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O. CIRA

Abstract. In this paper we consider a slight generalization of Tangent Parable method and we analyze its convergence and rate of convergence. The paper contains some numerical experiments concerning the attraction basin of some iterative methods for solving nonlinear equation in one variable. The Newton method, Halley’s method and Tangent Parable like method are investigated.

1. Introduction In the paper [4], based on an idea of Szabo [6], Maruster has introduced a new variant of tangent parable method for solving nonlinear equations in one variable (Serban [5] developed these methods considering a generalization polynomial of fractional degree). This method has the remarkable property of enlarging the attraction basin, that is the set of points from which we can start the iteration process, and also preserving of the quadratically convergence of Newton method. In what follows, we will refer, in short, to this method as TP method. The basic idea of TP method is the use of a tangent or osculating parable (in place of tangent line) which approximates the given function in the current iteration and takes one of its zeros as the next iterate. Two problems arise: (I) The tangent or osculating parable must be chosen in such way that it intersects the horizontal axis in two real points; (II) It requires a strategy to select between the two zeros the one which ensures a suitable behavior of resulting sequence. In [4] these problems are solved in the following way. Let f be the given function and let P be a quadratic polynomial, P (x) = ax2 + bx + c. The coeﬃcients b, c result from the condition that the parable P be tangent to the graph of f in the current iteration x (P (x) = f (x), P (x) = f (x)). The coeﬃcient a is chosen so that the conditions (I), (II) be satisﬁed. In particular, a = −f (x)/4 and then the ﬁrst condition is always satisﬁed and also the next iterate is moved in the same direction on the horizontal axis as the next iterate of Newton method, i.e. we have the required strategy of selection (condition (II)). In this paper we consider a slight generalization of TP method and we analyze its convergence and the rate of convergence (section 2). In particular, we obtain the Osculating Parable method, in short OP method, which also enlarges the attraction basin and ensures a convergence of order three. In section 3 some numerical experiments are given which allow us to compare the Newton method, the Halley’s method [3], [8], the TP method and the OP method.

1991 Mathematics Subject Classiﬁcation. AMS 65H05. Key words and phrases. Nonlinear equation, iterative method, attraction basin. .

1

A tangent parable P (x) = ax2 + bx + c to the graph of f in the point of coordinate (x. which we will consider as the current iteration.1) which is our generalization of TP method. we have . Then the sequence {xk } given by (2. Suppose that the equation f (x) = 0 has the solution x∗ ∈ I .1) converges quadratically to x∗ . in the following we will analyze the convergence of the sequence by (2. Suppose that f is suﬃciently so that the equation f (x) = 0 has a solution x∗ ∈ I . let f be a real function deﬁned on interval I . CIRA 2. Let x be an arbitrary point of I .2 O. Let f be a function of class C 3 (I ). In general. it results that G is continuously diﬀerentiable until order three on certain neighborhood of x∗ and its ﬁrst three derivatives are bounded. Note that the coeﬃcient a can be chosen in various ways so that the condition (II) is satisﬁed and thus we obtain diﬀerent types of methods (TP method is a particular case).1.2 = x + f (x) ± f (x) − xn = x − and ﬁnally xn = x − 1+ 2 1 − 4a f (x) f (x)2 · f (x) f (x) f (x) f (x)2 − 4a · f (x) |f (x)| 2a (2. Let G be the generation function of (2. that f (x) = 0 ∀x ∈ I . the next value xn can be taken as x1. and that a : I → R is a function of the same class. the sign of the square root must be contrary to the sign of f (x). otherwise both values of the roots tend to inﬁnite. f (x)). Therefore.1 and from the shape of the formula which gives G. that is G(x) := x − 1+ 2 1 − 4a f (x) f (x)2 · f (x) f (x) In the conditions of theorem 2. By a simple computation.1). If a(x) = f (x)/2 then the rate of convergence is three and asymptotically error is given by 1 f (x∗ ) · 3 f (x∗ ) Proof. Theorem 2. for a parameter a which depend of x. The generalization of the TP method As in [4]. this parameter depends of the current iteration x. intersects the horizontal axis in the points f (x)2 − 4a · f (x) 2a If f (x) = 0. where I is a closed interval.1).

If x is suﬃciently close to x∗ then the next iterative exists. is righteously to name this as Osculating Parable method. for example.2) G (x∗ ) = 0 f (x∗ ) − 2a f (x∗ ) (2. 2 f (x∗ ) In this condition we have: (a) OP method is: OP (x) = x − 1+ f (x) f (x) |f (x)f (x)| 1+2 f (x)2 2 · (b) SOP (Simple Osculating Parable) method is: SOP (x) = x − 1+ f (x) |f (x0 )f (x)| f (x) 1+2 f (x)2 2 · 1 f (x∗ ) · . using a well known result (see.4). The last part of theorem result from (2. P (x) = f (x).1) converges to x∗ and that rate of convergence is two. theorem 2. because in this case 1 − 2f (x)f (x)/f (x)2 > 0. It can be observed in (2.OSCULATING PARABLE METHOD 3 (2.4) G (x∗ ) = 2 f (x∗ ) f (x∗ )2 f (x∗ ) − a −3 + 12a · f (x∗ ) f (x∗ )2 f (x∗ )2 Now.2.2). 22. it results that the sequence {xk } given by (2. p. if a = f (x∗ )/2 then G (x∗ ) = 2f (x∗ )/f (x∗ ) and asymptotically error is given by G (x∗ )/3!. [7]. but in general this circumstance can aﬀect the amount of attraction basin.2) that if a(x) = f (x)/2 ∀x ∈ I .3) G (x∗ ) = (2. the same value its obtained if we put the condition that the polynomial P be an osculating parable.3) about the convergence of general iterative schemes and taking into account (2. We can take |f (x)| |f (x)| · f (x) 2 a(x) = − and the sequence {xk } generated by the OP method converges quadratically 1 f (x∗ ) with an asymptotically error of · . then G (x∗ ) = 0. in short. 2 f (x∗ ) where x0 is the initial value and has an asymptotically error . Remark 2. OP method. Therefore.

b] can be determined by the following value : a = max{x | N (N (x)) = x. mab(H). β. the main attraction basins (in short mab( . that is the connected part of whole attraction basin which contain the solution [4]. f. . CIRA (c) POP (Parallel Osculating Parable) method is: f (x) f (x) m · |f (x)| 1+2 f (x)2 2 · 1 f (x∗ ) · . 3. contain these graphs corresponding to the equation . n) . mab(TP) and mab(OP). . . . x. a = Bl(f. ) corresponding to the considered methods. are mab(N). two programs have been conceived in Mathcad 2000 for the calculus of a and b. α. For each considered method a graph is drawn representing the number of iteration [2] which is needed for reach a given precision (actually. x. it is interval around x∗ in which the graph is under the horizontal lines on the top of the box.3. the Halley’s method. where x < x∗ and f (x∗ ) = 0} b = min{x | N (N (x)) = x. Numerical Experiments In this section the attraction basins are estimated for the Newton method. For example. Thus.4 O. 2 f (x∗ ) P OP (x) = x − 1+ where m = max |f (x)| and has asymptotically error x∈I Remark 2. The decision of non convergence was made if after 100 iterations the solution was not touched with considered precision. in function of starting value. The ﬁgures 1. The results are presented below. The quadratically convergence is valid for any function a suﬃciently smooth on I . In the particular case when a(x) = −f (x)/4 we obtained the TP method considered in [4]. . for ﬁgure 1. x∗ ) = [a. can be easily seen on these graphs. . 2. the TP method and the OP method. . For each equation for each method the graphs are plotted in separate boxes. Maruster in [4] it is showing that mab(N. . Note that some of the equations considered here are from [1]. n) b = Br(f. 10−14 ). where x > x∗ and f (x∗ ) = 0} where N (x) = x − f (x)/f (x). Note that the main attraction basin.

n) :=s ← root(f (x). β. n) :=s ← root(f (x). y ) if (Im(y )=0) ∧ (|y − s| > ε) vj ← y j ←j+1 j←0 f or k ∈ 0·· last(v ) if α ≤ vk < s uj ← vk j ←j+1 a ← max(u) return a Br(f.OSCULATING PARABLE METHOD 5 Bl(f. y ) if (Im(y )=0) ∧ (|y − s| > ε) vj ← y j ←j+1 j←0 f or k ∈ 0·· last(v ) if s < vk ≤ β uj ← vk j ←j+1 b ← min(u) return b . x. x) β−s n j←0 h← f or k ∈ 1·· n y ←s+k·h continue on error y ← root(g (y ). α. x. x) s−α h← n j←0 f or k ∈ 1·· n y ←s−k·h continue on error y ← root(g (y ).

. 334–344. 1. M. 7.3604703 0.15) .3518157 0.0000000 x3 + 3 x = 0 x − sin(x)2 = 0 0.E. ∞) (−0.65.A.. Cal.7394300 arctan(x) = 0 0.65) mab(OP ) (−∞. 25. Z. Iterative methods for the solution of equations.63.0494174 1.95. 1.65.6548946 −1.45. ∞) (−1. A note on Halley’s method.87) mab(H ) (−1.6385952 0. Potra.35) (−0. 59 (1991).9996905 0.10. Comp. 0.25) (−1. 129–146. ∞) (−∞. ∞) (−1.0000000 2 x/(1 + x ) = 0 0 . 0. On global convergence of Halley’s iteration formula.65.uav@inext. 2. St. Cira.35) (−∞.50) (−4. 0.A. 3. eq.95) (−0. 1.3468248 b 3.52) (−0. 0.57) (−1. CIRA where f is the studied function. 1.70. n is the number of exploring points from [α.85. 20 (1973). R. ∞) (−0. β ) interval over which the search of a and b is being done.95) (−0.05) (−1.00) (−3. 223–233. J. Numer. x∗ ) and (x∗ .85. 2.80. 3. 8.95. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 mab(T P ) (−∞. 0. Traub.9996905 −0.39. 0. G. Eco. The table below contains 10 nonlinear equations among them from [1]. Algoritmi de optimizare unidimensional˘ a.53) (−0. Debrecen.3915970 −0.0000000 x5 − 2x3 + 11x/10 = 0 0.00. Numer.64.ro a −0.25.6306469 −0. Math.5773046 0.0000000 x/(1 + |x|) = 0 0. 4. Maruster.5773046 −0.10) (−4. N o. ∞) (−4.95.F.25) (−0.3915970 0. Math. 133–135. 6. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Equations Solutions x − cos(x) = 0 0. 1.90) (−3. Eco. Davson.57. 1.3604703 −1. & eq. 0. 4. 2.00) (−2. Some eﬃcient methods for enclosing simple zeros of nonlinear equations.8779306 N o. 0. Bulletins for Applied and Computer Mathematics BAM-1646 (LXXXVII) (1999). Numerical experiments for convergence domain.05. 2. 1.4512104 −0. ”Aurel Vlaicu” University of Arad E-mail address : info. 4.0000000 (x + sin(x)2 )/(1 + |x|) = 0 0. O. Veron. Appendix References 1.0000000 sin(x)3 + ln(1 + x2 ) = 0 0.50.3518148 −0. Publ.0000000 √ 0.80) (−∞.99.85) (−∞. 1.39) (−0. 53–67. report.05) (−0. M. Stud. 273–276. Vest University of Timi¸ soara.5190528 1. New York.40.35. 1. On the tangent parabola method for nonlinear equations in the one variable.64) (−0. 4.35. Cercet.05.57) (−1.5356115 0. 2001. α and β establish the (α.40) (−∞. x is an approximation of the solution to the equation f (x) = 0 that can be established from the graph of f .6386125 −0.05) (−2.50. 4. 24 (1975). 22 (1987).95) (−0. 1.30. Tech. β ] intervals and g (x) = N (N (x)) − x. Davis and B.6 O. BIT 32 (1992).85) (−∞. Serban.H. Chelsea Pub. ∞) (−4. 0. Szabo. f ig. 3.10. Uber gleinchungslosende iterationen ohne divergenzpunkt.05) (−3.70.57. Ciber. 1.35. Alefeld and F. 1982. 4.65) 4. ∞) (−1. 2. 1.80) (−3.0000000 x/(1 + |x|) − sin(x)/5 = 0 0. Math.0000000 mab(N ) (−0.99) (−0. 5.

The main attraction basins for x − cos(x) = 0 .OSCULATING PARABLE METHOD 7 Figure 1.

The main attraction basins for arctan(x) = 0 . CIRA Figure 2.8 O.

The main attraction basins for x/(1 + |x|) − sin(x)/5 = 0 .OSCULATING PARABLE METHOD 9 Figure 3.

10 O. CIRA Figure 4. The main attraction basins for x5 − 2x3 + 11x/10 = 0 .

OSCULATING PARABLE METHOD 11 Figure 5. The main attraction basins for x/(1 + |x|) = 0 .

12 O. CIRA Figure 6. The main attraction basins for x/(1 + x2 ) = 0 .

The main attraction basins for x3 + √ 3 x .OSCULATING PARABLE METHOD 13 Figure 7.

14 O. The main attraction basins for x − sin(x)2 = 0 . CIRA Figure 8.

The main attraction basins for sin(x)3 + ln(1 + x2 ) = 0 .OSCULATING PARABLE METHOD 15 Figure 9.

The main attraction basins for (x + sin(x)2 )/(1 + |x|) = 0 .16 O. CIRA Figure 10.

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Osculating Parabola And Numerical Experiments

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