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Veterans Federation Party vs COMELEC GR No. 136781 October 6 !

""" Facts# $%e 1&87 Constit'tion introd'ced t%e (arty)*ist +et%od o, re(resentation. -ny nationa* re.iona* or sectora* (arty or or.ani/ation re.istered 0it% t%e COMELEC +ay (artici(ate in t%e e*ection o, (arty)*ist re(resentatives 0%o '(on t%eir e*ection and (roc*a+ation s%a** sit in t%e 1o'se o, Re(resentatives as re.'*ar +e+bers. - voter is .iven ! votes ,or t%e 1o'se# one ,or a district con.ress+an and anot%er ,or a (arty)*ist re(resentative. R- 7&21 0as enacted 0%ic% s%a** (ro+ote (ro(ortiona* re(resentation in t%e e*ection o, re(resentatives to t%e 1o'se o, Re(resentatives t%ro'.% a (arty)*ist syste+ 0%ic% 0i** enab*e Fi*i(ino citi/ens be* to +ar.ina*i/ed and 'nderre(resented sectors or.ani/ations and (arties and 0%o *ac3 0e**)de,ined (o*itica* constit'encies b't 0%o co'*d contrib'te to t%e ,or+'*ation and enact+ent o, a((ro(riate **ation t%at 0i** bene,it t%e nation as a 0%o*e to beco+e +e+bers o, t%e 1o'se o, Re(resentatives. Li3e0ise t%e *a0 (rovided ,or t%e (ro(ortion o, 1oR seats t%at t%ese re(resentatives 0o'*d ,i**. 4t a*so (rescribed t%e +anner o, (roc*ai+in. t%e 0innin. re(resentatives. COMELEC en banc (ro+'*.ated r'*es and re.'*ations accordin.*y. May 1&&8 t%e ,irst e*ection ,or (arty)*ist re(resentation 0as %e*d si+'*taneo's*y 0it% t%e nationa* e*ections. 1!3 (arties or.ani/ations and coa*itions (artici(ated. COMELEC (roc*ai+ed 13 re(resentatives ,ro+ 1! (arties obtained t%e necessary n'+ber o, votes 5!6 o, t%e votin. ('b*ic7. ! o, t%ose re(resentatives be*on. to -PEC 0%ic% obtained 8.86 o, t%e votes. -,ter (assin. '(on t%e res'*ts COMELEC ,'rt%er deter+ined t%at COCOFE9 0as entit*ed to one seat ,or .ettin. !."26 o, t%e votes. :'*y 1&&8 P-G)-;- ,i*ed 0it% t%e COMELEC a (etition to (roc*ai+ t%e ,'** n'+ber o, Party)List re(resentatives (rovided by t%e constit'tion. $%ey c*ai+ed t%at t%e ,i**in. '( o, t%e !"6 o, 1oR seats by (arty)*ist re(resentatives 0as +andatory and t%at ('ttin. a *i+it s'c% as t%e 3)seat *i+it and !6 vote re<'ire+ent 0o'*d de,eat t%is constit'tiona* (rovision= on*y !8

no+inees 0o'*d be dec*ared 0inners s%ort o, t%e 8! seats s'((osed to be ,i**ed. & ot%er or.ani/ations ,i*ed +otions ,or intervention see3in. t%e sa+e re*ie,. COMELEC second division .ranted P-G)-;->s (etition. 4t ordered t%e (roc*a+ation o, 38 res(ondents to ,i** t%e 8! seats. 4t %e*d t%at ?at a** ti+es t%e tota* n'+ber o, con.ressiona*@&A seats +'st be ,i**ed '( by ei.%ty 58"67 (ercent district re(resentatives and t0enty 5!"67 (ercent (arty)*ist re(resentatives.? 4t disre.arded t%e !6 vote re<'ire+ent. 4t identi,ied t%ree ?e*e+ents o, t%e (arty)*ist syste+ ? 0%ic% s%o'*d s'((osed*y deter+ine ?%o0 t%e 8! seats s%o'*d be ,i**ed '(.? First ?t%e syste+ 0as conceived to enab*e t%e +ar.ina*i/ed sectors o, t%e P%i*i((ine society to be re(resented in t%e 1o'se o, Re(resentatives.? ;econd ?t%e syste+ s%o'*d re(resent t%e broadest sectors o, t%e P%i*i((ine society.? $%ird ?it s%o'*d enco'ra.e @t%eA +'*ti)(arty syste+.B 4t ,'rt%er conc*'ded t%at t%e .ro'(s ran3ed 1)81 s%o'*d %ave at *east 1 re(resentative. $%e 1! or.ani/ations 0%ic% %ad ear*ier been (roc*ai+ed 0inners obCected to t%e (roc*a+ation and ,i*ed se(arate MRs. $%ey asserted t%e !6 votin. re<'ire+ent and c*ai+ed t%at additiona* seats s%o'*d C'st be a0arded to t%ose 0%ic% .arnered t%e !6 t%res%o*d. COMELEC en banc# a,,ir+ed t%e decision o, t%e !nd division. 4t %o0ever %e*d in abeyance t%e (roc*a+ation o, t%e 81st (arty. Dit%o't dec*arin. as 'nconstit'tiona* or void t%e !6 re<'ire+ent COMELEC reCected and circ'+vented its a((*ications.

4ss'e# D%et%er t%e !"6 a**ocation +andatory or is it +ere*y a cei*in.E D%et%er t%e !6 vote re<'ire+ent and t%e 3)seat *i+it is constit'tiona*E 1e*d# $%e COMELEC reso*'tions s%o'*d be n'**i,ied b't t%e 1! ori.ina* (arties s%o'*d not a** be .ranted additiona* seats.

$%e (ara+eters o, t%e Fi*i(ino (arty)*ist syste+ are as ,o**o0s# t%e !"6 a**ocation !6 t%res%o*d 3)seat *i+it and (ro(ortiona* re(resentation $%e !"6 a**ocation need not be ,i**ed '( a** t%e ti+e. o $%e Constit'tion +a3es t%e district re(resentatives t%e deter+inant in arrivin. at t%e n'+ber o, seats a**ocated ,or (arty)*ist *a0+a3ers 0%o s%a** co+(rise !"6 o, t%e tota* n'+ber o, re(resentatives. -ny increase in t%e n'+ber o, district re(resentatives 0i** necessary res'*t in a corres(ondin. increase in t%e n'+ber o, (arty)*ist seats. o Considerin. t%e ,ore.oin. stat'tory re<'ire+ents it 0i** be s%o0n t%at t%e !"6 a**ocation is not +andatory= it +ere*y (rovides a cei*in. ,or (arty)*ist seats in Con.ress o Moreover 'n*ess dec*ared 'nconstit'tiona* ine,,ective ins',,icient or ot%er0ise void by a (ro(er trib'na* a stat'te re+ains a va*id co++and o, soverei.nty t%at +'st be res(ected and obeyed at a** ti+es. $%e !6 t%res%o*d is constit'tiona*. o 4n i+(osin. t%is Con.ress 0anted to ens're t%at on*y t%ose (arties %avin. a s',,icient n'+ber o, constit'ents deservin. o, re(resentation are act'a**y re(resented in Con.ress. o $%e !6 t%res%o*d is consistent not on*y 0it% t%e intent o, t%e ,ra+ers o, t%e Constit'tion and t%e *a0 b't 0it% t%e very essence o, ?re(resentation.? Fnder a re('b*ican or re(resentative state a** .overn+ent a't%ority e+anates ,ro+ t%e (eo(*e b't is eGercised by re(resentatives c%osen by t%e+. H't to %ave +eanin.,'* re(resentation t%e e*ected (ersons +'st %ave t%e +andate o, a s',,icient n'+ber o, (eo(*e. Even **ative districts are a((ortioned accordin. to ?t%e n'+ber o, t%eir res(ective in%abitants and on t%e basis o, a 'ni,or+ and (ro.ressive ratio? to ens're +eanin.,'* *oca* re(resentation. $%e 3)seat *i+it is a*so constit'tiona*. Consistent 0it% t%e Constit'tiona* Co++ission>s (rono'nce+ents Con.ress set t%e seat)*i+it to t%ree 537 ,or eac% <'a*i,ied (arty or.ani/ation or coa*ition. ?I'a*i,ied? +eans %avin. %'rd*ed t%e t0o (ercent vote t%res%o*d. ;'c% t%ree)seat *i+it ens'res t%e entry o,

vario's interest)re(resentations into t%e **at're= t%'s no sin.*e .ro'( no +atter %o0 *ar.e its +e+bers%i( 0o'*d do+inate t%e (arty)*ist seats i, not t%e entire 1o'se.

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