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www.ijmsi.org || Volume 2 || Issue 2 || February - 2014 || PP-01-06

www.ijmsi.org 1 | P a g e

Optimal expressions for solution matrices of single delay

differential systems.

C. Ukwu and E.J.D. Garba

Department of Mathematics

University of Jos, P.M.B 2084, Jos, Nigeria

ABSTRACT: This paper derived optimal expressions for solution matrices of single delay autonomous

linear differential systems on any given interval of length equal to the delay h for non negative time periods.

The formulation and the development of the theorem exploited an earlier work Ukwu (2013b) on the interval [0,

4h]. The proofs were achieved using ingenious combinations of summation notations, multiple product

notations and integrals, as well as the method of steps to obtain these matrices on successive intervals of length

equal to the delay h. This theorem globally extends the time scope of applications of these matrices to the

solutions of initial function problems, rank conditions for controllability and cores of targets, constructions of

controllability Grammians and admissible controls for transfers of points associated with controllability

problems.

KEYWORDS- Delay, Matrices, Solution, Structure, Systems.

I. INTRODUCTION

The qualitative approach to the controllability of functional differential control systems have been areas

of active research for the past fifty years among control theorists and applied mathematicians in general. This

circumvents the severe difficulties associated with the search for and computations of solutions of such systems.

Unfortunately computations of solutions cannot be wished away in the tracking of trajectories and

many practical applications. Literature on state space approach to control studies is replete with variation of

constants formulas, which incorporate the solution matrices of the free part of the systems. See Chukwu (1992),

Gabsov and Kirillova (1976), Hale (1977), Manitius (1978), Tadmore (1984), and Ukwu (1987, 1992,1996 ).

Regrettably no author has made any attempt to obtain general expressions for such solution matrices involving

the delay . h

The usual approach is to start from the interval [ 0 , ] h and compute the solution matrices and solutions

for given problem instances and then use the method of steps to extend these to the intervals [ , ( 1) ], kh k h + for

positive integral k , not exceeding 2, for the most part. Such approach is rather restrictive and doomed to failure

in terms of structure for arbitrary k . In other words such approach fails to address the issue of the structure and

computing complexity of solution matrices and solutions quite vital for real-world applications. The need to

address such short-comings has become imperative; this is the major contribution of this paper, with its wide-

ranging implications for extensions to double-delay and neutral systems and holistic approach to controllability

studies.

II. PRELIMINARIES

We consider the class of double-delay differential systems:

0 1

( ) ( ) ( ), (1) x t A x t A x t h t = + e R

0 1

w h e r e a n d a r e c o n s t a n t m a t r i c e s a n d ( . ) A A n n x is an n -dimensional column vector function.

Le t ( )

k i

Y t i h

be a solution matrix of (1), on the interval

[ ( ) , ( 1 ) ] ,

k i

J k i h k i h

, 0

( )

0, 0 .

n

I t

Y t

t

=

=

<

Note: ( ) Y t is a generic solution matrix for any t e R and

n

I is the identity matrix of order . n

The solution matrices will be obtained piece wise on successive intervals of length . h

Ukwu (2013b) obtained the following expressions for the solution matrices,

( ) o n , fo r

k

Y t J {0, , 3} : k e

A derivation of an optimal expression for solution matrices

www.ijmsi.org 2 | P a g e

0

0 0 0

2

0 0 0 0 2 0 2 1 0 1

0 0 0 0 2 0 2 1 0

0

( ) ( )

1 1

( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )

1 1 1 1 2 2

2

( ) ( ) ( ) ( )

1 1 1

, ; ( 2 )

, ; ( 3)

( ) , ; ( 4 )

A t

t

A t A t s A s h

h

s h t t

A t A t s A s h A t s A s s h A s h

h h h

t

A t A t s A s h A t s A s s h A

h

e t J

e e A e d s t J

Y t e e A e d s e A e A e d s d s t J

e e A e d s e A e A e

e

+ e

= + + e

+ +

}

} } }

}

2

1

3 2

0 3 0 3 2 0 2 1 0 1

( )

1 2

2

( ) ( ) ( ) ( )

1 1 1 1 2 3

3 2

3

, ( 5)

s h t

s h

h h

s h s h t

A t s A s h s A s h s A s h

h h h

d s d s

e A e A e A e d s d s t J d s

+

} }

} } }

He also interrogated some topological dispositions of the solution matrices and deduced that the solution

matrices are continuous on the interval [0,4h] but not analytic

{0, , 2 , 3 }. t h h h e These results are consistent with the existing qualitative theory on ( ). Y t See Chukwu

(1992), Hale (1977), Tadmore (1984) and Ukwu (1987, 1996). See also analytic function (2010) and Chidume

(2007) for discussions on analytical functions and topology.

The objective of this paper is to formulate and prove a theorem on the general

{ } ex p res s i o n fo r ( ) o n , fo r 0 , 1, ,

k

Y t J k e by appropriating the above expression for ( ). Y t

1. Theorem: Ukwu-Garbas Solution Matrix Formula for Autonomous, Single Delay Linear Systems:

{ }

0

0 0 0

0 0 0

0

0 1 0 1

0

( ) ( )

1 1

( ) ( )

1

( )

( ) ( )

1 1

2 , 1, , 2 1

( 1)

, ; ( 6 )

, ; ( 7 )

( )

, , 2 (8)

i

j

i i

A t

t

A t A t s A s h

h

t

A t A t s A s h

h

s h t j k

A t s

A s h s A s h

k

j i j j

j h i h

e t J

e e A e d s t J

Y t

e e A e d s

e A e A e d s t J k

= e =

+ e

=

+

(

+ e >

(

(

}

}

[ [

} }

Proof

The expressions (2) and (3) prove (6) and (7) respectively. If 2, j = in (8) we obtain:

2

0 2 1 0

0 0 0 0 1

( ) ( )

( ) ( ) ( )

1 1 1 1 2 2

2

( ) ,

j

s h t t

A s h s A t s

A t A t s A s h A s h

h h h

Y t e e A e ds e A e A e ds ds t J

= + + e

} } }

2

0 2 1

0 0 0 0 2 0 1

( )

( ) ( ) ( ) ( )

1 1 1 1 2 2

2

( ) , (9)

s h t t

A s h s

A t A t s A s h A t s A s h

h h h

Y t e e A e ds e A e A e ds ds t J

= + + e

} } }

The expression (9) agrees with (4); therefore the theorem is valid for

2

. t J e If 3, j = in (8), we get:

2

0 2 1 0 1

0 0 0 0 2

( ) ( )

( ) ( ) ( )

1 1 1 1 2

2 2

( )

s h t t

A s h s A s h

A t A t s A s h A t s

h h h

Y t e e A e ds e A e A e ds ds

= + +

} } }

3 2

0 2 1

0 3 0 3 2 0 1

( )

( ) ( ) ( )

1 1 1 1 2 3

3 2

s h s h t

A s h s

A t s A s h s A s h

h h h

e A e A e A e ds ds ds

+

} } }

A derivation of an optimal expression for solution matrices

www.ijmsi.org 3 | P a g e

2

0 2 1 0 1

0 0 0 0 2

( ) ( )

( ) ( ) ( )

1 1 1 1 2

2 2

( )

s h t t

A s h s A s h

A t A t s A s h A t s

h h h

Y t e e A e d s e A e A e d s d s

= + +

} } }

3 2

0 2 1

0 3 0 3 2 0 1

( )

( ) ( ) ( )

1 1 1 1 2 3

3 2

(1 0 )

s h s h t

A s h s

A t s A s h s A s h

h h h

e A e A e A e d s d s d s

+

} } }

This result is consistent with the expression (5). Therefore the theorem is also valid for

3

. t J e The rest of the

proof is inductive. Assume the validity of the theorem on , 4

p

J p k s s for some integer . k Then on

1 k

J

+

we

have:

( )

( )

( )

( )

0 1 0

[ 1]

1 1 1

( 1)

( ) [ 1] (11)

k

t

A t s t k h

k k

k h

A

Y t e k h e A Y s h ds Y

+

+

+ +

+

= + +

}

1 1 1 k k k k

s J s h J

+ + +

e e the induction hypothesis applies to ( )

1

( ) a n d [ 1]

k

Y s h Y k h

+

+ .

Therefore:

( )

( )

0 1 0 1 0

1

([ 1] ) ( ) 1

1 1

([ 1] ) (1 2 )

k h

A k h s A s h A k h

h

Y k h e e A e d s

+

+ +

+ = +

}

{ }

( )

0

0 1 0 1

1

( [ 1] )

( ) ( )

1 1

2 , 1, , 2 1

( 1)

, , 2 (1 3)

i

j

i i

k h s h

j k

A k h s

A s h s A s h

k

j i j j

j h i h

e A e A e d s t J k

+

+

= e =

(

+ e > (

(

[ [

} }

( )

0 1 0 1

0

1

( ) ( )

1 1

( )

k h

A t s A s h

A t

h

Y t e e A e d s

+

= +

}

{ }

( )

0

0 1 0 1

1

( )

( ) ( )

1 1

2 , 1, , 2 1

( 1)

(1 4 )

i

j

i i

k h s h

j k

A t s

A s h s A s h

j i j j

j h i h

e A e A e d s

= e =

(

+ (

(

[ [

} }

( ) ( )

1

0 1 1 0 1

0 1 0 1 0 1

( ) ( )

( ) ( ) ( )

1 1 1 1 1 1 1

1 1

(1 5)

k

k

k k k

s h t t

A s h s A s h

A t s A s h A t s

k k

k h k h h

e A e d s e A A e A e d s d s

+

+

+ + +

+ +

+ +

+ +

} } }

{ }

( )

1

0 1

0 1 0 1 0 1

( )

( ) ( ) ( )

1 1 1 1 1

2 , 1, , 2 1

1 ( 1)

(16)

k i

k j

k i i

s h s h t j k

A s h s

A t s A s h s A s h

k

j i j j

k h jh i h

e A e A e A e ds ds

+

+

+

+

= e =

+

(

+ (

(

[ [

} } }

( )

( )

0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1

0

1

( ) ( ) ( ) ( )

1 1 1 1

1

( ) (1 7 )

k k

k h

t

A t s A s h A t s A s h

A t

k

h k h

Y t e e A e d s e A e d s

+ +

+

+

+

= + +

} }

{ }

( )

0

0 1 0 1

1

( )

( ) ( )

1 1

2 , 1, , 2 1

( 1)

(1 8)

i

j

i i

k h s h

j k

A t s

A s h s A s h

j i j j

j h i h

e A e A e d s

= e =

(

+ (

(

[ [

} }

{ }

( )

1

0 1

0 1 0 1 0 1

( )

( ) ( ) ( )

1 1 1 1 1

2 , 1, , 2 1

1 ( 1)

(19)

k i

k j

k i i

s h s h t j k

A s h s

A t s A s h s A s h

k

j i j j

k h jh i h

e A e A e A e ds ds

+

+

+

+

= e =

+

(

+ (

(

[ [

} } }

( )

1

0 1 1 0 1

0 1

( ) ( )

( )

1 1 1 1 1

1

( 2 0 )

k

k

k

s h t

A s h s A s h

A t s

k

k h h

e A A e A e d s d s

+

+

+

+

+

+

} }

0 1 0 1

0

( ) ( )

1 1

( )

t

A t s A s h

A t

h

Y t e e A e ds

= +

}

{ }

( )

0

0 1 0 1

1

1

( )

( ) ( )

1 1

3 , 1, , 2 1

( 1)

( 2 1)

i

j

i i

k h s h

j k

A t s

A s h s A s h

j i j j

j h i h

e A e A e d s

+

+

= e =

(

+ (

(

[ [

} }

A derivation of an optimal expression for solution matrices

www.ijmsi.org 4 | P a g e

( )

2

0 2 1 0 1 0

1

( ) ( ) ( )

1 1 1 1 2

2

( 2 2 )

j

k h s h

A s h s A s h A t s

h h

e A A e A e d s d s

+

+

} }

( )

{ }

( )

1

0 1 1

0 1 0 1 0 1

1

( )

( ) ( ) ( )

1 1 1 1 1

3 1, , 2 1

1 1 ( 1)

( 23)

k i

k j

k i i

s h s h t j k

A s h s

A t s A s h s A s h

k

j i j

k h j h i h

e A e A e A e ds ds

+

+

+

+

= e =

+

(

+ (

(

[ [

} } }

( )

1

0 1 1 0 1

0 1

( ) ( )

( )

1 1 1 1 1

1

( 2 4 )

k

k

k

s h t

A s h s A s h

A t s

k

k h h

e A A e A e d s d s

+

+

+

+

+

+

} }

Note the use of change of variables in obtaining (23) and that j = k + 1 zeros out (21).

(22) and (24) add up to yield:

2

0 2 1 0 1

0 2

( ) ( )

( )

1 1 1 1 2

2

( 25)

s h t

A s h s A s h

A t s

h h

e A A e A e ds ds

} }

(23) may be rewritten in the form:

{ }

( )

0 1 0 1 0 1

( ) ( ) ( )

1 1

3 , 1, , 2 1

1 ( 1)

( 26)

i

k i i

s h t j k

A t s A s h s A s h

j i j j

k h i h

e A e A e ds

= e =

+

(

(

(

[ [

} }

Hence (21) and (26) add up to yield:

{ }

0

0 1 0 1

1

( )

( ) ( )

1 1

3 , 1, , 2 1

( 1)

( 2 7 )

i

j

i i

s h t j k

A t s

A s h s A s h

j i j j

j h i h

e A e A e d s

= e =

(

(

(

[ [

} }

Add up

0 1 0 1

0

( ) ( )

1 1

t

A t s A s h

A t

h

e e A e ds

+

}

,(25) and (27) to get:

0 0 1 0 1

( ) ( )

1 1

( )

t

A t A t s A s h

h

Y t e e A e ds

= +

}

{ }

0

0 1 0 1

1

( )

( ) ( )

1 1

2 , 1, , 2 1

( 1)

, o n . ( 2 8)

i

j

i i

s h t j k

A t s

A s h s A s h

k

j i j j

j h i h

e A e A e d s J

= e =

(

+

(

(

[ [

} }

So, the theorem is valid on

1 k

J

+

, and hence valid for all , {0, 1, 2, } .

k

J k e This completes the proof.

3.1 Corollary 1

1

If d i a g ( ) , t h e n : A b =

0

0

0

0

( )

1

, ; ( 2 9 )

( )

( )

, , 1 ( 3 0 )

!

A t

i i k

A t i h

A t

k

i

e t J

Y t

b t i h

e e t J k

i

=

e

=

+ e >

Proof

The proof follows by straight-forward successive integration, noting that

1 1

d i a g ( ) A b A = commutes

with

0

(. )

; S o ( ) r e d u c e s t o :

A

Y t e

A derivation of an optimal expression for solution matrices

www.ijmsi.org 5 | P a g e

{ }

0

0 0 0 0

0 0

0 1 0

0 1

0

( ) ( )

1

( )

( ) ( )

( )

2 , 1, , 2 1

( 1)

, ; ( 3 1)

( ) , ; ( 3 2 )

( )

( )

, , 2 ( 3 3)

i

j

i i

A t

t

A t A t h A t A t h

h

A t A t h

s h t j k

A s h A t s

A s h s

k

j i j j

j h i h

e t J

e b e d s e b t h e t J

Y t

e b t h e

e b e b e d s t J k

= e =

+ = + e

=

+

+ e >

(

(

}

[ [

} }

The sum of the multiple integrals in (33) yields:

{ }

0 0 0

( ) ( ) ( )

1 2

2 2 2 , 1, , 2

( 1)

( ) ( )

(3 4 )

! !

i

s h t j i k k k

A t j h A t j h A t i h

j j i

j

j j i i j j

j h i h

t j h t i h

b e d s d s d s b e b e

j i

= = = e

= =

[

} }

Adding the expression

0 0

( )

( )

A t A t h

e b t h e

+ to the expression (3.39) yields the result:

0

0

( )

1

( )

( ) , , 2 ( 3 5)

!

i i k

A t i h

A t

k

i

b t i h

Y t e e t J k

i

=

= + e >

The expressions (31), (32) and (35) complete the proof of the corollary.

3.2 Corollary 2

0

If 0 , t h e n : A =

0

1

1

, ;

( )

( )

, , 1

!

n

i i

k

n k

i

I t J

Y t

A t i h

I t J k

i

=

e

=

+ e >

Proof

The proof follows by straight-forward successive integration, noting that

0

(.)

0 1

0

A

n

A e I A = = commutes

with

0

(.)

So ( ) reduces to ;

n

A

Y t I e = the result obtained by replacing

0

(.)

1

by and by

A

n

b A e I in corollary 1.

The desired result is precisely that stated in the conclusion of the corollary.

3.3 Corollary 3

0 1

If 1, , , t h e n : n A a A b = = =

0

( )

1

, ;

( )

( )

, , 1

!

a t

i i k

a t a t i h

k

i

e t J

Y t

b t i h

e e t J k

i

=

e

=

+ e >

Proof

Proof follows immediately by replacing

0

b y a n d d i a g ( ) b y A a b b in corollary 1.

3.4 Remarks: Please note in particular that this result is consistent with the theorem in Ukwu and Garba

(2013c). However it must be pointed out that it was that theorem that motivated our theorem and hence corollary

3.

III. CONCLUSION

This article has completely determined the structure solution matrices which are indispensible for the

determination of all solutions of single-delay autonomous differential and control systems. Moreover the

ingenious combinations of summation notations, multiple product notations, multiple integrals and change of

variable technique are unprecedented in the achievement of the desired proofs. The ideas exposed in this paper

can be exploited to extend the results to double-delay and neutral systems.

A derivation of an optimal expression for solution matrices

www.ijmsi.org 6 | P a g e

REFERENCES

[1] Analytic function. (2010). Retrieved September 11, 2010 from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Analytic_function.

[2] Chidume, C. (2007). Applicable Functional Analysis. The Abdus Salam, International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste,

Italy.

[3] Chukwu, E. N. (1992). Stability and Time-optimal control of hereditary systems. Academic Press, New York.

[4] Driver, R. D. (1977). Ordinary and Delay Differential Equations. Applied Mathematical Sciences 20, Springer-Verlag, New

York.

[5] Gabasov, R. and Kirillova, F. (1976). The qualitative theory of optimal processes. Marcel Dekker Inc., New York.

[6] Hale, J. K. (1977). Theory of functional differential equations. Applied Mathematical Science, Vol. 3, Springer-Verlag, New

York.

[7] Manitius, A. (1978). Control Theory and Topics in Functional Analysis. Vol. 3, Int. Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna.

[8] Tadmore, G. (1984). Functional differential equations of retarded and neutral types: Analytical solutions and piecewise

continuous controls. J. Differential equations, Vol. 51, No. 2, Pp. 151-181.

[9] Ukwu, C. (1987). Compactness of cores of targets for linear delay systems., J. Math. Analy. and Appl., Vol. 125, No. 2, August 1.

pp. 323-330.

[10] Ukwu, C. (1992). Euclidean Controllability and Cores of Euclidean Targets for Differential difference systems Master of

Science Thesis in Applied Math. with O.R. (Unpublished), North Carolina State University, Raleigh, N. C. U.S.A.

[11] Ukwu, C. (1996). An exposition on Cores and Controllability of differential difference systems, ABACUS Vol. 24, No. 2, pp.

276-285.

[12] Ukwu, C. (2013a). On Determining Matrices, Controllability and Cores of Targets of Certain Classes of Autonomous Functional

Differential Systems with Software Development and Implementation. Doctor of Philosophy Thesis, UNIJOS (In progress).

[13] Ukwu, C. (2013b).The structure of Solution Matrices for Certain Single Delay Systems, controllability exposition and application

instances. (Manuscript for publication).

[14] Ukwu, C. and Garba, E. J. D. (2013c). Derivation of an Optimal Expression for Solution Matrices of a Class of Single Delay

Scalar Differential Equations. (Submitted for publication).

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