuration.

3.3.2 Coordinate System & Panel Nomenclature The center of gravity of the satellite is taken as the origin of the co-ordinate system considered for the satellite attitude control and attitude determination purposes. Refer the following figure for axis definition of RISAT mission.

pg. 6

Fig. 2 Roll, Yaw and Pitch Positive Yaw Axis From CG towards and perpendicular to
Fig. 2 Roll, Yaw and Pitch Positive Yaw Axis From CG towards and perpendicular to

Fig. 2 Roll, Yaw and Pitch

Positive Yaw Axis From CG towards and perpendicular to SAR antenna in deployed configuration (towards center of earth) Positive Pitch Axis From CG towards the bottom deck of the triangular structure supporting the SAR Antenna. Positive Roll Axis Perpendicular to +ve Yaw and +ve Pitch axis completing the right handed system. Roll axis is along the deployed SAR Antenna.

3.3.3 Mechanisms RISAT employs SAR deployment mechanism andSolar array deployment mechanism 3.4 Thermal Thermal control will be provided using space proven thermal control elements such as OSR, MLI, paints, thermal

thermal control elements such as OSR, MLI, paints, thermal control tapes, quartz wool blanket, Sink plates

control tapes, quartz wool blanket, Sink plates and heat pipes. Heaters will be provided to maintain temperatures during cold conditions. The orbit and orientation of RISAT gives rise to the following factors that decide the thermal design approach of the Main Bus as well as payload :No eclipse during winter and equinox, Eclipse only during summer (22 minutes maximum), Sun rays incident on SAR radiator with small incident angle resulting in high temperature, More earthshine load on Earth viewing panel due to reduced altitude. Reduced albedo load due to 6AM/6PM equatorial crossing time

3.5 BDH

The data handling system of RISAT is configured in the form of two formatters for each of RX1 (V) and RX2 (H) receivers from the SAR payload. The SAR data is transferred to BDH through LVDS Serializer -Deserializer interface where each data line is at the rate of 218.75 Mbps and clock signal of 31.25 MHz. The de-serialized output (SAR Data) is written in memory as long as the data window from SAR P/L is HIGH. In the next data window, the SAR data

pg. 7

is read from the memory by the formatter for formatting along with necessary auxiliary data.

is read from the memory by the formatter for formatting along with necessary auxiliary data. Two memories per receiver are used for the ping-pong operation of memory write and memory read simultaneously. The formatter clock is 32 MHz or 10 MHz depending upon the data rates of SAR P/L. All clocks are derived from 160 MHz crystal oscillators. Null flag concept is used for optimum utilization of SSR. When the data rate of SAR P/L and BDH overhead together is greater than 640Mbps, real time transmission is not possible and data have to be recorded in SSR. Recorded data can be played back later. Differential Encoder is used to remove four-phase ambiguity of QPSK. BDH has functionalities like payload interface, formatter, 1553 interface, differential encoding clock generation, final parallel to serial conversion and DC/DC.

3.6 SSR The RISAT SSR has a capacity of 300 G bits , realized with six memory boards of 50 G bits capacity each . The memory boards, by default are configured into two partitions each of 150 G bits with three memory boards per partition.

each of 150 G bits with three memory boards per partition. Main Mode Description a) Standby

Main Mode Description

a) Standby mode

b) Retention mode

c) Record mode

d) Playback mode

3.7 RF Systems 3.7.1TTC RF The TT&C (RF) system for RISAT consists of two chains of PLL coherent SBand Transponder connected to a common antenna system (Two antennae system consisting of main and null filling antenna). The basic configuration is identical to the ones employed in earlier IRS missions. The TC demodulation scheme is PSK/PCM with a date rate of 4KBPS. Frequencies:

Receiver frequency : 2071.875 MHz Transmitter frequency : 2250.00 MHz

3.7.2 X-Band RF The X-Band RF is required to do the following operations:

To accept the payload data from the base band Data Handling system. To modulate the above data on two X- Band carriers and transmit the same to ground after suitable amplification and filtering.

pg. 8

In the proposed data transmission for RISAT, half the data i.e. 320 MBPS will be

In the proposed data transmission for RISAT, half the data i.e. 320 MBPS will be transmitted in right hand circular polarisation (RHCP) and the remaining 320 MBPS in the left hand circular polarisation (LHCP); two identical chains operating at 8.2125 GHz are used to transmit 640 MBPS of payload data. The carrier generation section, QPSK modulator section, filter units, selection of Main and redundant chain units are identical in all the chains as the frequency of operation and modulation schemes are identical. Both the chains have end to end redundancy. The spherical phased array antenna has radiating elements distributed almost uniformly on a hemispherical surface. It generates a beam in the required direction by switching ‘ON’ only those elements, which can contribute significantly towards the beam direction. It is proposed to use the 64 element array. 3.8 SPS Satellite Positioning System (SPS) for RISAT comprises of 10-channel C/A code GPS receiver at L1 (1575.42 MHz) frequency. SPS is designed for

receiver at L1 (1575.42 MHz) frequency. SPS is designed for computing the state vector of the

computing the state vector of the high- dynamic platform. 3.9 Power Systems Radar Imaging Satellite (RISAT) Power System consists of Solar array with 6 panels of rigid Al honeycomb sandwiched between CFRP face skin and arranged in two wings with three panels in each wing in +ve roll and -ve roll axes, chemical Battery for power storage and power electronics for power conditioning and distribution. The power system for RISAT is designed to (a) meet the 6AM/6PM orbit illumination conditions; (b) to cater to large power requirement of HRSAR (High Resolution Synthetic Aperture Radar) payload; and (c) solar eclipse conditions during summer solstice. The power system configuration is arrived to meet all the requirements and consists of a fully regulated 70V Bus, regulated by Solar array regulator during sunlit. Battery Discharge Regulator (BDR) supports power to the bus when the load demand exceeds the array generation during payload operation and eclipse conditions by regulating the bus to 70V and protected against over voltage, under voltage, over current and is single point

pg. 9

failure proof. To provide the required voltage to the subsystems which cannot adopt to 70V

failure proof. To provide the required voltage to the subsystems which cannot adopt to 70V bus within RISAT time frame, there is a provision for auxiliary bus of 42V which is fully protected and distributed through two hubs as ABUS1 and ABUS2 each with separate high current fuses. Further distribution to individual users is from fuse boxes placed at convenient locations. To power the core power and uplink even under Battery Emergency conditions during eclipse two uninterrupted Buses are formed by Or-ing Battery and Main Bus. U-Bus1 and U-Bus2 will power Main &Redt Domestic & OBC DC/DCs and are distributed through separate fuses. SADA is incorporated to compensation for the reduction in power during space craft +-36 deg rotations and eclipses. The energy storage system for RISAT employs a single NiH2 battery of 70AH capacity, consisting of 42 cells. The protection mechanism exists for battery during over discharge conditions similar to other spacecrafts. Power Electronics elements ensure, regulation of solar array power to regulate the bus, performs battery managements and distributes power to the various users.

managements and distributes power to the various users. Power Electronics subsystem also consists of Domestic

Power Electronics subsystem also consists of Domestic Regulator, individual cell monitoring, Four-cell

logic, Battery charge controller, OBC and GC Interfaces. 3.10 On Board Computer(OBC) In order to minimize power, weight, and volume, the spacecraft functions like command, housekeeping (Telemetry), Attitude and Orbit Control, Thermal Management, Sensor data processing etc., have been integrated into a single package called On board computer (OBC) which also implements the MIL STD 1553B protocol for interfacing with other subsystems of the spacecraft The use of MIL-STD-1553B interfaces between OBC and other subsystems greatly decreases the volume and mass of cabling and the associated connectors. The OBC system is realizing the following spacecraft functions:

Sensor electronics

Command Processing

Telemetry and House-keeping

Attitude and Orbit Control (AOCS)

Besides, the OBC interfaces with Power, TM-TTC (RF) for command and telemetry, Sensors, Heaters, Thrusters

pg. 10

and Reaction Wheels through special Pointing : ± 0.05 ° (3 σ ) 4 Actuators
and Reaction Wheels through special Pointing : ± 0.05 ° (3 σ ) 4 Actuators

and Reaction Wheels through special

Pointing : ± 0.05 ° (3σ)

4

Actuators

logics. A functionally redundant OBC is

5

Eight Numbers of Canted 11 N

also present. Either of the OBCs can be selected for operation. It also implements the 1553 protocol for interfacing with other subsystems of the spacecraft for data transfer - Star Sensor, SPS, WDE, DTG, DH, SSR and PAA. 11 AOCS RISAT AOCS modules are derived from Carto-2B with modifications required for RISAT mission and are implemented in OBC. AOCS Specifications during Imaging are stated as follows :

Drift Rate : ± 3.0 e-04 °/s (3σ) The attitude orbit control system for RISAT is configured with thefollowing sensors:

thrusters (Mono propellant drazine system operating in blow down mode) with two axis canting from +Pitch axis for Acquisition and OM operation. One Center 11 N thruster for OM operation, four Nos of Reaction Wheels of Capacity (0.3 Nm Torque and 50.0 NMS @ 4410 RPM) mounted in tetrahedral configuration about – Pitch axis. Maximum Operating Speed is upto ±4500 RPM. Reaction wheels are used for Normal Mode and for OM Rotation. - 2 Magnetic Torquers of 60.0 A- m2 Capacity mounted along Roll and Pitch axis for Momentum Dumping.

4π Sun sensor

2

Nos. Magnetometer

2

Nos. IRU (Inertial Reference Unit)

Digital sun sensor 1 No., Solar panel

sun sensor 2 sets (4 Nos.) 3 Nos., RW 4 nos.and SADA, Star Sensor 2 Nos., Earth sensor 2 Nos.,

pg. 11

Mission Requirements 1.1 Mission Requirements Basic system configuration of a high resolution Synthetic Aperture Radar

Mission Requirements

1.1 Mission Requirements

Basic system configuration of a high resolution Synthetic Aperture Radar

(SAR) on an IRS platform is outlined in this chapter. Primarily, the SAR system configuration is designed to meet the following basic objectives:

It should meet applications conforming to national requirements.

It should be multimode one to meet different resolution and swath requirements.

It should be agile for minimizing revisit time and maximizing operational flexibility.

Technology used should be state of the art, survive obsolescence and adaptable for other different frequency bands in future missions.

As the first development of spaceborne SAR in ISRO, the SAR will be developed for single frequency because of technical complexity and the need for developing the sensor in shortest possible time frame. From application considerations, the SAR will be designed in C-band with single/dual/quad polarization capability. For this purpose, active antenna technology with the capability of electronic beam steering, meeting all the above requirements of multi mode operation, agility and state of the art features, has been identified.

Implementation of High Resolution SAR development is planned in two stages:

prototype model

SAR with scaled version of active

commercial

components. The basic aim is to

antenna

using

Development

of

The basic aim is to antenna using ♦ Development of Basic system configuration of a high

Basic system configuration of a high

resolution

Synthetic

Aperture

Radar

(SAR)

on

an

IRS

develop and demonstrate expertise at reduced cost. Subsequent delivery of flight model spaceborne SAR within a further time frame of 2 years.

1.2 Frequency and Polarization

Selection The selection of operational frequency and polarization are driven by the applications demanding a wide range of resolution / swath / polarization combinations.

From resolution considerations, resolution cell should be sufficiently large in comparison with the wavelength (about 10 times the wavelength). Hence, typically 3 m is the highest resolution in L-band, 1.5 to 2 m in S- band, 1 m in C/X-bands and 10-20 cm in Ku/Ka band. Higher resolutions (1m or better) are feasible for C-band frequencies and higher because of bandwidth allocation considerations. Total bandwidth allocation for radar applications is 80 MHz for L-band, 210 MHz for C-band, 350 MHz for X-band and 500 MHz for X-band. Hence, for ground mapping and coastal applications, like oil slick & ships detection, etc. C- and X-band are preferred.

For civilian applications like agriculture, soil moisture, forestry, flood mapping and ocean related studies both C- and L-band with cross polarization are preferred.

Ocean related studies are served best by VV-polarization and land related

pg. 12

studies are aided by HH-polarization. Provision of both co- and cross- polar data aids significantly

studies are aided by HH-polarization. Provision of both co- and cross- polar data aids significantly in discrimination of features. Co-polar return is mainly affected by surface or canopy scattering. Cross-polar return is mainly governed by volume scattering which depends on penetration through canopy/surface. So, higher the frequency poorer will be the return in cross-polarization. Hence, polarimetry is best suited in lower frequency bands like P, L and C. Polarimetry is not usually applicable for X and higher frequency bands.

These considerations have led to the choice of C-band frequency operation with single/dual/quad polarization capability to exploit the maximum gamut of applications.

1.3 Modes of Operation

The RISAT High Resolution SAR will be operating in C-band at a frequency of 5.35 GHz. The spacecraft altitude has been fixed at 608.958 km from the 13- day repetivity considerations. The SAR system has been designed to provide constant swath for all elevation pointing and almost near constant minimum radar cross section performance. The proposed SAR will operate in the following basic modes, the details of which are given in Table-2.1. (Operational philosophy of the modes is briefly outlined here for better comprehensibility of the discussion that follows. Key issues pertaining to these modes are discussed later in this chapter under separate section.) Fine Resolution Stripmap Mode-1 (FRS-1) with 3 m resolution. This mode is based on Stripmap imaging,

3 m resolution. This mode is based on Stripmap imaging, which is the conventional mode of

which is the conventional mode of SAR. In this, the orientation of the antenna beam is fixed with respect to flight path so that a strip of constant swath (here, 30 km) is illuminated along the flight direction. The stripmap SAR image dimension is limited only in the across track and not in the along track dimension (limited only by on-board recorder capacity).

Coarse Resolution ScanSAR Mode (CRS) with 240 km swath. The ScanSAR mode allows for a multifold increase of the range swath dimension. This is achieved by periodically stepping the antenna beam to the neighboring subswaths (in the range direction). In this case, the radar is continuously ON, but only a portion of the full synthetic antenna length is available for each target in a subswath. This causes a degradation of the achievable azimuth resolution with respect to the strip map case. In other words, the range swath dimension increases at the expense of azimuth resolution. In the CRS-mode of RISAT, there will 12 beams to cover each sub-swath of 20 km (either side of the intermediate sub-swaths will have an overlap of 10 km from the preceding and succeeding sub-swaths, thereby reducing the effective sub-swath width from 30 km to 20 km). Therefore, total swath in CRS mode would be 240 km.

Medium Resolution ScanSAR Mode (MRS) with 120 km swath. This is a 6-beam scanSAR mode, similar to the CRS mode.

Fine Resolution Stripmap Mode-2 (FRS-2) with quad polarization

pg. 13

capability. Philosophically, this mode is a hybrid stripmap&scanSAR. It is stripmap in the sense that

capability. Philosophically, this mode is a hybrid stripmap&scanSAR. It is stripmap in the sense that the beam orientation is kept fixed with respect to the flight path and a strip of constant swath width is covered. Also, in a way it is similar to scanSAR, because for part of the aperture time the beam polarisation is switched from V-transmit to H- transmit, and vice-versa. Hence, this

mode would be used for polarimetry, as we can have all the four combinations of polarisation, viz, VV, VH, HH& HV. High Resolution Spotlight Mode (HRS) with 1 m resolution. In the spotlight mode, the antenna beam is oriented continuously to illuminate a particular spot on the ground. This way, the target aperture time is increased which results in improved azimuth resolution (compared to that in the stripmap case). The improved resolution is obtained at the cost of azimuth coverage. The latter is partly improved by making use of sliding spotlight mode (hybrid spotlight- stripmap mode). This imaging would be done over a spot size of 10 km x

10 km. An experimental mode to

extend the azimuth coverage upto

100 km is also planned in this.

These modes have been illustrated in

Fig.2.1.

1.4 RISAT Imaging Geometry

In order to provide greater flexibility in the selection of the look angles for different applications and to increase the effective repeatability, a region on the ground may be accessed by different look angles ranging from 9° to

be accessed by different look angles ranging from 9° to 47° corresponding to off-nadir distances of

47° corresponding to off-nadir distances of 100 km and 700 km, respectively. Hence, a repeatability period of 13 days may be reduced to 2 days. This look angle variation is effected by electronic switching of the antenna beam in the elevation direction. This electronic switching of the beams is also necessary for ScanSAR modes of operation (MRS/ CRS).

As shown in Fig.-2.1, SAR will operate with basic elevation beam width of 2.48o -1.67o, over a total ground distance of 600 km, starting from an off nadir distance of 100 km and upto 700km. Radiometric performance is guaranteed for the swaths covered from off-nadir distance of 200 km to 600 km (qualified region) and for the regions lying between 100 km to 200 km and 600 km to 700 km, the performance is not guaranteed (unqualified). Figure – 2.1 shows the basic system geometry of the proposed SAR for operation of all the above-mentioned modes. The variation of the look angle and incidence angle for various off-nadir distances is illustrated in Fig 2.2.

pg. 14

2.48 0 -1.67 0 EL.BEAM 10 0 20 0 49 0 54 0 100km 400km
2.48 0 -1.67 0 EL.BEAM 10 0 20 0 49 0 54 0 100km 400km
2.48 0 -1.67 0 EL.BEAM 10 0 20 0 49 0 54 0 100km 400km
2.48 0 -1.67 0
EL.BEAM
10 0
20 0
49 0
54 0
100km
400km
200km
700km

608.958 km

100 km (UNQUALIFIED ) Mode 200 HRS Mode KM CRS 400 km Mode (QUALIFIED MRS
100
km
(UNQUALIFIED
)
Mode
200
HRS
Mode
KM
CRS
400 km
Mode
(QUALIFIED
MRS
Mode
)

100 km

(UNQUALIFIED)

608.958 km

FRS-1/FRS-2

Fig.-2.1 Basic System Geometry and Operating Modes of High Resolution SAR

pg. 15

Table-2.1 Major Mission Parameters for Sp aceborne High Resolution SAR Altitude 608.958Km Orbit Sun synchronous

Table-2.1

Table-2.1 Major Mission Parameters for Sp aceborne High Resolution SAR Altitude 608.958Km Orbit Sun synchronous

Major Mission Parameters for Spaceborne High Resolution SAR

Altitude

608.958Km

Orbit

Sun synchronous (6 AM / 6 PM equatorial crossing)

Frequency

5.35 GHz

Polarisation

Single / Dual / Quad-polarization

Swath coverage

Either side of the flight track Selectable within 100 – 700 km off-nadir distance (100-200 km & 600-700 km regions are unqualified, the rest is qualified)

Look angle

Qualified

18° - 43°

coverage

(200-600

km)

Total

9° – 47°

(100-700

km)

Incidence

Qualified

20° – 49°

angle

(200-600

coverage

km)

Total

10° – 54°

(100-700

km)

Antenna

Microstrip Active antenna, 6m x 2m

Peak Gain

44.5dB

Total no. of beams

63 on each side of the flight track (total 126)

On board storage

SSR with 240 Gbits

No. of TR Modules

288

Transmitted power per TRM

10

W

Antenna peak power

2.88

kW

AverageDC Input Power

3.86

kW

Range Compression

On Ground

Pulse width

20

μs

Imaging Modes

HRS

FRS-1

FRS-2

MRS

CRS

Applicable Polarization combinations

Single &

Single &

Quad

Single &

Single &

Dual

Dual

Dual

Dual

Swath/Spot

Defined

10 (Az) x

30

30

120

240

(km)

10(Rng)

pg. 16

Imaging Modes   HRS FRS-1 FRS-2 MRS CRS   Experimenta 100 (Az) --- --- ---
Imaging Modes   HRS FRS-1 FRS-2 MRS CRS   Experimenta 100 (Az) --- --- ---

Imaging Modes

 

HRS

FRS-1

FRS-2

MRS

CRS

 

Experimenta

100 (Az)

---

---

---

---

l

x

10(Rng)

Resolution (Az x slant range)

 

1m x

3m x

9m x

21-23m

41-55m

 

0.7m

2m

4m

x 8m

x 8m

Minimum sigma naught (dB) (Qualified Region)

 

-16.3

-17

-18

-18

-18

Chirp bandwidth (MHz)

 

225

75

37.5

18.75

18.75

Sampling frequency (MHz)

 

250

83.3

41.67

20.83

20.83

Data window (μs)

 

96-163

55-181

55-181

55-181

55-181

PRF

 

3500±

3000±

3000±

3000±

3000±

200 Hz

200 Hz

200 Hz

200 Hz

200 Hz

No. of

Qualified

 

27040-

7424-

3840-

2048-

2048-

Complex

(200-

37120

14366

7168

3584

3584

Samples

600)Km

 

Total

 

23960-

4864-

2560-

1280-

1280-

(100-

40720

15104

7680

3840

3840

700)Km

 

Data Compression

3-bit BAQ

Onboard BAQ (6/5/4/3/2 bits)

Data Rate

Considering

 

3-BAQ

6-BAQ

6-BAQ

6-BAQ

6-BAQ

(in Mbps)

 

(for

 

100km

azimuth)

Single pol

507-739

176-556

----

44-142

44-142

Dual pol

 

1014-

352-

----

88-284

88-284

 

1478

1112

Quad pol

 

----

----

176-556

----

----

Data

Considering

 

3-BAQ

6-BAQ

6-BAQ

6-BAQ

6-BAQ

Coverage/

 

(for

Storage

 

100km

azimuth)

Single pol

 

4

spots

2950

----

11500

11500

 

km

km

km

Dual pol

 

2

spots

1475

----

5750

5750

 

km

km

km

Quad pol

 

----

----

2950

----

----

 

km

Azimuth Ambiguity (over qualified region)

 

-21 dB

 

-22 dB

 

Range Ambiguity (over qualified region)

 

-20 dB

 

-20 dB

 

Radiometric

Resolution

 

3 dB (single look)

 

pg. 17

Imaging Modes HRS FRS-1 FRS-2 MRS CRS Performanc Accuracy   2 dB (Goal)   e
Imaging Modes HRS FRS-1 FRS-2 MRS CRS Performanc Accuracy   2 dB (Goal)   e

Imaging Modes

HRS

FRS-1

FRS-2

MRS

CRS

Performanc

Accuracy

 

2 dB (Goal)

 

e

(over orbit)

 

(over

Accuracy

 

TBD

qualified

(over

 

region)

Lifetime)

pg. 18

In the non-imaging mode antenna will be looking downwards towards the nadir. By having an

In the non-imaging mode antenna will be looking downwards towards the nadir. By having an option of roll-tilting the satellite by ±34°, SAR can be made to see either side of the track (one at a time), thereby improving the revisit time by a factor of two. The pointing is chosen such that between two successive beam positions, swath overlap of 10 km is always ensured. This overlap is important for achieving MRS/CRS mode.

Fast electronic beam pointing and beamwidth control is achieved by electronic elevation beam control in the active antenna. 61 beam-pointing positions have been identified to enable sufficient agility in imaging anywhere over 600 km region (qualified and unqualified) with best possible performance. Each beam is centered at off-nadir intervals of 10 km. Two additional beams with no pointing (0° w.r.t. antenna orientation angle i.e.

with no pointing (0° w.r.t. antenna orientation angle i.e. Fi g. 2.2 Variation of Ang les

Fig. 2.2 Variation of Angles with Off Nadir

±34°) are

defined for two halves of

antenna, 6m x 1m each. Therefore, there are 63 beam positions defined for imaging on each of the sides of the sub- satellite track. As a result, a total of 126 beams would be used for imaging on either sides of the track.

1.5 Antenna configuration –in brief

and Elevation beamwidth considerations Area of the SAR antenna is dictated by the frequency band of operation, and is of the order of 12 m2 for C-band operation. Hence, RISAT active antenna is configured with 6m (azimuth) x 2m (elevation/range) dimensions, with 288 pairs (V & H) of TR-modules. The RISAT antenna consists of three panels each of 2m×2m size, as shown in Fig.2.3, to facilitate stowing during launch and later, deployment in the space. The longer dimension of the antenna is aligned with azimuth direction and the width in the elevation/range direction. Each panel consists of 4 tiles of size 1m×1m, each consisting of 24×24 radiating elements. In the azimuth direction (antenna length) 24 elements are grouped together to be fed by a single TR-module pair (V/H polarization), hence we have 6 TR- module pairs in the antenna length direction. Each radiating element in the width direction is fed by a different TR- module pair, hence there are 48 (=24 x 2m) TR-module pairs in the antenna width. The total number of TR-module pairs is therefore 288 (=6m x 48). The inter-element spacing has been kept 0.7λ, where λ stands for wavelength which is 5.6 cm. If the spacing between the radiators is more than this, grating

lobes will occur in the antenna patterns. At the junction of two tiles, the inter-

lobes will occur in the antenna patterns. At the junction of two tiles, the inter- element spacing is 1.4λ, therefore, one blank row of radiating elements may be assumed which is at a distance of 0.7λ from the nearest radiating elements from the adjacent tiles. In short, 49 rows of TR-modules may be assumed in the antenna width (for system analysis purposes), with the centre row as a hypothetical blank (inactive) one to attribute to the inter-tile spacing.

Elevation beamwidth will be made to vary with pointing angles in order to

achieve pointing-independent swath of 30 km and constant minimum radar cross section performance. If the antenna beamwidth is kept constant, there will be varying footprint size in the range direction, due to change in slant ranges. At near off-nadir distances, the beam footprint will be smaller than the desired 30 km. Hence, in order to maintain the constant footprint of 30 km, the beamwidth is increased by switching off the TR-modules and in effect reducing the electrical width of the antenna (at near off-nadir distances). The

Azimuth 6 m
Azimuth
6 m

2 m

Elevation

Panel-1 Panel-2 Panel-3
Panel-1
Panel-2
Panel-3
1 m
1 m
The Azimuth 6 m 2 m Elevation Panel-1 Panel-2 Panel-3 1 m 1 m Group of

1 m

Group of 24 patches fed by single TR module in azimuth direction

1 Tile of 24 x 24 radiating elements

Fig.2.3 Distributed Antenna For 2 High m Resolution SAR

pg. 20

TR-modules are switched off in the width direction, equally from outer edges of the adjacent

TR-modules are switched off in the width direction, equally from outer edges of the adjacent two tiles, as shown in Fig.2.4. Hence, elevation beamwidth is varied from 2.48° to 1.67° corresponding to off-nadir distances from 100 km to 700 km, respectively, as shown in Fig.2.5. The corresponding number of active TR-module rows in the

elevation direction is illustrated in Fig-

2.6.

1.6 Selection of PRF for different Beam

positions The Doppler bandwidth corresponding to antenna length of 6m and spacecraft velocity of 7.5 km/s will be 2500 Hz.

Azimuth

spacecraft velocity of 7.5 km/s will be 2500 Hz. Azimuth Elevation 6m Illuminated region of the
Elevation 6m
Elevation
6m

Illuminated region of the antenna

2m

Fig.2.4: Change of Antenna electrical width to cater to variable elevation beamwidth

electrical widt h to cater to variable elevation beamwidth Fig.-2.5 Elevation Beam-width with Beam Pointing Fig.2.6:

Fig.-2.5 Elevation Beam-width with Beam Pointing

beamwidth Fig.-2.5 Elevation Beam-width with Beam Pointing Fig.2.6: Variation of No. of Active TR-modules in the

Fig.2.6: Variation of No. of Active TR-modules in the width direction

Hence, the PRF should be greater than about 1.1 times the Doppler bandwidth, i.e. 2750

Hence, the PRF should be greater than about 1.1 times the Doppler bandwidth, i.e. 2750 Hz. Changes in slant range corresponding to off-nadir distance change from 100 km to 700 km, lead to different echo start times and variable data windows. To accommodate the same, variable PRF is necessary. Therefore all the modes, except HRS, have PRF between 2800 – 3200 Hz. Maximum PRF is limited by the minimum data window that has to be accommodated. In the case of HRS mode, Doppler centroid estimation (for different sub-apertures) requires additional 500 Hz (over the Doppler bandwidth of 2500 Hz), therefore PRF would lie between 3000 – 3700 Hz. This large range of PRF is required to satisfy the slant range change during pitch tilting of the satellite for azimuth coverage of 100 km, for each of the off-nadir distances.

for the PRFs under consideration is about 0.3 ms. Therefore, echo corresponding to a transmitted pulse is received after certain number of pulses. The number of such pulses varies from 12 to 19 for off-nadir distances starting from 100 km to 700 km, respectively.

Near margin and far margin as defined in Fig-2.7 should be more than 20μs to allow for pulse rise & fall times and sub- system switching (like, switching off the transmitter and switching on of the receiver(s), data acquisition enabling, etc.). PRF is optimized for nearly equal near & far margins within the given PRF ranges.

The PRF is commandable from the ground through Payload Controller. The command is given in terms of 12-bit count corresponding to a clock frequency of 3.90625 MHz. Hence, the PRI should be an integer multiple of the

MHz. Hence, the PRI should be an integer multiple of the Start Window Data window No.

Start Window

Data window

No. of Pulses after which echo occurs
No. of Pulses after which echo occurs
Window Data window No. of Pulses after which echo occurs F a r M a r

Far Margin

Near Margin

Pulse Width Fig.2.7: Representation of Timing Window Parameters

Fig-2.7 presents nomenclature related to the timing window parameters. As the slant range varies from 616 km to 928 km for off-nadir positions of 100 km to 700 km respectively, the echo return times change from 4.1 ms to 6.2 ms. Typical PRI (Pulse Repetition Intervals)

clock interval corresponding to 3.90265 MHz. Similarly, data window start time and number of data samples to be acquired are also commandable by ground commands of 12-bit and 16-bit counts, respectively. Hence, these parameters should also be integer

multiples of the above-mentioned clock interval. In addition to the above requirements, the number of

multiples of the above-mentioned clock interval. In addition to the above requirements, the number of data samples within a data window should be a multiple of BAQ (Block Adaptive Quantization, to be described later) block size of 128.

Based on the above considerations, two sets of optimum PRFs have been generated for all the beam positions:

1) For all the modes, except HRS, considering a swath of 30 km 2) For HRS mode, considering a swath of 10 km.

of 30 km 2) For HRS mode, considering a swath of 10 km. Fig: 2.8 Variation

Fig: 2.8 Variation of optimum PRF with off-nadir distance (for FRS-

of optimum PRF with off-nadir distance ( for FRS- Fig.2.10 Variation of data window with off-nadir

Fig.2.10 Variation of data window with off-nadir distance (for FRS- 1,FRS-2,MRS,CRS modes)

Figures 2.8 – 2.11 present the PRF and timing window parameters for FRS-1, FRS-2, MRS & CRS modes.

Best and worst case sigma naught values have been tabulated for MRS & CRS modes in Tables-2.2 & 2.3 alongwith the corresponding off-nadir values at which they occur. Fig.2.31 & 2.32 show comparison graphs for the best and worst sigma naught values for MRS & CRS mode, respectively.

Table-2.2

Best and Worst Sigma Naught values for

Table-2.2 Best and Worst Sigma Naught values for Fig: 2.9 Variation of the number of pulses

Fig: 2.9 Variation of the number of pulses after which echo is received (for

of the number of pulses after which echo is received (for pg. window 23 parameters with

pg. window 23

parameters with off-nadir distance (for

FRS-1,FRS-2,MRS,CRS modes)

Fig.2.11 Variation of

timing

RISAT-1 : Orbit The following orbit is selected keeping in view, mi nimum number of

RISAT-1 : Orbit

The following orbit is selected

keeping in view, minimum number of days for systematic coverage in MRS and CRS mode.

Repeat cycle orbits in 25 days Altitude km Incli nation deg Path- to-path distance

Mean Local Time : 6 AM at descending node PSLV placed RISAT-1 into 476 km altitud e with the inclination 97.63 deg. Orbit was raised to 536.4 km from 476

: 377

: 536.38

: 97.554

: 106.3 km

deg with a series of maneuvers. When the spacecraft was launched, the Mean Local Time of the orbit was 5:51 AM and it is going to reach 6 AM around October 2013, as there is a bias of 0.04 deg with respect to nominal inclination. In the above orbit, ideally it takes 25 days for systematic global coverage with th e same set of beams (i.e. with same incidence angle) but, being in the same orbit, it is possible to have global coverage in CRS mode, every 13 days with the same set of beams. The path pattern for the above orbit is provided in the diagram below.

Path pattern for the new orbit ( Repeat cycle : 377 orbits in 25 days,
Path pattern for the new orbit
( Repeat cycle : 377 orbits in 25 days,
h = 536.38 km, i = 97.544 deg )
Paths
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
Days
1
14
2
15
3
16
4
17
5
18
6
19
7
20
pg.

km and inclination is corrected to 97.59

24

Fig.1 Path pattern for the new orbit ( Repeat cycle : 377 orbits in 25
Fig.1 Path pattern for the new orbit ( Repeat cycle : 377 orbits in 25
Fig.1
Path pattern for the new orbit
( Repeat cycle : 377 orbits in 25 days,
h = 536.38 km, i = 97.544 deg )
Paths
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
Days
1
14
2
15
3
16
4
17
5
18
6
19
7
20

Fig.2

Path 1 Path 2 Path 3 106 km 115 km 223 km 212 km 11
Path 1
Path 2
Path
3
106 km
115 km
223 km
212 km
11 km
Day 1
Day 2
Day 14

T

he above diagram in fig.2 shows that the images in CRS mode on two consecutive days have overlap and with

a set of consecutive 13

possible to have global coverage. Path - 1 is fixed at 330.3 longitude, to avoid

is

days,

it

high elevation passes over Shadnagar. The ground track is maintained within ± 3 km with

high elevation passes over Shadnagar. The ground track is maintained within ± 3 km with respect to the nominal

pattern. The maximum revisit time for a given region of interest is 2.5 to 3 days for latitudes between 20 and 40 deg.

revisit time for a given region of interest is 2.5 to 3 days for latitudes between

Fig.

Fig.7
Fig.7

pg. 26

Fig-6 shows the eclipse variation over a year. It is seen that the orbit is

Fig-6 shows the eclipse variation over a year. It is seen that the orbit is free from eclipse for almost 9 months in a year and the maximum duration is 22 RISAT-1 : Referencing Scheme

The Referencing scheme implemented for RISAT-1 is a generalized one due to the following factors.

SAR operates in four different payload modes

The swath for different payload modes can be placed anywhere within the range between 107 km and 659 km away from nadir.

Imaging is done in both ascending and descending passes Roll bias of +36 degand – 36 deg are given to view on either side of the track.

SAR is always operated in off-

nadir mode Hence the payload trace never coincides with the ground trace of the orbit from which it is operated. The payload trace does not follow any one ground trace, but

minutes on 21st Jun. The latitude below which eclipse occurs on the calendar days is shown in fig.7.

it crosses over many ground traces. With positive and negative roll bias, the payload trace reaches latitudes beyond ground trace latitudes

Referencing scheme requirements

As SAR operates in ascending as well as descending pass, rows over full orbit have to be addressed Referencing scheme should address scenes for different payload modes. Scenes with both positive and negative roll bias reaching latitudes beyond the ground trace latitude, have to be addressed. Scheme

Nodal points are defined along meridians and parallels

The longitude range of 360 deg is divided into 8640 points at the interval of

The longitude range of 360 deg is divided into 8640 points at the interval of 2.5 arc minutes. The latitude range of +90 deg to –90 deg is divided into 4320 points at interval of 2.5 arc minutes. This means that every 1deg x 1deg grid is partitioned into 24 x 24 nodal points. Figure – 3.3.2 shows as an example, how 1 deg X 1deg grid with latitude 0 deg and longitude 100 deg as the left bottom corner, is partitioned into nodal points. Nodal points are addressed by four

integers i, j, m, n i and j are the latitude and longitude of the left-bottom corner of the 1 deg x 1deg grid to which the nodal point belongs. The latitude is biased by 90 deg so that it is addressed as positive number. i ranges from 0 to 180. 0 is –90 deg latitude. 180 is +90 deg latitude. j ranges from 0 to 360. and m, n range from 1 to 24.

Partitioning of 1 deg X 1 deg grid

91,100,1,1

(lat 1.0 lng 100.0)

90,100,24,24

(lat 0.9583 lng 100.9583)

91,101,1,1 (lat 1.0 lng 101.0) 90,100,24,1 (lat 0.9583 ln g 100.0) pg. 28 90,100,1,1 90,100,1,24
91,101,1,1
(lat 1.0 lng 101.0)
90,100,24,1
(lat 0.9583 ln
g 100.0)
pg. 28
90,100,1,1
90,100,1,24
(lat 0.0 lng 100.0)
(lat 0.0 lng 100.9583)
Ascending scene c1 c3 c2 c4 X c1 c3 c2 c4 Descending scene Scene centre

Ascending scene

c1

c3

c2 c4 X c1 c3
c2
c4
X
c1
c3

c2

c4

Descending scene

Scene centre

The size of CRS, MRS , FRS and HRS scenes vary as per their swath and for CRS and MRS mode, the total scene with the combination of selected beams is addressed. Scene framing is done in the following manner. From the start time, a fixed duration is considered for each scene with sufficient along track overlap between consecutive scenes.

The duration for scene in each payload mode is specified by payload team. So, there are no fixed latitudes for scene centres and this avoids partial scenes in the beginning. The center latitude (φ) and longitude (λ) of the actual scenes are identified with respect to nearest nodal point addressed by i, j, m, n.

i = int( φ ) + 90 j = int( λ ) m = int((

i =

int(φ) + 90

j = int(λ)

m = int((φ- int(φ)) *24) +1

n = int((λ- int(λ)) *24) +1 For example, φ = 1.750 deg and λ = 30.499 deg

i = int(1.750) + 90 = 91

j = int(30.499) = 30

m = (int(0.750*24)) + 1 = 19 n = (int(0.499*24)) + 1 = 12

Also the pass type Ascending / Descending has to be attached.

Imaging paths

As the orbit follows the repeat cycle (377 orbits in 25 days), the concept of path still holds good and these are the nadir ground traces from which imaging is done. As imaging is done in both ascending and descending part of the orbit, the descending ground trace is extended on both sides (to the previous ascending node from north pole and next ascending node from south pole) to get one path. Hence there will be a break in the path number at ascending node.

pg. 31
pg. 31

pg. 31

INTRODUCTION RISAT-1 (Radar Imaging Satellite) satellite transmits SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) payload data through

INTRODUCTION

RISAT-1 (Radar Imaging Satellite) satellite transmits SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) payload data through X-Band carrier using dual polarization. The data is transmitted through one or two RF chains depending on mode of payload operation. The data stream of each chain is at 320 Mbps data rate and modulated using QPSK modulation scheme. The bandwidth available

using QPSK modulation scheme. The bandwidth available 4.DATA RECEPTION SYSTEM for data reception in X-Band is

4.DATA RECEPTION SYSTEM

for data reception in X-Band is being

375 MHz, the two streams with a total data rate of 640 Mbps are transmitted to ground through RHC and LHC polarized signals at X-Band carrier frequency of 8212.5 MHz using the frequency re-use technique.

A new ground station has been

designed and established under the project to cater for RISAT-1 data

pg. 32

reception The ground station diameter antenna system with dual shaped reflectors in Cassegrain configuration. A

reception

The

ground

station

diameter antenna system with dual

shaped reflectors in Cassegrain

configuration. A new dual polarized

feed has been designed, fabricated

and integrated with antenna system

. The station provides G/T of 32

dB/deg K. The new dual polarized

feed has been designed, fabricated

and evaluated at CATF for primary

radiation patterns and at BEL Test

range for secondary antenna

patterns

All the RF and IF subsystems of the

receive station will handle higher

bandwidth of 320 MHz. Design

implementation of individual

subsystems of ground station and the

specifications of each unit are so

drawn out that they will cater for the

required over all ground station link

margin.

Integrated Multi mission Ground

segment for Earth Observation

Satellites (IMGEOS) is being

established at NRSC Shadnagar with

an objective to have a highly reliable

and an easily adaptable system to

to have a highly reliable and an easily adaptable system to consis ts of a high

consists of a high efficient 7.5 m

cater for future mission requirements

in order to achieve reduced

turnaround time for the data

product generation and

dissemination. In IMGEOS scenario,

four terminals with dual polarized S/X

band feed and identical receive chain

configuration are being established.

Two of the four terminals are currently

completed and made operational.

Data

Configuration

Reception

Station

4.1Station requirements to track and receive RISAT-1data

Dual circularly polarized

X/S-Band composite Feed

Reception of high data rate

(320 Mbps) modulated signals

Additional LHCP chain for

X-Band Auto Track

Synthesized Up/Down

Converter with additional

channels

X-Band Auto Track either

through RHCP or LHCP carrier

pg. 33

  • Auto diversityto facilitate   tracking on either of threetracking Channels
 

Auto

diversityto

facilitate

 

tracking

on

either

of

threetracking Channels

 

IF

Fiber

optic

link

for

 

transfer of

high

data

rate

modulatedIF spectrums.

 

High

data

rate

 

Demodulators at 320 Mbps (I+Q) data rate

High

Data

Rate RF

Simulator for simulation of RISAT- 1 RF signals

4.2IMGEOS configuration

The configuration of centralized control room in IMGEOS architecture is designed to meet the automation requirements of the data reception systems. In each of the four primary antenna systems, some of the Digital Servo control and RF subsystems are located in the concrete pedestal , all the IF/base band subsystems and Antenna control computer are located in centralized control room .

control computer are located in centralized control room . All the subsystems are designed with provision

All the subsystems are designed with provision for remote monitoring and control capability through Ethernet interface. Thus all the subsystems are in a common network configuration ,controlled and monitored through a central station control computer. The Data and Tracking IF signals from each of the four Primary antenna systems are driven from Concrete pedestal to Centralized control room through Fiber Optic links. The IF Outputs from the Fiber optic receivers in Control room are fed to the common Programmable IF matrix ,which routes these IF signals to the respective second down converter subsystems. The output of the Second down converter is fed to the Multi-mission programmable Demodulators . The Data and clock signals from each of the demodulators are hard patched to Data ingest systems. The data ingest systems are co- located with respective Demodulators. There will be five dual channel data demodulators

pg. 34

with dedicated Data ingest Antenna systems, one of them being   systems in order to
with dedicated Data ingest Antenna systems, one of them being   systems in order to

with

dedicated

Data

ingest

Antenna systems, one of them being

 

systems

in

order to

cater to

a common redundant system .

 

simultaneous dual carrier

data

reception requirements

of the four

Fig. 3 IMGEOS Configuration of Data Reception Station

4.3Data Reception Stationspecifications Half power beam width X-Band S-Band : 0.27º : 1.1º Dual shapedmain
4.3Data
Reception
Stationspecifications
Half power beam width
X-Band
S-Band
:
0.27º
:
1.1º
Dual shapedmain reflector
:7.5
meter dia, parabolic dish
Sub-reflector : 0.8 meter dia,
Type of mount
:
 

Hyperbolic dish

Elevation over Azimuth

 

Frequency Range

Maximum Velocity

:

X-Band

:

AZ- 20º/sec , EL- 10º/sec

 

S-Band

:

8.000 to 8.500 GHz 2.2 to 2.3 GHz

Maximum accélération

 

:

Feed

:

X/S

band

AZ- 10º/sec² , EL- 2º/sec²

 

Data rates

: 320 Mbps (I+Q) in each

 

composite, Cassegrain Single Channel MonopulsePolarization

chain

X-Band

& LHCP

S-Band

:

:

Simultaneous RHCP

RHCP

Tracking

:

S/

X

AutoTrack Program Track as back-up

(R)

/X

(L)

 

Cross pol. Isolation :20 dB

Threshold Eb/No :13.3 dB for 1X10 -

 

Antenna gainX-Band:

54dBi

6

BER

S-Band:

40 dBi

G/T

4.3.1Brief

description

of

Data

X-band

S-Band

:

:

32 dB/ºK @ 5º EL 16 dB/ºK @ 5º EL

Reception Station

 
 

pg. 35

 
dual shaped antenna system with a The station consists of a 7.5 m dia parabolic

dual

shaped antenna system with a

The

station

consists of

a

7.5

m

dia

parabolic reflector.

a The station consists of a 7.5 m dia parabolic reflector. Telemetry Data and Tracking signals

Telemetry Data and Tracking signals are down converted to 70 MHz IF.

The dual shaped antenna along

The down converted X and S band

with

feed

in

tracking IF signals are fed to a

Cassegrainconfiguration provides G/T of 32 dB/º K. The composite

three channel Integrated Tracking system (ITS), located at antenna

S/X

feed

is

dual

circularly

pedestal. The ITS demodulates the

polarized

in

both

S

&

X

tracking IF signal and extracts AZ

bands.with

the

capability

to

and EL DC error information from the

receive LHC and RHC polarized signals simultaneously.

The antenna and feed system is mounted over an EL over AZ

tracking video. The DC errors are fed to Digital Servo System to control the antenna movement for satellite tracking in Auto Track mode.

drive pedestal. The feed and front-end system realizes single channel monopulse tracking. The X-Band data is received through

Servo System

comprises of Antenna Control Computer, Drive Power Amplifiers Drive motors and Optical shaft

The Digital

RHCP

and

LHCP

Encoders to operate the Antenna in

simultaneouslyusing frequency

re-use technique.

The X Band data and tracking error signals from RHCP & LHCP chains in identical configuration are amplified in LNA and down converted toa first Intermediate frequency in the range of 2.2 to 2.9 GHz IF. The S-band

different modes of operation viz, Rate mode, PTS mode, command angle mode and Auto mode . The System has provision for remote control and configuration through Ethernet interface

The Drive system consists of Power Amplifiers, Brush less DC motors, Gear boxes (Dual drive mode) and Slew-rings

pg. 36

in each El. and Az, axis. Each axis is driven by two motors in counter

in each El. and Az, axis. Each axis is driven by two motors in counter torque mode to avoid backlash. Absolute optical shaft encoders are used for measuring the angular position of the antenna. All safety interlocks are provided in the drive system.

The IF outputs from first data down converter (2 carriers) and S band data IF are driven to the control room through a multi-core optical fiber cable. The S band Data IF is driven to SPS receiver in control room for further processing of SPS Data.

The twodata IF signals received in control room are fed through programmable IF Matrix to the second down converter and then to

High data rate digital demodulator.

The data and clock signals from demodulators aredriven through LVDS interface to Data Ingest

aredriven through LVDS interface to Data Ingest System for furthe r processing and product generation. The

System for further processing and product generation. The total data acquisition system for all the Antenna Systems are automated through Station Control Computer.

4.4Detailed Functional Reception of Data Reception station

The data reception station comprises of the following major systems. The functional block diagram of data reception station is given in fig 2.

Antenna &Tracking Pedestal

Dual Polarized Feed& RF systems

Digital Servo & Automation system

IF &Base-Band system

Data Ingest System

The

description and specifications of

each of the subsystems is given in the following sections.

detailed

functional

pg. 37

Fig.4 Data Reception Station 4.5 Pedestal 4.5.1 Antenna Antenna &Tracking The reflector is a 7.5-meter
Fig.4 Data Reception Station 4.5 Pedestal 4.5.1 Antenna Antenna &Tracking The reflector is a 7.5-meter
Fig.4 Data Reception Station 4.5 Pedestal 4.5.1 Antenna Antenna &Tracking The reflector is a 7.5-meter

Fig.4 Data Reception Station

4.5

Pedestal

4.5.1 Antenna

Antenna

&Tracking

The reflector is a 7.5-meter diameter Parabolic Antenna with a focal length to diameter ratio (F/D) of 0.41. The focal length of the reflector is 3.07 meters. The sub reflector diameter has been selected as an optimum value in the trade-off between reflector

spill

over, which significantly affect the

block age

and

sub

reflector

main

reflector consists of a machined,

gain of

the

antenna.

The

reinforced

circular

hub,

which

supports 16 radial

trusses

and

other

The 16 trusses

interconnecting

braces.

support 16 solid

surface

reflector

panels.

Aviation

warning

lights

and

lightening

arrestor

are

mounted

on

the

reflector.

Sub

reflector

is

pg. 38

hyperboloid supported by four aluminum quadri-pods. Antenna mounting frame attaches the reflector to a pair

hyperboloid supported by four aluminum quadri-pods. Antenna mounting frame attaches the reflector to a pair of Yoke arms with Counter weight arms.

4.5.2 Pedestal

The pedestal system is an Elevation over Azimuth mount type. The Elevation housing contains the necessary drive system for antenna movement about an Elevation axis between - 2° (below the horizon) to zenith and Azimuth housing containing the drives to achieve ± 360° rotation about the Azimuth axis. The Azimuth housing (Fig.) consists of a fabricated stiffened cylindrical steel drum supported on a concrete pedestal. The Azimuth drive mechanism is housed inside it. The Pedestal assembly consists of drive components, gear boxes, optical encoders, Electrical limit switch assembly and Stow lock motors.

4.5.3Drive chain

limit switch assembly and Stow lock motors. 4.5.3Drive chain The drive chain is a dual drive

The drive chain is a dual drive system in both Azimuth and

Elevation axes, using brush less

DC motors to enhance the

reliability and performance. The drive system is configured with precision anti backlash gear

system and torque bias arrangement to provide better

tracking and pointing accuracies. All the four drive motors are identical with integral tachometer, resolver and brakes.

The brushless DC servo motors

are coupled to the output axis by means of a high efficiency gear

reducer and torque coupling. A cable wrap system will be

provided in the pedestal housing to protect the cable elements

from damage due to uncontrolled

cable twist loops, during the

antenna movement.

4.5.4Azimuth housing

The Azimuth Slew ring bearing is supported at the top of the Azimuth housing which is properly machined

pg. 39

to match the Slew ring bearing surface and attached to it using high strength bolts.

to match the Slew ring bearing

surface and attached to it using high

strength bolts. The Azimuth housing is connected to Elevation housing using high tension bolts fitted to inner ring of Azimuth Slew ring bearing.

4.5.5Elevation housing

The Elevation housing (Fig. 4) is

a structure fabricated out of

steel plates. It houses the elevation drive mechanism. The bottom of the Elevation housing is machined to suit the fixed part of the Azimuth Slew ring bearings and is fitted to it by high tensile steel bolts. An access is provided in the Elevation housing for routing cables through the hatch. The Yoke arms are attached through Slew ring bearings to Elevation housing. The Physical structure of the antenna with details of complete mechanical components of the pedestal assembly is shown in fig.3.

of complete mechanical components of the pedestal assembly is shown in fig.3. Fig.5 5m Dia. Antenna
of complete mechanical components of the pedestal assembly is shown in fig.3. Fig.5 5m Dia. Antenna

Fig.5 5m Dia. Antenna System

pg. 40

4.7Technical Specifications: Antenna Type : Parabolic r e f l e c t o r

4.7Technical Specifications:

Antenna Type

:

Parabolic

reflector

Diameter

Main Reflector

:

7.5 meter shaped parabolic solid

dish

Sub-reflector

:

0.736 meter

Hyperbolic dish

F/D

Focal length :

FeedConfiguration :Cassegrain

3.077 meters

:

0.41

S Band

:

8 Helices

X-band

:4

Conical

dielectric

elements

Overall RMS

 

(a)

Main Dish

:

0.5 mm

RMS

(b)

Sub-reflector

:

0.05

mm

Sky coverage

 

(a) Elevation : 2°to182°(Mech),-

0°to 180° (Electrical)

(b)

Azimuth :±360°Velocity

(a)

Elevation Axis :

10° / sec.

(b)

Azimuth Axis : 20° / sec.

Angular Acceleration

(a)

Elevation Axis

:

2° /sec 2

(b)

Azimuth Axis : 10° /sec 2

Pointing Error

2 (b) Azimuth Axis : 10° /sec 2 Pointing Error : 0.08° peak Operating Temperature :

:

0.08° peak

Operating Temperature :

0° C

to 55° C

 

Wind Speed

 

(a)

Operational wind speed

:

60 Kmph

(b)

Occasional gusting :

80

Kmph

( c)Drive to stow

(d) Survival wind speed in Zenith

:

100 Kmph

: 200 Kmph

Natural resonant Frequency

:

4 Hz

Weight

:

1.4 Tons

4.8Dual Polarized S/X Band Feed &RF Systems

4.8.1Dual

Feed

Polarized

S/X

Band

The feed is of multi-element Single

channel mono pulse tracking type,

capable of receiving dual circularly

polarized S & X-band signals. The

feed comprises of an array of 4

conical radiating elements designed

for simultaneous reception of

RHCP&LHCP X-band signals and an

array of 8 helical elements, 4

elements for reception of RHCP & 4

elements for LHCP signals in S-

pg. 41

band. The feed array inmono pulse configuration receives offset beams corresponding to Azimuth and Elevation
band. The feed array inmono pulse configuration receives offset beams corresponding to Azimuth and Elevation

band. The feed array inmono pulse configuration receives offset beams corresponding to Azimuth and Elevation axes in both Right Hand Circular and Left Hand Circular Polarizations .

The septum polarizer receives the signals from feed elements of X Band and provides linear polarized signals corresponding to RHC and LHC signals. The linearly polarized signals are in turn fed to a wave guide mono pulse comparator to generate sum and difference

which are offset in AZ plane, and two beams offset in EL plane .The feed assembly also contains waveguide Mono Pulse Comparator (MPC)and Mono Scan Converter (MSC) for RHCP and LHCP chains in X-band and micro stripline MonoPulse Comparator and Mono Scan Converter (MSC) for S-band. The Mono Pulse Comparator compares each pair of beams to produce the tracking error signals, when the antenna RF axis is exactly on Boresightaxis , each beam has

signals. The feed elements are

equal

amplitude

and

their

assembled on a cylindrical shroud and covered with a radome casing

comparison results in zero signals in difference port. The sum channel is

which gives environmental

formed in the MPC

by adding all

protection. The shaped antenna

four beams together. The

AZ and

system together with the RF front-

EL

error

signals

coming

 

out

of

end system realizes a G/T of better

the

MPC

are

given

to

MSC,

than 32 dB /deg. K at 5 deg.

which

carries

out

time

division

Elevation in X Band.

multiplexing

such

that

 

the

The antenna has highly directive pattern with half-power beam widths of 0.27 ° in X-band and 1.1° in S-band. The feed elements are arranged to produce two beams

Azimuth

error signals are combined in to

and elevation

tracking

pg. 42

a single channel tracking signal , through driver card in RF junction with reference to
a single channel tracking signal , through driver card in RF junction with reference to

a

single channel tracking signal ,

through driver card in RF junction

with reference to the Azimuth- Elevation Scan pulses and 0°, 180°

box. Fig.4shows the functional block diagram of dual polarized

phase scan pulses which are

feed.

driven from Integrated Tracking System to the feed. In case of X- band, these pulses are routed

.

the feed. In case of X- band, these pulses are routed . Fig.6 polarized feed Block

Fig.6

polarized feed

Block

diagram

of

dual

The received signals in X-Band are passed through 30 dB test loop coupler and amplified in low noise

amplifiers. The loop coupler is used

to introduce the test signal in the RF

chain to evaluate the system performance in Local loop simulation mode. The amplified outputs are fed

to 2 way in-phase power divider.

One output of power divider is taken out as Sum/Data signal and applied to X-band down converter to generate Data IF. The other output of power divider is combined with the Single channel tracking error signal to generate the Amplitude modulated tracking Signal, which is then down converted to generate tracking IF.

pg. 43

4.8.2Feed specifications Type : Cassegrain feed Frequency Range X-Band : 8.000 to 8.5 GHz S-Band

4.8.2Feed specifications

Type

: Cassegrain feed

Frequency Range

X-Band

: 8.000 to 8.5 GHz

S-Band

: 2.2 to 2.3 GHz

Polarization

X-Band: RHC & LHC S-Band: RHC & LHC

Half power beamwidth

X-Band:

S-Band: 1.1º

0.27º

Side lobe level

:

14 dB

Null depth

: Better than 25 dB

Axial Ratio

: 2.0 dB max

4.8.3X-Band DPC (Divider, Phase Shifter, Coupler)

The X-band sum and error signal

amplifier outputs of both RHC and

LHC signals are fed to the input

ports of DPC. The unit has two

independent channels to provide

tracking and data signals of RHC

and LHC chains.

to provide tracking and data signals of RHC and LHC chains. The input X-band sum signal

The input X-band sum signal is

divided by a power divider to

provide two outputs.

One output is used for data and the

other output is given to a 6 dB

coupler, where amplified error signal

is coupled for generation of tracking

error signal. The X- band

directional coupler is a 6 dB

strip line type with SMA coaxial

connectors. It has minimum insertion

loss and good directivity.

Before getting coupled with sum

signal, the difference signal at the

input is passed through a digital

phase shifter in order to compensate

for phase mismatch between sum

channel and difference channel. The

phase shift is digitally controlled

using 6 bit TTL signals, driven

from Integrated Tracking System.

The step size of minimum phase shift

is about 5.6° . These 6 bits can be

optimized and programmed to

facilitate tracking through any

carrier frequency over X-Band

frequency range.The phase match

can be adjusted periodically if

required through local or remote

control.

pg. 44

The DPC subsystem comprising 2 way power divider, digital phase shifter and a 6 dB

The DPC subsystem comprising 2

way power divider, digital phase

shifter and a 6 dB directional coupler

is wall mounted in pedestal room.

4.8.4 S-Band DPC

The S-Band DPC has a single

channel to process RHC signals. and

the rest of the configuration and

function are the same as that of X-

band DPC.The S band Data signal is

driven to the control room for further

processing of SPS data after down

conversion to 70 MHZ.

4.8.5 X- Band Up/Down Converter

Down

The up/down conversion of X-Band

signals is based on dual conversion

technique.The received X-Band

signal in the frequency range 8000-

8500 MHZ is converted into first

IF signal in the range 2345-2845

MHzduring first conversion, by

mixing with a fixed local oscillator

signal at 5655MHz.

In the second conversion, the first IF

signal beats with a local oscillator

sion, the first IF signal beats with a local oscillator derived from frequency synthesizer. The frequency

derived from frequency

synthesizer. The frequency of built-in

synthesizer is programmable over

the range 1560-2185 MHz in order

to derive the desired Intermediate

Frequency of 720 MHz and

facilitate multi mission data

reception. The frequency

synthesizer is controlled and

monitored through TCP/IP remote

interface.

signal

4.8.6 X-Band Down Converter

The

data

and

tracking