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Chapter 7: SAMPLING

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Learning Objectives
Explain the role of sampling in the research process Distinguish between probability and nonprobability sampling Understand the factors to consider when determining sample size Understand the steps in developing a sampling plan
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The Future of Mobile Search

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Sampling
Sampling is the process of selecting a small number of elements from a larger defined target group of elements such that the information gathered from the small group will allow judgments to be made about the larger groups

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Census

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Basics of Sampling Theory


Population Element Defined target population Sampling unit Sampling frame
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Sources of Error
Sampling error is any type of bias that is attributable to mistakes in either drawing a sample or determining the sample size Nonsampling error is bias that occurs in a research study regardless of whether a sample or census is used, such as bias caused by measurement error, response errors, or coding errors
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Sampling Methods

Probability sampling

Nonprobability sampling

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Types of Sampling Methods


Probability Simple random sampling Systematic random sampling Stratified random sampling Cluster sampling Nonprobability Convenience sampling Judgment sampling Quota sampling Snowball sampling

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Forms of Probability Sampling_1


Simple random sampling is a method of probability sampling in which every unit has an equal nonzero chance of being selected Systematic random sampling is a method of probability sampling in which the defined target population is ordered and the sample is selected according to position using a skip interval
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Steps in Drawing a Systematic Random Sample


1: Obtain a list of units that contains an acceptable frame of the target population 2: Determine the number of units in the list and the desired sample size 3: Compute the skip interval 4: Determine a random start point 5: Beginning at the start point, select the units by choosing each unit that corresponds to the skip interval
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Skip interval
Skip interval = defined target pop list size / desired sample size In a systematic sampling study, if the sampling frame has 6,000 names and the desired sample size is 200, the "skip interval" should be______:

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Forms of Probability Sampling_2


Stratified random sampling is a method of probability sampling in which the population is divided into different subgroups and samples are selected from each Cluster sampling is a method of probability sampling where the sampling units are selected in groups rather than individually

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Steps in Drawing a Stratified Random Sample


1: Divide the target population into homogeneous subgroups or strata 2: Draw random samples from each stratum 3: Combine the samples from each stratum into a single sample of the target population

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Nonprobability Sampling Methods


Convenience sampling relies upon convenience and access Judgment sampling relies upon belief that participants fit characteristics Quota sampling emphasizes representation of specific characteristics Snowball sampling relies upon respondent referrals of others with like characteristics

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Factors to Consider in Sample Design

Research objectives
Resources

Degree of accuracy
Time frame Research scope

Knowledge of target population

Statistical analysis needs

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Factors Affecting Sample Size for Probability Designs


Variability of the population characteristic under investigation Level of confidence desired in the estimate Degree of precision desired in estimating the population characteristic

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Probability Sampling and Sample Sizes


When estimating a population mean n = (Z2B,CL)(2/e2) When estimates of a population proportion are of concern n = (Z2B,CL)([P x Q]/e2)

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If the estimated population standard deviation based on previous studies is $40, and the acceptable error is plus or minus $4, and the z-value for a 95 percent level of confidence is 1.96, What is the needed sample size ?

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Problems
If the estimated population proportion is .40 based on previous studies, and the acceptable error is plus or minus 4 percent, and the zvalue for a 95 percent level of confidence is 1.96, what is the needed sample size ?

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Problem 2
In order to determine the proportion of people who favor imposing sales tax for all Internet purchases, What is the minimum sample size needed for a precision level of 5 percent and a confidence level of 95 percent?

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Steps in Developing a Sampling Plan


1. Define the Target Population 2. Select the Data Collection Method

3. Identify the Sampling Frame(s) Needed


4. Identify the Appropriate Sampling Method 5. Determine Sample Sizes and Contact Rates 6. Create Plan for Selecting Sampling Units 7. Execute the Operational Plan

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Marketing Research in Action: Santa Fes New Menu


How should participants be selected? What is the ideal sampling design? How many new menu items can be examined on the survey? How should the survey be administered?

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