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AUG
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BR 60 .L52 V.38 Athanasius, d. 373. The festal epistles of Athanasius, Bishop of

TO THE

MEMORY

OF THE

MOST REVEREND FATHER IN GOD

WILLIAM
LORD ARCHBISHOP OF CANTERBURY,
PRIMATE OF ALL ENGLAND,
FOIIMKRLY REGIUS J'HOFESSOR OF DIVINMTY IN THE UNIVERSITY OF OXFORD

THIS LIBRARY
OF

AXCLENT BISHOPS, FATHERS. DOCTORS, MARTYRS, CONFESSORS. OF CHRIST'S HOLY CATHOLIC CHURCH,
UNDERTAKEN
AMID
HIS

ENCOURAGEMENT,

AND

CARRIED ON FOR TWELVE YEARS UNDER HIS SANCTION,


UNTIL HIS DEPARTURE HENCE IN PEACE,
IS

GRATEFULLY AND REVERENTLY


INSCRIBED.

THE

FESTAL EPISTLES
OF

S.

AT HANA

S I

S,

BISHOP OF ALEXANDRIA,

TRANSLATED FROM THE 8YRIAC,

WITH NOTES AND

INDICES.

OXFORD,
JOHN HENRY PARKER
F.

AND

J.

RIVINGTON, LONDON.
MDCCCLIV.

BAXTER, PRINTER, OXFORD.

PREFACE.

The
reader.

Festal Epistles of S. Athaiiasius, as far as they are


first

extant, are now, for the

time, presented to

tlie

English

In undertaking to superintend the publication of


the

them,

Editor was,
of the
task.

to

some

extent,
it

aware

of

the

difficulty

In

carrying

out,

he has not

hesitated to

make numerous and important

alterations in the

translation as put into his hands, and not a

few passages
must, therein the

have been entirely re-modelled by him.


fore,

He

be held responsible for the errors contained

following pages.

The translation had been prepared for the Press, and most of the notes written, when a German version by Professor Larsow made its appearance. To the general
accuracy of
this,

the Editor bears his willing testimony.


carefully

The English has been

compared with

it,

and

several emendations have, in consequence, been introduced.

On
in

the other hand, a different rendering has been adopted

many

cases,

and errors have

not unfrequently been

corrected.
notes.

Some

of these will be found pointed out in the

Considerable
parallel passages

pains

have been bestowed

in

collecting

from other undoubted works of S. Athain

nasius^;

while,

more than one

instance,

evidence has
of

been

adduced

bearing

upon

the

authenticity

some

treatises concerning which doubts have been entertained.

The

Scriptural references have, in


*

all

cases,

been carefully

The

edition used

is

the Bened. Patavii \771.

A 2

IV

PREFACE.

given, and any remarkable deviation from the received text

noted.

Manifest errors of the Syriac translator have been shewn,

and their

origin

sometimes detected.

Any

conjectural

emendation has been scrupulously proposed as such.


ever a difficulty has presented
itself,

When-

the Editor has examined the result of


It

the original Ms. in the British


this recension of tiie text will

Museum, and

be found in the notes.

could not have been expected, notwithstanding the extreme


care and the great learning displayed in the edition of the

Syriac text,

that

it

should

be quite free from errors.

They
that

are,

however, by no means numerous.


in the present translation
is,

Another important feature


it

includes four

more pages of the Syriac than have


For
these, the public are indebted
in directing the

hitherto appeared, they having been discovered since the

Syriac text was printed.


to the

Rev.

W. Cureton,

whose courtesy

Editor's attention to them, as well as in occasionally afford-

ing assistance in the progress of the work,

is

gratefully

acknowledged^.

For the Translation, the Editors have


acknowledgments
and Ph. D.
to

to express their

the Rev.

Henry Burgess, LL.D.


H. G.

W.

Cambridge,

May,

1854.

printed,

Since the English translation was but before the preliminary matter was put to press, the Festal Letters have been reprinted, with a

of the

Latin translation, in the sixth volume Patrum Nova Bibliotheca by Cardinal Mai.

INTRODUCTION.

The

learned Montfaucon, in the preface to his edition of

S. Athanasius, speaking of his lost

works, says,

'

Nulla,

opinamur, jactura major


Festalium.
.
.

Hoi, hei

quam epistolarum lo^Tacrrixajv, aut quam pungit dolor amissi Thesauri


Et fortassis adhuc The ardent wish and the latent
!

quantum ad

historiam, ad consuetudines Ecclesiarum, ad

morum

praecepta hinc lucis accederet

alicubi latent in Oriente.'

hope thus long ago expressed, have


accomplishment.

at length received their

The

Festal Letters

of S. Athan. after

having escaped the fury of the Moslem, and survived the


carelessness

and ignorance of succeeding generations, have


to

been brought
of our

light

by

the industry and perseverance


tlie

own

age, rescued from

ravages of time, and


to

transferred from a retired

nook

in the African desert

enrich the shelves of our great Library.

They have
tliey

not,

indeed, reached us in the garb in which they were originally


sent forth
to

by

their great

author
its

still

have

come down

us

in

one hallowed by

almost exclusively sacred


mutilation; nevertheless,

character.

Nor have they escaped


all to

the

portion that has

accepted by
of the faith

whom

been preserved will be gratefully the name of the great champion

is

held in honour, or any accession to our store


the year 1842, that Dr. Tattam,

of ecclesiastical literature valued.


It

was

in

now Arch-

deacon of Bedford, was so fortunate as to obtain from the

monastery of S. Mary Deipara,


desert

in the valley of Scete, in the

of Nitria, a valuable collection

of Syriac Mss. of

VI

INTRODUCTION.
antiquity %

great

The

valley

in

which

this

inestimable

treasure had so long lain hid, had early become, from its

calm and retired character, the refuge of pious penitents,

who sought an abode


tinguished saints

in these lonely solitudes, apart

from
dis-

the tumult and cares of the world.

Among

the

many

who

selected this spot for their seclusion

may who

be mentioned Macarius, the pupil of the great Anthony,


here spent the greater part of a long
life,

and whose

name, from having been given to one of the monasteries,


was afterwards applied to the whole of the desert.

The

Mss. themselves, or a large proportion of them, had been

brought from Mesopotamia, and deposited

in the

monastery
of the
in

by Moses of the year 932

Nisibis,
;

who
also

presided over
is

tlie

monastery in

a fact
is

which

recorded in
J. S.

many

volumes, and which

mentioned by

Asseman,

the Preface to his Bibliotheca Orientalis.

More

than one

attempt had been made in the early part of the


to procure the monastic library,
success.

last

century

but with only very partial

D. Gabriel Eva, the Maronite, had ascertained


Syriac, Arabic, and

that

many

Egyptian Mss. were

to

be

found in the monastery of the desert of Scete, and had


acquainted the Pope Clement IX. with the
fact.

In con-

sequence of

this, Elias,

a learned Syrian, and a near, relative

of Asseman, was sent to endeavour to obtain them.

This

was in the year 1707.

Notwithstanding the utter neglect


entreaties, to procure

with which the Mss. were treated in the monastery, Elias

was unable, by money or


forty.

more than

These were added to the Library of the Vatican,

not, however, before other difficulties

had been surmounted.

The
not

vessel in

which Elias

w^as sailing

down

the Nile was


it

wrecked, and though the volumes were recovered,


till

was

they had suffered considerable damage from the

v/ater.

Afterwards, in the year 1715,

J.

S.

Asseman himself

For a
to

full

visit

the

account of Dr. Tattam's monastery of S. Mary


the manner in

Deipara, and

which

he obtained the Mss. see an article in tiie Quarterly Review, No. CLIII, Deo. 1845.

INTRODUCTION.
on a
visit

Vll

set

out from

Rome

to the

monastery.

The

number
cause
or

of volumes

there deposited

had then, from one

another,

been much diminished.

He

selected

about a hundred; but even of these, with

all his efforts,

he

was unable

to carry

away more than

a small proportion.

These, however, he speaks of as the most valuable.

The Mss. thus acquired by Dr. Tattam were consigned the Library of the British Museum. Among them, soon discovered Mr. Cureton a portion of the Festal Letters
to

of S. Athanasius, which he committed to the press.


portion, however, included only about one half of that

This

now

made

public.

indebted to

For the remaining part of the Ms. we are the exertions of M. Augustus Pacho, a native
in

of Alexandria, who, three or four years later, paid a visit

to the same monastery, and succeeded

obtaining another

considerable collection of Syriac Mss. some of which formed


part of the volumes already secured

by Dr. Tattam.

Such
Athan.

was the case with regard

to the Festal Letters of S.

The latter portion thus acquired was likewise printed by Mr. Cureton, and published together with that previously printed, the sequence of the different parts (which was necessarily broken) being indicated by notes ^.

At an

earlier period of the

Church, Festal Letters had


as

been sent by the Bishop of Alexandria,


thirteenth Bishop,

we

learn from

Eusebius% who speaks of those sent by Dionysius, the

[A.D. 247,

to

A.D.

265.]

In them,

according to the same authority, he had treated of the high


character of the Paschal Festival, had argued the necessity
for celebrating
it

after the time of the


a

Vernal Equinox,
to serve for

and had moreover published


years.

Canon

eight

small fragment from the fourth of these Letters,


is

consisting of exhortations to peace and good-will,

pre-

served in Damascen. Op. tom.


''

ii.

p. 753.

The names by

Four

text,

belonging

eleventh wards found

more pages of the Syriac to the tenth and Letters, which were after-

among

the loose leaveti,

in priut, will he fourd in the presert volume. The Syriac text is contained in the Appendix, ' Euseb. Hist. lib. vii. cap. 2<).

and which have not hitherto appeared

Vlll

INTRODUCTION.

which such Letters were designated are various. They were denominated svia-ToXoi) sogTua-TMou, 'Festal Epistles' not as

treating of Christian festivals in general, but of the great

Christian Festival of Easter in particular*


to the chapter of
kogTota-Tixwv

So the heading
is,

Eusebius just refeiTed to


bttk^toXcov,
*

^sfl

tmv

Aiovwj-lov

Of

the Festal Epistles of

Dionysius.'
ygaixfji^oirci

In the
*

ru(Tyu'K!iu^
*

way they were denominated Paschal Letters/ The name Q^j^ikiM


same
to

eo^TacTixai,

Festal Homilies,' was also applied to them.


title

Such

is

the

prefixed

the various discourses of


of these, the twenty -fifth,

S. Cyril on the subject.

One

concludes with an epistolary salutation.

Such discourses

were probably both sent


Homilies,

as Letters,

and publicly read as

This early custom of the Bishop of Alexandria sending


Festal

Letters

is

thus
iste

spoken of by

Cassian''.

Intra

jEgypti regionem mos

antiquus traditione servatur, ut

peracto epiphaniorum die,


vel

quem

provinciae illius sacerdotes


nativitatis

Dominici baptismi, vel secundum carnem,


bifarie, ut in occiduis provinciis, sed

esse definiunt, et idcirco utriusque sacramenti solemnitatem,

non

sub una

diei

hujus

festivitate concelebrant, epistolas pontificis

Alexandrini per

universas

diriguntur
et

-^gypti

ecclesias,

quibus

initium
civitates

quadragesimse,

dies paschae,

non solum per


monasteria

omnes, sed

etiam per universa


till

designentur.

But

it

was not

the time of the Council of Nice, that the

duty of notifying to the Christian Church the time at which Easter was to be celebrated was formally delegated
to the Bishop of Alexandria,

Among

other matters there

discussed, was the important question respecting the Paschal


Festival.

Together with the decision that the

Roman
it

method should be adopted throughout Christendom,

was

determined that the calculation of the day from year to


year should devolve on the Bishop of Alexandria, and that
notice should be sent

by him

to the other Churches^.

The

superior astronomical knowledge found in Egypt, doubtless


<*

Cassian Collat. x. cap.

1.

Bingham, Ant. book

ii.

ch. xvi, . 21.

INTRODUCTION.
formed one reason
of Alexandria.
for the

IX

duty thus devolved on the Bishop


of

The words

Leo

are

to

this

effect

Sancti Patres studuerunt itaque occasionem hujus erroris


auferre

omnem
esse

hanc curam Alexandrino Episcopo delegantes


per

(quoniam apud ^gyptios hujus supputationis antiquitus


tradita
peritia)

quern

quotannis dies praedictae

solemnitatis Sedi Apostolicae indicentur, cujus scriptis ad

longinquiores ecclesias indicium generale percurreret.


fact here noted

The
clear

by Leo,

that the Festal

announcement was
is

not confined to the Churches of Egypt,

also

made

by

S.

Athan. himself, who expressly speaks in the 18th

Letter of his having sent the notice to the Romans.

But

another reason

is

doubtless to be sought in the important

position the Primate of x\lexandria held in the Christian

Church.

It

was

in

virtue of this dignity that, as sole

Metropolitan, he possessed, from ancient time, the exclusive


privilege of ordaining Bishops in Egypt, Syria,
tapolis
;

and Pen-

a right confirmed to

him by the sixth Canon of


find several times applied to

the same Council.

The term
S.

'

Pope,' which

we

Athan.

in the index,
title

and

in the

headings to the following


to

Letters,

was a

usually assigned

the Bishops of

Alexandria, at least as early as the middle of the third


century,

and

is

still

retained

by them.
S. Cyrils.

The name of

Patriarch, properly belonging to the See of Antioch, was

assumed by, or bestowed upon,

We

find

it

used

by Socrates and the Council of Chalcedon'^.

But we
in.

are not without evidence, that the calculation of

the Bishop of Alexandria was not always readily acquiesced

On

the contrary, the index for the twenty-first Letter,

answering to the year 349, acquaints us with a contest that


then existed on
extant.

the

subject.

The Letter

itself

is

not

Some important
'

errors

concerning dates
ii.

which

have

Leo.

Epist.

ad

Marcian. Op.

367.

Rom.

8 Vid. Neale's Hist, of the Holy Eastern Church, Gen. Intr. vol. i. p.

113, where the dignity of the Bishop of Alexandria is further illustrated. ^ Binghann Ant. book ii. ch. xvii.
. 6.

INTRODUCTION.

hitherto existed, are corrected

by the present work.


at

S.

Alexander was the Bishop of Alexandria at the time of


the Council of Nice.

He

had himself been present

it,

and on

his return to his diocese, in

conformity with the


This
is

decree of the Council, forwarded a Paschal Letter.


is

not extant, though the fact of his having written one

placed beyond a doubt.

This was for the year

8.58.

The

index to the following Letters furnishes us with this information, together with an exact account of the date of the
death of Alexander, and the elevation of S. Athanasius to
the Episcopate.

According to

this authority, S.

Alexander

died on the 22d of Pharmuthi, (April 17,) A.D. 328^ in

which year Easter was celebrated on the 16th of Pharmuthi,


(April 11.)
festival
S.

Athanasius succeeded him after the Paschal


14th of Pauni, in
the
first

on the

year

of the

Indiction,

June 8th,
S.

when Januarius and Justus were Consuls, i. e. A.D. o28. The first Paschal Letter then of
is

Athan.
is

that for the following year, (A.D. 329,) and


first

which

the

here

presented to

the
it is

reader.

The

information thus afforded, consistent as


will

in all its parts,

doubtless correct the

erroneous opinions previously


is

entertained, according to which an earlier date


to the elevation of S.

assigned

Athan. to the see of Alexandria^


authenticity of the follovv ing Epistles

The genuineness and


are clearly established.

That they

are a translation,

and a

close translation, of the Festal Letters of S. Athan. v/hich

he was known to have written,

is

proved by the previously

existing fragments of the original Greek,


Fleury says, that S. Alexander of Alexandria died five months after his return home, on Monday the twentysecond of the Egyptian month Bermouda (Pharmutld), which is the seventeenth of April, in the year 326. Again, the ordination of S. Athanasius was not until the twenty-seventh of December, in the year 326, for he hid himself a long time; and it was necessary to assemble all the Bishops from the provinces depending upon Al^xThe month and the day of andria.
i

which appear

in

which is the death of S. Alexander also the day on which he is commemorated in the yEthiopic calendar are correct: the other dates are erroneous, The mistakes on this point seem to have arisen from the incorrect length of duration assigned to the Council of Nice. The year 328 for the death of S. Alex, is not inconsistent with the words of S. Athan. who says of him,

ovirca

yap irevre

yU'^j/es

TraprjAOou, kuI 6

fxhu fiaKapiTrjs^AAe^avSposTsrsXevTrjKe'y,

Apol. cont. Ar. p. 140,

69.

the month here given, as the date of


INTRODUCTION.
their

XI
translation ^

proper

places

in

the

Syriac

Other

collateral proofs will be

found among the notes that accom-

pany the English translation.

The question with regard


written by
doubtful.
S.

to the

number of Letters thus

Athan. has also hitherto been considered

His care and diligence in the discharge of his


clear

duty

is

made

by various passages

in the Letters

nor

can we suppose he ever omitted sending the notice, unless

compelled by necessity.

Even w^ien

in exile,

we

find

him
seen,

obtaining means for transmitting the


notification.

customary Paschal

The

first

Letter he sent was, as


last of

we have

for the year o29.

The

which we have any know-

ledge

is

the forty-fifth in order, not existing indeed in the


is

Syriac version, (which

imperfect at the end,) but


sliort

still

rescued from entire oblivion, by a


preserved in Cosmas Indicopleustes.

fragment of
is

it

Forty-five

also the

number contained
various Letters
at least, if
is

in the index.

The order

assigned to the

not that of the actual Letters themselves


is

any credit

to

be attached to the assertion we

more than once meet with in the following pages, that there were years in which no Letter was sent but that of

the years of the Episcopate of S. Athanasius,

commencing

with that for which the

first

Festal Letter was sent, viz.


then, as
it

A.D.

o'29.

The

forty -fifth

must

would seem, be

For this w^ould correspond with the year 37o, the year in which Athan. died; nor is it likely
the last he wrote.
that he sent any Letter for the succeeding year, his death

having taken place, according to the index, on the seventh


of Pachon,

(May 2.y

The number

of forty-five

is

the

superior limit assigned to them by Cosmas Indicopleustes.

The

character of the Letters, as will be seen,


;

is

not often

controversial

though the doctrines and practices of the

covered

Another fragment has been in IMai by Cardinal Vatican library, belonging to the
''

dis-

the
thir-

teenth Lettt
hiavoiav
TTjj/

r,

(p. lot).)

Oh

i.v

ris

r^v

a.(TKT]dT]

iv tovtois XauOdvovcrav

trpodvfj.iav Trf)u5 ry/f (TvvT]Qiiav ex^'-

The date of the death of S. Athau. thus supplied, agrees with that furnished by independent testimony, Fleury says, ' he (Athan.) died, it is thought, on the second of May, in the year 373.'
'

Xll

INTRODUCTION.

Arian, Manichean, and other heretics are occasionally in-

troduced to be refuted or reprobated.

Nor

is

occasion often
;

taken to refer to the passing history of the Church


the particular

though

circumstances under which some of them were penned, have called forth matters connected with the
writer individually, suggested allusions to persecutions then
raging, or

prompted expressions of thankfulness

for a return

of tranquillity.

The

postscript to the thirteenth Letter, as


w^ill

well as the Letter to Serapion, the

be valued, as furnishing
But, in general,

names of some of the Egyptian Bishops, and of some

dioceses not previously

known

as such.

our Author confines himself in the Festal Letters to matters

more

directly

connected with

the

subject

before

him.

While, according
notifies the

to the authority

committed

to him,

he

day on which

the great Christian festival is to


at the

be held, he takes occasion,

same time, to
feast,

stir

up the

minds of the
observance

faithful to the

importance of a due and spiritual

of the great

and holy

frequently con-

trasting its character with that of the Jewish Passover, and

dwelling upon the superiority of the former. Anxious to build

up

in the faith those

committed to

his charge, he inculcates


all

the necessity of a stedfast adherence thereto against


versaries; while

ad-

he earnestly urges upon them the intimate


faith

connexion between purity of

and holiness of

life.

Love to God, charity to our neighbour, diligence in prayer and thanksgiving, distribution to the poor, a careful study of the holy Scriptures, are subjects upon which he often
dilates.

When

an exile, through the fury or treachery of

his enemies,

he reminds his flock of the spiritual unity of

Christians, wherever they

may

be:

when

restored to the

Church, he invites them to join him in thanksgiving.

The

Letters before us, with the index

filling

up what

is

wanting, doubtless supply the correct dates at which Easter

was observed for the time they include. The various years are clearly marked, not only by the names of the Consuls,
but by the Diocletian Era, and the Indiction while the exact day on which Easter Sunday fell, is given towards
;

INTRODUCTION.
the
close

XIU
to

of each

Letter

according

the

Alexandrian
are also

reckoning.

The names

of the Praefects of

Egypt

given; though, from the vague manner in which they are


written in the Syriac, there
verifying them.
is

occasionally a difficulty in

The

principal part of the information thus

furnished, will be found collected together in the accom-

panying Table, where the manifest errors are noted, the

Golden Number and the Dominical Letter added, and other


remarks appended.

The following

brief notice of the Egyptian Calendar will

suffice to elucidate the

Egyptian Chronology of the Letters,

the intercalary days presenting no difficulty, as they do not

occur between the Easter limits

"".

After the

final

settlement of

Egypt by Augustus
first

as a

province of the

Roman Empire,

the use of the Julian form

of computation was established in Alexandria, the of the

day

new Calendar being


in

fixed to the 29th of August, the


;

Thot of the year


which period, added
at the

which the innovation took place

from

six, instead of five,

supplementary days were

end of every fourth year; so that the form of

the Alexandrian year was as follows:

Thot

PBI IT CETOIT

^.^

THBOLOGlCi:L

fe-imEl
A

CHRONOLOGICAL AND SYNOPTICAL

INDEX.

An Index of the months of each year, and of the days, and of the Indictions, and of the Consulates, and of the Governors in Alexandria, and of all the Epacts, and of
those [days] which are

named of the GodS%' and the reason [any Lettef] was not sent, and the returns from exile" from
'

tlie

Festal Letters of the

Pope Athanasius.

Festal Letters of Athanasius, Bishop of Alexandria; which he sent year by year, to the several cities and all the

The

provinces subject to him; that


to

Libya,

Ammoniaca, the

from Pentapolis, and on greater and the less Oasis,


is,

Egypt, and Augustamnice, with the Heptanomus of the upper and middle Thebais; [commencing] from the 44th
year of the Diocletian Era, in w^hich the Paschal Festival

was on
on

XVI

Pharmuthi;

XVIII

Kal. Mai;

XVIII Moon;

when Alexander,

his predecessor, having departed this life

Pharmuthi, he [Athan.] succeeded him after the on XIV Pauni, Indict. I., Januarius and Justus being Consuls, Zenius Italus being the Pr^efect of Egypt, Epact XXV.; Gods, I.
Pasclial festival
Probably used to designate the several days of the week as named, according to the heathen cu.stom, after varions gods.
.

XXII

'"'^

meaning cf these is doubtful. Cureton renders them the answers of strangers.' But I cannot see how such
'

MJQ2). ^? words

The

translation applies in this case The translation given above would well correspond with the preceding clause, the exile of S. Athan. being the reason why Letters were not always sent,

There

is,

however, a difficulty

in the

forn^ of the last

word

in the l^yriac.

CHRONOLOGICAL AND SYNOPTICAL INDEX.

A.D. 329.

In
Ap.;
Cses.

this year,

Easter-day was on

XI Pharmuthi; VIII

Id

XXII Moon;

Coss. Constantinus Aug. VIII, Constantinus

IV.; the same Zenius being Prsefect of Egypt; Indict. Epact VI; Gods, II. This was the first Letter he [A than.] sent; for he was appointed Bishop in the preceding year after the Paschal feast; Alexander, as is known, having despatche(|: one for that year, before he was removed from this world* This was in the 45th of the Diocletian ^ra.
II;
I

A, D. 330.

In

this

year,

Easter-day was on

XXIV

Pharmuthi

XIII
III;|

Kal. Mai.;

XV

Moon;

Coss. Gallicanus,

Symmachus; Magni-i

nianus the Cappadocian being Prpefect of Egypt; Indict.

Epact XVII; Gods,-IIL In


the Thebais.

this year,

he [Athan.] went througl^

III.

A.D.

331.

In this year, Easter-day was on


of Egypt; Epact

XVI Pharmuthi; XVIII Moon

III Id. Ap.; Coss. Annius Bassus, Ablavius; Hyginus, Prsefec

XXVIII;

Indict. IV.

He

sent this Letter

while journeying,

Foi on his return from the Comitatus. in this year he went to the Comitatus to the Emperor Con stantine, having been summoned before him, on account of ai accusation his enemies made, that he had been consecratec when too young. He appeared before [Constantine], was though worthy of favour and honour, and returned when the [quaf dragesimal] fast was half finished.

IV.

A.D.

332.

Easterday was on XVII Pharmuthi; XX Moon IV Non. Apr.; Epact IX; Gods, VI; Coss. Pacatianus, Hilari anus; the same Hyginus, Prsefect of Egypt; Indict. V. In this year, he went through Pentapolis, and was in Ammoniaca.
In
this year,

V.

A.D.

333.

was on XX Pharmuthi; XV Moon; In XVII Kal. Mai.; Epact XX; Gods, VII; Coss. DalmatiuM Zenophilus Paterius ', Prsefect of Egypt Indict. VI.
this year, Easter-day
;
;

Yid. note

b, p. 36.

CHRONOLOGICAL AND SYNOPTICAL INDEX.


VI.

ivii

In

this year, Easter-day


Id.

VII

was on XII Pharmuthi, XYII Moon; A.D. Apr.; Indict. VII; Epact I; Gods, I; Coss. Optatus,
;

334.

Paulinas Paterius, Praefect of Egypt. In this year he [Athan.] went through the low country. In it, he was also summoned to a Synod. But his enemies had previously devised mischief against him in Csesarea of Palestine he became aware of the conspiracy, and excused himself from attending.
;

VII.

In this year, Easter-day was on


stantius^^ Albinus; the

XIV Pharmuthi

XX Moon

A.D. 335.

Ill Kal. Ap.; Indict. VIII; Epact XII; Gods, II; Coss. Con-

same

Paterius, Prsefect of Egypt.

VIII.

XIV

XXIII Pharmuthi; XX Moon; A.D. IX; Epact XXIII; Gods, IV; Coss. Nepotianus, Facundus the governor Philagrius, the Cappadocian,
In this year, Easter-day was on
Kal. Mai;
Indict.
;

.336.

In this year, he [Athan.] went to a enemies which was assembled at Tyre. He departed from this place [i. e. from Alexandria] on XVII Epiphi but when a discovery was made of the preparation against him, he removed thence, and fled in a vessel to Constantinople.
being Praefect of Egypt.

Synod of

his

Arriving there on II Athyr, after eight days he presented himself

before
his

the

Emperor Constantino, and

spoke

plainly.

But

enemies, by various secret devices,

influenced the

Emperor, who suddenly condemned him


of Augustus.

to exile,

and he

set

out on the twelfth of Athyr to Gaul, to Constans Caesar, the son

On

this account,

he wrote no Festal Letter.

IX.

In

this

year,

Easter-day
;

was on VIII

Pharmuthi;

XVIa.D. a'J/.
Coss.

Moon; IV Non. Ap.


Felicianus, Titianus
;

Indict.

X; Epact IV; Gods, V;

the governor Philagrius, the Cappadocian,

being Praefect of Egypt.

He

[Athan.] was in Treviri of Gaul,

and on

this

account was unable to write a Festal Letter.


X.

In this year, Easter-day was on XXX Phamenoth; VII XIX Moon; Indict. XI; Epact XV; Gods, VI; Kal. Ap. Coss. Ursus, Polemius; the governor Theodorus, of HeliIn this year, Constantine having opolis, Praefect of Egypt.
;

a. D. 338.

<^

The

Syr. htw Constantinus, by an error,

XVUl

CHRONOLOGICAL AND SYNOPTICAL INDEX.


;

Athanasius, now liberated, returned died on XXVII Pachon from Gaul triumphantly, on XXVII Athyr. In this year, too, Anthony, the great leader, came to there were many events. Alexandria, and though he remained there only two days, shewed himself wonderful in many things, and healed many.

He

departed on the third of Messori.


XI.

A.T).339.

XVII

In this year, Easter-day was on Kal. Mai.; Epact XXVI;

XX

Pharmuthi

XX

Moon;
XII;

Gods, VII;

Indict.

Coss. Constantius II, Constans*'; the governor Philagrius, the

Cappadocian, Praefect of Egypt. In this year, again, there were many tumults. On the XXII Phamenoth, he [Athan.] was sought after by his persecutors in the night. On the next morning he fled from the Church of Theonas, after he had Then, on the fourth day, Gregorius the baptized many.

Cappadocian entered the

city as

Bishop.

XII.
A.D.
3-10.

In this year, Easter-day was on XIV Pharmuthi; XV Moon''; Epact VII; Gods, II; Indict. XIII; Coss. Kal. Ap. Acyndinus, Proclus the same governor Philagrius, Prasfect of
III
;

Egypt.

Gregorius continued his acts of violence, and therefore

wrote no Eestal Letter.

The Arians proclaimed


were
it

XXVII Phamenoth, and


this error.
it

much

ridiculed

[Easter] on on account of
fast,

Then
it

altering

in the

middle of the

they kept

with us on

XIV

Pharmuthi, as above.

He

[Athanasius] gave

notice of

to the presbyters of

Alexandria in a short note, not


flight,

being able to send a Letter as usual, on account of his and the treachery employed.
XIII.
A.D.
34].

In

this

year,

Easter-day was on

XXIV

Pharmuthi:
III;

XVI

Moon; XIII Kal. Mai.; Epact XVIII; Gods, XIV; Coss. Marcellinus, Probinus; Longinus, of
of Egypt.

Indict.

Nice, Prsefect

There was a schism

in Augustannice,

on account of

Gregorius continuing
his illness
this time.
e

m the city, and exercising violence. But commenced, nor did the Pope write a Festal Letter
erroneously Constantius
I,

The Syriac has


Svr.
'

Constans TI.

month.'

CHRONOLOGICAL AND SYNOPTICAL JNDEX.

XIX

XIV.
In this year, Easter-day was on
Ill Id.

XVI Pharmuthi; XX Moons;

a.D. 342.

Epact XXIX; Gods, IV.; Indict. XV.; Coss. Oonstantius III, Constans II the governor Longinus, of Nice, Because Gregorius was severely ill in the Proefect of Egypt. city, the Pope was unable to send [any Letter].
Ap.;
;

XV.
In this year, Easter-day was on I Pharmuthi; XV Moon A.D. VI Kal. Ap. Epact XI; Gods, V.; Indict. I.; Coss. Placidus, Romulus; the same governor Longinus, of Nice, Praefect of Egypt. In this year, there was a Synod held at Sardica and
;

3-J3.

when

the Arians had arrived, they returned to Philippopolis, for In truth, they were Philagi-ius gave them this advice there.

blamed every where, and were even anathematised by the Church of Rome, and having written a recantation to the Pope Athanasius, Ursacius and Valens were put to shame. There
was an arrangement entered into *at Sardica respecting Easter, and a decree was issued to be binding for fifty years, which the Romans and Alexandrians every where announced in the usual

manner.

Again he [Athan.] wrote a Festal Letter.

XVI.
In this year, Easter-day was on XX Pharmuthi; XIX Moon A.D. 344 XVII Kal. Mai.; Epact XXI; Gods, VI; Coss. Leontius,
;

Sallustius;
Indict. II.

the governor Palladius Italus, Prsefect of Egypt; Being at Naissus on his return from the Synod, he
.

Of this Easter-day, he gave [Athan.] there celebrated Easter. notice in few words to the presbyters of Alexandria, but he was
unable to do so to other parts.

XVII.
In this year,
Easter-day was

Moon; VII
of Egypt. Easter' there.

Id.

Ap.
;

on XII Pharmuthi; XVIII A.D. Epact II; Gods, I; Indict. Ill; Coss.

:u.

Amantius, Albinus

Having

the governor Nestorius, of Gaza, Pra^fect travelled to Aquileia, he [Athan.] kept

Of

this Easter-day,

he gave notice

in

few words

to the presbyters of Alexandria,


!

but not

to other parts.
is

The Syriac has XVI, which b Q

an error,

3^^

CHRONOLOGICAL AND SYNOPTICAL INDEX.

XVIII.
A.D.
346.

In this year, Easter-day was on IV Pharmutlii; XXI Moon; HI Kal. Ap.; Epact XIV; Gods, II; Indict. IV; Coss. Constantius* IV, Constans III; the same governor Nestorius, of Gaza, Prsefect of Egypt. Gregorius having died on the
>

second of Epiphi, he [Atlian.] returned from Rome and Italy, and entered the city and the Church. He was, too, thought worthy of a grand reception for on the fourth of Paophi, the people and those in authority met him a hundred miles distant. He had already sent the Festal Letter for this year, written in
;

few words, to the presbyters.

XIX.
A.D. 347.
Prid.

In this year, Easter-day was on XVII Pharmuthi; XV Moon; Id. Apr.; Epact XXV; Gods, III; Indict. V; Coss.
the

Eufinus, Eusebius;
Prsefect of Egypt.

same governor Nestorius, of Gaza,

He

[Athan.] wrote this Letter while residing

here in Alexandria, giving notice of some things which he had not been able to do before.

XX.

AD.

348.

was on VIII Pharmuthi; XVIH Moon; III Non. Ap. ; Epact VI; Gods, IV; Indict. VI; Coss. Philippus, Saha; the same governor Nestorius, of Gaza, Prsefect of Egypt. This Letter also he sent while residing in
this

In

year, Easter-day

Alexandria.

XXL
A. D. 349.

In this year, Easter-day was on XXX Phamenoth XIX Moon j VII Kal. Ap.; Epact XVII; Gods, VI; Indict. VII. But
;

because the

Romans

refused, for they said they held a tradition

from the Apostle Peter not to pass the twenty-sixth day of Pharmuthi, nor the thirtieth of Phamenoth, XXI Moon

^ ^^H Kal. Ap.; Coss. Limenius, Catullinus the same governor Nestorius, of Gaza, Prgefect of Egypt. He also
;

sent this while residing in Alexandria.

The Syriac
find

in this place in

But we

XXI

has XXIV.

The Syriac has Constantinus.

the heading to

few words are here wanting in

the Letter UseU.

the text.

CimOXOLOGICAL AND SYNOPTICAL INDEX.

Xxi

XXII.
In this year, Easter-day was on XIII Phannuthi;
the second hour;
Indict.

XIX Moon

A. D. 360.

VI

Id. Ap.

Epaet XXVIII;
;

VIII;

Coss. Sergius, Nigrianus

Gods, VII; the same governor

In this year, Constans was slain by Magnentius, and Constantius held the empire alone. He then wrote a Letter to the Pope, (Athan.) telling
liiiii

Xestorius, of Gaza, Prcnefect of Egypt.

to fear

ontide in

him

nothing because of the death of Constans, but as he had done in Constans while living.

to

XXIII.
In this year, Easter-day was on V Phannuthi; Moon XVI 1 A.D. 361. 1 Trid. Kal. Ap. Epact IX; Gods, I; Indict. IX; after the C.nsulate of Sergius and Nigrianus; the same governor Nesto;
;

I'lUS,

of Gaza, again Preefect of Egypt.

XXIV.
In this year, Easter-day was on

XXIV

Phannuthi; XVIII A.D.

352.

Moon; XIII

Kal.

Mai; Epact

XX;

Gods, III; Indict. X;


;

Coss. Constantius Aug. V, Constantius Caesar I the same governor Nestorius, of Gaza, Preefect of Egypt. Gallus was proclaimed Caesar, and his name changed into Constantius.

XXV.
Ill Id.

was on XVI Pharmuthi; XXI Moon; A.D. Gods, IV; Indict. XI; Coss. Constantius Vug. VI, Constantius Caesar II; the governor Sebastianus, of Ihrace, Praefect of Egypt. In this year, Serapion, Bishop of rhmuis, and Triadelphus, of Nicion, and the presbyters Petrus
In this year, Easter-day

353.

Ap.; Epact

I;

ind Astricius, with others, were sent to the


lir.)ugh
1

fear of mischief

'wever, without success.


1

emperor Constantius, from the Arians. They returned, In this year, JNIontanus, Silentiarius
but, a tumult

the Palace, entered [Alexandria] as Bishop;

lavm!! been excited,

he

retired, frustrated in his design.

XXVI.
was on IV Pharmuthi XVII Moou A.D. VI Kal. Ap.; Epact XII; Gods, V; Indict. XII; Coss. Con; ;

In this year, Easter-day

354,

tantius Aug. VII, Constantius Cresar III;


^'

the

same governor

i'astianus, of

Thrace, Praefect of Egypt.

CHRONOLOGICAL AND SYNOPTICAL INDEX.

XXVII.
A.D.
355.

In this year, Easter-day was on

Moon; XVI

Kal. Mai; Epact


;

Coss. Arbetion, Lollianus Nice, Prefect of Egypt.


of the

XXI Pharmuthi XVIII XXIII; Gods, VI; Indict. XIII; the governor Maximus, the Elder, ol
;

In this year, Diogenes, the Secretary

Emperor, came with the design of seizing the Bishop,

[Athan.]

But

he, too, left without succeeding in his attempt.

XXVIII.
A.D.
356.

In this year, Easter-day was on XII Pharmuthi; XVII Moon; VII Id. Ap. Epact IV; Gods, I; Indict. XIV; Coss. Constantius Aug. VIII, Julianus Caesar I the same governor
;

Maximus, the Elder, of Nice, Prgefect of Egypt,

who was

suc-

ceeded by Cataphronius Biblius. In this year, Syrianus Dux, having excited a tumult in the Church, on the thirteenth of
Mechir, entered Theonas with his soldiers on the fourteenth, at
night; but he was unable to capture [Athanasius], for he effected
his escape in a miraculous

manner.

XXIX.
A.D.
357.

Moon; XKal.

In this year, Easter-day was on XXVII Phamenoth; XVII Ap.; Epact XV; Gods, II; Indict. XV; Coss. Constantius Aug. IX, Julianus Caesar II; the same governor Cataphronius Biblius, Praefect of Egypt, to Avhom succeeded

Then Georgius entered on the thirtieth of Mechir, and acted with excessive violence. But Athanasius, the Bishop, had then fled, and was sought for in the city with much opPharnacius.
pression,

many being

in danger on this

account.

No

Festal

Letter was therefore written.

XXX.
A.D. 358.

In this year, Easter-day was on XVII Pharmuthi; Prid. Id. Ap. XVII Moon: Epact XXVI; Gods, III; Indict. I; Coss.
;

Tatianus, Cerealis

the governor Parius, of Corinth, Prael'ect of

Egypt.

Athanasius, the Bishop, lay concealed in the city of But Georgius left on the fifth of Paophi, being Alexandria.

On this account, neither this driven away by the multitude. year was the Pope [Athan.] able to send a Festal Letter.

CHRONOLOGICAL AND SYNOPTICAL INDEX.

Xxiii

XXXI.
'

In this year, Easter-day was on

XIX

Pharniuthi

Prid.

Non.
Coss.

A.D, 350.

Ap.;

XX

Moon; Epact VII; Gods, IV;


;
;

Indict.
;

II;

Eusebius, Hypatius the same governor Parius who was succeeded by Italicianus for three months after him Faustinus, of Chalcedon. Not even in this year did the Pope [Athan.] write
[any Letter].

XXXII.
In this year, Easter-day was on

XXVIII

Pharniuthi

IX KaL

A.D. 360.

Epact XVIIl; Gods, VI; Indict. Ill; Coss. Constantius Aug. X, JuUanus Caesar III; the governor Faustinus, of Chalcedon, Prtefect of Egypt.

Mai;

XXI Moon;

This Pmefect and Artemidorus Dux, having entered a private house and a small chamber, in quest of Athanasius the Bishop, bitterly tortured

Eudsemonis, a perpetual was written this year.

virgin.

On

these accounts no Letter

XXXIIL
XI 11 Pharniuthi; VI Id. Ap.; XVII Moon; Epact XXIX; Gods, VII; Indict. IV; Coss.
In this year, Easter-day was on
the

A.D. 36L

Taurus, Florentius
Egypt,
died,

same governor Faustinus

',

Prefect of

who was succeeded by

Gerontius, the Armenian.

He

[Athan.] was unable to send a Letter.

In this year, Constantius and Julianus holding the empire alone, there was a

cessation of the persecution against the Orthodox.

For orders

were issued every where from the emperor Julianus, that the Orthodox ecclesiastics who had been persecuted in the time of
Constantius should be
let alone.

XXXIV.
In this year, Easter-day was on
Ap.
;

XV
I
;

Pharniuthi; Prid. Kal. A.D.

3G2.

XXV

Moon; Epact X
the

Gods,

Indict.

Coss.

Mamer-

tinus,

Nevitta;

same governor Gerontius, succeeded bv


In
this year,
exile,

Olympus
Augustus,

of Tarsus.

turned to the Church, after his

Athanasius the Bishop reby the decree of Julianus

who granted freedom

Clergy, as was before said.


'

to all the exiled Bishops and This year, then, he wrote [a Letter].

This word
it

in whieli

is written vaguely in the Syriac, varying in occurs.

all

the three places

XXIY

CHRONOLOGICAL AND SYNOPTICAL INDEX.

XXXV.
A.D.363.

was on XXV Pharmiithi XII Kal. Coss. Mai; XX Moon; Epact XXI; Gods, II; Indict. VI; Prefect Olympius, governor same the Julianus IV, Sallustius;
In
this year, Easter-day
;

of Egypt.

brought a decree of Julianus on the twenty-seventh of of and produced it before the Bishop, and committed many acts to^ proceeded and He [Athan.] therefore left the city, violence.
Thebes.
After eight

Pythiodorus, of Thebes, a celebrated Philosopher, Paophi,

months Julianus died

and, the news of

secretly, by his death being published, Athanasius returned he emThoth, of eighth the on Then night, to Alexandria.

Eastern Hierapolis, and met the emperor Jovian, dismissed with honour. He sent this Festal was he by whom persecution Letter to all the country, while being driven by from Memphis to Thebes, and it was delivered as usual.
barked
at the

XXXVI.
A.D.364.

was on IX Pharmuthi Prid. Non. Gods, IV; Indict. VII; Coss. who Jovianus Aug., Varronianus; ^rius, of Damascus, Prefect; by again he and was succeeded by Maximus of Eapheotis,
In
this year, Easter-day
;

Ap.;

XVI Moon;

Epact

III;

Flavianus, the Illyrian.


to

Alexandria and the Church on the

In this year, the Pope returned again twenty-fifth of Mechir.

Antioch sent the Festal Letter, according to custom, from provinces. the all in to all the Bishops

He

XXXVII.
A D
365
'

was on I Pharmuthi V Kal. Ap. Epact XIV; Gods, V; Indict. VIII; Coss. Valentinianus Aug. I, Valens Aug. the same Flavianus, the Illyrian, being governor. We took the Csesareum but again, the Pope [Aihan.] being persecuted with accusations, withdrew to the
Ii^

this year, Easter-day

XIX Moon;

garden of the new


notary,
for

river.

came

to

him with

But a few days after, Barasides, the the Prsefect, and obtained an entrance

Then, an earthquake happening on into the Church. the twenty-seventh of Epiphi, the sea turned from the East, and destroyed many persons, and much damage was caused.

him

XXXVIII.

A D

366.
'

I^

this year, Easter-day

Mai;

XX Moon

was on XXI Pharmuthi Epact XXV Gods, VI; Indict. IX;


;

XVI

Kal.

in the first

and year of the Consulship of Gratianus, the son of Augustus,

CHRONOLOGICAL AND SYNOPTICAL INDEX.


Daglaiphus;
the

XXV

same governor Flavianus,

Praefect.

On
and

the
tlie

twenty-seventh of Epiphi, the heathen

Caesareum was burnt,

made an and consequently many

attack,

of the citizens

suffered great distress, while the authors of the calamity were

condemned and became chief.

exiled.

After this, Proclianus, the Macedonian,

XXXIX.
In this year, Easter-day was on

XV J

Pharmuthi

Kal. Ap. ;A.D. anr.

XVI Moon; EpactVI;

Gods, VII; Indict. X; Coss. Lupicinus, Jovinus; the same Proclianus being governor, who was sucIn this year, when Lucius had attempted an entrance on the twenty-sixth of the month Thoth, and lay concealed by night in a house on the side of the
enclosure of the Church
;

ceeded by Tatianus Lucius.

and when Tatianus the


left

Prajfect
city,

Trajanus
kill

Dux had him


In this
yeai'

brought out, he

the

and and was


to

rescued in a wonderful manner, while the multitude sought

him.

he wrote, forming a Canon of the Holy

Scriptures.

XL.
In this year, Easter-day was on XXV Pharmuthi; XII Kal. A.D. Mai; XVI Moon; Epact XVII; Gods, II; Indict. XI; Coss. Valentinianus Aug. II, Valens Aug. II; the same governor
Tatianus, Praefect.
;{n8.

He

[Athan.]

commenced

building anew the

Caesareum, having been honoured with an imperial command by Trajanus Dux. The authors of the incendiarism were also
discovered
;

the rubbish of the burnt ruins was at once cleared

away, and the building begun anew in the

month Pachon.

XLI.
Pharmuthi Prid. Id. Indict. XH; Coss. HI; Ap.; XVMoon; Epact XXVIII; Gods, same Tatianus the Victor; I, Augustus) Valentinianus, (son of a church in build to began [Athan.] The Pope governor. being
In this year, Easter-day was on
;

XXVII

A. D. 36y.

Mendidius (which bore his name), on the

twenty-fifth of the

month Thoth,

in the eighty-fifth year of the Diocletian Era.

XLIl.
Kal.A.D. In this year, Easter-day was on II Pharmuthi; IV Coss. XIII; Indict. IV; Gods, Ap.; XV Moon; Epact IX;
370.

Valentinianus Aug.

Ill,

Valens Aug.
c

Ill;

the same Tatianus


Palladiiis. ot

being governor;

who was succeeded by Olympius

XXVI

CHEONOLOGICAL AND SYNOPTJCAL INDEX.

his

The Pope [Athan.] finished the Church, called after name, at the close of the eighty-sixth year of the Diocletian Era; in which also he celebrated the dedication"", on the fourSamosata.
teenth of Mesori.

XLIII.
A.D.
371.

In this year, Easter-day was on XXII Pharmuthi XV KaL Mai; XVI Moon; Epact XX; Gods, V; Indict. XIV; Coss. Gratianus Aug. II, Probus; the same Palladius being governor;
;

who was succeeded as Prsefect of Egypt by of Palestine, who was called Cyrus.

^Elius Palladius^

XLIV.
A.D.
372.

In

this year, Ea&ter-day

was on XIII Pharmuthi; VI

Id. Ap.;

XIX Moon;

Epact

I;

Gods, VII; Indict.


Palladius,

XV;

Coss. Modestus,
called Cyrus,

Arintheus; the

same

the

governor,

Prsefect of Egypt.

XLV.
A.D.
373.

was on V Pharmuthi; Prid. Kal. Ap,; XXI Moon; Epact XII; Gods, I; Indict. I; Coss. Valentinianus IV, Valens IV; the same governor iElius Palladius, At the close of this year, on the seventh of Prsefect of Egypt. Pachon, he [Athan.] departed this life in a wonderful manner.
In
this year, Easter-day

The end of the heads of the Festal Letters of holy Athanasius^ Bishop of Alexandria.

"

Syr. 'EyKaiuia.

The

Syr. has

i-^

UO

'

and not one,' which must be incorrect.

[The'

Number
of Letter.

TlIK rllKONuUil.ICAl IMciRJIAThiN'

TABlfLAK ARRANGE ,HfS IX THE IXTBom iTl'

IA5C1UI.

IHIKH

n,.
I

"H

c.'ES"

..K-UnmuldUlo,

April

XXII XXIII

M H.April
I Kal.

April

XXIV

XIII Kal.Md
III Id. April

^^

VIKd.Anril Xll K>I.Mi


Vlj
III.

ilUl.

April April

'-^\^.\
I

'T.i.'C |.;i;h|

ii
I

li

THE

FESTAL EPISTI.es
OF

S.

A 1' H A N A

S,

PATRIARCH OF ALEXANDRIA.

LETTER
^I'he first Festal Letter of

Pope Athanasius, wherein


is

the first A.D. 320.

day of the Paschal week


Constantinus Cces,

on

XL

Pharmuthi;

April; yEr. Dioclet. 45;

Coss. Constaiitinus

VIIL Id. ^^^'^^ Aug. VllL

IV

Prcefect. Septiniius Zenius; Indict,

IL
OF FASTING, AND TRUMPETS, AND FEASTS.

Come, my beloved: the season calls us to keep the feast. Again, the Sun of Pig hteousness, CRUs'mg His divine beams to rise upon us, proclaims beforehand the time of the feast,
in which,

Mai.

4, 2.

obeying Him, we ought to celebrate

it^';

so that

when
leave

the time has passed away, gladness likewise


us*^.

may

not

For discernment of the time is a duty strictly enjoined upon us, and a matter of moral obligation^; even
as the blessed Paul,

when

instructing his disciple, teaches


4,2.

him and

to
out

observe the time, saying, Stand {ready) in season, 2T\m.


of season

knowing both the one and the other, he might do things seasonable, and avoid the blame for such as are unseasonable. For thus also the God
of
all

that

distributes every thing in time


to the

manner of wise Solomon ,


*

end

that, in
;

and season, after the due time, the


Kaiphu iravrl irpdy6eia ypa(f>r].

it well to give the Letter in the words in which it is found in the Syr. Ms. The titles of the second, third, and fourth are to the same effect. Conf. Theodoret. Ov yap TcavTes T]^Qv\r\9T\(Tav iLvdpuTroi rov (()U}Ths awoavrhs yap 6 ttjs hiKaioaw'ris Xavcrai T^Xios TTtto-j TTjs (TajTTjpias Tcs aKT7i/as Kare-rrefjixpev dX\' elcrlv ol tovs 6(p6a\fjLOvs efMV(Tau, Ka\ rh (f)u>s ISilv ovk y\^ovin Interpret, Theodoret. \T]Q-t](Tav, Psalm xcvi. vol. i. p. 1300. ed. ir69. c The due celebration of the fea-t is spoken of a. producing a permanent effect on the Christian. beneficial Conf. I>etter iv. d Conf. S. Cyril. Homil. Pasch. V.

have thouizht
the
first

commencing thus
fiaTi, (pTqalv
rj

title of

^
'

.nVnA> ]V),nM ZoSOpO


the
*

after

*>

Not,

says
it.

manner of wise Solnmon. typically,' as Larsow


So,
in

renders

page 13,
after the

line 3,

{i ,0
places.
that,

ZoSOfJO

nanner

of the saints.

So, too, in various other

The meaning seems to \e even as we find in the words

of Solomon, Eccles.

iii. 1. there is a proper time for every thing; so God, in His Providence, before the coming of Christ, ordained proper season.-' for all those greac events that were to usher in the fulnes.<? nf time.

B 2

Every thing

doiie

hy

God

in due season.

Letter salvation of men should be every where spread abroad. Thus, likewise, for instance, not out of season, but in season, iCor. 1,24. the Wisdom of God, our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ,
"Wiei.?, 27.

passed upon holy


prophets;
so

Ps. 14, 7.

fas hioniiig the friends of God and the although very many were praying for Him, and saying, O that the salvatioyi of God ivere come out of S ion! the Spouse also, as it is written in the Canticles,
souls,

that,

Cant. 8,

praying and saying,

that

Thou wert my
take

sister s son, that

sucked the breasts of


children

my

mother^! that

Thou wert
the

like to the

of men, and wouldest

upon Thee human

passions for our sake!

nevertheless,

God

of

all,

the

Franier of times and seasons^, and


better than

who knows our

affairs

we

do, while, as a

to obedience in

due season

isa. 49, 8.

be healed so also does He send Him not unseasonably, but seasonably, saying, In an acceptable time have I heard And, Thee, and in the day of salvation I have helped Thee. on this account, the blessed Paul, urging us to note this
season, wrote, saying. Behold,
behold,
noiv
is

the

good physician. He exhorts only one in which we may

2Cor.

6, 2.

the

accepted time;

now

is the

day of salvation.

At
Exod. 23,
^^'

set seasons also

He

called the children of Israel to the

Levitical feasts by Moses, saying. Three times in a year ye


shall keep a feast to

Me, (one of which, my beloved,

is

that

now
call
Ps. 81,3.

at hand,) to the celebration of which priestly'' trumpets

and summon; as the holy Psalmist commanded, saying, Blow with the trumpet in the new moon, on the \solemn\'' day Since this sentence enjoins upon us to blow of your feast.
both on the

new moons, and on

the solemn days,

He

hath
is

made

a solemn day of that in which the light of the

moon

perfected in the full; which was then a type, as this of

thfe

trumpets.
^

Sometimes then,
Apol.

as

was before

said,

they were

TOiv KaipCov iuTi SijfiiovpySs.

de

Fugu sua, . 14. 8 The Syriac here differs from the commonly received text of the Peshito,
which
literal

probably incorrect. It is a translation of the the words of which are also quoted by c Athan. A+i, c a c in Khis Synops. b. bcript. Sacr. ,cfj T-i T u Ihe ancient Jewish t. 11. p. 123. , u-,../ 1^ ,. .11,, it , t A writers also usually interpreted 4.^ this ^ ^e *u^ i\/f o ;!, -vi T passage of the Messiah, J he J argum on the verse begins thus: "And at
is

LXX,

that time the King Messiah shall be revealed to the congregation of Israel." ^ Alluding to the command that the trumpets should be blovpn by the priests only. Vid. Num. x. 8. also note pag. 9.
=

,p,

<-

-Lhe

/ u u word Iv |-*^r^ (solemn) should


i
., i

4^

here, as is proved from ^ t-I vv^hat tollows. Ihe same quotation is


,
i.

ii be supplied ^ V ,i

..

made trem
.
.

,</,

-a.

it

rxu near the beginning of the .o


>^i
i

&

third letter.

'

Various uses of the trumpets among the Jews,


called to
feasts
;

sometimes also to fasting and to war. A.D. And this was not done without solemnity, neither were these things like common occurrences; but this sound of the trumpets was solemn, so that every man might come to And this should be learned that which was proclaimedJ.

32 9.

not merely from me, but from the divine Scriptures, when God was revealed to Moses, and said, as it is written in the book of Numbers: And the Lord spake unto Moses, saying, Numb,

lo,

Make

to thee

two trumpets

of silver shalt thou


the

make

them,

and they

shall

be for thee to call

congregation very

properly for those

who

here love

Him.

So that we may

know that these things had reference to the time of Moses yea, were to be observed so long as the shadow lasted, the being appointed as conducive thereto, till the time o/Heb.9,
whole
reformation.

lo.

For, (said He,) if ye shall go out to battle'' in Numb.io,


rise

your land against your enemies that

up

against you, (for

such things as these refer to the land; beyond it, in no shall be wise,) then ye shall proclaim luith the trumpets, and

remembered be/ore the Lord, and be delivered from your


enemies.

wars did they blow the trumpet, but under Hear him again, the law, there was also a festal trumpet. day of your gladness. Numb. saying in continuance, J7id in the

Not only

in

10,

and in your feasts, and your new moons, ye shall blow ivitk And let no man think it a light and conthe trumpets. temptible matter, if he hear the law command respecting
trumpets
:

it is

a wonderful and fearful thing.

For because

There

were

different

modes

of

"tZ^li^

blowiriirwith the trumpets in use among the JeVs, which are differently exThe pressed in the Hebrew Bible.

Blow ye the trumpet in Zion, and sound an alarm in my holy mounFour several uses of the trumpet tain.
1st. Calling are recorded in Num. x. 2d. A v. 2. together the assembly signal tor the camp ^ '""^'^/'Y-Y;! 4th. v. 9 3d. Marching to v^ar v. 5. Proclamation of festal davs, and days ^-^ 10The difference be^Z^^-^^^'^ , the modes of blowing the trumpets Cor. xiv. H. j^ alluded to by St. Paul, 1 jf the trumpet give an uncertain sound, ^^^ gj^ajl prepare himself for the
; :

word li'pn denoting a simple

blast,

used e. g. lo call the people together to assembly, .^euiui^, Num. x. 2; and r'^'-rT an a. du . or nr^n.-p l>f:n signifying a more
,

warlike and continued sound, such as was made when the camp was to be The two moved; Num. x. 2 7. are opposed to each other in v, 7,

!r''"in i^b^ VJ\)r\r\ ye shall

but

yt.

shall

not

Wow, make an alarm.


in

battle
^

p^^.

Kng.

vers.

Thus

too

Joel

ii.

1.

-in^

^.v^-^ni p*!?4i

'^p'ltz;

nvpn

rx^^J vj^^is^

qqj ^

L'SiD\

'e;-'.

jio]

;;

The proclamation of

the Christian trumpet.

Letter the trumpet, more than any other voice or instrument, is exciting and very terrible^, on this account, instruction was conveyed to Israel by such means, for he was then but a child. But in order that the proclamation should not be thought merely human, being beyond this, it was heard as
'-

Exod.

19,

when they received a shock from them in the mount and they were reminded of the law that was then given them, and kept it. For the law was worthy of admiration, and the shadow was excellent otherwise, it would not have wrought fear, and induced reverence in those who heard: and [if such were the case], much more must it have been so with those who at that time saw such things as these. Be it that these things were then typical, and done as in a shadow. Let us, having recourse to our understanding, and
those voices which were uttered
;

henceforth leaving the figure at a distance, come to the

Eph.

6, 12.

and look upon the priestly trumpets of our Saviour, which cry out, and call us, at one time to war, as the blessed Paul saith We tvrestle not with flesh and blood, but with
truth,
:

principalities, with powers, with the rulers of this dark world,

with wicked spirits in heaven.

At

another time the

call is

and lowliness, and conjugal unanimity, saying, To virgins, the things of virgins and to those
to virginity,
;

made

iCor. 7,25.

bound by a course of abstinence, the things of abstinence and to those who are married, the things of an honourable
marriage
;

thus assigning to each domestic virtues and an

honourable recompense. Sometimes also, the call is made to Listen to the same fasting, and sometimes to a feast. [Apostle] again blowing the trumpet, and proclaiming,
Cor. 5, 7.8.

Christ our Passover

is

sacrificed;

therefore let us keep the

feast, not with old leaven, neither with the leaven of malice

and wickedness.
If further, thou wouldest listen to a trumpet
1 The idea of something dreadful is continually associated in Scripture with the sound of the trumpet. It frequently represents the thunder; e. g. Zech. ix. ]4. where the lightning, the thunder, and the tempest are described together, And the Lord shall be seen over them, and His arrow shall go forth as the lightning, and the Lord God shall blow

much greater

(^fljri'^ "iQlt^S) and go forth with whirlwinds of the south. The seven angels blow with trumpets before the judgments of God are inflicted on the world. Apoc. ch. viii. We read, 1 Cor. xv. 52. Iv rp eo-xarr? (r6.\Tri-yyi\ and in 1 Thess. iv. IG. with the voice of the archangel Kal

the

trumpet,

shall

eV (roXitrfyi 0eoO,

The character of a
than
all

real fast.

7
last

and great day of the feast, Jesus stood and cried, sayiny, If any man thirst, let him come unto me and drink. For it became the Saviour not simply to call us to a least, but to the great feast; only so that we should be prepared to hear, and should conform to the proclamation of every trumpet. For
these, hear our Saviour saying;

In that

^' D- 329.

john 7,37.

since, as I before said, there are divers proclamations, listen,

as in a figure, to the prophet blowing the

trumpet; and
the trumpet Joel
2, 15.

further, having turned to the truth, be ready for the an-

nouncement of the trumpet,


in Sion: sanctify a fast.

for

he
is

saith,

Blow ye

This

a warning trumpet, and

commands with

should hallow the


not

great earnestness, that when we fast, we For not all those who call upon fast.
;

God, hallow God, since there are some who defile Him yet Him that is impossible but their own conscience concerning Him for He is holy, and has pleasure in the And therefore the blessed Paul assigns the reason saints.

Ps. 16, 3.

for men's dishonouring

honour God.
fast,

Transgressors of the laio disSo then, to point out those who pollute the
fast.

God:

'Rom.2,23.

he saith here, sanctify a

For many, crowding

to

the fast, pollute themselves in the thoughts of their hearts, sometimes by doing evil against their brethren, sometimes

by daring
are

to defraud.

And,

to

mention nothing

else, there

many who

exalt

themselves above their neighbours,

bringing about a great offence by these means. For also the boast of fasting did no good to the Pharisee, Luke although he fasted twice in the week, only because he

18,

exalted himself against the publican.


also the

Word

In the same manner found fault with the children of Israel on


68, 6.

Isaiah account "of such a fast as this; exhorting them by the day that I^a. and the fast not is This saying, and Prophet, the I have chosen, that a man should humble his soul; not even if
shouldest thou shouldest how down thy neck like a hook, and thus shall ye neither thee; under ashes and sackcloth strew That we may be able to shew what call the fast acceptable.

kind of persons we should be when we

fast,

and of what
Levit. 23,

character the fast should be, listen again to God command^//c/ ing Moses, and saying, as it is written in Leviticus,

day of the Lord spake unto Moses, saying, In the tenth a conseventh month, there shall he a day of atonement;

this

The food of

the soul described.

LtixER vocation, and a holy day shall it he to you; and ye shall humble your souls, and offer whole burnt-offerings unto the Lord. And afterwards, that the law might be determinate
'-

Levit, 23, ^^'

on

this point,
itself,

He

further saith, Every soul that shall not

humble

shall be cut off from the people.

Behold,

my

brethren, what a fast can do, and in what manner the law

commands us to fast. It is required that not only should we fast with the body, but also with the soul. Now the soul is humbled when it is not found [occupied] with wicked
being nourished with becoming virtues. For and vices are the food of the soul, and it can eat either of these two meats, and incline to either of the two, according to its own will. If, on the one hand, it is bent toward virtue, it will be nourished by virtues by righteousness, by temperance, by meekness, by fortitude. Even as Tim. 4, 6. Paul saith, Being nourished by the word of truth. Such John 4, 34. was the case with our Lord, who said, My meat is to do the ivill of My Father which is in heaven. But if it is not thus with the soul, and it inclines to that which is beneath, it is then nourished by nothing but sin. For thus also the Holy Ghost, describing sinners and their food, alluded to Fe. 73, 14. the devil when He said, I have given him to be meat to the people of jEthiopia^. For this is the food of sinners. And vers.)
opinions,
virtues
;

'J' S. Athan. here speaks of Leviathan as a type of Satan; of the iEthiopians as typical of sinners ; of sinners feeding on the devil, as the righteous feed upon Christ. For the first, conf. S. Cyril. Alexandr. Comment, in Esaiam cap. xxvii. ' In that day the Lord with His 1.

lato

sore and great and strong sword shall punish Leviathan the piercing serpent,

even Leviathan the crooked serpent.' 'Eirev^xdvo'eadai t^v opyrji/ to7s rja^Br]KSai, Koi aTr KTovSariu avrovSy eu /xaKa
SieipTj/cws (TwavaipeaO-ffcreaOai ro7s eav-

nomine, dixerat, eundera nunc Leviathan appellet, (Again, torn. vii. p. 277-) ' Draco iste quern formasti ad illudendiim eil Iste est Draco qui de Paradiso ejeetus est; qui decepit Evam, et datus est in hoc mundo ad illudendum nobis. Also, on Isaiah xxvii. 1. reference is made to Apoc. xii. 7. and Luke x. 19. St. Augustine on the passage says; Tu confregisti caput draconis. Cujus draconis P Intelligimus dracones omnia dcemonia
sub diabolo militantia; quem ergo singularem draconem cujus caput confractum est, nisi ipsum diabolum intelligere debemus.^ Again, Origen. Horn. xii. in Jererniam (vol. i. p. 116. Ed. 1685.) /^eAai/es io-ficu Kara r^u eV t<j3 irKxreveiv apxhf5ib iv apxfi rov da-fiaros twv atrfidroov
Xeyerai'
alOio^iu
iolKa/xei/,

Tov reKvois, Kol avrhv e^Tj rhv aaravav ov rots (TT paTrjyfj/xacriy e^KouTes Kare(Trpdrevoj/
KTipvy/xaa-iv
ayicoi', oIto7s Trap' avTwv avT^^dyovr^s. have also in the commentary attributed to St- Jerome (torn. xi. p. 713. Ed. 1742.) at the passage of Job,' Canst thou draw out Leviathan with a hook.^' Commutavit figuram senigmatis, ut Diabolum, quem superius Behemoth, trans-

Tuy

We

ixiXaivd
rj/x^Ts

el/bii,

Koi

KaXr)'

Ka\

Kar

apx^s t^v

rpvxh*'

elra ^TrocTfirjxd^ida, 'Iva KafinpSTepoi yiyufxeOa, Kara r6- ris avrrj,


Fasting a preparation for converse with God.
as our
is

9
329.

Lord and Saviour Jesus

Clirist,

being heavenly bread, A.D.

the food of the saints, according to this; Except ye eat

3o\iu(i,bi.

My fleshy and drink My blood;

so is the devil, the food of the impure, and of those who do nothing which is of the light, but work the deeds of darkness. Therefore, in order to

withdraw and turn them from

vices.

as sustenance, the food of virtue.

He enjoins Now this is,

upon them,
humbleness

of mind; lowliness to endure humiliations; the acknowledg-

ment of God. For not only does such


for souls,

a fast as this obtain propitiation


saints,

but

it also,

being sanctified, prepares the


earth.

and

raises

them above the

And

indeed that wliich

I am about to say is wonderful, yea it is of tliose things which are very miraculous; yet not far from the truth, as ye may be able to learn from the sacred" writings. That great man Moses, when fasting, conversed with God, and received the law. The great and holy Elias, when fasting, was also

thought wortliy of divine visions, and at


like

last

was taken up
Daniel
also,

Him who
fasting,

ascended into heaven.

And

when

and although a very young man, was entrusted with the mystery, and he alone understood the secret things of the king, and was thought worthy of divine visions. But because the length of the fast of these men was wonderful,

and the days prolonged,


to

let

no man
the

lightly fall into

unbelief on that account; but rather let him believe and

know, that the looking

God, and

word

wliich [pro-

T]

avafiaii/ovcra

\c\fVKav9i(TfJi(V7];

Kal

yfyw/jLeda \lvovv Xafxirphv Koi Ka6ap6y.


J>.

Aug.

too,

ut

supra;

Quoniodu

intelligo populos vEthiopes?


nisi

Quomodo

per hos, omnes gentesP et bene per nif^Tos ^Ethiopes enim nigri sunt. Ipsi vocantur ad fidem, qui nigri fuerunt etc. Suicer, Thes. v. Aldlox^/ quotes from Orat. de exitu animce qn;e Cyrillo Alex, adscribitur, p. 405. daiu6vas, W5 Alelonas CofpJ)5eis. Hesychius. Cent. 1 ad Theo.lulum, num. 23. dajmones vocat, i/otjtous Aldloiras spirituales iEthi^pes. Larsow quotes
; ;

The whole of the comment of S. Aug. the passaj^e affords a remarkable amplitication of the words of our Author, thoufjh reference is not directly made to the words of St. John (vi. 5:i.) He alludes to the golden calf, which Moses made the children of Israel to drink of, and adds; Quid est hoc, nisi qui'i adoratores diaboli corpus ipsius Quomodo^ agnoscenles erant ? facti
ou

Christum
dicatur;
^^

fiunt

corpus Christi, ut

eis

'>

Vos autera estis corpus Christi membra, The word in the Syriac is [jlJOIO
Hut
t^
in

S.

Athan.
is

torn.

iv.

p.

l-2().

where
/utAovo)-

'

priestly.'
it

this

and
for

in

otlu

AidioTTfS

The Heb. word which the LXX. translate by Aieioms is lZ:'*'*'^

explained by QfVTis anh roof a^apTiuv.

ol

places,

appears to be

theGriek

'UpSs.
jii.

Coiif.

ifph ypdfxfjuiTa. 2 Tiro,

15.

10

The Jews misunderstood

tlie

paschal type.

Letter ceedsl from Him, suffice to nourish those who hear, and For the angels are no stand to them in place of all food. otherwise sustained than by beholding at all times the face And of the Father, and of the Saviour Who is in heaven. thus Moses, as long as he talked with God, fasted indeed
'-

bodily, but

was nourished by divine words. When thereamong men, and God was gone up from him, he suffered hunger like unto men. For it is not said those in which he was that he fasted longer than forty days conversing with God. And, generally, each one of the saints has been thought worthy of the food of virtues such
fore he descended

as this.

Wherefore,

my

beloved, having our souls nourished with

divine food, with the word, and according to the will of

God, and

fasting bodily in things external, let us

keep

this

great and saving feast as becomes us.

For the

foolish Jews,

receiving indeed this divine food typically, ate a


passover.

lamb

in the

But not understanding

the type, even to this day

they eat the lamb, being in error; the more so in that they
are without a city and the truth.

As long
:

as

Judaea and
shall

the
Deut. 12,
' '

city existed,

there were a type, and a lamb, and a

shadow, since the law thus commanded


not be done
in another city;

These things

but in the land of Judaea

but

without [the land of Judaea] in no place whatever. And besides this, the law commanded them to offer whole burnt-

Nah. 1,15.

when there was no other altar than For on this account, in that city a.lone, was there an altar and temple built, and they were commanded to perform these rites in that city only, to the end that when that city should come to an end, then also those things that were figurative might receive their end. Now observe: that city, since the coming of our Saviour, has had an end, and all the land of Jud^a been laid waste; so that from the testimony of these things, (and we need no external proof, being assured by our own eyes of the fact,) there must, of necessity, be an end of the shadow. And it is meet that these things should not be learned from me: but the priestly voice cried before. Behold upon the mountains the feet of him that bring eth good tidings, and puhlisheth peace ; and what is the message he published, but
offerings

and

sacrifices,

that in Jerusalem,

The Jewish ordinances only

till

the time of Christ.

11

A.D. 329. that which he goes on to say to them, Keep thy feasts, Judah; pay to the Lord thy votvs. For they shall no more go ^ j /lxx
to

that luhich is old;

it

is

finished;

it

is

taken away: he

is \ers.)

gone up who breathed upon the face, and delivered thee from aJfUction, Now who is he that went up? a man may say to the Jews, in order that even the boast of the shadow may be

done away; neither


sion,

is it

an idle thing to listen to the expresis

It

is

finished ;

He

gone up who breathed.

For

nothing also was finished before he went up who breathed.

But
(then,

as soon as

he went up,
for the

it

was

finished.

Who

was he

Jews, as I before said?


false
;

If Moses, the assertion

would be
rites.

people were not yet come to the

land in which alone they were

commanded to perform these Samuel, or any other of the prophets, even in that case there would be a perversion of the truth for up to that time these things were done in Judasa, and the city was standing. For it was necessary that while that stood,
But
if
;

these things should be performed.

So that
up.

it

was no one

if thou wouldest hear the true matter, and be kept from Jewish fables, look to our Saviour who went up, and breathed upon John ^^* the face, and said to His disciples, Receive ye the Holy

of these men,

my

beloved,

who went

But

20,

Ghost.

For

as soon as these things

were done, every thing

then came to an end; for the altar was broken, and the veil
of the temple was rent; and although the city was not yet
laid waste, yet the

abomination was ready to

sit in

the midst

of the temple, and the city, and those ancient ordinances, to


I

receive their final consummation.

Since then
I t

we have passed

the time of the shadow, and no


it,

longer perform rites under


inito

but have turned, as


is

it

were,
^Cor.3,]7.

the Lord: for the

Lord
is

a Spirit, and where the


:

Spirit of the

Lord

is,

there

liberty

as

we hear from

the

priestly trumpet;

no longer slaying a material lamb, but


to

Lord Jesus Christ, and was dumb, as a Isa. 53, 7. lamb before her shearers; being purified by His precious blood, which speaketh better things than that of Abel having our feet shod with the preparation of the Gospel holding in our hands the rod and staff" of the Lord, by which tliat saint was comforted, wlio said, Thy rod and Thy staff 'Ps. 13, i.
that true
that was slain, even our
the slaughter,

Lamb

Who

urns led as

a sheep

1^

Spiritual preparation for the feast.

Letter they comfort me; and to speak collectively, being in all respects prepared and careful for nothing, because, as the Phil. 4, 5. blessed Paul saith, The Lord is at hand; and as our Saviour Luke 12, saith, Iji an hour when we think not, the Lord cometh;

Cor. 5 8.

-^^^ ^*

^^^P

^^^^

Feast, not with old leaven, neither with the

^2-1*4

^'

and wickedness; hut with the unleavened ^nd truth. Putting off the old man and his deeds, let us put on the new man, w^hich is created in God, in humbleness of mind, and a pure conscience; in meditation of the law by night and by day. And casting away all hypocrisy and fraud, putting far from us all haughtiness and guile, let us take upon us love towards God and towards
leaven of malice

^^^^^

^-f ^^^^(^^riiy

our neighbour;
the

the

that being new [creatures], and receiving new wine, even the Holy Spirit, we may properly keep feast, even the month of these new [fruits]".

PWe begin the holy fast on the fifth day of Pharmuthi, (March 31,) and joining to it according to the number of those six holy and great days, which are the symbol of the creation of this world, let us rest and cease (from fasting) on the tenth day of the same Pharmuthi, (April 5,) on the holy
sabbath of the week.

And when

the first day of the holy

week dawns and

upon us, on the eleventh day of the same month, (April 6,) numbering from it all the seven weeks, one by one, let us keep feast on the holy day of
rises

Pentecost

that which was at one time to the Jews, typically, the feast of weeks, in which they granted forgiveness and settlement of debts; and indeed that day was one of deliverance in every respect. Let us keep the feast on the first day of the great week, as a symbol of the world to come,
in

which we here receive a pledge that we


o

shall

have ever^

rrhv

Alluding to Deut. xvi. J. ^ixa^ai fxwa rwv vecou (scil. Kapncov) LXX. Observa mensem novarum frugum. Vulg. e. the month of Abib. Heb. in Chaldee, we have nSW a-'ZltS
1

the close of his Ej istles, by referring to the concluding sentences in the Paschal Letters of S. Cyril, who seems herein
to have closely imitated his illustrious predecessor in the Patriarchate. The Syriac translator must frequently have liad before him the following expres^''' W'^f^^voi TTjy aylas reaaapaHO(rrvs~iTn(rvpdTrropTesavydTrro/re,
'

fructum protulit, imprimis de fructu primo et prsecoce, (Hos. ix. 10.


rr
X c rarg.) Syr.

#-^ Arn ^P^O*

2 a Aores produxit.

not have much difficulty upon many of the phrases and expressions used by St. Athan. towards
in fixing

PWeshould

naiourjrhs .r,<rrda,-^a.^pa
aa^^drov-ri] i-^ccpcaKoiav
'

'

^aoL LLi}. ^"*'*'''

The

blessings of the heavenly feast,

13
A. D. 329.

lasting life hereafter.


shall

keep a perfect

feast with Christ, while

Then having passed from hence, we we cry out and


to the

say, like the saints,

/ will pass

place of the wondrous

?s. 42, 4.

tabernacle; to the house of God; with the voice of gladness and thanksgiving ; the shouting of those who rejoice; so that

sorrow and

ness and joy be

and sighing shall flee away, and gladupon our heads May we be adjudged worthy to accomplish these things when we remember the poor, and do not forget kindness to
affliction
! !

But above all, when we love God with all our and might, and strength, and our neighbour as ourselves; receiving those things which the eye hath not seen, nor the ear heard, and which have not entered into the heart of man; which God hath prepared for those that love Himi, through His only Son, our Lord and Saviour, Jesus Christ through Whom, to the Father alone, by the Holy Ghost, be glory and dominion for ever and ever. Amen. Salute one another with a kiss. All the brethren who are
strangers
soul,

with

me

salute you.
first

Here endeth the

Festal Letter of holy Athanasius.


auribus, neque ullo sensu percipi potest.' L.

<i 1 Cor. ii. 9. Is. Ixiv. 4. Conf. Cic. Orat. II. quod neque oculis, neque

LErXER
A. D. 330 .
Easter-day onAprill9.

IL

Easter-day
Bioclet.

XXIV.
46
;
. .

Pharmuthi;

GaUlcianus^ Valerius -./, t^ ^ t t ttt PrcEject. Magmmanus ; Indict. 111.


Coss.

XIII. Kal. Mai.; Mr a Symmachus ;

Again, my brethren,

is

Easter come, and gladness; for


;

again the Lord hath brought as to this season

so that

when, according to custom, we have been nourished with His words, we may duly keep the feast. Let us celebrate it
then, even heavenly joy, together with those saints

who

also

formerly proclaimed such a feast as


to us of conversation in Christ.

and were ensamples For not only were they enthis,

trusted with the charge of preaching the Gospel, but,

examination,
iCor.4,16. also

we

shall see, as it is written, that its

upon power was

displayed in them.

Be

(St.

Paul) wrote to the Corinthians.


is

ye therefore followers of me, he Now the apostolic ex;

pression

instructive to all of us

for those precepts

which

Tim-

2, 7.

he forwarded to individuals, he, at the same time, enjoined upon every man in every place % inasmuch as he was a teacher
of all nations in faith and truth. And, generally, the precepts of all the saints have an equally extended application by way of exhortation; as Solomon, too, makes use of proverbs, say-

Piov.

4, 1.

ing,
to

Hear,

my

children, the instruction of a father,

and attend

know understanding ; for I give you a good gift; forsake ye my word; for I was an obedient son to my father, and For a worthy father beloved in the sight of my mother. employs the right method of instruction, v/hen he exhibits
7iot

zeal in teaching others those things that

had been properly

imparted to himself; so that when he meets with opposition,


Rom. 2, 21. he

may
the

not be ashamed on hearing

it said,

Thou
'i

therefore

that teachest others, teacJiest thou not thyself


like

but rather,

good servant, may both save himself and gain


*

Conf. Letter

iii.

The degraded condition of


others
;

the wicked.

15

and thus, when the grace committed to him lias A.D. 33 0. been doubled, he may hear, Thou good and faithful servant, Mat.25,21. thou hast been faithful in a little, I ivill set thee over much:
enter into the joy of thy Lord.
*'Be
it

then, on our parts, a

becoming duty,

if at all

times,

so especially in the days of the feast, to be, not hearers only,

but also doers of the commandments of our Saviour


also,

that

having imitated the conversation of the saints,


is

we may

enter together into the joy of our Lord which

in heaven,

which

is

not transitory, but truly abideth

of which evil

doers having deprived themselves, there remaineth to them


as the fruit of their ways, sorrow

and anguish, and groaning, Let a man look on such as these, how thus they bear not the image of the conversation of the saints, nor of that right understanding, by which man But at the beginning was rational, and in the form of God.
the result of torments.
=

being barely on a level with the beast without understanding, and like it in unlicensed pleasures, they are described

by comparison with
and
errors,

lustful horses

also, for their craftiness, Jer.

5, 8.

and

sin laden

with death, they are called a


3, r.

generation of vipers, as Luke saith'^. Now having thus fallen, Luke and grovelling in the dust like the serpent % they thought of

nothing but things which are seen, esteeming them to be good; and rejoicing in these things, but not serving God,
they ministered
state,

to

their

the

man -loving^
might
seek

own desires. Yet even in this Word, who came for this purpose,
that

that

He

which was
like

lost

and

find

it,

sought to restrain them from folly


saying.
b

this,

crying and
Ps- 32, 9.

Be ye

not as the horse

and

the

mule ichich have

have here the first fragment of the original Greek text, It is to be found in Commas Indicopleustes, p. 31(i. with the tirle, Tov aylov 'Adauaaiov e/c rrjs Sevrepas
extant
OpTo<rTi/c77S.

We

translated) may serve to give us a correct opinion of the fidelity and accuracy with which the Syriac translator per-

formed his part. The same may be said of the few other remaining lines extant in the Greek.
^
'^

TeVotTo
kKiffTore
pais
TTis

tiev,

Koi Trap' r}(.LUiv irpsirSuTus fiaKiaTa Se eV toTs ^Wkoprris, ^^ ixdvo^ aKpoaral,


h.v

Syr. eiKU)U. The Ms. reads

for
^

Matthew

(iii

7.) or

John incorrectly Luke (iii. 7.)

dAAa Ka\ TTOirjTal rCov tov Scor^pos Trpocrrayfxdrwv ycuwiuLcda 'Iva Ka\ t},v tS>u 'Ayiwi- TpSwow ixifj-ncrdfieuot, avveiaeKeoifxiv els rr]v rov Kvplov &irav(TT6v re Koi ovrws (xevovcrav iv ovpavois x"pctj/. A comparison of this with the Syriac text (from which the above is literally

avrol,

SalfiouesKaXol^ ^llv yy6vafTL Kal iKir^adi^Tis Se anh t^s ovpayiov


Kal
Koiirhv
Trepl

(ppovh(Tews
p. 0-J8. L..
f

r)]v

yriv
t. i.

Kv\iu5ouixevoi.

Athan. Vit. Anton,

Syr,

\Ol1\ ^CLa).

^iKavSpctiiros.

16

The sad

effects of necjhctiny

God.

Letter no understanding, whose cheeks ye hold in


II.
Is. 23, 2.

(LXX.
vers.)

ivith hit and Because they were careless and like the wicked, the prophet also prays in spirit and says. Ye are to me like merchant-men of Phoenicia. And the avenging Spirit protests

bridle^.

P. 73, 20

against

them

in these words,

Lord, in Thy city Thou wilt


the

despise their image.

Thus

then, being changed into

likeness of fools, they so far fell


ing, that,

away

in their understand-

the Divine Rom. 1,22. their


28.

by their excessive reasoning^, they even likened Wisdom to themselves, thinking it to be like

own

works'. Therefore, professing themselves to be wise,

they became fools,

and changed
beasts,

the glory of the incorruptible

God
birds,

into the likeness of the corruptible

and four-footed

and creeping

image of man, and things. Wherefore

s Conf. Athan. Orat. iii. contra Arianos, tom.i. p. 450. In both places, the idea of comparing naankind with different brute animala in illustration of their corrupt propensities is enlarged upon, and in both places reference is made to Jer, v. 8. and Ps. xxxii. 9. among other passages. "E^os t^ O^la. ypa<f>rj rh Karh (pvaiv ^vra irpdy^iara,

this

would rather require


as in Matt. vi. 7. or

lllsnv>
ll^Qflo

1U^

\i<6] y as in Prov. x. 19.

The usage

Tavra rots avdpwirois els lK6vas koI irapaSdyfjLaTa Xafi^avciv rovro 5e TTOte?,
?/'

of the word, as well as the context and reference, seem to require the idea of reasoning carried to excess, rather than

cK r&v Kara cpixny iKehwy, rh ^


(paiyrjrai
f)

of idle talking.
is
'

P \ V> U 1*^]

npoaipecreccs

tSov

audpwiroop
fj

KivTifiara' Kol ovrus,

(pavXos,

SiKaios

6 Tovrcci' SeiKwrai rpSwos. 'Ewl fxkv ovif ru>y (pa{i\up ws iav rrapayyeKXr), /xt)
yipearde

ws t-mros Kal tju'lovos, oTs ovk kari GvvecTLS. (Ps. xxxi. 9.) ^ koX ^rav fj.cfKpSfiei'os Tovs ovTCfj yuofieuovSy Xeyr),
6,u9p(oTros iu ri/xp Sbu,
a-vvefiK-fjdr]

an irrational lamb,' in Letter iv. They became so absurd and sophistical in their reasoning {ifiaraiwd-qirav ii/ ro7s Sia\oyi(T/j.o7s avruiv) so entangled themselves with subtleties on the divine
;

nature, as to lose
of

ov

cryf/TJ/ce'

napa
IH.)

to7s

KT-fiveari

to7s aj/oi)TOis,
xlviii.

Ka]

w/iioiccBr]

avrols'

(Ps.

Kal Trakiv Yttttol 6r}Kvfj.ave7s iyeyfjdrjcrau. (Jer. V. 8.) Athan. then proceeds to produce and comment upon passages of Scripture, in which the characteristics of inferior animals are proposed for our imitation, e. g. the simplicity of the sheep; the harmlessness of the dove.
h

God, and all character; ( etr/coTiVerj r] kcrvv^Tos avrSov Kapdia iiibipauQricrav.) Conf. Athan. Orat. contra Gentes, tom. i. p. 15, ils yap tV tuv iraOciv

right perception appreciation of His


all

'

Kal i]Bova}y aXo-yiav ne(T6vTes ol HudpuKal tt\4ov ovSei/ dpui/res ^ Tjdovas Kal (TapKhs incOufxlas, ws iy rovrois to7s hx6yoi.s T7> Siduoiay exoyres, iy a\6yoii Kal rh 6e7oy ayeKdaayro Kara r^y iroirroi,

For

tOai2o\ I \V>

read

OOlZo\i\V)lwi thouthoweverany V
difference in the meaning.

va6wy kavTooy, Kal deovs y\v\pauTes. npQTra96vTes ^vxw tois rwy r]doya>y aXoylais iirl tt/j/ , roiavrriv eeorcXaariav KaTeirecrov Kal Trea-dyres, Xoiirhy cos
KiK'iav

rwy

TocrovTOvs
rrjy

yap

Larsow

ren-

ders

12Vk^ .oaiZo\i\v>]
idle

^
But

by ob ihrer ' by their


*

eitlen Geschwatzigkeit,'
talk,'

explaining

vapaSodeyres iv ra lnco(TTpa(privaL rl-y 6ehy avrovs ovtws iy avTo7s KvXioyTai, Kal iy aX6yois rhy rov A6yov irarepa 6ehy aireiKd^ovai. The idea formed of the Deity was too often but the reflex of the corrupt and degraded mind of
the

it

in

note

by

iroKvkoyla.

man.

Character of I he feasts (f the wicked.

17

God gave them over to a reprobate windy to do those things A.D. 330. which are not convenient. For tliey did not listen to tlie l^rophetic voice that reproved them, (saying,) To what have Is. 40, 18. ye likened the Lord, and with what have ye compared Him ?
neither to David,
sang, All those that

who prayed concerning such make them are like mito


upon
a stone as

as these,

and

them, and all^^-nb.s,

those ivho put their trust in them.

For, being blind to the

truth, they looked

God: and
;

further, like

senseless creatures, they

went on

in darkness

and, as the
I?. G, 9.

])rophet cried,

They hear indeed, hut they do twt under-

stand; they see indeed, hut they do not perceive; for their heart is waxen fat, and with their ears they hear heavily. Now those who do not observe the feast^ continue such

persons even to the present day; pretending indeed and i Kings 12, devising names of feasts^, but rather introducing days of^^'^^'

mourning than of gladness


wicked, saith the Lord,

For
as

there

is

no peace
saith.

to

the

Is. 48, 22.

And

Wisdom

Gladness

and joy

are taken

feasts of the

wicked.

from their mouth"". Such then are the But the wise servants of the Lord,
Eph. 4,24.

who have truly put on the man which is created in God, have received gospel words, and account, as of general application, the

commandment

given to Timothy, which saith,


iTira.4,12.

Be

thou an example to the believers in word, in conversation, in love, in faith, in purity. They keep the Feast with such
say,

propriety, that even the unbelievers, seeing their order",

may
is a
liis

God

is

ivith

them of a truth.

For

as

he

receives an apostle receives

Him who

sent him, so he

who who

l Cor. 14, ^*

follower of the saints, makes the Lord in every respect

end and aim

even as Paul, being a follower of Him,

says.

As I

also of Christ.

For there
is

is

first

the precedent iCor.li,i.

of our Saviour, and hertuji


in that

the height of His divinity,

when He conversed with His disciples, He said. Learn of Me, for I am meek and loivly in heart, flw^Mat.n,29.
^

Pjlr^LlO

olaveoproi.

of the Syr. version in


allusion

v.

33.

^1D

1,^5

'

Syr. axVl^aTLcrdiJ.evos.

The

Ol^^
LXX.
Eng.
'"

in this sentence is evidently to the conduct of Jeroboam, as recorded Kinp:s xii. 32, 33. The phraseology of the
1

Heb. ")2l y^ STS (Keri.) inKdaaTo a7rh KaplLs avjov


othis

vers, devised

own
iii.

heart,

Vid. note
^J'"

f.

Letter

page 23.

Svriac
vising

(de"|>U> loiSb* names of feasts) resembles that

_a^

! "'^'^'

C^'^*' ^-i- " 5-

^A.Vc.

18

Christ our example.

For also when He put Letter ye shall find rest to your souls. water into a basin, and girded himself wdth a towel, and Johni3,i2. washed His disciples' feet, He said to them, Knoiv what Ye call Me Master and Lord, and ye say I have done. well, for so I am. If therefore I, your Lord and Master, have washed your feet, ye also ought to wash one another's feet: for I have given you an example, that as I have done

to

you, ye also should do.

Oh

my

brethren,

ness of our Saviour

of trumpet should a
as these

how shall we admire the loving-kindWith what power, and what kind ? man cry out, when exalting such helps

which He gives ? That not only should we bear His image, but should also receive from Him an example as that we should go on a pattern of heavenly conversation
;

as

He

hath begun

that suffering,

we should not
;

threaten

Pet. 2,

being reviled, we should not revile again but should bless them that curse and in every thing commit ourselves to
;

'"~

""

God who
will

judgeth righteously.

For those who are thus

disposed, and fashion themselves according to the Gospel,

be partakers of Christ, and imitators of apostolic conversation on account of which they shall be deemed worthy of that praise from him, with which he praised the Co;

iCor. 11,2. rinthians,

when he

said,

I jrraise you

that in every thing ye

are mindful of me.

Afterwards, because there were

men

using indeed his words, but wishing to obey them according


to their lusts,

and daring

to pervert them, as the followers

of
1

Hymeneus and Alexander, and

Tim.

1,

ducees, who, as he said, having

before thep the Sadmade shipwreck of faith,


;

2^Tim. 2
i*^'-

'

'

were entangled? in the -mystery of the resurrection on this account he immediately proceeded to say. And as I have delivered to you traditions, hold them fast. That is, in truth, that we should think no otherwise than the teacher hath For not only in outward form did those wicked delivered.

o Syr. ASa^5 MenschenThis expression \iehe.\i^auepc.7rla. will generally be found rendered by loving-kindness in the following pages, p Lars. ' verspotteten' made' sport
f
,

UOAJ]

^^'^

^ng. I
^

Pjf ^ ^V" ^^^, allow of such meanhave httle doubt that ' entangled ^^e correct rendering, and that it
<^ 'i '
Ct

should be

^y^'

^^'^"^

?^ ^' S'

of;

taking
I

,.

1.

.*/ V^^, i |>^ as the root of ^r^^^.


<

but

think the Syriac expression in

^his, too, agrees better with 2 Tim. ii. 18. ' who concerning the truth have ^,,,,/^ s^yj^g th^t tfe resurrection is past already.'

Heresies are perversions of the truth.

19

men

disguise themselves, who, as the

Lord

says,

put on

^'^^'^^-

sheep's clothing, and appeared like unto whited sepulchres but they took those divine words in their mouth, while

having within an

evil conscience.

And

the

first,

forsooth,

was the serpent, the inventor of wickedthe devil, ness from the beginning, who, under a disguised form, conversed with Eve, and forthwith deceived her. But after him and with him are all inventors of unlawful heresies who indeed, refer to the Scriptures, but
thus,

who appeared

'J,

do not hold such opinions as the saints have handed down,


receiving

them

as the

traditions of

men

erring, because

There- Mat.22,29. Paul deservedly praises the Corinthians, because their opinions were in accordance with his traditions. And the Lord most righteously reproved the Jews, saying, JVherefore ^^^^' i^ ^ do ye also transgress the commandments of God on account of your traditions. For they changed the commandments they received from God to suit their own follies, and adhered
nor their power.
fore

they do not rightly

know them,

Respecting these, a little Paul again gave directions to the Galatians who were in danger thereof ", writing to them, If any man preach to you aught else than that ye have received, let him
after, the blessed
q Conf. S. Atban. Orat. i. contra Arian. torn. i. p. 323. Tis oh O^wpel TovTov ("Apetov) 5ia rod SoKeTv ovofjid(iiu ebf Koi Trepl Q^ov \eyeii/, cos rhu ocpiv

rather to the traditions of men.

<^al.

1,9.

from them. Orat.


Ha^r.
their
'

some words

69. 15. of

ii. . 18. conf. Epiph. Or rather they took Scripture, and made

(Tvix$ov\evouTa tt} yvvaiKi ; Again, p. 324. Mad^Twa-au dnh tS>v ypacpuiu, Sti Kal 6 ras aipccreis iTrivorjaas 5ia-

SvauKLxparat ras Ae'^ets twi/ ypacpciu, Iva avras ex^v i-rriKaXv^jLixa, rhu Xhiov ihv dTnair^lpas, airarr](Tr] tovs aKepaiovs. ouTO) TTjj/ Evau TjTraTTjo-ej/- ovtw kuI ras HWas alpe(Tis eirXaae- ovtu kuI vZv "Apeiow cTreio-ej/ k. t. A. L. Again, p. 322. Oi/'tw Ka\ 6 ki'/SStjAos kuI ^ordh^ios "ApeLos, vTvoKpiverai fx\v ws ir^pl Q^ov Ae^coj/, Trap^vTiOiU -ras tojv ypacpwu Ae'lets. The same comparison of the Arian heresy perverting Scripture, with the conduct of the serpent when he beguiled Eve, is made immediatelv at the commencement of the first discourse against the Arians. The Arians availed themselves of certain texts as objections, argued keenly and plausibly from them, and would not be driven
fio\os, Sik Ti)v iSiai/ TTjs KUKias
Siai^,

own deductions from them, viz. Son,' 'made,' * exalted,' &c. 'Making their private irreligiousness as if a rule, t^^y misinterpret all the divine oracles ^y it.' Vid. note to p. 178. of ' Select Treatises of S. Athanasius,' published ^^ '^his series. Vide also Athan. Epistola Episc. ^Egypti ot Libyse, p. 214. ^'j, Oi'Tws koI EiW r/TroxTjae;/, ov rb. ^^'? KaKuiu,^ oAA' viroKpiudix^vos fihu to,

tV

^"^ ^Vfxara, tt;*/ 5e Sidvoiav avTwu T^o-pairomv. Athan. frequently speaks ^^ heresies as having their origin in t"""^^' ^^ which, however, only a partial one doc^^}^ imperfect view is taken *""^ '^ ^"e" unduly dwelt upon to the
'^'^^
:

suppression of others, or enforced with ^"^" subtlety of reasoning as to unfit 'he mind for the reception of others equally important. ' ^ kiuSwou (Syr.) avrod -ftcrav Trotovvres. The Syriac is apparently a literal translation of these words.

c2

20
Letter he accursed.
'-

The doctrine of Scrqyture contrasted


For there
is

ik)

fellowship whatever between

the words of the saints, and the fancies'* of

human

invention;

for the saints are the ministers of the truth, preaching the

kingdom of heaven
Is. 22, 13.

but those who are borne in an opposite and think their end is that they shall cease to exist, while they say. Let us Therefore also the eat and drink, for to-morrow we die. blessed Luke reproves the inventions of men, and hands
;

direction, have nothing better than to eat,

down

the relations* of the saints, saying in the beginning

Luke 1,1. of the Gospel, Since

many have taken

in

hand

to

write

narrations of those

of tvhich tve are assured, as those who from the beginning were witnesses and m misters
events

of the
to

Word have
also,

deliver ed^^ to us;


to

it

hath seemed good


all

me

who have adhered

them

from

the first'',

to ivrite correctly in

order to thee,

excellent Theophilus,

that thou mayest

know

the truth concerning the things in

ivhich thou hast been instructed.

For what the

saints respec-

tively received, they give without alteration, for correctness

of doctrine concerning mysteries.

Of them
is
is
it

the (divine)
it

word would have


1

us

disciples,

and right

that

they

should be our teachers, and necessary


Tim.
1,

that

we should

submit to them alone; for of them only is the word faithful and ivorthy of all accejjtation, inasmuch as they did not become disciples because they heard from others but being eye-witnesses and ministers of the Word, they handed down what they had heard from Him.
;

Some, indeed, related the great miracles performed by our Saviour, and preached His eternal Godhead. Others, again, wrote of His being born in the flesh of the Virgin, and proclaimed the festival of the holy passover, saying,
iCor.
5, 7.

Christ our Passover

is

sacrificed; so that each one of us,

and
2 Tim. 2, 8.

all

of us together in

common, and
as it
is

all

the churches

in the world
rose

may remember,
let

written. That Christ

from

the dead, of the seed of David, according to the

Gospel.
^

And
'

not that escape our observation which


quire

(pavraaia Sjt. Literally those of the naint^.'

the above Feshito version is

translation.
to

The
effect,

the

same

"

For OVo\ft >

leg.

qSq11>
here

ZL.]au^ ZuOOl J^L^fiJ


r>mV->V

^\^

The

Syriac text

AsiQJJ
to re-

.001^^

\>.l^ ^!iD seems

with the vain traditions of men.


;

21
.

that, I A.D.330 Paul delivered, declaring it to the Corinthians mean, concerning His resurrection, whereby he destroi/ed Heh. 2, 14. him that had the j^ower of death; that is, the devil, and having loosed the bands of raised us up together with Him death, and vouchsafed a blessing instead of a curse joy instead of grief; a feast in the place of mourning, in this holy joy of Easter; which being continually in our hearts, we always rejoice, as Paul commanded; Praying ivithout ceasing; zw iJThess. 6, We therefore do not neglect to every thing giving thanks. publish its seasons, as we have received from the Fathers.
;
;

Again we write. Again, holding the apostolic traditions, we put one another in remembrance in our meetings for prayer and keeping the feast in common, with one mouth we truly give thanks to the Lord. For thus receiving the
;

grace, and being followers of the saints, ice shall

make
shall

o?<r Ps. 35, 28.

praise in the Lord all the day, as the Psalmist says.


this

In

way, when

we

properly keep the feast,


>'.

we

be

We begin counted worthy of that joy which is in heaven the fast of forty days on the 13th of the month Pliamenoth,
(Mar.
9.)

After

we have

given ourselves to fasting in con-

tinued succession, let us begin the

week of

the holy Easter*

Then on the 18th of the month Pharmuthi, (April 13.) ceasing on the 23d of the same month Pharmuthi, (April 18,) and keeping the feast afterwards on the first of the week, on the 24th, (April 19,) let us add to these the seven weeks
of the great Pentecost, altogether rejoicing and exulting in
Christ Jesus our Lord, through

Whom

to the

Father be

glory and dominion by the

Holy Ghost,

for ever

and ever.

Amen. The brethren which

are with

me

salute you.

Salute one

another with a holy kiss^.

Here endeth the second Festal Letter of the holy my Lord


Athanasius, Bishop of Alexandria.
1 Compare the fragment of the original Greek, given in page 15.
z

of S. Cyril ends with the


'Actt cicrucrSe

same words.

,1 The word
^,

^ U^^

(Heb.

,TT

.^.. HD?

Gr. trda-xa) is sometimes rendered Easter, and sometimes Pagsuver, in


the following pagen.
*

aW-fjXovs iv (piArj/xaTi ayicf. 'AfTirdCouTaL vuus ol crvu ifiol aSf\(pol. j^ ^.^i ^^ observed, that this is the usual form in wliich our author conS. Cyril eludes his Paschal Letters. employs it but once, as above.

The twenty- lifth Paschal

Letter

LETTER

III.

A. p. 331.
Easter-day on April 11.

Easter-day XVI Pharmuthi ; III Id. April; jEra Dioclet, ^y Coss. Aniiius Bassus, Ahlahius ; Prcefect. Florentius ; J
'

'

>

>

Indict,

IK
my
beloved brethren, the day of the feast draws
all

Again,

near to us, which, above


prayer; which the law
it

others, should be devoted to

to be observed, and which would be inconsistent with our episcopal duties* to pass For although we have been held under over in silence.

commands

restraint

by

those

who

affllict

us, that,

on account of them,
;

we should
2 Cor.
7, 6.

not announce to you this season

yet thanks be

to God, tvho comforteth the afficted, that

we have not been

Numb.9,2.

Ps. 81,3.

^2ih.\,\5.

put to silence, as though overcome by the wickedness of our accusers but obeying the voice of truth, together with you shout in the day of the feast. For the God of all hath commanded, saying, Speak^, and the children of Israel shall And the Spirit exhorts in the Psalm keep the Passover. Blow the trumpet in the neiv moons ^, in the solemn day of your feast. And the prophet cries; Keep thy feasts, O I do not send this to you as though you were not Judah, aware of it but I publish it to those who know it, that ye may perceive that although men have separated us, yet God
;v
;
;

1 think the translation here given

referring
''"'^

to

Athan. himself

rnuv 5e

of the Syriac

IAaXQaa

cA i5
I

2^
have

lT:iaKo-KiK6v iari, (?)

CnuA^I
taken

IS

the correct one.


in its
'

lA^^XU.

more restricted
Vid.
in v.

ecclesiastical sense

episcopal.'

found here, though it does not appear the Peshito version. No.^ry^m,.^ Se J^aaju e. royro^srhu

Mich, note in Lex.^ Syr.

^s^njo.

This seems to suit better with the expression 'pass over in silence,' as
well
as

.^^^^ i^nSv/xlas Kaiphu, KaO'- tu rh icpxaTa ivduTa Trape\r}\aice, yeyove Se t^ ndura


Kaii^d.

S. Cvril.

Horn. Pasch. xxx.

the

follovi^ing

sentence, both

near the beginning.

a
Christ the great object of the Feast.

23
A. P. 331.

the same feast, and having joined us again, we approach Lord. same always worship the And we do not keep the festival as observers of days, in those knowing that the Apostle reproves those who do so,

Ye observe dags, and months, and words which he spake do we look upon the day as a rather But times, and years. so that all of us, who feast; the of because solemn one to God by well-pleasing be may place, serve God in every the nearannouncing when Paul, blessed For the prayers'^. but the days, announce not did this, gladness like
;

Gal. 4, lo.

ness of

saying, Lord, on whose account also we keep the feast, conus, of all that so is sacrificed; Chrilt, our Passover, of nearness have may Word, the of templating the eternity

Cor. 5, 7.

access to

For what else is the feast, but the service And what is that service, but prolonged of the soul? The unprayer to God, and unceasing thanksgiving^? also consequently them, from far thankful having put these

Him.

springing therefrom: rightly deprive themselves of the joy Theremouth'. their taken from for joy and gladness are peace have to them allow not the (divine) word doth
fore,
;

working For there is no peace to the wicked, saith the Lord, who him to even not So, sorrow. the work of anguish and forgiveness grant Gospel the did owed ten thousand talents For even he, having received sight of the Lord.
in the

Ts. 48, 2?.

Mat.ie,24.

kindness in forgiveness of great things, was forgetful of former those of also penalty little ones, so that he paid the
things 8.
<J

And

very properly so
'

for it

was incumbent on
Larsow renders
VJ^|^
.

The time of the Jewish types and shadows having passed away, the observanoe of the part.cu ar days ce ebrated among them is likewise abrogated.

voluntary,' as

it.

Vid

^^^
^

g^.^_ .^ ^_
,

V},]A1
is
, , ,

^^ *

.^^-^

-^^
:.

^^,;^

.^nse, the word

Theif think principally of the s?rt.w;j; 7re" are to direct our attention chiefly to the A7/i6Va;zee of the festival When directions for keeping Christ. the Jewish feasts were given in the O. T. especial stress was laid on the In the N. T. on the particular day. contrary, our* Saviour is the one great subject introduced to our notice
Christ, our Passover,
e

cognate with Vl*AetTrros (?)

^vxa.pi(TTia aS/a-

is

sacrificed.

cAlAaSO^ ZuLj lAujoZ


'

Strom. 7. 1. in the Greek i Thess. v. 16, 17. both and in the Syriac vers, and Letter xi. f This is apparently a quotation from Scripture, though 1 cannot find the exact words. Perhaps it is from Jer. being yji. the phraseology of v. 28. transferred to the sentiment of v. 34. occurred, The expression has already
p. 17.
u

Alex, aZiaMnrros aydnr]. Also


Conf.

Clemens

OUSD

unceasing

thanksgiving'

As,
held

in

the

parable, the servant

.imilarexpression to 'prolonged prayer' intheprccedinglineJnot'freiwilligen,'

was

accouutable for the debt, (which had otherwise beeu forgiven

24

The grace of God

to he

hnproved hy

us.

Letter him, having himself experienced kindness, to be merciful to his fellow servant. Also, he that received the one talent,
'-

Mat.25,2G.

and bound it up in a napkin, and hid it in the earth, wasconsequently cast out as an unthankful person, hearing the words, Tkou tvickcd and slothful servant, thou kneivest that I reap ivhere I sowed, not, and gathered ivhere I have not strawed ; thou oughtest therefore to have put my money into the hank, and on my return, I should have received mine own. Take therefore the talent from him, and give^ it ta For, as a matter of course, hirn that hath ten talents. when he was required to deliver up to his lord that which belonged to him, he should have acknowledged the kindness of him who gave it, and the value of that which was given.

For he who gave was not a hard man had he been so, he neither would not have given even in the first instance was that which was given unprofitable and vain for then he had not found fault. But both he who gave was good, and that which was given was capable of bearing fruit.
;
; ;

Piov. 11,
26.

As
cursed,

therefore

he

ivho

withholdeth corn in seed-time


divine

is
is

according to

the

proverb

so

he

who

about grace, and hides it without culture, is properly cast out as a wicked and unthankful person. On this
careless

account, he praises those


Mat.25,23. ing.

who

increased [their talents], say-

Well done, good and faithful servant ; thou hast heen faithful iti a little, I will place thee over much; enter into the joy of thy Lord. This was fit and reasonable for, as
;

the Scripture declares, they had gained as

much

as they

had received. Now it is right, my beloved, that our will should keep pace with the grace of God, and not fall short;
lest

when our

will remains idle, the grace given us^ should

Mat.12,24.

enemy finding us empty and naked, should enter [into us], as was the case with him spoken of in the Gospel, from whom the devil went out for having
begin to depart, and the
;

gone through dry places, he took seven other spirits more wicked than himself; and returniiig and finding the house
empty, he dwelt there, and the last state of that
him,) on account of his cruelty
;

man was

to his

fellow-servant ,o sinners, who ungratefully withhold praise and thanksgiving from God, are deprived of the blessings they before enjoyed,

Por
For

QSCJIO

leg.
't'g.

OlOOOTO
A^01jiZ|> *

>

AoOTul)
'

Spiritual zeal compared with Ji re.

25
A.D. 33i,

worse than the

first.

place for the entrance of the unclean spirit.

For the withdrawal from virtue gives There is,

moreover, the apostolic injunction, that the grace given us should not be unprofitable; for those things which he (Paul)

wrote to his disciple as of private application, he enforces on us through him'', saying, Neglect not the gift that is in
land shall he satisfied ivith bread ; hut the paths of the slothful are streivn with thorns ; so that the Spirit forewarns a man not to fall into them,
thee.
tilleth

iTim.4,14.
Prov. 12,
^^^^^
19

For he who

his

j^

Break up your fallow ground, sow not among thorns. For when a man despises the grace given him, and forthwith
saying,
falls

Jer. 4, 3.

into the cares of the world, he delivers himself over to


is

his lusts;

and thus in the time of persecution he and becomes altogether unfruitful.

offended',

'

TKw^a-

l\!aU3 21.

Now
this,

the prophet points out the end of negligence like

is he who doeth the work of the Lord Jer. 48, 10. For he who is enlisted in the service of the Lord should be zealous and careful, yea, moreover, burning like a flame so that wdien, by an ardent spirit, he has destroyed all earthly" sin, he may be able to draw near to God, Who, according to the expression of the saints, is Deut.4,24; called a consuming fire. Therefore, the God of all. Who fieb! 12^29. maketh His angels [spirits'], is a spirit, and His ministers a Ps. 104,4. fiame offire. Wherefore, in the departure from Egypt, He forbade the multitude to touch the mountain, where God was appointing them the law, because they were not of this character. But He called blessed Moses to it, as being fervent in spirit, and possessing unquenchable grace, saying, Let Moses alone draw near. On this account he also entered Exod.24,2. into the cloud, and when the mountain w^as smoking, he was not injured; but rather, through the words of the Lord, Fa. \2, 6. which are choice silver tried in the earth, he descended more

saying, Cursed

carelessly ^

pure.

Therefore the blessed Paul, when desirous that the grace


of the Spirit given to us should not grow cold, exhorts,
Conf. Letter ii. p. 14. line 14. Conf. Episi. i.ad Castor. Athan.op. torn. ii. p. 314. a>$ "yap toTs ttkttws Soi'
'

npoffepxofj-ffois

XfvovcTi

T(j5

Seo-TTOTj;,

5J|a,

Ti/xr]

irphs

rb fufWov (nr)yye\Tai- ovrws Tifiupiai


fiapinarai
to7s

Tavrr) rp iirayyiKia. Vid. also S. Atlian. Epint. i. ad Strap, t. i. p. 620, m c^y^. (AaX^OGI materinl,' earthly,' an adjective formed from
' >

x^'*P'^s,

Koi

^adv/jLtus

the

GrvKv.

26

In what sense

the

Holy

Spirit

is

said to be quenched.

Letter saying, " Quench not the Spirit. For thus shall we also --Hli_. remain partakers of Christ , that is, if we hold fast unto For he said. the end the Spirit given at the heglnning. 19.
* '

"Wisd. 1,4.

Quench not; not because the Spirit is placed in the power but is able to suffer any thing from them because bad and unthankful men are such as manifestly wish to quench it since they, like the impure, persecute For the holy Spirit of the Spirit with unholy deeds. admonition flees from guile, and divells not in a body under the influence of sin; but even removes'^ far from
of men, and
; ;

imaginatiojis void of understanding.


John 1,9. as in darkness, not having that Light

But they being void


sin,

of understanding, and guileful, and lovers of

walk

still

which lighteth every

man
Jer. 20, 9.

that cometh into the ivorld.

laid hold of

Now a fire such as this Jeremiah the prophet, when the word was in
'^

Lu^e
49

12,

him as a fire, and he said, I pass away from every place, and am not able to endure it. And our Lord Jesus Christ, in that He was good and man-loving, came that He might cast this upon earth, and said, And ivhat? ivould that it

were already kindled^!


that evil should be

For

He
man

desired, as

He

testified in
;

Ezek. 18,

Ezekiel, the repentance of a

rather than his death

so

the soul,

consumed in all men, to the end that being purified, might be able to bring forth fruit
of Theopbylact the following
' God appeared on mount Sinai as a devouring lire. Christ declares that He came to send a fire on the earth. The descent of the Holy Ghost on the day of Pentecost was connected with fire. He is a fire that may be 'quenched.' The gifts of the Holy Ghost in Christians are a fire that is * ^e carefully watched. S. Athan. ^e Communi Ess. Patr. &c. t._2. p. 17. MopTuper Muaris Keytvv^ Koi ^u v dS^a '^^^ ^^^^^ 'lo-pa^A iu rca opei 'S.iva, ws

"

The commentary
passage
is

on this
effect.

to

'ETretS?; vvi, iffTiu o irapoov filos,

^ScoK^u rj/MU 6 Qehs AaftTraSa, rh Uuev/uLa

rh ayiov aWa ravT-qu oi fj-ev KaixtrpoTepau elpyda-avTO, ws irduTes ol ayioC


ol

5e

eo-/3eo-aj/,

cbs

at ireyTc

7rap0eVoi,

aviXaiov ravTTju acp7aai. Again his words on 2 Tim. i. 6. {auaCaTrvpeTy rh X^picr/jia rod Qeov) ave/Tlairep yap rh irdp Selrai ^vXcof, ovrco Ka\ r] x^p'S toG Uueviaaros Selrci TTpoQvfx'ias, koL irpooroxris, Ka\ u-nxpeoos, 'Iva

t. i. ciei

avaC^v.

Conf.S. Athan. Expos, in PsalUiOS, p. 863. TTvp uxrirep vo7)rhu, ttjv tou

"V^P 'l^^oj/

KUiSfieuoV

'iua

ivA-npwdfj

t6-

irdp

ayiov Uv(:v^xaTos jx^Be^iv ijx^aXav.


,.JJj leg.

For
\%

fVaVQ
^

..^
|J (.

^LftidDO

The H
before.
1 torn.

after

aV pZ\^QiOC10 should

pro-

bably be omitted, the error having arisen from the word occurring just
Conf. S. Athan. Epist. ad Dracont. i. p. 209.

Pa\e7v iirl^ tt]v yrjv, ivvp ovk acpamariKhv, a\Xa KadapriKov. ovtw '^^'^^ icpduri rh irvevfxa rh ayiov iv rrj Conf. also Tret^rrjKoa-rfj, iv e'/Set irvpSs. Vita Sancta? Syndetic^ apiid Athan. t. ii. p. 628. 6 0ebs ^^uoSi/ trvp KaravaK'ktkov ovrui Se? koL rijxas rh 6e7ou -nvp els kavrov^ i^d^pai fiera daKpvccu Kol kSttov. avrhs ydp (prjaiv 6 Kvpios' -nvp ijXQou I3a\e7i/ iirl r))v Vid. also Chrysost. Horn. vi. in Matth. vol, vii. p. 109. Ed. Paris, 1839.

yw

The ingratitude of
for the

the zvicked.

21
A.D.831.
Maik4,2o.
l^ute 24.

word which is sown by Him will be productive, some thirty, some sixty, some an hundred.
Thus, for instance, those who were with Cleopas, although infirm at first from lack of knowledge, yet afterwards were inflamed with the words of our Saviour, and brought forth
the fruits of the
also,

knowledge of Him.
fire,

The
it

blessed Paul

when
;

seized by this

revealed

not to flesh and

but having experienced the grace, he became a Word. But not such were those nine lepers who were cleansed from their leprosy, and yet were unthankful to the Lord Who healed them nor Judas, who obtained the lot of an apostle % and was named a disciple of the Lord, but at last, while eating bread with our Saviour, But lifted up his heel against Him, and became a traitor.
blood
preacher of the
;

?*.

40, lo.
'

ig.

such men have the due reward of their folly, since their hope will be vain through their ingratitude for there is no hope whatever to the ungrateful the last fire, prepared for the devil and his angels, awaiting those who disregard divine lio-ht. Such then is the end of the unthankful. But the faithful and true servants of the Lord, knowing
;
;

that the

Lord

loves the thankful, never cease to praise

Him,
is

ever giving thanks unto the Lord.

And whether

the time

one of case or of

affliction,

they offer up praise to

God

with

shipping the Lord, the


Job,
these things

thanksgiving, regarding not these things of time, but worGod of times*. Thus of old time,

who possessed when in

fortitude above

all

men, thought of
in adversity,
lie

prosperity; and

when

patiently endured, and


also the

when he

suffered, gave thanks.

As

humble David,
said,

in the very time of aflliction sang

praises

and

icill bless

the

Lord

at all times.

And

P.-^.34, 1.

the blessed Paul, in

all his

Epistles, so to say, ceased not to

thank God. In times of ease, he failed not; but in aflliction he gloried, knowing that tribulation ivorketh patience, and patience experience, and experience hope, and that hope

'^om.d, 3.

maketh not ashamed.

Let

us,

being followers of such men,


KKrjpov
sive
^

Larsow erroneously translates this, 'obtained the apoetleship by lot.' Judas did not obtain the apostle'ship by lot, though S, INlatthiaH, who succeeded

denoting

KKiipos, aToo-roXT/s (P) oinne, quod alicui rontingit, sorte hoc fiat, sive hajieditate,
ttjs
'

?ive alio niodo.'

hiw,
f I

riirL

The

Syriac

is

^oLm]

Conf. Letter

i.

p. 4.

note

f.

i\

trn*=^\

Gr. ri^iovro tov

S8

Praise and thanksgiving

to he ojfered to

God

Letter pass no season without thanksgiving;


*

but especially now,

when

the time

is

one of tribulation, which the heretics

excite against us, will


Ps 144,17.
;

we

praise the

Lord

uttering the

words of the saints All these things have come ufon us, yet have we not forgotten Thee, For as the Jews at that time, although suffering an assault from the tabernacles" of tlie Edomites, and oppressed by the enemies of Jerusalem, did not give themselves up'^, but all the more sang praises to God; so we, my beloved brethren, though hindered that we should not speak the word of the Lord, will the more proclaim it; and being afflicted, we will sing Psalms", that we are accounted worthy to be despised, and to labour anxiously for the truth. Yea, moreover, being grievously
vexed,

we

will give thanks.

who gave thanks at all times, urges us in the same mnnner to draw near to God, saying
For
also the blessed Apostle,
Phil. 4, 6.

Thess. 5,

Let your requests, with thanksgiving, he made known unto God. And being desirous that we should never desist from such a purpose as this, he says. At all times give thanks ; pray without ceasing. For he knew that believers are strong
while employed in thanksgiving;

and that rejoicing they

pass over the walls of the enemy, like those saints


Ps. 18, 29.

who

said,

Through Thee will we fierce through our enemies, and hy my

God I will leap over a wall. At all times let us stand firm, but especially now, although many afflictions overtake us, and many heretics are furious against us. Let us then, my beloved brethren, celebrate with thanksgiving the holy feast
1

Pet. 1,13.

which now draws near

to us, girding up the loins of our minds, like our Saviour Jesus Christ, of Whom it is written,

Is. 11, 5.

Righteousness shall he the helt of His loins, and faithfulness the girdle^ of His reins. Each one of us having in his hand
the staff which came out of the root of Jesse, and our feet shod with the preparation of the Gospel, let us keep the feast as Paul saith, Not with the old leaven, hut ivith the imleavened hread of sincerity and truth; assured that we thus reverently think of Christ, and depart not from faith
'^"'"

Is, 11, 1.

P
1

^' ^^'
r.

Cor. 6,

"

The
of

Syr.

li^ltV^ must
^

'

be an
..

^'^
l^jv^

'^^'

^f*'
\^y^

^
,

Conf.

James

v. 13.

error

the

copjist
Ixxxiii. 6.

for

|ia*k).

^^^

Compare Ps.

'

^"^

^^^-

^^

in seasons of tribulation.
ill

29
licretics,

Him, nor

defile

ourselves

together with

and A.D.331.
will

strangers

to the truth,

whose conversation and whose


rejoicing in afflictions,

bring them down.

But

we break

through the furnace of iron and darkness, and pass, un-

harmed, over that terrible Red Sea. Thus also, when we look upon the confusion of heretics, we shall, with Moses, sing that great song of praise, and
say.

We

will sing unto the Lord, for

He

is to

be gloriously Exod.15,1.

praised.
against us,

Thus, singing praises, and looking upon sinners

who have been submerged^, we

pass over to the


fast of forty

wilderness.

And
shall

being

first

purified

by the

days, by prayers, and

works,

we

and good be able also to eat the holy Passover in


fastings,

and

discipline,

Jerusalem.
I

The beginning of the fast of forty days is on the fifth of Phamenoth (Mar. 1.); and when, as I have said, we have first been purified and prepared by those days, we also begin the holy week of the great Easter on the tenth of Pharmuthi (Apr. 5.), in which, my beloved brethren, we should observe more prolonged prayers, and fastings, and watchings, that

we may be enabled

to

anoint our lintels* with precious Exod.

12,

blood, and to escape the destroyer.


then, on the fifteenth of the

We

cease (fasting)
10.),

month Pharmuthi (Apr.


among
the

when we hear from


day of the week,

the angels in the evening of the seventh

Why

seek ye the living

dead? Luke 24, 5.

Immediately afterwards the first day for He hath risen. of the great week receives us, i mean on the sixteenth of the same month Pharmuthi (April 11.), on which our

Lord having
neighbours.

risen,

vouchsafed to us peace towards our


then we have thus kept the feast acfirst day in the

When

cording to His will, let us add from that

holy week, also the seven weeks of Pentecost, in wliicli we, receiving the grace of the Spirit, shall be giving thanks
to the

Lord

at all

times; through

Whom
the

to the

Father be

'

Syr.

O^
*'

"j

A > ^\vx\ ^jPk0


-

Jfad upon
renders
^^
it
'

sea-sliorc'
iti

l.arsow

1.

*-% / AVri* P^Z.\VD>

e.aopcur.s

rr,u

'

'

ejs

tj^us

und die Siinde


^^
es,
}

uns unthe

,^^^^

.ehn'-a
,_

translation

struct

being used for ihe concrete. There is an evideiit al'usiun to Exod. xiv.:;0. And Israel saw the Egyptians
'

'^

vpoara

^
'-

Conclusion.

Letter glorj and dominion, by the Holy Ghost, for ever and ever.

Amen.
with

Salute one another with a holy kiss. The brethren who are me salute you. I pray, brethren beloved and longed

for, that

ye

may

have health, and that ye

may be mindful

of

us in the Lord.

Here endeth the

third Festal Letter of holy Athanasius.

LETTER

IV.

Easter-day VII Pharmuthi^;


fect.

IV Non.

Apr.; jEra Bioclet. A.D.

332.

48; Coss. Fahius Pacatianus, Mtsciliu^ Hilarianus; Prcc-

Easter-day on April 2.

Hyginus^; Indict. V.

He

sent this Letter from the Comitatus by a soldier^.

I SEND unto you, my beloved, late and beyond the accustomed time*^; yet I trust you will forgive the delay, on account of my far travelling, and because I have been tried with protracted illness. Being then hindered by these two causes, and unusually severe storms having occurred, I have

deferred writing to you.


travelling,

But notwithstanding my

far

and

my

grievous sickness, I have not forgotten

to give
*

you

the festal notification, and, in discharge of


latter

my

Syriac text has l7th instead is the same error in the index. The correct day is given towards the end of the Letter. The first day of Pharmuthi coincided with the 27th of March. Vid. remarks on the Egyptian Chronology, contained in the Preface.
of 7th.

The

There

word may be an error for the Latin Officialis. This opinion receives weight from the word used in this It sometimes answers to the place. Gr. (TrpaTib)TT]Sy e. g. Acts x. 7. ^ In the index an error is made, it being there stated that the third, not the fourth, Letter was sent late. It is
there also said, that the charge, con-

^ There is sometimes a difficulty, in the absence of independent testimony, in ascertaining the exact orthography of the proper names, from the loose manner in which they are written in the Syriac. Here, however, it is clearly

Hyginus, as

in

Larsow writes

Sozomen, lib. ii. ch.xxv. He has it Eugenius.

also the 46th instead of the 48th of the Diocletian iEra. The word ' Fabius'
is

not clear.

Syriac, the

It is ,DQ12)|2) in Nun, perhaps, should be

Yud.
ever,
<=

In Baronii Annal. Eccles. how-

cerning which Athanasius was summoned before Constantine, was that of having been consecrated when under But this does not the canonical age. appear to have formed the specific that time. The against him a^ charge names of his accusers given at the end of the Letter determine the case. Three of them, Ision, Eudaemon, and Callinicus, are mentioned by S. Athan. in The his Apol. contra Arian. p. 141. emperor was at Psammathia, a suburb

. we find it Ovinius. The word in the Syriac is |fck\^ Towards the end of the letter, the word employed is ^nnol > \ o > g^g^n |
*

ofNicomedia,and Athanasius was summoned before him, to answer charges of high treason, and also of breaking a communion chalice, and of imposing a
tribute of linen on the people for the service of the Church.

Officilius/

Cureton

considers

this

32

Feasts established by the Jews on special occasions.


1

Letter duty,
^^:

you the feast. For although the letter has been delayed beyond the accustomed period of the proclamation, yet it should not be considered ill-timed, inasmuch as, since the enemies have been put to shame and

now announce

to

reproved by the Church, because they persecuted us without a cause % we may now sing a festal song of praise, uttering
Exod.16,1.

the triumphant
the Lord, for

hymn
is to

against Pharaoh

TVe

ivill

sing unto

He

be gloriously irraised ; the horse arid his

rider

He

beloved, from feast to feast;

For we proceed duly, my hath cast into the sea. again festal meetings, again
stir

holy watchings

up our minds, and keep our consciences

on the guard to spiritual contemplation' of good things. We do not celebrate ^ these days in the character of mourners but, as refreshing ourselves with spiritual food,
;

we impose silence on our fleshly lusts \ For by these means we shall have strength to overcome our adversaries, like
Judith 13,
^*

blessed Judith', when,


fastings

first

having occupied herself with

Esther
16.

4,

and prayers, she overcame the enemies, and killed And blessed Esther, when destruction was Olophernes. about to come on all her race, and the nation of Israel was ready to perish, defeated the fury of the tyrant by no other means than by fasting and prayer to God, and changed the
ruin of her people into safety.

Now

as those days are con-

Esther 9,

sidered feasts for Israel, so also in old time they were called
feasts

2028.
Judith
9.

when an enemy was

slain, or

a conspiracy against the

people broken up, and Israel delivered. On this account it was that blessed Moses of old time ordained the great feast of the Passover, and our celebration of it, because, namely, Pharaoh was killed, and the people were delivered from bondage. But then, when those who tyrannized over
"^

Constantine. in his letter to the of Alexandria, written on this occasion, speaks of the envy of the accusers of A than, and of their unsuccessful efforts to criminate him. Apol. contra Arian. p. 142. ol yap fiwpoi eVl rris yKwTTris Keijx^vriv ^xovai TTjv KUKiav. ovSev '{(Txvaay oi iTovr}po\ Kara tov ^ttktkottov vjxCbv. Speaking of Athanasius himself, he declares his approbation of the Bishop's conduct, and calls him a man of God.' 6 ^xkv
^

(p6y^diJ.r}u,

us duOpuKOu avrhv @^ov


Vid. Suicer. in verb.
s

Church

ovra
f

TreTreifr/xeVos.

06ap/a, Syr.

For

y<^V>Vn1

Avo^Vn

'

icaXws SiSd^as, TroXeixLos Kpiverai 4yoo yap rhu v/nerepou iivicrKonov 'AOavdcriou
aa/j.euws
irpoarjKafXTjv,

aapKhs eTriTifiwpTes irddeaiu. S. Cyrill. Horn, l-'asch. xx. Neither Judith nor Esther is reckoned among the canonical books of the O. T. by S, Athan. He mentions, however, that some regarded the book of Esther as canonical. Vid.Syn. Script.
'

^ rdls TAjs

Sacr. p. 98. ^ Tvpayuoi, Syr.

ovrws re

irptxT-

T%e extent and glory of

the Christian festioal.

33
332.

the people were slain, feasts and holidays were observed A.D.
partially
ever,

in JudaBa with
the
devil
is

reference to time.
slain,

Now, howagainst
the

that

that

tyrant^

whole world, we do not approach the feast, my beloved, For as a temporal one, but as being eternal and heavenly. we proclaim it not as it were in shadows, but we come to it in the truth. They indeed, when filled with the flesh of an irrational lamb"', accomplished the feast, and having anointed their door-posts with the blood, deprecated the
destroyer".

But now we,


lintels of

eating of the

Word

of the Father,
Matt. 26,

and having the


of the

our hearts sealed with the blood

New

Testament, acknowledge the grace given us


lo,

from the Saviour, who said. Behold, I have given unto you Luke to tread upon serpents and scorpions^ and over all the poiver of the enemy''. For no more does death reign; but instead
of death henceforth there
tlie

is life, is

since our
filled

Lord

said,

/ am

John 14,

6.

life;

so that every

thing

with gladness and


Ps. 97,
i.

it is written. The Lord reigneth, let the earth For when death reigned, sitting doivn by the rivers of Babylon, we wept, and mourned, because we had experienced the bitterness of captivity; but now that death and the kingdom of the devil is abolished, every thing is entirely filled with joy and gladness. And God is no longer known

rejoicing; as
rejoice.

ps. 137,

1.

Ps. 76

1.

in Judcjea only,

but in

rfll

the earth, their voice hath gone

pg. jg

4.

forth,

and

the

knowledge of

Him
is

What

remains,

my

beloved,
feast,

hath filled all the earth. obvious; that, as the result,

we approach such a
in this to

not with filthy raiment, but with

our consciences covered with pure garments. For we need put on our Lord Jesus p, that we may be able to
love virtue;

Him. Now we are clothed with when we are enemies to wickedness; when we exercise ourselves with temperance; when we mortify lasciviousness; when we love righteousness, in
celebrate the feast with

Him when we

'

'Yvpavvo% Syr.
(nxvoi)

aKSyou (L.) Conf. S. Cyril. Horn. Paseh. xxiv, 293. Ed. Lutet. 1638. Te0wacrt yap p. 4u AlyviTTCf) rlv a/j.w6v eha ruiv Koeuu avrov ^ /careSTjSoKcJlTes, Karaxpiovr^s Se
"'

o Conf. Athan. Vita S. Ant. p. 654. "laacn yap tjju Kar avTutu doOelaau

x"/^'" '''ot's ttl(tto1s -napa rov 2wT7}yos, Keyoi^Tos avrov, l8ov SfSwKa {ifxlu e^ovaiav irareTi/ iirduu) ucpewv Kal (TKOpiriwu,

Ka\
V

i-rrl

-naaav t^v Svua/xiu tov ix^pov.

Kal TCf aiuari rcov Saj/u-arioiv ras eicr/3oXas, iTOL Tas (pXias, ou crvvSioKuKacri To7s AlyvirrioiS,

Cent'.

Rom.

xiii.

14.

'put ye on

the Lord Jesus Chriet.'

34

Christ changed the typical for the spiritual.

Letter preference to iniquity; when we esteem sufficiency; when we have fortitude of mind; when we forget not the poor,
'

when we assist humblebut open our door to all men mindedness, but hate pride. By these things Israel of old,
;

first fought the battle, as in a figure, came to Such things were then set forth, as in the shadow. But we, my beloved, the shadow having received its fulfilment, and the types being accomplished, should no

after

having

the

feast.

longer consider the feast a figurative one

neither should

we go up
Jews,
the
lest,

to Jerusalem w^hich

is

beneath, to sacrifice the

Passover, according to the unseasonable observance of the

while the season passes away,

we should be

regarded as acting unseasonably i; but, in accordance with


of the Apostles, let us go beyond the types, and sing the new song of praise'. For this they also observed and as being assembled together with the Truth*, they drew near, and said unto our Saviour, Where wilt Thou that ive should make ready for Thee the Passover? For no longer w^ere these things done at Jerusalem which is beneath; neither was it considered that the feast should be celebrated there alone; but wherever God willed it to be. Now He
inj unction
"^

Matt. 26,

Mai. 1,11. willed it to

and a

be in every place, so that in every place inceiise For although, as in sacrifice might he offered to Him.

the historical account, they were

commanded not to introduce the feast of the Passover any where, but only in Jerusalem; yet when the things pertaining to that time
were
fulfilled,

and those w^hich belonged

to

shadows had

passed away, and the preaching of the Gospel was to be extended every w^here; when, indeed, the disciples were
spreading the feast in
Matt. 20,
all

places, they asked our Saviour,

Matt^26,

2628.

Thou that we shall make ready? Our Saviour also, since He was changing the typical for the spiritual, promised them that they should no longer eat the flesh of a lamb, but His own, saying. Take, eat and drink; this is My body, and My hlood. When w^e are then nourished

Where

wilt

Conf. Letter i. p. 3. Ta|is Svr. s Such a "song as is in accordance with the superior blessings of the Christian dispensation. Ps. xeviii. 1. Eev.
q

xiv. 3.
,

!* ^7
'

VoV
^^'?
^'^-

'irf^', ^''^' '^^^'^

^^^^

(^vu rf,

aX-qeda. I unreferring to Christ.


Notification of the time for observing Easter.

35

by these

things,

we

shall also,

my

beloved, properly keep

AD-

332

havmg

the feast of the Passover. commence on the first of Pharmuthi (Mar. 27.); and ceased on the sixth of the same month (Apr. 1.), on

We

first day of the the evening of the seventh day, and the holy of the same seventh the on us upon risen having week

Pharmuthi (Apr.

2.),

celebrate

we

too the days of the holy

symbol Pentecost following thereon, by them introducing a be may we henceforth that But come". to world of the all in over God to praise give us let ever, for Christ with
Christ Jesus, and through

Him, with

all saints,

say unto the

Lord, Amen.
All the brethren Salute one another with a holy kiss. you. salute me with who are have sent this letter from the Comitatus, by the hand

We

given by Ablabius^ of an attendant officer ^ to whom it was fears God in truth. who Praetorium, the of Prgefect the
" The whole interval of fifty days between Easter-day and Whitsunday denomi(all which time was sometimes nated Pentecost) was looked upon by the early Church as a time of rejoicing. During the continuance of it, the ordinary fasts, as on Wednesdays and Fridays, were generally suspended, though not alike hy all the Churches of Christendom. Cassian CoUat. xxi. e.

r7]Koarris' 'Iva Koi rhv Kaiphurris apeaeccs, Kaddirep ei/cdva riva rrjs twu ayiwu eV

The ovpapols avatravXr^s XoyiC^fxeuoi. same idea is expressed in each of his last five discourses. ^ Vid. note to the title of this Letter. I am inclined to think that the person here mentioned belonged to the class
termed palatini. These were employed about the palace of the emperor, and though not actually of the number of the army, or accustomed to bear arms, were nevertheless included in the term military,' whatever service might be This may account for assigned them. the word used with reference to him in
'

^733. p. 461.) speaks of paying monasteries of Syria to the rule which forlittle regard bade kneeling at prayers, or fasting in Pentecost, while the Egyptians carefully observed it Ca'pimusdiligentius percunctari, cur apud iEgyptios tanta ohservantia caveretur, ue quis penitus totis Quinquagesimee diebus vel genua in oratione curvaret, vel usque ad horam nonaui jejunare prsesumerit; eoque id diiigenhoc tius scrutahamur, quod nequaquam
xi.

(Lips.

the

the

title

of the Letter.

Among

the

number of these palatini, was one who was specially engaged as the bearer of
the ordinary communications to and from the Emperor and the Patriarch. There was an officer to whom the general superintendence of the palace and the command of the palatini was Ablabius probably now committed. Vid. Suicer. Thes. in filled that post.
V.

teriis

tanta cautione servari in Syrise monasvideramus. Bingham's Christian

Ant. book xx. ch. 6. Tt was due to this custom of regarding the whole season of Pentecost as one of rejoicing, during which fasts were suspended, that it is mentioned as a symbol of the world to com.e. S. Cyril uses the same comparison towards the end of his 26th Paschal discourse, (xvvaTrrovTes e|7js
KoX Tcls eTTTtt e/35o/ua5a$ rfjs ayias U^v-

EaAaTij/os.
y

Ab'avius (hie, Ablabius) Prajfect of the city, the minister and favou/ite of Constantine the Great, was murdered after the death of the latter. was consul in the preceding year. Zosimus ii. 40. (Smith's Diet, of Gr.

He

and Rom. Biography.)

36

The accusers of Athanasius confuted.


I

^ emperor

Letter

For

am

at the Comitatus, having

been summoned by the

Constantine to see him.

But

the Meletians,

who

were present there, being envious, sought our ruin before the Emperor. But they were put to shame and driven away thence as calumniators, being confuted by many things. Those who were thus driven away were Callinicus, Ision, Eudsemon, and Gelous Hieracammon, who, on account of
the shame of his name, calls himself Eulogius.

Here endeth

the fourth Festal Letter of holy Athanasius.

LETTER
Easter-day^,
Coss.

V.

Dalmatius

and

Zenophilus;

Prcsfect. A. D. 333

Paterius^; VI. Indict.

XVIL

Kal. Mali;

XX.

Pharmuthi;

^a^ter^da^y

XF. Moon;

VII. Gods;

Mr a Dioclet.
from

49.

We duly proceed, my brethren,


from prayers
to prayers
;

feasts to feasts,

duly

join holy-days to holy-days.

and Again the time has arrived which brings to us a new beginning even the announcement of the blessed Passover, in which our Lord was

we advance from
"i,

fasts ^ to fasts,

sacrificed.

We

eat, as it

were, the food of

life

and, thirst-

ing continually, are at all times delighted, as it were, from For we, on the one a fountain, by His precious blood.

hand, are always eagerly desirous

He, on the other, stands who thirst, there is those for and ready for those to His lovingaccording which, Saviour, our of the word^ feast the of day If any man the in vouchsafed kindness. He
;

who

thirst;

John

7, 37.

thirst, let

him come

to

Me

and drink.

Nor was

it

then alone

a Pagius makes Easter-day on this year to have fallen on Ap. 22. (Vid. Baron. Annal. Eccles. torn. 4. p. 248.) This is a mistake. The Chron. Pasch. (tom. ii. p. 202.) agrees with the title

^ The allusion here is to the time of the year at which Easter is celebrated, viz. the Spring, and in particular to the passage in Deut. chap. xxvi. J.

which
these

is

more than once quoted


:

in

to this letter. b The Syriae

must be for ' Paterius' Paternus,' as Larsow writes it. The Nun and the Yud are often conMoreover, the founded in the Ms. letter Olaph woiild not be written in Syriae as part of the final syllable ' nus,' though it does frequently appear in the Ms. in the termination 'ius:' Anicius, Septimius, e. g. Patricius,
not
'

*vAa|at rhv firiva ruv Vid. note o to Letter i. p. 12.; uecoy. In also note to Letler xix, sub init. the expression 'new beginning' referSaviour, our (^ ence is also made to Qeov. Apocal. apx^l TTjs KTiVeajs tov near brought are we whom iii. 14.) to in the feast, according to what follows. Conf. Athan. cuntia ApoUinarium,
letters
lib.

Florentius. in the year


Paterius'.

We know
319

that the preefect bore the name of

Vid. Baion. Ann. Eccles.

20. p. 748-9. Syriae is rather obscure here. word OllSO. I suspect an error in the Conf. Expos, in Psalmos(P.s. 1 is, 171.)
i.

The

tom.
c

4. p. 8. . xxi.

oldiu

Read "jlCO

with the Rebui.

Tpo(p-nu-

ovv b di'ios \6yos avTos ovv 6 \6yos

iri'eufj.aTiKTiV

<pv<Tly

&pTOS

; ;

38

Christians in all parts united in spirit.

Letter when any one drew near to Him, that


'

He
is

cured his thirst


feast
is

but, moreover, whenever


for

it is

sought,

there access freely

any man

to the Saviour.

For the grace of the


its

not

limited to one time, nor does

splendid brilliancy suffer

an eclipse

but

it

is

always near, enlightening the conit^.

science of those

who

earnestly desire

For, there

is

con-

stant virtue in this, to those

who
is

are illuminated in their

minds, and meditate on the divine Scriptures day and night,


like the
Ps.
ij 1.

man

to

whom
;

a blessing
is

given, as

it is

written in

the sacred Psalms

Blessed

the

man who

hath not walked

in the counsel of the ungodly, nor stood- in the ivay of sinners, But his delight is in nor sat in the seat of corrupters. the law of the Lord, and in His law doth he meditate day

and

night.

For

it is

not the sun", or the moon, or the host


;

of those other stars which illumines him

with the high effulgence of

God

over

all.

but he For it
it

glitters
is

God,
the

my

beloved, even the

God Who

at first established

feast for us.

Who

vouchsafes the celebration of

year by

year.

He

also

brought about the slaying of His Son for


;

and gave us this reason for the holy feast to which every year is a witness, the feast being proclaimed annually at a season corresponding with the present. This also leads us on from the cross by means of this world to that which is before us, and God produces even now from it the joy of glorious^ salvation, bringing us to the same assembly, and in every place uniting all of us in spirit
salvation,

appointing us
kindness, that

common

prayers, and a

common

grace pro-

ceeding from the feast.

For

this is the

marvel of his loving-

He

should gather together in the same place


;

those

who

are at a distance

to be far off in the body, to


spirit.

and make those who appear be near together in unity of


beloved, do
?

Wherefore then,

my

ledge the grace as becometh the feast

we not acknowWherefore do we
imposit is
still,

not

make
to

a return to our Benefactor

It is indeed

sible
^

make an adequate return


c to Letter
i.

to

God;

Vide note

p. 3.

In the Ms.
tor

If-.'
mistake
h Syr. |j-01>.

Hqs

i^*

written

by

^A^.
This root is unknown
in
all

in

Syriac,

and I believe

the

languages. There is, I an error in the teiit, and that the word should be some form of tbe ^oot j(j\\ which, in Heb. Chald. Syr. ^thiop. and Arabic^ conveys the idea of splendor.
<3oubt not,

Shemitic

Human nature inadequate


wicked thing acknowledge
for us

to

make

a proper return to

God. 39
33.3 .

who

receive the gracious gift, not to A.D.

Nature itself manifests our inability; it. but our own will reproves our unthankfulness. Therefore the blessed Paul, when admiring the greatness of the gift For of God, said, And who is sufficient for these things? then, Saviour our of He made the world free by the blood
;

2Cor.2,i7.

again,

caused the grave to be trodden down by the death of our Saviour, and opened the gates of heaven, granting through our Saviour an uninterrupted way to

He

one of the was insufbut saints^^, while he acknowledged the grace, the Lord unto render ficient to repay it, said, What shall I he had death of for all He has done unto me ? For instead kingthe and received life; freedom instead of bondage-";
those

who ascend
1

(thereto) ^

On

this account,

P^^^(J,12.

dom

of heaven

instead of the grave.

death reigned from


voice hath said,

Adam

to

For of old time, Moses; but now the divine Rum. 5, 14.

To-day shalt thou he with


being sensible of
soul
this,

Me
said.

in Paradise. Luke

23,

And

the

saints,

Except
in

the p^Q^i-^^
hell.

Lord had helped me, my

had almost dwelt

Besides all this, being compelled to make he acknowledged the gift, he wrote finally, saying, 7 w;i^^ Lord; take the cup of salvation, and call on the name of the precious in His sight is the death of His saints. With regard to the cup, our Lord also said. Are ye able
to

a return, while

Ps. 116,13.

Mat.20,22.

drink of that cup ichich

I am

about

to

drink ofi

And

when

the disciples assented, the Lord said, Ye shall indeed right hand, cup; but that ye should sit on drink of whom left, is not Mine to give; but to those for and on

My My

My

it

is

prepared.

Therefore,

my

beloved, let us be sensible


it.

of the gift, though

we

are found incompetent to repay

>

This sentence

is

preserved in the
t'is

original
ste.
fi'iu

Greek
irpbj

in

Cosmas Indicopleua'lfxari

Kai

raOra

-yap k6(TPlou

t^

tiXevdepuae, rhv oEStji/ ^wTTipos da^drcf iraTelcrea. SeSci/ce, Kal els ras ovpau'iovs irvKas av(iJ.ir65iarov Tots a;/ef>xoMf*'o's ttjj/ oShi/ irapaax^t^''

Uavds ; rhv rod ^wjvpos^ Tvd\iu rcf tov

It has rohs a-yi6vs dSf^ai k. t. A. Vid. already occurred in this usage. Letter iii. p. 25. -^ appears to be lu the .Ms.
1

^'^^

an error

for V^

^t^K '^^ Q >,.

Topogr. Christ, pag. 316. The word dyios is sometimes used alone by Athan. when speaking of the sacred writers. Vid. Apol. de Fuga
"n<nrep Se sua, p. 260. . 15. init. TouTO yeypairrai, SeiKKuertj/ 6 \6yos,

m Conf. Homil. in Matt. xxi. 2. Athan. Opera, torn. 2. p. 374. After quoting the same passage from the
Epistle to the Romans, he says, oAA' XpicreVeSTjiiiTjo'ei' d Kvpios f]iJLwu'lv<Tods Kal ^^^ wrpoviJiiyos tovs alxt^a^<^Tovs, ^(^ottoluv tovs TeeauaTufxevovs.

40 Tht achnowkflyment God require!, ofitsfvr Hh


^"v!""
"^^ ^"^ "ja-^e ability, let us

hemfits bednivcd.

meet the occasion.

For although

nature

is

not able, with things unworthy of the

Word,

to

return a recompense for such benefits, yet let us render Hira thanks while we persevere in piety. And how can we be more regardful of piety, than when we acknowledge God, Who, in His love to mankind, has bestowed on us such thmgs ? (For thus we shall obediently keep the law, and observe the commandments thereof. Further, we shall not, as unthankful persons", be accounted transgressors of the law, or do those things which ought to be hated; for the Lord loveth the thankful;) when too we offer ourselves to the Lord, like the saints; when, finally, we subscribe ""rselves, l.vnig not to ourselves, but to the Lord, Who r> 9 on ai.2,20. died. for us, as also the blessed

am

Paul did, when he said

crucified with

Christ, yet

hveth

when we acknowledge Him

all bodily things, and continuing stedfast in those only of our Saviour. Therefore the season now requires tins of us, that we should not only utter such words, but also imitate the deeds of the saints. But we imitate them,

denying

m me. Now our life, my brethren, truly consists in our

live; yet not I, but

Christ

Who

witness of this

utmost of our power; when, I say, we make a return, not by givino- any thing of our own, but those things which we have before received fi-om Him this being especially of His grace, that He should require, as from us. His own gifts. He bears
;

unto ourselves, but Christ henceforth render a recompense to the Lord

died; and no longer live


lives in us;

when we

to the

when He
things

says.

My

which ye give Me are your/, as havmg received them from Me; but they are the gifts of God. Ad let us offer to the Lord every virtue, and h true holniess He requires; and in piety let us keep
the feast to

That

offerings are

My

IS,

those

gifts".

Him

with those things which


in

He

has hallowed

Let us thus engage

the holy fasts, as having been

"

For

.VooSji
.

1 leg. 1]

.j \^A<. \On^.D
.

mind here the wordsof David, (1 Chron. 14.) "All things come of Thee, and of Thine own have we given

"i^-

<

Perhaps

S. Atlianasius

had

"""

in

The

errors of the Jews

and

the Schismatics reproved.

41
A. P.
33.s.

prescribed P

by Him^ and by means of which we attain the God. But let us not be like the heathen, or the ignorant Jews, or as the heretics and schismatics of the pre-

way

to

sent time.
the feast
is

in the

For the heathen think the accomplishment of abundance of food the Jews, erring in
;

the type and shadow, think

it

still

such

the schismatics

keep

it in

separate places, and with vain imaginations.

But

let us,

brethren, be superior to the heathen, in keeping the feast with sincerity of soul, and purity of body; to the Jew^s, in no longer receiving the type and the shadow,

my

but

been gloriously illumined with the light of upon the Sun of Righteousness to the schismatics, in not rending the coaf^ of Christy but in one house, even in the Catholic Church, eating the Passover of the Lord, Who, in giving us His holy laws, instructed us to virtue, and for the exercise thereof, promised the feast.
as having

truth,

and

as looking

Mai.

4, 2.

Exod. 12,

For the Passover is in truth a turning from vice to virtue, and a conversion from death unto life. This may be gathered even from the type of old time. For then they were solicitous to pass from Egypt to Jerusalem but now we remove from death to life. They also at that time passed from Pharaoh to Moses, but now we go up from the And as, at that time, an emblem of devil to the Saviour.
;

their deliverance

was every year established

as a witness

Conf. S. Chrvsostom Tovs ra irpcoTa Ud'axa v-qtorn. i. p. 611. ed. JT6^^o^Tas, \6y. 7 Par. 171838. olTvaripes(JvveKe6vTes
P

Syr. tvk6w.
els

Horn,

iriivc^crav vf^^pas recaapdKouTa


jj.^^j'^5

V7).

sntilts, (John xix. 23.) as applied to the indivisible Church, owes its origin and frequent use to the Anan dispute. Tt is mischievously to tear the body of the Church, to sever and to rend its whole garment {Ziacnvav rb awfia r-qs

q S.' Cyril, towards the end of his homilies de Festis Pasc/ialibus, frequently speaks of the quadragesimal fast, as of Apostolic or Evangelical origin: Kurk 4s ^LiroaroXiKhs -rrapadSa^is are the terms he emplovs in his seventh, fifteenth, and twentieth homilies, when declaring the periods at which Lent was to begin and end.

iKK\v<rias Ka\ fieplC^iu


x'T'iva.)

rhu&Kvrou ahrris Vide Germani I. Patriarchae


ha^resibus
et

Constantin. de

synod,

bo apud A. Mai Spicil. t. vii. p. 44 also, . 15. " Peter, Bishop of Alexandria, who was against receiving Arius back again into communion with the Church, relates that the Lord appeared to him clad in torn garments
{e^p-riyi^^vovs

rks ,i>ayye\iKhs Seaelayy^KiKhu ^rapcirh .hayy.KiKhv h.aKaK.I K-hpvyiia, are similar terms found in Xrofhis paschal discourses.

The words Kurh


rdius-Karic

x^'^'^^s

afx-jr^xff^euou).
!

tV

On

his asking,
(r.s
ere

Lord

who

5oL-is

answer was, Anus has rent Me rehim not, for he is condemned now and for ever. L.
ceive

Thee ?

Trepecrx^cre. K.p.e;

has rent the

The

figure of the tunica

4-2

The

noble acts of

God

to he

always in our remembrance.

Letter so now, introducing the memorial of our salvation, we fast, Z: meditating on death, that we may be able to live. And we watch, not as mourning, but as waiting for the Lord, when He shall have returned from the wedding so that we may vie with each other in the triumph, hastening to announce
;

the result of victory over death.


2 Tim.
2, 8.

Would
this,)

therefore,

O my
so

beloved,

(for

the

word
all

requires

that

we here

governed ourselves at
as never to forget the

times and entirely, and so lived,


also the Apostolic voice exhorts;

noble acts of God, nor to depart from


!

the practice of virtue

As

Remember

Jesus Christ, that

He

rose

that there was a limited season of

from the dead. Not remembrance appointed

but that at all times He should be in our thoughts. Yet, on account of general supineness, we delay from day to day. Let us then begin in these days. To this end a time of remembrance was appointed, which should set before the saints the recompense of the reward of their calling, while
-

to the careless it should be a reproving monitor*.

Therefore in

all

the remaining days, let us persevere in


is

virtuous conversation, repenting, as


lect in various things, of
is

our duty, of our neg;

Job 14,4.
*

vers.)

Phil. 3, 13.

Cor. 11,

27

it may be for there no one free from defilement, though his course may have been but one hour on the earth, as that man of surpassing fortitude^. Job, testifies. But, stretching forth to those things that are to come, let us pray that we eat not the Passover unworthily, lest we be exposed to dangers''. For to those who keep the feast in purity, the Passover is heavenly food but to those who observe it profanely and contemptuously, it is harmy and loss. For it is written, Whosoever shall eat and drink unworthily, is guilty of the death of our Lord. Wherefore, let us not proceed, as merely

whatever kind

effect.

The reasoning of Athan. is to this The resurrection of our blessed


is

Lord

to

be always

in

our thoughts,

reasoning might be applied to all the other Christian festivals. Conf. note c to Letter i. p. 3.
u

From carelessness and indifference, men are apt to forget it. To stir them
up to the remembrance of it, the festival of Easter IS held, which also is designed to direct our minds particularly to our own resurrection. 1 he due observance of such festival will have its effect in quickening our habitual meditation on
the resurrection.

The word

li^. "^^^
'

as

applied

to

job, most likely

Greek dvSpe/a.
f^g^ sua, p. 261.
,

used to expres.. the Conf. Athan. Apol.'de


is .

17. o

'I<i>^

kv

Lspda
is

The same
j j^ Letter
x
y
iii.

expression
p. 27.

em^

The same mode

gyr klv5woi

of

g^/

^ij^Svuos

Conclusion.

43
.

regarding the performance of the act of the feast, but as A D.

338.

being about to approach the divine Lamb, and to touch let us purify heavenly food. Let us cleanse our hands the body. Let us keep our whole spirit from guile; not giving up ourselves to excess, and to lusts, but occupying ourselves entirely with our Lord, and with divine doctrines so that, being altogether pure, we may be able to partake of
;

the

Word^
begin the holy fast on the fourteenth of Pharmuthi
9.),

We
(Apr.

on the evening of the Sabbath; and having ceased on the nineteenth of the same month Pharmuthi (Apr, 14.), the first day of the holy week dawns upon us on the tw^entieth of the same month Pharmuthi (Apr. 15.), to which we join the seven weeks of Pentecost; with prayers, and distribution towards our neighbour, and love towards one another, and, which is above all, a conciliatory disposition. For in this manner also shall we be heirs of the kingdom of heaven, through our Lord Jesus Christ, through Whom to the Father be glory and dominion for ever and ever.

Amen.
All the brethren

who

are with

me

salute you.

Salute

one another with a holy

kiss.

Here endeth
^

the fifth Festal Letter of holy Athanasius.

Conf. 2

Pet.

i.

4.

'iua

yiurjijOe

iu K6crix(^ iv iindvixlq, (pdopas.

deias Kuivoivol (pvaews, aTro(pvy6uT^s ttjs

LETTER VL
A.D. 334. Easter-daij,

XII. Pharmuthi; VII.


50;
Coss.

Id. April:

XVII. Moo7i;

S? April y.

Anicius Paulinus; PrcEfect; Philagrius'', the Cappadocian ; VII.


Indict.

^''"^

Dioclet.

Optatus-

Patricius,

Now again, my beloved, has God also brought us to the season of the feast, and through His loving-kindness we have reached the period of assembly for it. For that God who
Deut. 16,
^-

Nahum
^^'

],

He also at this time calls us to the feast, saying by Moses, Observe the month of new fruits'^, and keep the Passover to the Lord thy God: and by the prophet. Keep thy feasts, O Judah pay to the Lord thy ;
'^ows.
it, it is

brought Israel out of Egypt, even

If then

not right,

God Himself loves the feast, and calls us my brethren, that it should be delayed,
it;

to

or

observed carelessly;

but that with alacrity and zeal we


so that, having

should come to

begun joyfully

here,

Luke^22,

an earnest'^ of that heavenly feast. For if we diligently keep the feast which is celebrated here, doubtless we shall receive the perfect joy which is in heaven as the Lord says With desire I have desired to eat this Passover tvith you before I suffer. For I say unto you, that
also receive
; ;

may

we

will not

There
the

in

appears to be an Syriac text: we


in

error

must
of

read

Ja4{42)0(j

place

a violent perseeutor of the Church, taking part with the A nans. He was an apostate
(7rapa^aT7?s) from tne true faith.

^fflOZlaol) bTrruM* ihisFhilagnus was

'A^^a^Sd-v, i. e. ' the Holy Vid. note to Letter xiv. in voc! Also eonf.S. Cyril. Horn. Pasch. I. ^"^ ^"' W^Q^"" 5e wairep tj/ulTu rrjs
Spirit.'
H-^/^^ovo-ris

gyr.

iXniSosThirued/jLaxapiC^Tai,
Tri/eC^a
ciyiou.

Aeycoi/-

Ac^/Sere

The

Conf.

Easter festival is called 'H iopri) nap' ijs r^s 6.9avaaias d^^a^.u ixnviZa. Euseb. Vita Const. lib. iii:$.J8. Again
in the imperial letter of Constanfine sent to the Churches after the Council of Nice, as found in Socrates lib
i

276. . 9. 9^7"' ^. f,"^^hos p. fnf ; and An elegant comp. 277. . 12 parison between Athan. and Philagrius IS however drawn out by Greg. N azi-

c.

0.

we

read

rV rod Udaxa ay\cordrr,u

'

The
eat
it,

'

Passover of the Jews explained.

45
A. P. 334.

fiilfiUed ivith you in the kingdom of God. when, having entertained in our minds the occasion of the feast, and acknowledging the Deliverer, we are properly attracted to His grace, as Paul saith; So that

until

it is it

Now we

eat

Cor. 5,8.

we may keep
sincerity

the feast, not with old leaven, neither with the

leaven of tvickedness;

but with

the

unleavened bread

of

and truth. For the Lord died in those days, that we should no longer do the deeds of death. He gave His life, that we might preserve our own from the snares of the devi^. And, what is most wonderful, the Word became incarnate, that we should no longer live in the flesh, but in spirit should worship God, who is a Spirit ^ He who is not so disposed, though employing the days, does not keep the feast, but, like an unthankful person, finds fault with the grace and though he may esteem the days before others, he does not supplicate the Lord who in those days redeemed him. Let him by all means hear, though
;

fancying that he keeps the feast, the Apostolic voice reproving him; Ye observe days, and months, and times, and G^i years: I fear lest I have laboured among you in vain. For ^^'
the feast is not on account of the days but we observe it, because in them the Lord suffered in our stead, for our
;

4, lo,

Cor. 6, 7.

Passover, Christ,

is sacrificed.

Even

as

Moses, when teachExod. 12,


**'

ing Israel not to consider the feast as pertaiuing to the days,

but to the Lord, said. It is the Lord's Passover. To the Jews forsooth when they thought they celebrated the Passover, because they persecuted the Lord, the feast was useless since it no longer bore the name of the Lord, even according
to their

own

testimony.

It

was not the Passover of the

Lord, but that of the Jews p.

The Passover was named


^''^'"''"

after

For 1

tr^^^l

leg. 1 f

r^^^^l?

''"^

^^ ^'TX^J

"^^

-naaxa- M^? t^ot^

Conf Kom. v,n 9- 13. 1 8 Conf. John vi.4. 'Ana the passover,a/..Y of the Jews, was nigh.' Other fathers take the same view of
this,
ii.

^
'v
'

^^^^

^ohK-r^aiv
,
.

13.

and similar expressions. (John andxi.55.) Origenis Comment.


turn. x.

Y''"^"^' '"71T ""' M^^^" ^^^ -"^^ '^ . He i^pocxKvuovuru^u rhp O.^hv k. r. K.
'

Y>ov.r.u ^^^^^\

avr6.

rh

t^s ypacp?,s im,., n5e r. 0e.o., rb


s.

"^

^'7^'

inloannem,

U.

p.

172. ed.

ToC <ro<pon6.rov ^lo>dvpov 1759. 4l.T6.Cu>ukKpi^..auKaT^i^avThvK-hrovu


lovSaiW- iro.'o. yap &\\ov ^dvovs 4<rr\u fopri) rh irda-xa] Si6np aUrapKiS ^v

TV

also refers to the pas.a^^e Conf. also Iheophylact ,n

Lxodus. loannem.

Comment,

torn.

,.

p.

o81. Lcl. l/o4.

^ 7^P rov Xpicrrov

i^v .oprr,.


46

The connexion between praise and thanksgiving.

Letter the Jews,

Passover.
face

my brethren, because they denied the Lord of the On this account, the Lord, turning away His

Is. 1, 14.

Luke
^'

17,
^*

from such a doctrine of theirs, saith. Your new moons and your sabbaths My soul hateth. So now, those who keep the Passover in like manner, the Lord again reproves, as He did those lepers who were cleansed, when He loved the one as thankful, but was angry with the others as ungrateful, because they did not acknowledge their Deliverer, but preferred the cure of the leprosy to Him Who had healed them. But one of them when he saw that he tvas healed, turned back, and with a loud voice glorified God, and fell on his face at the feet of Jesus giving Him thanks ; and he was a Samaritan.

And

Jesus answering said.

those nine

whence are there none found who returned


And
there was
for being cleansed

Were

there not ten cleansed

'i

but

to

give

Luke
*

17,

'

more given from his leprosy, he heard from the Lord, Arise, go thy way; thy For he who giveth thanks, and he faith hath saved thee.
glory to God, but this stranger"^?
to this one than to the rest;

who
I

glorifies,

have kindred feelings, in that they bless their

Helper
Cor. 6,
12

for the benefits they have received.


all

So the Apostle

exhorts

men

to this, saying, Glorify

Is 42

Matt. 26,

John
28.

12,

^^^ ^^ prophet commands, saying, Although testimony was borne by Caiaphas against our Redeemer, and He was set at nought by the Jews, and was condemned by Pilate in those days, yet very exalted and most mighty was the voice of the Father which came to Him; I have glorified, and will glorify again. For those things which He suffered on our account have passed away; but those concerning Him as our Saviour remain for ever''.
h The Syriac would seem to remove the note of interrogation from ttoD, and to give the meaning ' how is it that those nine did not return to give glory to God, v^rhile this stranger did ?' t /x^ as in Luke iv. is thus to be taken

God with your body; Give glory to God\

Ps.

1.

23.

Whoso

ofFereth praise glo-

Suicer in voc. 'Oixo\oye7u says, 'OixoXoyelv significat laudare^ celebrare, glorijicare^ gratias agere idque per synecdochen generis Hebraicam nam qui aliquem celebrant,
rifieth

Me.

26.
1

et

jU')/

ets 2<pe7rTa.

illi

Conf. Athan. Expos, in Psalraos. (Ps. Ixvii. 35.) AJre h6^av rd) 0e^ oiira) Koi nav\os' So^dcraTe, (pT](Ti, rhv

confiteutur, vel potius prolitentur res prseclare ab eo gestas, vel beneficia

@ihv iu T^

crio/xari

v/xcov,

Koi

iu

rq}

ideas of 'praising' or 'glorifying,' and 'giving thanks,' and are someconnected, are closely times expressed by the same word, e. g. Gr. 'OjxoXoyeiv. Conf. Heb.
iri/ev/iiaTL vfxwv.

The

ab eo accepta. ^ Christ, while on earth, suffered as man, but was glorified as God, the Father bearing testimony of Him. His sufferings for us have ceased, but the glory of them shall endure eternally, Conf. Phil. ii. 7 1 1

niin

The extent of

the benefits of Christ's death.

47
these A. D.
334.

On

this

account,

my

brethren,

when we remember
but
let

things, let us not be occupied with meats,

us glorify

the Lord;

let

us become fools for


;

Him Who

died for us,

even as Paul said


tve

For
all

if

we are

foolish, it is to

God ;

or if

"2.

Cor. 5,

are soher-minded,

all

men, therefore

you; since because one died for were dead to Him ; and lie died for all,
it is to

that

we who

live

should not henceforth live

to ourselves, but to

Him Who
we

died for us, and rose again.

No

longer then ought

to live to ourselves, but, as servants, to the Lord.

And
is 2 Cor. G,

not in vain should we receive the grace, as the time


especially an acceptable one,

and the day of salvation hath dawned, even the death of our Redeemer'. For even for our sakes the Word came down, and being incorruptible, put on a corruptible body for the salvation of all of us. On this subject Paul speaks plainly, saying. This corruptible must put on incorruption. The Lord too was sacrificed, that by His blood He might abolish death. Full well did He once, in a certain place, blame those who participated vainly in the shedding of His blood, while they did not delight
themselves in the flesh of the Word, saying. What profit is there in blood, that I go down to corruption? This does

Cor. 15,

Ps. 30, 9.

My

not
for

mean
it

that the descent of the

Lord was of no advantage

gained the wdiole world; but rather that after


it,

He

had

thus suffered, sinners would prefer to be without


fiting

to pro-

by

it.

For

He
;

regarded our salvation as a delight

and a peculiar gain


our destruction as
those

while, on the contrary.


loss.

He

looked upon

Also in the Gospel,

He

praises

who

increased the grace twofold, both him

who made

ten talents of five, and him

who made

four talents of two,


to

who had but him who hid


as those
to

profited,

and turned thom

good account;
to

the talent

He

cast out as wanting, saying

him. Thou icicked servant! oughtest thou not


into the

have put

Matt.

-Jfj,

my money
the talent,

bank
it

then on

my

return,

should have

received mine oivn with interest.

and give

to

Take, therefore, from him him that hath ten talents. For to
not, shall be

every one that hath shall be given, and he shall have more

abundantly ; but from him that hath


'

taken
iSov

away
riii-fpa

sub

init.

Conf. S. Cyril. Horn. Pasch. xxiv. avtVxf yo-p TfA''*' tjjs rov 2wT)fJLU}v

Kaiphs
*"

evnp6<r5fKT09,

vv

TTJpos

eopTTjs 6 Kaip6s

ISov

(TWTrjplas.

viiu

ira^^rjaia Syr.

48

The termination of the

Jeivish polity foretold.


cast
is

Letter even that ivhich he hath.


'-

And

ye the unprqfitahle servant


weeping and gnashing of we have received

into outer darkness,


teeth.

where there

For

it is

not His will that the grace

should be unprofitable; but


Gal. 5, 22.

He

requires us, as a duty, to

render

Him

of His fruits, as the blessed Paul saith; The

fruit of the Spirit

is love, joy, and peace. Therefore, being right-minded, and owing no man any thing, but rather giving every thing to every man, he was

Rom. 13,

7.

a teacher of the like propriety of purpose, saying,


to

Render

Matt

21,

was like those sent by the householder to receive the fruits of the vineyard from the husbandmen; for he also exhorted all men to render a return"; but Israel despised, and rendered not. Their inclinations were not good nay, moreover, they killed those that were
all their dues.
;

He

sent

the vineyard , but


Matt. 21,

was no reverence shewn the Lord of was even slain by them. Notwithstanding, when He came and found no fruit in them, He cursed them through the iig-tree, saying, Let there he
;

so that there

He

henceforth no fruit

from

so that even the disciples

Then was
Jer.25,10.

fulfilled

and the fig-tree died fruitless, wondered when it withered away. that which was also spoken by the prothee;

take aivay from them the voice of joy and the voice of gladness, the voice of the hridegroom and the voice of the hride, the scent of myrrh, and the light of a lamp, and the whole land shall he destroyed. For the whole service of the
;

phet

ivill

law has been removed from them, and henceforth and for ever they remain without a feast. And they observe not
the Passover; for
place,

how can they? They have no abiding but they wander every where. And they eat unleaanee of their Christian duties. The is employed before in this letter; 'The apostle ewhorts all men

The comparison here made, as well as the order of the words in the feynac text, requires the translation here given. Larsow renders the

same word

passage, 'he was studious to render a return to all men.' But though

to ^'^'' this ' n ^^ P' ^2.

59lom fOOl
in

^^P^ession

p.

4.

l\^ 1<n is *i the .^SLmS^D where we read

loo. ^son,i..ta..tb.sigi.
hcation,
horted
,t

woulJ nol smt here.


";."1

Those

X^';"

'""'-'i"-

quoting the verse of Scripture ' -i- to all their dues, &c.' tLre follows;

-ti^z:s:L^r::'^t iz
Ee"
^''

^in^ereVo^-pitiro-n-r
world, exhorted
all

men

:z 41:7^5-"
"

-^*--

to a perform^

a For AOCTL]
-^^

leg.

Zc7liJ.

The cursing of
vened bread without
first

the barren fig-tree.

40
unable A.D. 33 4.
to

fulfilling the law, since they are

to sacrifice the lamb, as they

were commanded
in

do

when

eating unleavened bread.

But

every place they

on them by and not of gladNow the cause of this to them was their slaying of ness. At the Lord, and their not reverencing the Only-Begotten. this time also, the altogether wicked heretics and ignorant
transgress the law, and

judgments are

inflicted

God;

so that they introduce days of grief

schismatics are in the same case;


the
also

tbt?

one, in that they slay

Word;

the other, in that they rend the coati'.

They

remain expelled from the feast, because they live without godliness and knowledge, and emulate the cond-uct shewn in the matter of Bar Abbas the robber, whom the Jews desired instead of the Saviour. Therefore the Lord
cursed them under the figure of the fig-tree Yet also even thus He spared them in His loving-kindness,
"'.

Matt. 21,
^-^^'^^^

jj

not destroying them, root and


the root, but [said], that no
forth.

all.

For

He

did not curse


it

14.

man should

eat fruit of

thence-

When He

did this,
;

He brought

the shadow to nought,


root, so that
if
t

but preserving the it to wither might [not]' be grafted upon it; fheg too,
causing
in

we
II,

keg remain not Hom.

unbelief,

mag

attain

to

be grafted into their own olive


these because of
ihe

tree.

When

therefore the

Lord had cursed


is

their negligence %

He removed from them

the true lamb, and that which


to us it
it

truly the Passover.

new moons, But

came: there came too the solemn day, in which incumbent upon us to call to the feast' with a trumpet^, and separate ourselves to the Lord with thanksis
P
p.

Syr. 47.

x'ToJj'.

Conf. note

t()

Letter

v.

"

The
,.

similarity between the Syriac


carelessness,'
:..*

words
states,
,

IZqIaIDOISD C
,

erroneously, that It there is a hiatus in the text here. is, however, tontinuous as he gives it. Only a portion of the Syriac text was
1

Larsow

'

negligence

an

,*i7^.f-.
1

(ZQJSD^OTC

fa'th

-.i-v
)

Afterwards, more printed at first. leaves of the work were brought, along with other AIss. from Eg^^t, and immediately recognised by Mr. Cureton. The whole icas then published together, reference being made in the first part, when any hiatus was to be supplied from the second.
'

an error in ji,g gyr^ ]\I^. tjje context seeming to ' neglithan rather unbelief require gence' here.

might lead us
'

to su'^pect

,^^

^
l
,

V
.

^^ ^^ ^

mistake
^

for

pjiJik.
'
;

r,.,\\

"

^"tS ^-^^ F
'^aX"^'

negative (which is here placed within brackets) is found in ihe Syriac text; but f hare litfe doubt that it is
r

The

("""JP;)

*f

h; 'p.tT vol *'! ^^.^^^-'h^vol. v


'^P""
"^^^^

^9'

pt. 2.

7""

^KKX7,<r.

k*'W^'
'"

hK\..d (raX^r.-y^a k. r K. part ol his h.st I a.chal d j,course, Cyril appears to have had in imnd
this

50

The

instruction conveyed by the sacrifice of Isaac.


it
it,

Letter giving, considering


'-

bound

as

our own

festival^.

For we are
;

not to ourselves, but to the Lord and to rejoice, not in ourselves, but in the Lord, Who bore
to celebrate
Q^j, afflictions,

Matt. 20,

and

said,

My soul is sorrowful unto death.

For

Ps 35,

9.

men who are destitute of our faith, keep feasts according to their own wills', and have no peace, since they sin against God. But the saints, as those who hve to the Lord, also keep the feast to Him, saying, I will
the heathen, and
all

those

Ps. 33,

I.

Thy salvation, and, 7ny soul shall he joyful in the The commandment also is common to them. Rejoice, ye righteous, in the Lord so that they also may be gathered
rejoice in

Lord.

Prf.

95,

1
.

together, to sing that

common and
Abraham

festal

Psalm, Come,

let

us rejoice, not in ourselves, but, in the Lord^.

For

thus, the patriarch

rejoiced not to see his

own
John

day, but that of the Lord; and


^^^^
^Y,

8, 06. -^^ j^^

Heb.

II,

j^g

sacrificed

when he thus longed for ayid was glad. And when he was tried, by faith Isaac, and offered up his only-begotten son he

who had

received the promises ^

he worshipped the Son of God. sacrificing Isaac, he saw the Messiah in the
13!"'
'

And, in offering his son^ And, being restrained from

offered

up instead

as a sacrifice to
;

^'- ^^'' ''

tried then, through Isaac but He who was pointed out in Isaiah; Be shall be led as a lamb to the slaughter, and as a sheep before her shearers he

ram^ which was God. The patriarch was not however that he was sacrificed,

shall be speechless;

but

He

took away the sin of the world.


of this verse is worthy of note The original Greek is koL rhu f^ouoyeuri 7rpoa-e>ep.;. 6 rhs i^ayyeAlas hvalu/.^ros.
.jop
.

especially the tirst Letter of this series, In both, allusion is made to Eccles. chap n,. where it is stated that there the command S;l to Moses, ^""""^M 'f' x. 1. is quoted given Numb. in both; and the figure of the Christian trumpet is also contained equally in both.

?'m

The
-x

printed text of the Peshito p %% -^ y

is
,

^l^-^kOSOS jOOl ^\s,OJ 001


,,^,

Whom

(1, e.

no longer to be a feast of the Jews it is to be celebrated by Christians as a festival of the Lord. Vid. page 45 and note g. y See note to Letter ii. p. 18. where add that Jeroboam is called (Txia-fMaToTToios by Athan.: Synopsis Sac. Script,
""

The Passover
:

is

^^ ^ promise.'
'"'"^
^^^""^

Isaac) he had received The Syriac here is


^^

*^^

^'"eet,

OCT
*

1-.._
0b
'

W^_ '^ ^^^^^


e.

tia^OV)\>
here
&

\-.

He
by
'^

Abraham) who had

received the

promises.'

P- ^35.

The
is

Syriac,

rendered
&

Conf. Athan. Expos, in Psalmos (Ps. xciv. 1.) Aeure, ayaWiaa-dofieea T<S Kvpicpa>s inl koprT]u iKQelv rovs
"

ram,'

Vj'A
1
f

though we might have


It is the

expected

JOJ.

same word

aTreieels Trapa/ceAeiioj/rai, ets

ay aKKiaciv

o.vTovsKaXov,T,s.
2

1 he

latter part of the translation

that is used directly after, in the quotation from Isaiah, and rendered ' lamb.'

Difference between the sacrifice of Christ, and that of Isaac. 51

And
his

ou

this

hand on the kd,

account [Abraham] was restrained from Uiying A.D. lest the Jews, taking occasion from the

3H4.

sacrifice of Isaac,

should reject the prophetic declarations concerning our Saviour, even all of them; but more especially those uttered by the Psalmist; Sacrifice and offering

Ps. 40, 6.

Thoa wouldest not; a


should refer
all

J)ody

Thou hast prepared

Me; and

such things as these to the son of Abraham. For the sacrifice was not properly the establishment' of Isaac, but of Abraham who also offered, and by that he was
tried.

Thus God accepted

the

will

of the

ofi'erer,

but

prevented that which was oftered For the death of Isaac did not procure freedom to the world,

from being sacrificed.

but that of our Saviour alone, by whose stripes we all are For He raised up the falling, healed the sick, healed. and, satisfied those wdio were hungry, and filled the poor having what is more wonderful, raised us all from the dead abolished death. He hath brought us from afiliction and sighing to the rest and gladness of this feast, a joy which
;
:

Is.

53, 5.

reacheth even to heaven.

For not we alone are affected by this, but because of it, even the heavens rejoice with us, and the whole church together of the first-born, written in heaven, is made glad,
heavens, for the as the prophet proclaims, saying, Rejoice, ye Shout, ye foundations of the comforted Israel.

Hch.

12,

Is-

44, 23.

Lord hath Cry out with joy, ye mountains, ye high places, and earth. the Lord hath reall the trees ivhich are in them, because
deemed Jacob, and Israel hath been
c

glorified.

And a; .gam

want

the meaning.

I use the word ' establishment' for of one that would better express ^ \ ;rt7 T,,

The

.^ynac

:,

i>

\^yOl

J^^^^g.^^^

S. Cyril, in his hs koX irpoacp^put^ ^J/. fifth Paschal discourse, treats the subjeer of ti;e sacntice of Isaac at length.

,>^

1^,'^^,

^,

r^

^^

the rendering of the Greek Si6pea}(Ti5 in Heb. ix. 10, /uf'xpi Katpov The sacrifice of Isaac SiopOucrews. was not only to serve as a type of the deiith of Christ; but the particular circumstances attending it, were de-

which

is

'i^aaK hoO^laav vtt6(tx^(^\^ aTroir\rjpov. ^-Qai irapa &eod, el nv Sia rov oravpov evKoyiav tqQ Xpicrrov ttc/xttoi/tos QeKr^aas ^,^1 rravTa to. I'Ovtj, aifayKaius

tV

i-^^Zf-^^al

0ebs,

0(Tr]v

avr^

Ka.\

ttt)\'ikii)v

signed for the instruction of Abraham, and his establishment in the Christian Conf. Theophylact on the pasfaith. sage in Heb. ^xpt ttjs rov XpiaTou vapovaias, rod iJ.e\>^ovTos Siwp6ui(Ta(Tdai ravTa,Kal T7]v aK-rjOiu^v KalnvtvixaTLKliv The origiiiiil Kaipeiau iiTfiaayayeiy. Greek was probably oi) yap biSpdwais Tov 'lo-aoK -fivv 6uTia,iL\\arov'\^paa^i,

^Trovefxei tj]u x^P'*'. "^^^P "^^^ '^"^ crirep^^aTos avrou awrr^pias, eavdrcp irapaSig^j^^

^^^ tdiouvlhu,

(piial irphs

avrhu, Kal

^,^^ ifi^pai^TiKunara' \d8e rhu vl6u <tov. ^^^^ ^.j^^j^ explains the ditVerent parts of ^^^ history in order, shewing h<>w tiiey ^.^.^^ desigiit-d for the insi ruction ol

Abraham
i,i,n^

in the first place,

and through
of
all

-i]

for

the instruction

the

faithful.
-2

52 The Church in heaven keeps festival

tvith the

Church on earth.

Letter Rejoice, and he glad, ye heave^is;


Is7i97l37
'^^**
^^^^

let

the hills melt into glad-

Ps. 150,

people, and comf^^ forted the oppressed of the people. The whole creation keeps my brethren, and every thing that hath breath 6. a feast,
praises the Lord, as the Psalmist [says], both on account of the destruction of the enemies, and our salvation. And very

Lord hath had mercy on His

L.ike 15,7.

right is it; for if there is joy in heaven over one sinner that repenteth, what should there not be over the abolition of sin, and the resurrection of the dead? Or what kind of a
feast

and gladness must there be

in

heaven

how must

all its

hosts joy and exult, as they rejoice and watch in our assemblies, both those held from time to time, and especially those
at Easter
?

For they look on sinners while they repent

on

who have turned away their faces, when they become converted; on those who formerly persisted in lusts and excess, but who now humble themselves by fastings and temperance and, finally, on the enemy who lies weakened,
those
;

no longer possessed of
Cor. 55.
1
1

that

we may mock
is

where

thy sting,

hfe, being bound hand and foot, so him Where is thy victory, O Death ? O Grave^? Let us then sing unto the
at
;

Lord a victorious song of

praise.

Who
this
Ps. 42,4.
?

then will conduct us to such a company of angels as Who, coming with a desire for the heavenly feast,

and tlie angelic holiday, will say like the prophet, / will pass to the place of the tvondrous tabernacle, unto the house of God; with the voice of joy and praise, with the shouting
of those ivho keep festival? To such a state, the saints also encourage us, saying. Come, let us go up to the mountain of the Lord, and to the house of the God But such a of Jacob. feast as this is not for an impure person, neither is the approach to it for sinners; but it is for the virtuous and diligent; and such as have the same end in view as the saints for. Who shall ascend to the hill of the Lord? or who
;

Is. 2, 3.

Ps. 24, 3.

shall stand in

His holy place, but he that hath clean hands, and a pure heart; who hath not devoted his soul to vanity, nor
d

Conf.

Athan.

de

Incarn.

Verbi

rvpovur.s

tc5

XpiarS vAemTo^re. rhv

ros Kul arr,Xrr.vee.ros 6nh rov ^crvpos

^..coO.u Kar'

ahrov y.ypa^^dua Xiyourls

Ta9 WSas, Tra^res ol eV XpitrroJ hia^aipour.s avrhu Karairarodcn, Ka\ f,ap.


/.al

rh Kurpov e yjd. note k, to Letter

v. p.

39.

The examples of Moses, David, and Daniel

53

he, as sworn deceitfully to his neighbour. For blessing from the a receive adds, when he goes up, shall

the Psalmist A,D^334.

Lord.

Now

this clearly also refers to

what the Lord gives


^^-^t.^o,

saying. Come, ije blessed, inherit to them at the right hand, But the deceitful, and he the kingdom prepared for you. possesses nothing that is pure, that is not pure of heart, and
(as the

Proverb

saith,

To a

deceitful

man

there

is

nothing Prov.
^

13,

stranger, and of a different good,) shall assuredly, being a unworthy to eat the race from the saints, be accounted Thus Judas eat of it. shall not

^^-a.

12,

Passover, for a foreigner

when
deceit

because he plotted he thought he kept the Passover, from the city estranged against the Saviour, was

company. For the which is above, and from the apostolic with due obeaten be law commanded the Passover to of the deviK, sifted was servance; but he, while eating it,

who had

entered his soul. those who keep the let us not be affected as heaven witli the in celebrating it feast on earth, but as by rightemperance, Let us glorify the Lord, by ancrels. not rejoice, us let And other virtues.

Wherefore

teousness, and those


in ourselves,

but in the Lord, that sve also may be then, as Moses. Let with the saints. Let us keep the feast the seven times, and us watch like David, who rose judgments the righteous middle of the night gave thanks for In the morning I will said. he as early, be us Let of God. in the mornThee, and Thou wilt look upon me:
inheritors

^-

^.

stand before
ing

Thou

tvilt

hear

my

voice.

us pray without ceasing, as but especially those who coo-nisiug the season of prayer, borne that when a testimony is are" honourably married; so we them, keep the feast by to us by these things, and we the m our Lord may be able to enter into the joy of gomg up to wlven Israel, as But kingdom of heaven \ wilderness, being trained Jerusalem, was first purified in the Egypt; as the [divine] word has to forget the customs of
^^

hke Daniel; Paul commanded; all of us


Let us
fast

let

re-

. f

-^1 ^^;; 31 r. f T Luke xxn. Conf.


1

_ji>aiACDf and

^Ar^ are mis>)

^^^

in line or two is preserved here ^,^^^ ^^^^^ in" Cosmas Tndico-

.^^^^^3. ^aJ

oDtws eopTao-aj/res Suvnew-

remarked a. respectively, Cureton in the preface.

Mr.

^.^J^

.^^^^^

54

The Lenten fast a preparatory purification.

Letter graciously prescribed^ to us the holy fast of forty days; let us first be purified and pu^ged^ so that when we depart hence, having been careful of fasting, we may be able to ascend to
'-

the upper chamber

with the Lord, to sup with


is

Him; and
In no

may be

partakers of the joy which

in heaven.

other manner shall


forty days.

we be

able to go

up

to Jerusalem,

and

to

eat the Passover, but as

we apply

ourselves to the fast of

We

begin the

fast of forty
;

days on the

first

day of the

month Phamenoth (Feb. 2b.) and having prolonged it till the fifth of Pharmuthi (Mar. 31.), suspending it upon the previous
first days of the week, and the Saturdays "% then we begin again on the holy days of Easter, on the sixth of Pharmuthi (Apr. 1.), and cease on the eleventh of the same

month (Apr. 6.), late in the evening" of the Saturday, immediately after which there rises upon us the first day of the holy week, on the twelfth of Pharmuthi (Apr. 7.), which extends its beams, with unobscured grace, to
all

the seven weeks of the holy Pentecost. Resting on that day, we shall have fulfilled, through all the season, the feast of Easter, by Jesus Christ our Lord, through Whom, to the Father, be glory and dominion for ever and ever.

Amen.

All the brethren who are with one another with a holy kiss.

me

salute you.

Salute

Here endeth the sixth Festal Letter of the holy and God-clad " Athanasius.
'^Syr. rv^6cc.
1^

Vid. note to Letter


1

v.
,

courses.

The Lenten

fast

was usually

arpo-o.v^ Ma-,;or,^

terminated shortly before midnight, on


^e'^a, in the epistle of the

LententastasKa0ap<rr.7rpoe^pr.os vol.1, ' ^'- ' ^^^' Co'nt iuke ;i^ "'^

Th ^t ^.'o . -rhe Saturdays and Sundays during Lent were not observed as fasts, with
n.

Church of ^"^y^"^"' ^^ "^^^^'" f ^he martyrdom Of Polycarp.(Vid. Euseb. H.E. lib iv.
cap. 15.) Dionysius, bishop of Alex andria, the successor of S re proves' those who cea.^' from'^ting

Vark

ry''rCb;of^'^n''T''^^^^"
jejun.tur diebus. vd ed. Par. 1086-90
"
i.

p.

545

^34
.

^-->^---^/^ -P\
ff^<rov(rvs

---c-b^

iyyhs ^8v
koX

avi^uras,

i>s

oXiydopovs

The
is

Syr.

i^ i. 1 ^OaIQ^ jAiD'p^

|Aai*J

doubtless translated from

aKpareis ^e^0o>e0a. Dionys. op. fol. Kom. 1696, p. 108. vid. also Greg. f^o"^ oration on the Kesur^'>f.^^"-

words several times used by S. Cyril towards the end of his paschal Ais-

e.^tt,, ^'''^<^?'->^-

LETTER

VII.

Easter-day IV. Pharmuthi

III.

Kal

Jjiril;

XX. Moon;

A.p^sso^

jEr. Dioclet. 51; Coss. Julius Constantius, the brother of ^'^^^^J^^^^'^ so. Augustus, Rufinus Alhinus; Prccfect, the same Philagrius;

Vill. Indict.
2Cor.4,io. blessed Paul wrote to the Corinthians that he always alone bore in his body the death of Jesus; not as though he in and too we and they also but boast, that make should

^TnE

brethren. And let this be this let us be followers of him, my In this also all times. us at of all of boast the customary
P^.44,22. David participated, saying in the Psalms, For thy sake we the slaughter. die all the day; we are accounted as sheep for days of the the in especially us, in becoming Now this is Saviour is our of death the of commemoration feast, when a is also caredeath, His in Him like made is who held. For he mortified his members Col. 3, 5. ful in the practice of virtue, having

which are upon the earth, and crucifying the flesh with the but he lives in the Spirit, and is conaffections and lusts He is always mindful of God, and Spirit. formed to the
:

Gal. 5, 25.

forgets

Him

not, and never does the deeds of death.

On

this account, in order that

we may bear

in

our body the

death of Jesus,

he immediately adds, when describing as it 2Cor.i,u. such fellowship, zve having the same spirit of faith, also ive spoken; I have therefore is written, I believed, and the of speaking also, adds He believe, and therefore speak.
grace
that
arises

from knowledge;

For

He

that

raised'2Cnr.4,}4.

The twentieth Letter, as far as it is extant, bears a great resemblance with In both, the comparison between this natural and spiritual rood is enlarged upon, and several of the same quota-

tions are adduced in them, to illustrate the character of sinners an.l their lood and as contrasted with the righteous

the

nourishment

they

derive

from

God.

50 The present condition, and the future misery, of the wicked,

LETTER up Jesus, will also raise us up with Jesus\ and will present us
before

Him

with you.
faith
life,

When, by such
joy wliich
is

and knowledge, the saints have

they also receive, doubtless, the heaven; for which the wicked not caiino-, ''''' ^^eservedly deprived of the blessedness arising from it' Is 26 ^''' ^^^ ^^'^ wicked he taken away, so that he shall not see (LXX.^^* ver..) the glory of the Lord. For although, when they shall hear Ep^.5,H. the universal publication of the promise, Aioake, thou that
in

attained to this true

steepest, and arise from the dead, they shall rise and shall Mat.25,i].reach even to heaven, knocking and saying. Open to usnevertheless the Lord will reprove them, as those who put Lote 13, the knowledge of Himself far from them, saying, / know you But the holy Spirit cries against them. P.. 9, 17. '^ot. The

wicked

shall he turned into hell, even all the nations that forget God.

They indeed humble themselves, (we may say of

the wicked,)

but not by a discipline opposed

to sin; for they

do not, like

the saints, bear death in their body. soul sms and follies, drawing

T n ^-v.ii,

with dead nourishment; like^ young eagles which i'^^'^^^' ^P^^^ the carcases of the dead, and *'';;"V'f' which the law prohibited, commanding
It

fymg

rather bury the near to the dead, and sati-

They

figuratively.

Shalt not eat the eagle, nor

Thou

dead carcase; and


2. I. ^13 ->13.

it

any other bird that feedeth on a pronounced unclean whatsoever eateth


say
die.

""\
!i thing

but

^?

"^^'^ ^'^^ '^'^ -"^ -ith lusts, and let us eat and drink, for to-morrow

we

14 Is 22 14. 13.22,

^;^^;^^^'^^^ '^^'^ ^^^-' -^^o thus love pleasure, " he v" nnmediately describes, adding, And
'm the ears of the

tke.e things are revealed

Lord of Hosts,

forgiven you until ye die.


shall

that this srn shall not be

Yea, even while they live, they be ashamed, because they consider their belly their Lord; and, when dead, they shall be tormented, as
those

iCor M.. G 13

p Paul
1

" ' ^'"' ""^^ ^ '''''^'' r' bears witness, saying. Meats
'^'

^^^ ^l- -ff-t also


^

for the belly and the belly

^;;^^''''^''^'
IN 24 21 ls.24,2l.divine

the ^f ^^-fbefore respecting saymg declared them; The death

d^^troy both

U and

them.

And

with which the PesL-to version

aXi

roi^Eph";:
^

\^(^.

,^.

Sorre

Ms.,

however^

T'"" For U^iiD^ ,,. Zok)^.

'^

'""

"'^^'^^

contrasted with the state of the good here and hereafter.

57
A.

who hate the righteous commit For bitter is the worm, and grievous the darkness, sin. which wicked men inherit. But the saints, and the real followers of virtue, mortify their members tvhich are ujwn
of s'mners
is

evil,

and

those

335

Cu\.3,

a.

the earth, fornication, uncleanness, ivicked imssio7is, evil con-

cupiscence; and, as the result of this, are pure and without


spot,

confiding in the promise of our Saviour,


the

who
see

said.

Blessed are

pure

in

heart, for

they

shall

God.

^^'^^^^-^j^-

These, having become dead to the world, and renounced the merchandise of the world, meet with an honourable death
precious in the sight of the Lord is the They are also able, preserving the death of His saints. Apostolic likeness'', to say, / am crucified with Christ, never-

such as

this;

for,

I'^-

'Hsi';.

GhI.

-2,

20.

theless
is

live; yet not I, hut Christ liveth in


life,

me.

For that
although

the true

which

man

lives in Christ; for

they are dead to the world, yet they dwell, as it were, in heaven, meditating on those things which are above, as he

who was

a lover of such a habitation said. While ive


is in

era//c T'hil.3,20.

on earth, our dwelling

heaven^.
live,

and participate in such God, which may be set down as the peculiar duty of a feast and a holiday ^ For the feast is not an indulgence in food, nor splendor''' of clothing, nor days of leisure, but it is an understanding directed to God, and the offering of thanksgiving by a song
Those, therefore,

who

thus

virtue, are alone able to give glory to

>

Syr. eiKwv.

quoted
x^'"
^

we

also find virapx^'^'^


'

f"^^

v-ndp

This quotation does not quite agree wi th the reference given (Phil. iii. 20 ) The idea of walking appears to have been transferred by Athan. from the preceding verses (17, 18.) to the sentiment conveyed in the verse referred to.
It is rather singular that the sentence found here occurs elsewhere in conjunction with the phrase of Scripture, and that both are there assigned to the Apostle. They are found in a treatise contained among those of doubtful au-

Conf. Letter iii. p. 23. What else the feast, but the service of God ? And what is that service, but prolonged prayer to God and nnceasiug thankagiving ? B (pavraaia {^yr.) ruiv ItiariaiV. Cont Thess. ii. p. 41 4. 1 Tim. ii. 9. Suicer. Athan. Op. t. ii. p. 406. ixia-qaov Se /cat tos oluonocrias koI iroXvcpaylas rhv KaKKwirKTfibvTwvlixariuv jJicr-qaov. Lars,
is
J

The
and

thenticity;

'

S.

Athan.
ii.

in
p.

fecti in P.igiun," torn.

Pro57.^Koi^e 7ap
lllud,

(juoted

short treatise from which this is is getierally considered spurious, may he doubted whether the it

ToG airoarSKov \4youros- inl Trjs yris wepiirarovvres, iv ovpavols rh TToK'nevp.a ^X^Mf' a^ Vh^^v 5e ^h iru\iT(vixa iv
ovpavcf virapxfrw.

sitnilarity

between

it,

and the Syriac

in

this plare, is sufficiently close to warrant an argumt-nt for its authenticity to be

ence:

the

Syr.

^
V

There

is

this differ-

drawn from

it.

The same remark may

A 1 answers to L\^\
^"
^h^ treatise

apply to the short quotation from the ^^^^ trt-ntise, given in a note in this
L, tter, p.
<J4.

^Xo/xiv, not

fx'^f-'-^''-

58
Letter

Sin)iers inccqmhle of observing the festival,

of praise to Himh.

Now
;

this appertains to the saints alone,


it
is

p^^jg
17.18.
'

who
but

live in Christ

for

written,

The dead

shall not

praise Thee,

we who

live

Lord, neither all those loho go down to hell; ivill bless the Lord, from henceforth even for
it

ever.
18.38, 18.

death, and therefore praised


hell

was with Hezekiah, who was delivered from God, saying. Those who are in cannot praise Thee; the dead cannot bless Thee; but the
also

As

living shall bless Thee, as

T also
who

do.

For

to praise

God

belongs to those only

live in Christ,

and bless and by such

means they go up to the feast; for the Passover is not of the Gentiles, nor of those who are yet Jews in the ilesh but of those who acknowledge the truth in Christy accordir:or.5,
7.

ing to the declaration of a feast; Our Passover,

him who was


Christ,
is

sent to proclaim such

sacrificed.

Therefore,

although wicked
the
saints,

men

press forward to keep the feast, and,

as at a feast^, praise

God, and intrude into the Church of

Ps. 50, 16.

expostulates, saying to the sinner, Wherefore dost thou talk of My lawsi And the gentle Spirit Ecclusje, rebukes them, saying. Praise is not comely in the mouth of a sinner^. Neither hath sin any place in common with the
praise of
Prov. 15,

yet

God

things,

as

God; but the sinner has a mouth speaking perverse the Proverb saith, The mouth of the wicked

For how is it possible for us to with an im.pure mouth? since things which are contrary to each other cannot exist in the same person.
praise

answereth evil things.

God

2 Cor 6,35.

For what communion is tliere of righteousness with iniquity? or, what fellowship is there between light and darkness? go exclaims Paul, a minister of the Gospel. Thus it is that sinners, and all those who are aliens from
are

the Catholic Church, heretics, and schismatics, since they excluded from the praise of the saints, cannot properly

^
^
>^

even continue observers of the feast. But the righteous man, although he appears dying to the world, uses plainness
of speech-, saying,

118,17.

I shall

not die, but

live,

and narrate

all

Thy marvellous deeds. For even God is not ashamed to be called the God" of those who truly mortify their members
Cofif.
i

Letter

vi. p.

V,(le Letter v,. p

46, nute i. 40. note g.

juxta-position in the Ep. ad Episecp. ^.ypti et Libyan, torn. i. p. 214:


"'

^
^

For |j|l*Dj

lea.

|^|Vn

T^a-pprjaia (Syr.)

xp^rai.

These two

tJxts' are* also quottd in

"

^'""^' ^''^' ^'- ^^'

because they seek not the true bread.


wliich are
;

59

upon the earth ", but live in Christ for He is the A.D.335. And He, by His of the living, not of the dead. living Word, quickeneth all men, and gives Him to be food

God

and

life to

the saintsr; as also the

Lord exclaims, / am

the Johiw;,-JH.

The Jews, being unsound in their perception, bread of life. and having the senses of the mind unexercised to virtue, and not alive to seek after such bread, murmured against Him, because He said, / am the bread which came dow7i ^ohuG^ai.
from heaven, and giveth
life

unto men.
;

For

sin has her

own

peculiar bread, [bread] of her death wherefore, calling to those who are lovers of pleasure and lack understanding,

she saith. Touch with delight secret bread, and sweet waters ivhich are stolen; for he who merely touches them knows

Prov.9,18.

not that the earth-born perish with her. For even when the sinner looks for gratification, he finds not the result of its meat pleasant, as the Wisdom of God saith again. Bread
of deceit
is

^i^^-

20,

j^leasant to a

be filled tvith gravel.

man; but afterwards his mouth shall And, Honey droppeth from the lips o/prov.

5, 3.

a whorish woman, which, for a time, is sweet to thy palate; but at the last thou shall find it more bitter than gall, and Thus, then, he eats and is sharper than a two-edged sword.
delighted for a
little

time; afterwards he spurneth

it

w^hen

he hath removed his soul afar. For the fool knoweth not that those who are far from God shall perish. Moreover, in accordance with this, the prophetic admonition says,

by way of
to

restraint,

What

hast thou to do in the

Jer. 2, 18.

drink the loaters of Gihon? And what hast way oj way of Asshur, to drink the waters of the the thou to do in wisdom of God, which loves mankind, the rivers? But forbids these things, crying, But depart quickly, tarry not

Egypt,

neither fix thine eye upon it; for thus thou shalt pass ocer strange waters, and depart quickly from the
in

the place,

strange

river"^.

She

also calls

them

to herself.
it

For wisdom

Prov. 9,

1.

hath builded her house, and supported

on seven pillars;

Conf. Col. iii. 5. Larsow renders this passage erro'Hequickens conceive. ntnu<5lv, as through His living word every one, the 'saintss, fooc, to and gives to him life. The Syriac IS iiteiall) translated, as given above, auil liie context seems
P
I

to require that Christ should be here set forth as tood and life, or, the food oJ
lite

'the bread of

life.'

T his quotation

The words
version,

is from Frov. ix. 18. are lound in the LXX. though not in the original

Hebrew.

()0

The craving of

the nalural

man

never satisfied,
in the

Lettepv she hath killed her sacrifices,


gohlets,

and minyled her wine

and prepared her


Whoso
is

table,-

she hath sent forth her

servants, inviting to the goblet with a loud proclamation,

saying,

foolish, let

him turn

in

to

and me; and to

Prov. 9,

6.

them that lack understanding she saith. Come, eat of my and drink of the ivine I have mingled for you. And what expectation is there in return for these things ? Forbread,

may live, and seek understanding that ye For the bread of Wisdom is also living fruit, John G, 51. as the Lord said; / am the living bread which came down from heaven: if any man eat of this bread, he shall live for For when Israel ate of the manna, which was truly ever. pleasant and wonderful, lie died; and it was not the case that he who ate of that lived for ever, but all that multitude The Lord thus teaches, saying, / ^^^^ ^^^ ^^^ wilderness. 4s^V!' am the bread of life: your fathers did eat manna in the This is the bread which came wilderness, and are dead. down from heaven, that a man should eat thereof, a7id not die. Now wicked men hunger for bread like this, for sickly souls will hunger; but the righteous alone, being prepared,
sake folly that ye

may

abide.

"^

Prov. \7,

Prov. 10,3.

/ shall behold Thy face in righI shall be satisfied when Thy glory is seen by me. For he who partakes of divine bread always hungers with desire; and he who thus hungers has a never-failing gifts as Wisdom promises, saying. The Lord will not slay the
shall

be

satisfied, saying,

teousness;

righteous soul with famine.


Ps. 132,15.

It

is

also

promised in the

Psalms,
her poor

will

abundantly

bless her provision^ ;

I will

satisfy

ivi

h bread.

We may also
is

hear our Saviour saying,


saints

Matt. 5,

6.

Blessed are they who hunger and thirst after righteousness,

for they shall be filled.

Well then do the


this.

and those

who

love the

life

which

in Christ raise themselves to a

longing after such food as

And

one earnestly implores,

As men, we must always be subject we mu^t /iimger and thirst. As Chrhtians^ we are to seek to have these desires sanctijied we are to hunger and thirst after righteousness. The

to desires

to be an error.
*

Athan.here adopts the more correct

reading of the
tion to the

LXX.

dr\pav in opposi-

the natural craving is never satiated righteous man, on the contrary, has the promises of i?crij)tnre that he shaft l/e JUled,'' not slnijt irith famine,'^ satisfied
;
'

word xvp^v ( Vulg. Viduam ). He tells us, however, that both readings were found even in his time. Expos, in Psalmos, p 9/4. Htjv Orjpai/ avTTJs euAoywy ^vAoyfiaca yf/dcpeTai Se koI t^v
xvpai" avrris, koa (TTaaiaarov.
S-nXoyori
rrju

airpo-

ivith
^

Oread ^^

ikv.

The Lomad

htfoie this word appears

wJiile the

want of the true believer


the hart
j)(t,nt(ith

is

supplied hy Christ.

61

saying,

As

after the fountains of waters, so A.D. 335.

jmnteth

my

soul after Thee,

God!

My

soul thirstethfor^^-^^'^-

the living

And

God, when shall I come and see the face of God? another; My God, my God, I seek Thee early; my soul

?s. 63,

i. 2.

and pathless land, and ivithout ivater. So did I appear before Thee in holiness to see Thy power and Thy glory.
in a dry

thirstethfor Thee; often does

my flesh,

Since these things are

so,

my

brethren, let us mortify our

Col. 3, 5.

members which
living bread

out faith
this.

faith and love to God knowing that withimpossible to be partakers of such bread as For our Saviour, when He called all men to Him, and
it is

by

are on the earth, and be nourished with

If any man thirst, let him [come'''] to Me and drink, John immediately added the faith without which a man cannot receive such food; He that believeth on Me, as the Scripture John
said,
saith, out

7,37.

7,38.

And of his belly shall flow rivers of living ivater. further, He always nourished His believing disciples with

His words, and gave them life by the nearness of His divinity; but to the Canaanitish woman, because she was not yet a believer. He deigned not even a reply, although she stood greatly in need of food from Him. He did this not from scorn, far from it; (for the Lord is loving to men and good, and on that account He went into the coasts of Tyre and Sidon;) but because of her unbelief, and because she was a profane woman, destitute of the word. And He did it righteously, my brethren; for it was not of advantage that she should prefer her supplication before faith, but that she should corroborate her prayer by her faith For he that Cometh to God, must flrst believe that He is, and that He is a reivarder of them that seek Him; and that without faith it is impossible for a man to phase Him. This Paul teaches. Now that she was up to that time an unbeliever, one of the
;

Htb. ii,g.

profane,
bread,

He

shews, saying. It

is

not meet to take the children s

lviat.i5,2G.

and to cast it to dogs. She then, being convinced by the power of the word, and having changed her profane state, also acquired faith; for the Lord no longer treated her as a
dog, but conversed with her as with a

human

being, saying,

ivoman, great

is

thy faith/

As

therefore she believed.

He
it

forthwith granted to her the fruit of faith, and said,


"

Be

>:at. 15,25.

The word j^P ought probably

to l>e supplied iu the

Ms.

62
Letter
VII.
'-

Christ the food even of arigeh*

to thee as

thou deslrest.

And- her dauqhter was healed in the

self-same hour
For the righteous man, when fed by faith and knowledge, and performance of divine words, has his soul always in Wherefore it is commanded to receive to ourselves health. him ivho is weak in the faith and to nourish him, even if he is not yet able to eat bread, but herbs, (/or he that is iveak For even the Corinthians were not able to eateth herbs.) partake of such bread, being yet babes, and like babes they drank milk. For every one that partaketh of milk is unskilful in the word of righteousness, according to the words
^

Rom.14,1.

Heb.5,

13.

of that godlike man^.


1

The Apostle
first

also enjoins his beloved

Tim.

4, 6.

son Timothy, in his

Epistle, to he nourished ivith the

word of faith, and


2 Tim.
1,

good doctrine whereto he had attained^, form of sound words which thou hast heard of me, in faith and love which are in
the

And

in the second, Preserve thou the

Christ Jesus.

And

not only here,

my

brethren,

is this

bread

the food of the righteous;


earth alone nourished

neither are the saints on the

by such bread and such blood; but


is

we

also eat

them

in

heaven, for the Lord

the food even of


is

the exalted spirits, and the angels, and

He

the joy of all

the heavenly host^

And

to all

He

is

every thing, and

He

spareth
the
Lul;e 22,

all

according to His lovingkindness.


angels' food
a,

Lord given us
w\ith

who Continue
to

Him

in

you a kingdom, as

My

and He His trials, saying, Arid Father hath promised to


table in

Already hath promises to those

I promise Me; that


on

ye shall eat arid drink at

My

My kingdom, and sit


how

twelve thrones, judging the twelve tribes of Israel. What kind of a banquet is it, my brethren, and

great

^ St. Paul. 'O airo(TT6Kos n.avKos 5i-

^acTKaXos
eOvTf

iduwv

yevSfxeuos, Koi

els

to.

a-nrocTTaXels KrjpvTreLU

Xlov, ypd\pas re

rh evayyeiraairoh eOveai, ypd<pei

Aoiirhv Kol Tois iKTrpLTOjj.?]s iricTT evaacnv

'E^paiois airo^eiKTiKT^v TavTfiv iin(TroX-r]v. Synopsis Script. Sacr. p. ]51. apud

Athanasium.
rov UavKov)
e(TTL KoL airh

Again,
iffriv
t]

"On

avrov

(sc.

iincrroXTj, (pavepdv

De
y
'^

tov reXovs rris iiriaToXris. Sancta Trinitate, p. P 41 1.

For *02L3J

leg.

<^ni>
'

holding at all times the face of the Father, and of the Saviour Who is in heaven.' Conf. Ps.lxx-viii.25. 26. ' And gave them food from heaven. So man did eat angels' food.' S. Athan. on the passage ( Expos, in Psalmos, p. 908.) says, that God not only fed the bodies of the Israelites with manna, but also their souls with a certain reasonable and heavenly virtue, &(T7rep afxeXel Siarpecpei Ka\ rohs ayyeXovs. Referring to 1 Cor.
**

Conf. Letter i. p. 8. For the angels are no otherwise sustained than by be-

X. 3. he says, cos Trvev/xar iKhu ecpayov ^P^l^^^ tovto Se ^u 6 vvv &pros ayyeXwu
ovof/.a(6fMeuos.

The treatment the prodigal son


is

receives on his return home.

03
335.

the
!

table
is

harmony and gladness of those who eat at this heavenly AD. For they delight themselves not with that food which

but with that which produces life everlasting. Who then shall be deemed worthy of that assembly ? Who is so blessed as to be called, and accounted worthy of that
cast out,

divine feast?

For, blessed

is

he tvho shall eat bread in

Thy

Luke
'"''

14,

kingdom. For he who has been adjudged worthy of this heavenly calling, and by this calling has been sanctified, if lie grow negligent in it, although washed, becomes defiled counting the blood of the covenant by ichich he was sanctified a profane thing, and despising the Spirit of grace, he hears
the words, Friend, how earnest thou in hither, not having For the banquet of the saints is spotless tcedding garments?

Heb.io,29.

Mat.22,12.

and pure; for many are called, but few chosen. Judas, to wit, though he came to the supper, inasmuch as he thought lightly of it, went out from the presence of the Lord, and But the dishaving abandoned his I.ife^, hanged himself. ciples who continued with the Redeemer, partook also of the And that young man who went into happiness of the feast.
a far country,

^^^*-^^'^'**

and there wasted

his substance, living in dis-

sipation, if he contract a desire for this divine feast, and,

coming
and

to himself, shall say.

Hew many

hired servants of

my
!

Luke

15,

father have bread to sjmre, while


shall

I perish

here with hunger

him, saying,

then arise and come to his father, and confess to I have sinned against heaven and before thee, and

am

not zvorthy to be called thy son;

make me
for.

as one of thy

hired servants;

when he shall thus confess, then he shall be


For the
fcither
; ;

counted worthy of more than he prayed

does not receive him as a hired servant, neither does he look upon him as a stranger but he kisses him as a son he receives

him

dead man alive again and deems him worthy of the divine feast, and gives him his former and precious garment'. So that, on this account, there is singing and gladness in the For this is the work of the lovingkindness paternal home. and grace of the father, that not only should he make him
as a
;

alive

illustrious

from the dead, but that he should also render his grace through the Spirit. Therefore, instead of cor-

Conf. Col.

iii.

4. b

Xpiarhsv C^h

*=

Syr. (TtoAtj.

04 Exhortation
Letteh
'

to sinners to

return and abide with Christ.

instead of

he clothes him with an incorruptible garment^; hunger, he kills the fatted calf; that he should not henceforth travel afar off, [the father] busies himself on
ruption"^, his return, providing shoes for his feet; and,

what

is

most

wonderful, putting a divine signet-ring upon his hand whilst by all these things He begets him afresh ^ in the

image of the glory of Christ. These are the gracious gifts of the Father, by which the Lord honours and nourishes those who abide with Him, and also those who return to Him and repent. For He promises,
John
6, 35.

saying,

I am

the

bread of

life;

he that cometh unto

Me

shall

John

6, GS.

Rom. 8,

13.

and he that believeth on Me shall never thirst. We, too, shall be counted worthy of these things, if, at all times, we cleave to our Saviour, and if we are pure, not only in these six days of Easter^', but consider our whole course as a feast ^, and continue near and not far off, saying to Him, Thou hast the words of eternal life, and whither shall we go? Let those of us who are far off return, confessing our iniquities and possessing nothing before men, but by the spirit mortifying the deeds of the body. For thus,
not hunger,

Matt. 25,

having beforehand nourished the soul here, we shall partake, with angels, at that heavenly and spiritual table not knock;

ing,

and being repulsed,

like those five foolish virgins,

but

In the Syr. Ms. there is an error throDgh the transposition of letters,

U^i^
^1^_
e

bein^
"

written

instead

of

^^^^^Conf. Athan. op.


iK76y
iuSixrr)
ere

gesimse), those days that follow immediately, viz. the second, third, fourth &c. were by the Greeks 'termed f^'-f. V oevTpa TTjs aTro/cpew, t] rpirT), &c. until the following Sunday, which was

torn.

ii.

p.

406.

termed

/cuptaKr? rris

aTroKpeco (l.atinis,

'iva

Xpiarhs Kal

Dominica

Sexagesiraee),

while

the

&hs vfiwu (TToKr)v


(Tias.
f

8(i|7js,

euSvfxa acpOap-

But
^

vid. note g, p. 57.

Syr.

^>ri^-So we find
. .

quoted
*

inCa^tell s.v..fi-J Ablutio


qua^ denuo
s
fit.

t^JflLDj
to

whole week was called i^^o/xas rrjs airoKp^co. Vid. Suicer. Thes. in voc. '*"'^""^ Valesius on i'^^T^A" ^V Euseb. Orat. m laud. Constant, ch. ix. With us, Easter-week includes the six days/ti/Zoi^-/?/^ Easter-Sunday with the

V^

The woid irdaxa appears

be

Greeks, the
^*^^^'

4^Sofj.a,-s

rSiv -naaxoiv

was

applied in this place Kar i^oxvi^, to the Passion week, (^ hyia koL ueyaKr]

app'Jed to the preceding six days, as


^, Athan. frequently speaks in these ^pi^tles of the Easter- festival as de^ig^^^ to bring us nearer to Christ. ^^^^^^ ^'^e is to be a continual ^'!K *pii;Jtual feast of praise and thanks. S'^ing to God, whereby we are to be Ffpared forChrisfspres -nee in heaven. '^''^"P'"^) P- ^7. and Letter v. sub
.

i^dofxasi^SofihsTwuTraaxcou). So we read (Athan. op. tom. i. p. 256.) ^era yap TO. e^dofxa tov -iTaa-xa k. t- A. The Greeks usually designated' the days of the week, not 'after the ;;rerc<//;2^, but
ihe follow hiy Sunday.

Thus

after the

Sunday
ri;G

ot ^the

ao-wToy (Latinis

Prodigal Son, KvpiaKT] Dominica Septua^

init.

Conclu.'iion.

05

entering with the Lord, like those who were wise and k)ved A.l).335. the bridegroom; and, sliewing the death of Jesus in our -Cot.4,l0. bodies, we shall receive life and the kingdom from Him.

We

begin the fast of forty days on the twenty-third of

Mecheir (Feb. IT.), and the holy fast of the blessed feast on the twenty^eighth of Pliamenoth (Mar. 2i.) and having
;

joined to these, six days after them, in fastings and watclfings, as each one is able, let us cease on the tliird of the month Pharmuthi (Mar. 19.), on the evening of the seventh
day.

Also that day which

is

holy and blessed in every

Christ, the Lord's day'', having risen upon us, (on the fourth of Pharmuthi, Mar. 80.), let us afterwards keep the holy feast of Pentecost. Let us
at all

thing, which possesses the

name of

times worship the Father through Christ, by Whom to and with Him be glory and dominion by the Holy Ghost for ever and ever. Amen.

Him

All the brethren

who

are with

me

salute

you: salute one

another with a holy kiss.

Here endeth the seventh


the Patriarch.

Festal Letter of holy Athanasius

There is no eighth or ninth, for he did not send them, for the reason I have before mentioned
'.

^ Kvpiwuvfjios

KvpiaKi]

L.Vid.Suicer
ii.

Thes.
S.
'

sul) vof.

Kvpiax'}], torn.

p. 18-4.

A than,

on the pa^sajje in the Psalms,

UvatTTa/rifj.oi'

di'.y which the Lord hath (Tr,ixaiuii 5e o K6yos tijv rov ^wrvpos T)iJ.SiVy ttju ye iiruyv/iof avTov yevupAvr]V, SrjXa^ri, KvpLaKrjr. Expos, in Psalmos, p. 957. See the Index. A than, left Egypt
'

This is the made,' t-nys,

year to attend the synod at theace repaired to the Emperor Constantine to plead liis cause l)efore him. Failing of success in this, he retired, hh an exile, to Treviri, in Gaul. I have changed the order of the last two sentences from that in which they are written in the Syr.
in

this
;

Tyre

Ms.

LETTER

X,

A^p^8^
Easter-da}' on Mar. 2b.

Coss.

[Irs US aiid

Polemius; Prcef. the same Theodorus, of


-^

; and after him, of the Catholics, for the second Helioi^oUs ^ ^ ' -^ year, Philagrius\- Indict. XI,; Easter-day, VII. Kal. Ap.^'

XXX.

Phamenoth; Moon \^,'


I have

Mra

Dioclet. 54.

'Although

been

all

this distance

from you,

my

brethren, I have not

forgotten the custom which obtains

^ The Syriac seems to admit of no other translation, though the passage is not without difficulty. The mention of 'the same' Theodorus would imply that Theodorus had been Prsefect in the pieceding year, (for which there is no Paschal Letter extant, vid. note m. p. 68.) The manner in which the name of Philagrius is introduced 'for the second year,' must refer to his having held the office of Prgefect once before^ though not in the year immediately preceding. His name has already appeared in the title to Letter vi. (where vid. note) and that fo Letter vii. The words, ' of the Catholics,' used in connexion with the name of Philagrius, imply that the term ' Arian' is to be understood of Theodorus. This we might reasonably expect, if he were governor in the preceding year. But that Philagrius should be reckoned among the Catholics is less clear, seeing he is styled by S. Athan. an apostate; and was a close adherent of his fellow-countryman, Gregory, the Arian, towaids whose intrusion imo the see of Alexandria he was afterwards instrumental. He and Gregory are compared by S. Athan. to Pilate and Caiaplias respectively. Vid. S. Athan. Encye. ad Episcopos' Epist. p. 89 9L and p. 93. . 7. To reconcile the manner in which S. Athan. and S. Greg. Naz. speak of Philagrius,

Pagius Valerius and others have supposed that there were two Praefects of that name, father and son. Vid. Historical Tracts of S. Athan. published in this series, p. 224, note; and pref. p xiii. Such an opinion is borne out by the headings of these Epistles, which, indeed, can be reconciled in no other way. Philagrius is first mentioned ' (Letter vi.) as Prefect in 334. The same' Philagrius is mentioned (Letter vii.) as Prsefect in 335. In the present instance, we have Philagrius Prsefect ior the second year.^ Again in the heading to Letter xi. ( A. D. 339,) we read of Philagrius the Cappadocian being Praefect'' for his second time.' There may have been, and there probably was, a confusion in the mind of the writer of these but there seems to be no reasonable doubt from his words, that two persons of the name of Phila' ;

grius
*

filled

the

office

of Prsefect

at

different times.

In the Chron. Pasch. torn. ii. p..202. we find Easter-day given as falling on viii. Kal. A p. This is probably an error, and should be corrected to vii. Kal. Ap. as here given, and which coincides with the 30th of Phamenoth.

Gaul

Athanasius had been in exile in for two years previous. The devices of his enemies had, for a time, been successful with the Emperor, and a constant watch was kept over his
^

; ;

S. Aihanasius ivatched by his enemies.

()7

among you, which has been

delivered to us

by

the fathers

'^

A. D. 388.

so as to be silent without notifying to

you the time of the

annual holy feast, and the day for its celebration. P'or although I have been kept in restraint by those afflictions of which you have doubtless heard, and severe trials have

been laid upon me, and a great distance has separated us while the enemies of the truth have also been on the watch ao-ainst us, laying snares to discover a letter from us, so
that, by their accusations, they might add to the pain of our wounds; yet the Lord, strengthening and comforting us in our afflictions, we have not feared, even when kept in the midst of such machinations and conspiracies, to indicate and make known to you our saving Easter-feast , even from the ends of the earth. Also when I wrote to the presbyters of Alexandria, I urged that these letters might be sent to you through their instrumentality, knowing the fear imposed on Still, I exhorted them to be them by the adversaries. mindful of the apostolic boldness of speech S and to say.

Nothing separates us from the love of Christ; neither


tion,

ajflic- Rom.8,36.

ness, 7ior i^eril,

nor distress, nor persecution, nor famine, nor nakedThus, keeping the feast myself, nor stvord.

I was desirous that you also, my beloved, should keep it and being conscious that an announcement like this is incumbent on me, I have not kept back from discharging

the duty, since I w^as jealous of incurring the imputation implied in the Apostolic counsel; Render to every man his Rom.i3,r. due^.

While
sidered
it

then committed
as a

all

my

affliirs

to

God,

con-

duty to celebrate the feast with you, not For although taking into account the distance between us. place divides us, yet the Lord, the Giver of the feast, and
ThedeathofConstantine,in
on the twenty-seventh of tl.e month Athyr, answering to the twenty-hfth ofNovemher. The Egyptian year (he remembered) commenced on the it

actions.

the year 337, changed the aspect of the Athanasius was aftairs of the Church. again taken into favour, and permitted

return to Alexandria, Constantine younger, who succeeded to the government of Gaul, furnishing a letter to the people of Alexandria, and dedaring that it had been the intention of his father, had he lived, to act in According to the the same manner.
to

twenty-ninth of Augu*t.
'^

the

Assembled

We

at the Counci of Nice, frequently meet with the ex-

Y,res^\onk^hofxitsTov <TwTt]piu>hovs'iri(Txa towards tlie end of the 1 aschal dis-

Index, S. Atl.an. returned from Gnul

course^ of S. Cyril, ^ Tra^/irja-ia Syr. B Conf. Letter iii.p 22. and note

a.

68
Letter
'-

Christ the Besfower of the Spirit.


is

Who

Himself our
peace''.

Spirit', brings us together in

bond of

is also the Bestower of the mind, in harmony, and in the For when we mind and think the same

feast ^,

Who

Matt. 18,
20.

up the same prayers on behalf of each but the Lord gathers and unites us together. For if He has promised, that ivhen two or three are gathered together in His name, He is in the
things, and oiFer

other, no place can divide us;

midst of thenij it is plain that being in the midst of those who in every place are gathered together, He unites them,

and receives the prayers of all of them, as if they were near, and listens to all of them, as they cry out the same

Amen^
I have thus borne affliction like this, and all those trials which I mentioned, my brethren, when I wrote to you. And that we may give you pain in nothing, I would now
"^

h
is

]0C71

^Xa5

Ij'l^jO
rj

'

and who
(or,

tV avTov
5vo
TOo-ovTCDU
(pcour],

avfj-cpuuTjO-aieu

rh TTcttrxa) Tiixoov icm. ' Christ our Passover.' Larsow has missed the point of these words.
koprr)

our feast' %s koI

TOV 2coT?jpo5 eTrayyeXiau, iau ircpl iravThs, ou au


yevrjcreTai

atTTjcrcovTaj,

avTols,

ri

iau

\auv

a-vj/eXOSuTocu fxia y4vr]Tai

The Holy Ghost is especially called the gift of God. Conf. Luke xi, 13. If ye then, being evil, know how to give good gifts unto your children, how
'

KeySuTcov to} eoS t5 a/jLTju ; tis yovv ovK idavfxacTe; tis ovk i/j-aKoipKre ce, jSAeTrojj/ tou ToaovTov \ahv eV kv\ (TvueXOSi/Ta T^TTcp; A somewhat similar passage occurs in Letter xi. where vide
note.
ni

much more

shall

your heavenly Father

give the Holy Spirit to them that ask Him.^ In Oral. ii. contra Arianos He is called Qeov doipov. p. o83. S. Athan. speaks of Him as being in the hands of the Fnther Who sends, and of the Son Who brings Him. Expositio Fidei, p. 81. rh Se dyiov Truev/xa iKv6-

Thus

far in this Letter, S.

Athan

has been referring to the circumstances


attending his exile for the last two years. The principal subject of the remaining part consists of the duty incumbent on us to praise and thank God for deliveraffliction, and to exercise forgiveness towards our enemies- both which points are illustrated by Scrip-

ance from

Tov Tvarphs, ael icmy eV Ta7s Xepcl TOV irijxiTOVTOS irarphs Kol rod
p^vjxa
01/

<j)epouTos

vlov.
s.

S. Basil

declares

of

Him

(de Sp.

57.) Scopou tov Qeov rb

Tli/ev/xa.

The

Syriae here
'

is

luaaLO

<

be-

stower,'

giver,'

from

^^^

concessit,
is

donavit.

The same expression

again

employed in this Letter. W'efind eisewherein S. Athan. thesame titleapplied to C'hrist g. Orat. i. contra Arimos,
; t
.

P 3o9. O TOV TTVeVfiaTOS dOTTJp avTbs 6 \6yos. k Conf. Eph. iv. 3. < The unity of the Spirit in the bond of peace.' Conf. Athan. ad Imperatorem Constantinum Ap^d. j). 242. Et yap kuto,
'

tural examples. He several time.s speaks of his restoration to the Church of Alexandria. For instance, in p. 75, he says; 'Those things which could not be accomplished bv man, God hath shewn to be easy of accomplishment by bringing us to you.' It is very observable, that more than once already (notwithsfanding what was said at the end of Letter vii. probably by the person who collected the Epistles) Athanasius speaks clearly of his not having neglected to send the usual announcement of the time for observing Easter, even when in exile in Gaul. The Lefters at this time may have been, and probahly were, rery brief; but that they were sent, theie can be no doubt.

Tliank.syiv'my ajter deliverance from ajjliction.


also (only) briefly
is

()9
it A.

remind" you of these things^, because

3:w.

not becoming

in a

man

to forget,
;

when more

at ease, the

pains he experienced in tribulation

lest, like an unthcuikf ul and forgetful person, he should be excluded from the divine assembly. For at no time should a man inwardly praise God, more than when he has passed through afflictions; nor,

again, should he at

any
toil

tinie give

thanks more than when

he finds rest from

and temptations.

As Hezekiah,
^e.3s, 20.

when

the Assyrians perished, praised the Lord, and gave

Lord is mi/ salvatio7i^, and I will not Thee with harp all the days of my Hfe, before the house of the Lord. And those three blessed men who were tried in Babylon, Hanaiiiah, Misliae], and Azariali, when they were in safety and the lire became to them as dew, praised and gave thanks, singing a song unto God'^.
thanks, saying. The
cease to bless
I,

Song of the

chiMren
'^^-^'

too, like

them, have written,

my

brethren, having these

things

in

mind;

for even in

our time,

God

hath made

possible those things which are impossible to men.

those things which could not be accomplished by man,

And God

hath shewn to be easy of accomplishment, by bringing us to you. For God does not give us as a prey to those who seek
:! 1A TtUJQil we
^

'*3^'^tr''in"^

mn:*
.u
'

Perhaps
'

for

ehoukl

either in the form


\7
1

read
o

lA *oM*-^ f^UJO^V-).
There
i>

of a prayer, as the Vulg. Domine, salvum me fac; or of a declaration, as the Peschito does; e. g. The Targiim of
1

r%

nothing wanting in the text here, as Larsow^ erroneously supVid. note to p. 55. poses. P 1 differ from Prof. Larsow, who states unhesitatingly that there is an 4.\,^ c,.^; +^f and on/1 tnat tli-if 1 ; error in the ovnac text, ' ,'

u v has J^^^^^an

-i.

,t,

SJiP-^J^nS ^^ nr>S5 S3,. "^^^^ ^^^7


.

Dominus
(Eng.

dixit se liberaturum nos. vers. The Lord was read// to

(of) should

be supplied after

HH^

save me.) What is far more worthy of note is, that the Syriac translator nnist ..u r*u j ropy the Greek readfound in the have r ing of the Codex Alex. Kupie the cori

(Lord), rendering it; * Lord of my salvation !' The translation of the words

not that of the rect rendering of (1171^ ''

Vatican text, 0ee.


^

^OJQ)

l-*r^' as they stand in rni T J r- 1 ^oWo |is my salvai n^ Lord L t>ip ^yriat, <>vr ac i".' The tne ^ ^j^^^ .^I, iiuiio ation which agrees well a tion lion, ^ trans
.

Conf. l?ermo contra omnes hiereses


t. ii.
,

Athan. apud '


t^j/
'

I.

Kafiivov

,^

tov

p.

1H4.
v

ia^aXwu
>*
'

els
\

-nvphs ,r

with the text of the Peschito


^)-,2LJ

Mr^^

A(,aptai',

Koi

Mi(Xa;]\-

Avaviav, koL > _ koL tov dpoao-

TJI^"^^

'The Lord

will deliver us.'

The

fact of the

LXX.

\6yov eV fxeaw ahrwv yii/o/j.fvuv, ! e^Ac{<7avTos r5 TrGp, al aur^. if,. Ihe hist 'ry is also referred i/ovvTwy.
iroiov

version being

j^ |,y
^_

exclamatory 0ee
will ijot

rijs (Toynf)pias

warrant a

fiou^ conjectural emend-

7l\

Athan. Orat. ii. contra Arian. and Epist. ii. ad Serapionem, . 6. the latter place, the miraculous
attrihi^ted
to

ation of the Syriac text here in opposition to the sense of the Peschito. The other versions render the lief,

effect is

the presence of

Chn<^tToi' ^itwlbv l^oyra t7> kol^jlivov.

tlSe (/^ayih\) Spoor-

70

The manifold character of

the

Divine dealings.

Letter

to swallow up not so much us, as the Church, and by '- wickedness to overwhelm faith and"" godliness. They indeed imagined such things; but God, who is good, multiplied His loving-kindness towards us, not only when He vouchsafed to us by His Word the common salvation of us all but also now, when enemies have persecuted us, and have sought to seize upon us. As the blessed Paul saith in a

certain place,
Eph.2,4.5.

of Christ:
whereivith

when describing But God, being rich

the incomprehensible riches


in mercy, for the great love

we were dead in follies and For the might of man and of all creatures, is weak and poor but the Might which is above man, and uncreated, is rich and incomprehensible, and hath no beginning, but is eternal. It does not, then,
loved us, even ivhen
sins,

He

quichened us through"^ Christ.

possess one

method only of healing


manners

but, being rich,

it

by means of His Word, Who is not restricted or hindered in His dealings towards us but since He is rich and manifold. He varies
works
in divers
for our salvation
;

Wistl.;,27.

Himself according to the individual capacity of each soul *. For He is the Word, and the Power, and the Wisdom of God, as Solomon testifies concerning Wisdom, that hei7ig
one,
it

Cor.

itself, it maketh and passing upon holy souls, fashioneth the friends of God and the prophets'^. To those then who have not yet attained to the perfect way as a lamb there is 3, 2. milk, and this was administered by Paul / have fed you

can do all things, and remaining in

all things neiv;

ivitk

milk, not with meat.


full stature

To
is

those

who have advanced


still

from the
Roin. 14,2.

of childhood, but

are

weak

as

regards perfection, the food

according to their capacity,

being again administered by Paul^; Let him that is weak eat herbs. But as soon as ever a man begins to walk in the
'

The

conjunctionj Q, seems wanting

in the Syriac.
8 The Syriac seems to require this rendering. Or it may be, quickened us in Christ.' The Peschito ( Snv
'

) agrees better with the ori] '. ( / ginal ; o-v;/eC<^07rr)[7j(re rcf, XpiaT^. t All the various attributes and per. fections ot the Deity, as exhibited in the person of Christ, work together for the salvation ut man. By His gospel,

>^>^^

upholds and strengthens them ; and by His wisdom, He guides them. " ^^nf. Letter i. p. 3. " ^^*^ sense in the last few lines, and in those that follow, is clear, though ^^' construction appears somewhat obscure. Milk, herbs, and meat, are severally mentioned in connection with the different advances made in the Chiistian course. The translation of p^of. Larsow is unsatisfactory, and, as
i think, erroneous.

He

instructs

them

by His power,

He

The Divine grace variously


perfect

distributed.

way, he
it
is

is

no longer fed with the

thingsj before A. P. 838.

mentioned;
food, for
J'ull

but he has the

Word

for bread,
is

and

liesli

for
14.

for those who are o/Heb.5, age, for those who, by reason of their capacity, have their
written, Strong meat

senses exercised.

Further also, when the word is sown, it does not yield a uniform produce of fruit in this human life, but one various and rich; for it bringeth forth, some an hundred, and some
sixty,

Matt.13,8.

and some thirty y, as the Saviour teaclies that Sower And this is no of grace, and Bestower of the Spirit ^ doubtful matter, nor one that receives no coniirmation but it is in our power to behold the field which is sown by Him for in the Church the word is manifold and the produce" rich. Nor are virgins alone signified by such a field; nor monks'* alone, but also honourable matrimony and the abstinence of each one. For in sowing, He did Nor is the grace not compel the will beyond the power.
; ;

confined to the perfect alone

but

it

is

sent dov/n also

among
so that

those

who occupy

the middle and the third ranks,

He

might rescue

all

men

generally to salvation.

Therefore also

He

hath prepared

many mansions with


is

the John

14,2.

Father, so that although

the dwelling-place

various in

proportion to the advance in moral attainment, yet all of us are within the wall, and all of us enter within the same
fence, the devil

being cast out, and

all his

host expelled

For apart from light there is darkness, and apart from blessing there is a curse. The devil also is apart from Therefore also the the saints, and sin far from virtue. Gospel rebukes Satan, saying. Get thee behind Me, Satan. But us it calls to itself, saying. Enter ye in at the strait
thence.
gate.

Matt.4,io.

M^tt.7,13.
Matt. 25,

And

again,
is

kingdom which
y

Come, blessed of My Father, inherit the So also the Spirit prepared for you.
other to the eleventh Letter. TheSyriac text of both of them will be found in the Appendix, ^ Vide note to pape (;8.
i

In the Syriac text, as published by

as well as in the German translation by Prof. Larsow, there is a hiatus here, the next two or three pages,

Mr. Cureton,

as far as the words ' He wept,' being wantinL'. Two more leaves were afterwards discovered among the fragments in the British Museum by the learned Editor, and tohis courtesy I am indebted for the knowledge of their existence. One of them belongs to this part; the

In the Ms. "j/n^ A.^n (virtue)


.

. r Ttten by mistake for


i

i^ IJ^K lIO^uJ^
n.nGO.
j

(produce).
-j

^iWidfa^t ul.i ast. ^Qll\


Mieh.

v r. l.ex.. ex. Svr. I

n<.t.

^~

Characteristics of virtue and, of sin.

Letter before cried in the Psalms, saying, Enter into His gates

vZ)M^.
Exod. 19,

^'^^^^

psahns.
as

God,
Lord;

For by means of virtue a man enters in unto Moses did into the thick cloud where God was.
vice a

Eut through
Gen.4,iG.
far as his will
Ts. 43, 4.

man

goes out from the presence of the


slain his brother,

as Cain,

when he had

went out,

as

was concerned, from the face of

God

while

Job

2, 7.

And I ivill go in to the altar of God, even to the God that delighteih my youth. But of the Devil the Scripture beareth witness, that the Devil went out from before God, and smote Job with sore boils. For
this is the characteristic of those w^ho

the Psalmist enters, saying,

God

to smite

go out from before and to enter among the men of God. And

this is the Ci.aracteristip of those who fall away from the faith to injure and persecute the faithful. The saints, on the other hand, take such to themselves, and look upon them as friends as also the blessed David, using plainness
;

Fs.

lOh

6.

of speech d, says, Mijie eyes are on the faithful of the earth, that they may dwell with me. But those that are weak in

Rom.

14,1.

whereas David, though he altogether possessed the opportunity, did not kill Saul. Esau too persecuted Jacob, while Jacob sought to overcome his wickedness by meekness.
;

we should the rather take to ourphilanthropic % just as in men of an opposite character, sin is misanthropic. In this manner Saul, in that he was a sinner, persecuted David
selves.

the faith, Paul urges that

For virtue

is

And

those eleven sold Joseph


ness,

but Joseph, in
?

his loving-kind-

had pity on them.

But what need we many words when He was persecuted by the


^

Our Lord and


wept

Saviour,
for their

Pharisees,

destruction. He was treated injuriously, but He threatened not; not when He was afflicted, not even when He was killed. But He suffered anguish for the sake of

those

who presumptuously

did such things.


life,

contemptuously cast from them

They, however, and light, and grace!

All these were theirs through that Saviour


=

Who

suffered in

Tn the

Ms. ^Ofta
/

(Jesus)

is

secuted'which supplies no good sense.


'^ ^^ ^^^ ^W'ist, caused V^'^ """f'"'" by the word occurring

written by mistake for


H
, ^
f

^>

'^PP^'J'?(^yr.)xPTa.. Lent. Letter XI. sub inif.

/c

^Qji]IV''";. (Job)
-^

before.

My

immediately
is

own emendation

quite

conjectural,

The Syriac

is

*2i?5Ak5 ^ was

per-

Perverse ness of the Jews.

73
.s.m

our stead.
blindness,

Tt

was

in

He

wept.

truth for such their darkness and A. P. For if they had understood the things

which are written

in the Psahns, they

would not have been

said, so vainly daring against the Saviour, the Spirit having vain^^-^y^a imagine people the and Why do the heathen rage, prophecy o^ the upon thouglit And if they had things

Moses, they would not have hanged Him Who was their And if they had examined with their understanding life. the things which were written, they would not studiously have fulfilled s the prophecies which were against themgrace taken selves, so as for their city to be now desolate, law, being the without from them, and they also themselves

{V'^^g'lJ;.^

no longer called children, but strangers. For thus in the Ps- 18, 4G Psalms was it before declared, saying, The strange children prophet the Isaiah by Also have acted falsely by Me. I have begotten and brought up children, and they have re-^^'^^'^' And, further, they are no longer called the jected Me. people of God, and a holy nation, but rulers of Sodom, and
people of Gomorrah; having exceeded in this even the Sodom Lam. iniquity of the Sodomites, as the prophet also saith,
is justified before thee. and against angels, but these against the Lord, and God, not angels King of all, and dared to slay the Lord of
;

4,6.

For the Sodomites acted injuriously

knowing that Christ, VvHio was slain by them, is living, while those Jews who had conspired against the Lord died, having rejoiced a very little in these temporal things, and
falling

away from those which

are

eternal.

They were

that the immortal promise has not respect ignorant of this those things to temporal enjoyment, but to the hope of

which are everlasting. For through many tribulations, and into the labours, and sorrows, the righteous man enters kingdom of heaven but when he arrives where sorrow, and thenceforward distress, and sighing, shall flee away, he shall afterwards was here, tried when who, Job, as rest; enjoy
;

the familiar friend of the Lord.

But

the lover of pleasures,

AVvnVn KSvr ^-- The ) ^


.

^=eDse

'

ful-

^^,

is required here, filled' not 'spoken Tbfi two Larsou- gives the latter.

together, and that pot by jlje Syriac copyists. Vid. Lex. Syriac. p. 500. not. (-J^^t^.l|,

confoon.led

words ^IVn and

VvV^ were anciently

j^jj^jj^

74
Leister
'-

No place
like Esau,

desert to the faithful.

rejoicing for a little while, afterwards passes a sorrowful


life
;

who had temporal

food, but afterwards

was

there condemned.

One may

say that a distinction like this

to the departure of the children of Israel

may be compared and the Egyptians

For the Egyptians, rejoicing a little while in when they went forth, were all drowned in the deep but the people of God, being for a time smitten and injured, by the conduct of the taskmasters h, when they came out of Egypt, passed through the sea unharmed, and walked in the wilderness as an inhabited place. For although, according to the mode of living customary among men, the place was desert; yet, through the gracious gift of the law, and also through their
their injustice against Israel,
;

from Egypt.

intercourse with angels,


habited, yea, and

it was no longer desolate, but inmore than inhabited. As also Elisha', when he thought he was alone in the wilderness, was with

companies of angels; so, in this case, though the people were first afflicted, and in the wilderness, yet those who

remained faithful'^- afterwards entered the land of promise. In the same manner those also who suffer temporal afflictions here, after having

remained
those

stedfast,

go forth to a

Luke

16,

persecute are trodden under foot, and have no good end. For even the rich man, according to the accurate description of the Gospel, having lived in pleasure here for a little while,
suffered hunger there and having drunk largely here, he was there parched with thirst. But Lazarus, after being
;

place

of comfort;

while

who here

afflicted in worldly things, found rest in heaven; and having hungered for bread ground from corn, he was there satisfied with that which is better than manna, even the
6>7oSic^Tat.

|>

* Ihe reference is apparently to the history of Eliha as recorded in 2 Kings

gives the sense


t i, ^^ ^^ parallel to

of hoping' to OiQO.
Q^nnflD,
vi. p.
'

remained
after-

the mention of ^l' ^^T}'^' the wilderness agrees better with the history of Elijah, as found in 1 Kings xix. 8. 1 cannot, however, agree with Prof. Larsow, who states that for Llisha we ought to read Lliiah.

though

stedfast'

which occurs directly


In Letter
1 1 55.
11 |J>.
feast.'

wards.
^-t

we have
con-

OOV)
23.

fj^l
a
7

'They
In

tinue
xi.

without

Rom.

^o;-4jxiMwi
is,
.

.oonj
in

k
.

Syr.
;

USOjIcJISD
.

mained

7".
1 ,

CUQO

'

,e-

faithful.

Larsow erroneously

.OOlZoiVo^m lOOl^QliCLiai
{^^^-^^

.u 'they remain

unbelief

'

Temporal

ills

no just cause of trouble.

75

Lord who came down and said, / am the bread which came A.D. S36. John 6, 51. down from heaven, and giveth life to mankind, comfort from Oh! my dearly beloved, if we shall gain if health after sickness if rest from labours afilictions it does not become us if after death there is immortality
;

be much distressed by the temporal ills that afflict manIt is not right to be greatly moved because of the kind.
to

which befall us. It is not right to fear if the host that contended with Christ, should conspire against godlitrials

ness

but we should the more please God through these and should consider such matters as the probation and exercise of a virtuous life. For how shall patience be looked for, if there have not previously been labours and
;

things,

sorrows

Or how can experience be afforded of fortitude, ? when there has not first been an assault from enemies ? Or how can a spectacle of fortitude'" be exhibited, when contumely and injustice have not preceded ? Or how can longsuffering be expected, when opposition on the part of And, finally, how can Antichrists" has not first existed? the iniquity of the when virtue, witness to hope man a Thus itself? displayed previously not has wicked very
even our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ comes before us
[as

an example], when

Who, when He
viled,

He would shew men how to suffer was smitten, bore it patiently; being re;
;

He
;

reviled not again

when He

suffered.

He

threat-

ened not but He gave His back to the smiters, and His cheeks to buffetings, and turned not His face from spitting; and, at last, was willingly led to death, that we might
behold^ in

Him
i

the image of

all

that

is

virtuous and im-

TheSyr.UoJ-M xne^yr.

lated 'host,' as above, vid.Castell.

is to ., ^,

be trans^
,,

XP''^'^MaX''S^'''^'^^'A^^'XP'V7^
TTodSpofiou.

Syr. p. 308. cum nota Mich. translates it differently, stating that J think there is an error in the text. it, however, correct as it stands.
". 1 suspect an error in this word in the Syriac, the mistake having ansen from the same word having occurred just before. n The term ' Antichrists' is applied

Lex. Larsow

Daniascenus
c.

lib.

iv.

Or-

jf^^/^j^i
g^^j^^^'^
^.^^^

xxvii. p. 389. as quoted

^J^

^-^ ^ ^^ dixoKoywu ^ ^^^ ^^^-^ ^^j q^^^ ^^ ^^^^^ ^^^^,04^^,^ ^^l duai Q^hv reKuou, nal ^eveV^ot &udpconou reAe^ov, M^ra rov 7 Vid. ^,,,;,p,^,^s iar.u.

M^-
^^
'
'

'

XP

^^^
o

^
p.

^^^

^^ et intra
%

78. note

z.
,

xhe

Syr.

Ir*^

'rejoice

ought

Conf. Apcl. contra Atian.


aTroaTp4(pfa9ai Se

t.

i.

p. 102.

here rendered,

tV 'Apiiayrjv a'lp((Tiy,

76

The

trials

and

sufferings

of Christ our gain,

Lettkr mortal; and all of us, conducting ourselves after these ^-^ examples, might truly tread on serpents and scorpions, and
all the power of the enemy?. Thus, too, Paul, while he conducted himself after the example of the Lord, also exhorted us, saying, Be ye followers of me, as I also am of Christ. In this way, he

on

Cor. II,

Eom.

8,

prevailed against

all

the host of the devil, writing,

/ am

persuaded that neither death, nor life, nor angels, nor principalities, nor things present, nor things to come, nor powers\
nor height, nor depth, nor any other creature, shall he able to separate us from the love of God which is in Jesus Christ, For the enemy presents himself to us in afflictions, and trials, and labours, doing every thing, and striving eagerly
to cast us dow^n.

But

the

man who

is

in Christ, setting

Phi!. 4, 13.

himself against those that oppose, and revisiting wrath by long-suffering, contumely by meekness, and vice by virtue, obtains the victory, and exclaims, / can do all things
through Christ,
things

R^om.8.
^''

Who

strengtheneth

me; and. In
Christ

all

these

we

are

conquerors

through

Who

loved us.

This is the grace of the Lord, and these are the Lord's corrective measures towards the children of men. For He suffered to procure freedom from suffering for those

who

suffer in

Him; and He

up

love

He took on Him Him Who is unbegotten

descended' that He might raise us the trial of being born, that we might
;

He

w^ent

down
;

to corrup-

might put on immortality; He became weak for us, that we might rise with power He descended to death, that He might bestow on us immortality, and give
life to

tion, that corruption

the dead.

Lastly,

as

men might
;

live again,

He became man, that we who die and that death should no more reign

Rom.

6, 9.

over us for the Apostolic word proclaims. Death shall not have the dominion over us*,
P A pas..age very similar to the above, in vvh.ch Chn,.t .s proposed as

an examp

e to

u.,n His
Q
^

s We have here a long passage which occurs, wirh only sllhT

sufferings,

Cru":
q

Dom

n'i

'7^3%

"^^""^^

''

alions, in the 'treatise ^'^^'^ ^'-"V


P- ^^' '''^^'

'

de Pa^ss one et

ThPoTZ'J'.h

iV

As

it

f.nn7,n M of V'^^'^'^^^'V^^* found in some Mss the Greek Text, ovre euearwra, ov,e t^.KXopra, oijr,
ovpafieis.
>

'"^

^^'^'^

been able to
as
it
i..

itself

^P"^ ^^han. torn, tu exceeds in length any Letters which 1 have di.scover else. here, and of so interesting a cha-

For t\**J leg. i\j^JO.

racter, I shall not hesitate to quote it at length. Taay0p(i^muaTrepifia\A6fj.i^oi

The erroneous opinions of

the Arians.

77
.

Now
smite

Because they did not thus consider these matters, A

D. 338

the Ario-maniacs*, being opposers of Christ, and heretics,

blaspheme"

Him who is their Helper, Him who set [them]

with their tongue, and


free;

and, referring

all

wrong source, have become heterodox con* Because cerning the Redeemer. of His coming down, which was on behalf of man, they have denied His essential
things to their

Koi

ajui(piaadixevos,

5i'

eauToQ ra
'iva

rjfxCii'

Trpoariyayc
Traffx^^Vy

avThs a^Aa^rj rhv 6,vQp(>}iT0V irdaxouTa


rcf

irarpi,

ws

KaraaKevdcrr), koI

/j-iKpa /uLcyaXois

avri-

KaTaWd^rjTai. Karate BriKeyhp,

'Iva r]jxS)V

r^u

S.i'oBot/

KaTaanevda-p' kuI
Si'

mndpaTai
rco

yeveaecos,

'lua itix^ls

avrov

ayeu-

vffTcp (piKid(TU}/j.eu, ^)adevT\(Te 5t' Vfjus, 'lua


rjjxels

iyepdwixeu iu Swdp-n, Ka\

eJfTrcojUev,

ws

(5

YlavXos' -nduTa
fie
'(pa

lax^^ ^^

'''V

^vSvva(TU),aa

^ovvri

'lr\aov XpiaTo:,

eAcc.Se

rh (pdaprhu ivSva-qrai rrju acpOapaiav' eueSvaaro rh Qurjrhu, 'Iva rh dvrjThv ivSvffriTai Tr)V aSavaaiau. Kal TeAos, yeyovev &v6pcciro5 Kal aveOavev,
(pOapThu,

Xva

r]iJ.i7s

oi

ws

6.v6pcc7roL aTro6vT](TK0VTes,

deoTTOirjOcJi'ixev,

Kal fX7)KfTi

exw/Liej/ /SacrtAeuovTa,

rhv Odvaiov Qdvaros yap rj/xuv

to that of some Mss. a.yev{]Tci}. (For the distinction, between ayevrjrov, ayivVT]Tov, Sec. see the remarks of the Benedictine editors. Athan. op. tom. i. p. 1G3.) 3dly, The connexion of the sentence in the Syriac, as well as the text of the Greek, would suggest a suspicion that a line has been omitted after the words, ' He went down to corruption, that corruption,' and that we should read, ' He went down to corruption, that corruption might put on incorruption ; He clothed Himself with mortality, that mortality might put on immortality.' Compare with the whole passage, S. Cyril. Hom. Pa<ch. XX. p. 259. TrpoaeiATjcpcbs Se IJ.a\\ov bVep ovk ^v, 'iva Kal ijfxas fxera

oh KaraKvpLeuei, Kal 6 aTTOCroKLichs Z^


KtjpvTTii \6yos.
It may be treaiipe from

remarked here, 1st, The which this is quoted is placed amongst the a^cpi^aWSfx^va. Indeed, the learned editor of Athanasius hesitated whether to itjclude it
In his among the spurious works. prefixed remarks he says, 'animus fuerat earn inter spuria ab'egare: quia tamen in antiquioribus codicibus, et in Athanasiunis collectionibus reperitur, eo nomine inter dubia earn recensemus.' have had rrore than one opportunity, beside the present, of adducing parallel passages from the same treatise in illustration. These observations will lead us to the conclusion, (the authenticity of the Festal Letters being placed beyond a doubt,) either that one of the writers transftrred, not only the ideas, but the very words of the other into his writings; or else, that the treatise 'de Passione, &c.' emanated from the same mind which indicted the Letters. Perhaps an accurate consideration of the question will decide us in favour of may rethe latter opinion. 2dly,

(TTOLx^iaxTT) TTphs Ti]v aix^'ivw re Kal cvKXeecTTipav C^r]V. The same ideas are also expressed in S. Atl.an. de Tncarn. t. i. p. G98, without, however, the snme correspondence of words and phrases.
'

'

in the next There seems little doubt that Letter, the translator mistook the Greek word 'Apeiofxavlrai, a term applied to the Arians in other places by Athan. used

Ariug and Manetes.' words are found twice

The Syriac here is OlgufcjIliDO Ijii] The sanie

We

Op. tom. ii. p. IS9. Uov 6 fi\da(pr]iJ.os ; irov )] Xeyovaa, 9ii^ T] Xpiaru/xdxos yXwrra ; For the Syriac jrore, 'ore ovk "fiv ^, Lt Prof. Larsow has schwaed. Par. 1839.

also bv Epiphanius, " Conf. S. Fasil.

'

Qu ? Ought we to chen,' 'enfeeble'. read sclimahen,' revile.' "In the followinglines we meet with
'

'

We

mark, that the Syriac ^,

>\i

]j

'

un-

begotten' fixes, if need w'ere, the Benedictine reading d.yevvT}Tcf in opposition

what we fiixl eNewhere in Atnan. regarding the Arian and other heresies, viz. that they have their origin in truth, though a partial arid circumscribed view of it, one doctrine of Scripture beins? (lwrlt upon, while other.^, equally important, are denied, as being Vid. Letter ii. incompatible with it.
p. 19.

note q.

7'8

The Avians misunderstood

the Scriptures.

Letter Godhead; and seeing that He came from the Virgin, they have questioned His being truly the Son of God; and, considering Him as become incarnate in time, they have denied

His eternity; and, looking upon Him as having suffered for they have renounced their faith in Him as the incorAnd, finally, ruptible Son from the incorruptible Father. because He was burdened for our sakes, they deny the things which concern His essential eternity; partaking of the deed of the unthankful, who rejected the Saviour, and oifering Him insult instead of acknowledging His grace.
us,

To them may

tliese

words properly be addressed; Oh! un-

thankful opponent of Christ, altogether wicked, and the


slayer of his Lord, mentally blind y,

and
to

Jew

in his con-

science', hadst thou understood the Scriptures,


Ps. 80, 7.

to the saints,

who

said.

Cause Thy face

and listened shine, and we shall

he saved; or again, Send out

Thy
;

light

and Thy truth;

then

wouldest thou have


w^ouldest the

known

that the

Lord did not descend

on His own account, but for us and, for this reason, thou more have admired His loving-kindness. And hadst thou considered what the Father is, and what the Son, thou w^ouldest not have blasphemed the Son, as [being come] of a mutable nature'"^. And hadst thou understood His work of loving-kindness towards us, thou wouldest not
y

Conf. Sermocontra

omnes Hserepes,
'''^^

/caXeVetej/

again,
i.

ets t)]v aX(Txi(r'Ti\v

p. 183. TvcpAohs ix''^^'^^^ """^^^

^'"'

TavTr}u Koi xp^'^'^ofxaxov a[pe<nu.

Vid.

volas ocpOaKfjLOvs.

Athan. frequently designates the Arians as Jews; e. g. Orat. iii. contra Ar. p 478.5 xp'0''''<^/"X<'"^"^ "X"/"'''''^''' ^lovda7oi, where the other epithets also 'opagree with those here employed ponent of Christ,' unthankful.' Vid. also p. 458. ofthe same discourse, where the parallel between the Arians and
*

S.

Athan. op. torn. responding term


the

p.

314, 315.

cor-

to xpio'To/iaxoi, as ap-

plied to the Arians,

is that by which Macedonian heretics were desig-

nated
p. 75.
*

Truev/iaTo/xdxoi.

Vid.

supra
to

note n.
affirm the

'

The Arians

rpex^/ias, TpeTrrc^TTjTos

that

Son

be Ik
ctA.-

He

is

the

Jews

is

fully

drawn

out.

The
are

words

6e6iJ.axoi

and

xP''''''"<^Maxot

often applied to the Arians by Athan. (conf. Acts xxiii. 9. fir] 06O;aaxd;/A6j'.

ad Episcop. Encycl. torn. i. he speaks of them as avTifiax^ Tiie comparison beixevoi Tw (TcoTTipi. tween the Arians and the Jews occurs several times in these Letters. S. Alexander, the predecessor of S. Athan. in his Encyclic E[ istle, speaks of the Arians as iyyvrepoi rod avTixpicrrov yeuSfievoi. When describing the Arian heresy, he says, 6'/c(^tcos &u ris irp65po^.oy Tov h'Tixpicrrov vnovoTjffeiey Kal

In

Ep

Aotwroy and rpeirros : Athan. on the contrary (Ep. de Dec. Nic. Syn. t. i. p. 168-9; Orat. i. contra Ar. t. 1. pp. 359, 360.) maintains that 6 vths ixTpeirr6s icrri koI apaWoicoros us 6 iraT-r^p. Again, Orat. i. contra Ar. i. 359. he
^ays, 6 Kvpios 6 ad koI (pvcrei drpeirTos' while of the Arians he says, (p. 360.)

p. 91.

rpeirrhv Koi rhv iraripa iiriyoeiTiacrav' (L.) Vide S. Athan. Treatises against Arianism, published in this series, p.230. note a. p. 289. note h. and Suicer. Thes.
.

^,

t.i.p.5/

l.The Syriac

rr,,

19nV ^.m, \Si^^Q^

(the words here

used) would be the

K^

translation of eV rpcTrrSrvros.

The Arians and

the Schismatic's connected together.

79
A. D.
3:^8.

have alienated the Son from the Father, nor have looked upon Him as a stranger^', Who reconciled us to His Father.
I

know

these are hard

sayings, not

truly

to

those

who

oppose Christ", but


united together, as

also to the Schismatics; for they are

men

of kindred feelings.

For they have


:

learned to rend the seamless coat^ of

God

they think

it

not strange to divide the indivisible Son from the Father . I know, indeed, that when these things are spoken, they
will gnash their teeth

upon

us,

with the devil who

stirs

them

up, since they are troubled by the declaration of the true glory concerning the Redeemer. But the Lord, who always has scoffed at the devil, does the same even now, saying, / am in the Father, and the Father in Me. This is the John H,

Lord,

Who
is

is

Father

manifested;

manifested in the Father, and in Him also the Who, being truly the Son of the

Father, at last became incarnate for our sakes, that He might offer Himself to the Father in our stead, and redeem

us through His offering and sacrifice. This is He in old time, brought the people out of Egypt

Who
;

once,

but Who afterwards redeemed all of us, or rather the whole race of men, from death, and brought them up from the grave.
This
is

He Who,

in old time,
;

been typified in the lamb

was sacrificed as a lamb, having but Wlio afterwards was slain


is

for us,^ for Christ, our Passover,

sacrificed.

This

is

He

Cor. 5, 7.

Who

delivered us from the snare of the

hunters; I mean,

that He cast out

the opposers of Christ \ and the Schismatics,

and again rescued us His Church.


then victims of deceit

S He

hath

And because we were now delivered us by His

own

self.

What

then

is

our duty,

my

brethren, on account of these


apud
(L.)
.\r. p.

b Svr. Uvos. One of the erroneous assertions of the Arians, as given Ly S. Alexander in his Eni-vclic Epistle,

Cotcl. ecclcs. gr.

immnm.

p.

298.

Conf.

also,^

rh

aSialp^roy rov

the fo!385.) koX a\\6Tpios koI i,ivos re an^axoiviafxiyos iarlu 6 \6yos rrjs toO

(Athan. lowing:

op. torn.

i.

p.

i.<'

Orat iii. contra AAb.-ZuKvxjfn rhv vihv ei^ tj5 irarpl, Kai rh ael aSiaip^rov avrov, id. p. 431).- vlbs yap &u, ax(^pi(n6s icttitoD
vloD irphs rhv Trarepa,
TroT^dy, id. p. 458. a/i6>t(TT(^s eVrii/ 6 \6yos u Tou iraTpos. De Passione et Cruce Domini apud Athan. t. ii. p. 74.
f

0oD olaias.
Vid. note z. p. /i The words translated Syr. x'Twt'seamless' are cognate in rend' and the Syriac, and answer to (TxiC^iy and
^
i.

e.

the Arians.
'

'1

'

i.

e.

the Arians.

its
^

derivatives.

scenris to require that a passive seose should be given to


s

The connexion
as
ia

The Arians
\\i\. I.

are thence called Aio-

TOfx^rai.

Damasrcn.de

hceresib.

A^^jASD

here done.

so
LET^rER

The

efforts

of the enemies of

tJie

Church unsuccessful

things, but to praise


all ?

And

let

us

first

and give thanks to God, the King of exclaim in the words of the Psalms,
hath not given us over as a prey
feast in that
to

Ps. 124,26.

Blessed be the Lord,


their teeth.

Who

Let us keep the

way which He

hath consecrated*^ to us for salvation the holy day of

Easterso that we may celebrate the feast which is in heaven with the angels. Thus, anciently, the people of the Jews, when they came out of affliction into a state of ease, kept the feast, singing a song of praise for their victory.
Esther3,9.

So also the people in the time of Esther, because they were delivered from a deadly decree, kept a feast to the Lord';
thanks to the Lord, and changed their condition. Tlierefore let us also, performing our vows to the Lord, and confessing our sins, keep the feast to the Lord, in conversation, moral conduct, and manner of life*^; praising our Lord, Y/ho
praising

reckoning

it

a feast, returning
for having

Him

hath chastened us a little, but hath not utterly failed and forsaken us, nor altogether kept silence from us. For if, having also brought us out of the crafty

and famous Egypt

of the opposers of Christ',

He

hath caused us to pass through

many

trials and afflictions, as it were in the wilderness, "to His holy Church, so that from hence, according to custom,

we
this

can send to you, as well as receive letters from you; on account especially I both give thanks to God myself,

to thank Him with me and on my behalf, being the Apostolic custom, which these opposers of Christ, and the Schismatics, wished to put an end to, and to break off. The Lord did not permit it but both renewed and preserved that which was ordained by Him through the
this^
;

and exhort you

Apostle, so that

we may keep the feast together, and together keep holy-day, the one with the other, according to the tradition and commandment of the fathers.

We

month Mecheir (Feb. 13.); and the holy Easter-fast on the twenty-fourth of the month Phamenoth (Mar. 20.) We cease
^ Syr.

begin the fast of forty days, on the nineteenth of the

L^

iu.Kuiuta.u, as in
^jfTiv

Heb.

towards the Christians


^'^^^^

is

here compared

X. 20. ivsKatviaey

blou 7rp6(T(paTou

Ka\ Caxrau,
'
''

Conf. Letteriv'. p. 32.

The

Syr. TToXireia. crafty conduct of the Arians

*^ subtlety of Pharaoh and the towards the children of Israel; while their deliverance from ^^^^ machinations is represented by \^^ f^eparture of the Israelites from

Egyptians

tgypt.

Conclusion.

81
tlie

from

tlie fast

on the twenty-ninth of

month Phanienoth

A. D. 338.

(Mar. 25.) late in the evening of the seventh day. And we thus keep the feast on the first day of the week which dawns on the
thirtieth of the

to Pentecost,
after the

on these

month Phanienoth (Mar. 26.) from which, we keep holy-day, through seven weeks, one other. For when we have first meditated properly things, we shall attain to be counted worthy of
;

those which are eternal,

through Christ Jesus our Lord, through Whom to the Father be glory and dominion for ever and ever. Amen. Greet one another with a holy kiss, remembering us in
All the brethren
the Lord,

your holy prayers.


salute you, at
all

who

are with

me
pray

times being mindful of you.

And

that ye

may have health in whom we love above all"^.

my

beloved brethren,

Here endeth the tenth Letter of holy Athanasius.


Conf. Epist. ii. ad Orsisium torn. i. ippwadai vjxas iv Kvplcp ^vxajxai, ayair-qToi Koi iroOavoTaToi adeXcpoi (,L )
>"

p. 694.

also Phil. iv. 1. my brethren, dearly beloved and longed for stand fast in the Lord, my dearly beloved.

LETTER
Augustus

XT

A.D.

339.

Coss.

Constantius

II.,

Conslans I.;

Prcefect,

Easter-daj
pr. 10.

PMlagrius, the Cappadocian, for the second time; Indict.

j^jj

Easter-day XVII. Kal.

MaL; XX.

Pharmuthi;

jEra

Dioclet. 55.

The

blessed Paul, being girt about with every virtue a,

2 Cor. 12,4.

Cor. 13,
'

and called faithful of the Lord for he was conscious to himself of nothing but what was a virtue and a praise^, or what was in harmony with love and godliness familiarized these things to himself the more, and w^as carried up even to the end to heavenly places, and was borne to Paradise that, as he surpassed the conversation of men, he should be And when he descended, he preached exalted above men. to every man; We know in part, and we prophesy ifi part

'

I know" in part; hut then shall I know even as also I am known. For, in truth, he was known to those saints who are in heaven, as their fellow-citizen'^. And in relation to all that is future and perfect, the things known by
here

'him here were


Phil.3, 16.

Rom.

8,

24. 25.

in part; but with respect to those things which were committed^ and entrusted to him by the Lord, he was perfect; as he said, We ivho are perfect, should he For as the Gospel of Christ is the fulfilment thus minded. and accomplishment of the ministration which was supplied by the law of Israel, so future things will be the accomplishment of such as now exist, the Gospel being then fulfilled, and the faithful receiving those things which, not seeing now, they yet hope For ivhat a man for, as Paul saith x^
;

b Conf.
<

Conf. Eph. vi. 14. 1 Cor. iv. 4.

Ms.
Ms.

j have no doubt that the Syriac is again fauky here, and that for

The

reading of the

^H^f
*

,, W-l f niu^tbe an error for M.Jf. r 17 u in Conf. Eph. 11. 19.

TT^-^^l ^^ as here

V'Vi

we
,

should read
,

t-a-^^ I v \\
'

V**

?1

rendered.

The happiness
seeth^ ichy doth he also

to he

enjoyed after
?

affiiction.

83

hope for

But

if ive hope for those A. P. 339.

we then by patience wait for them'^. Since then that blessed man was of sucli a character, and an apostolic grace was committed to him, he wrote, wishing that all men should be as he teas. For virtue is philan- Cor. 7, thropic^', and the company of the kingdom of heaven is a large one for thousands of thousands and myriads of myriads there serve the Lord. And though a man enters it through a strait and narrow way, yet, having entered, he beholds an immeasurable space, and a place greater* than any other, as they declare, who were eye-witnesses and heirs of these things. Thou didst place afflictions before us. But Ps. QQ,
things ive see
[_)iot^'],
i ;

7.

afterwards, having related their afflictions, they say, Thou^^'^'^'


broughtest us forth into a tvide place^; and again, In afflictivn
Ps. 4,
l.

Thou hast enlarged us\


of the saints here
is

For

truly,

my

brethren, the course

a troubled one; since they either

endure
Ps. 120,6.

painfulness through longing for those things which are to come,


as

he

who
as

said, fVoe is

me

that

my pilgrimage

is

prolonged,-

or they are afflicted and wearied for the salvation of other

^^^^

Paul wrote to the Corinthians, saying, Lest^ when 1 2 Cor. 12, God shou'd humble me, and I should bewail on ^^' account of many of those who have before sinned, and not repented for the uncleanness, and fornication and lasciviousAs Samuel bewailed for ness which they have committed. the destruction of Saul, and Jeremiah wept for the captivity But after this affliction, and sorrow, and of the people. sighing, when they depart from this world, a certain divine gladness, and pleasure, and exultation receives them, from which pain, and sorrow, and sighing, flee away.

men, come

to

you,

The
S.

negative

is

omitted

in

the

icpJ^ivos' ^ib koX


T\sioi,

iirt(p4pi'

"Oaoi oZv
TiKeicaaiv

IMs.
8

TovTo

<ffpoyov/j.ev.

A than, has been distinguishing

between tiie earthly and the htavenly The Gospel, perfect-on of a Chrisnan. though the completion and fulfilment itself at not law, is ot the Jewish
presvnt complete: this consummation is to take place hereafter, and with it the full ptrfec'ion of the (Jh.i.stian. The words of Clemens Alexand. on Phil. 111. lo. are, Tckeiov nev eavrhi/ 7]yelTai, oTt dvn'jAAaKTat toZ -jvporepov
^iov, %x^rai 56 ToC Kpelrrovos, ohx is ivyvd:cre. riX.^os, aA?C is rod reXelou

aTroTerox^ai rah -klcttiv els tov ii6i/ou a/j-apTiais, koI TtAeiou avayeyevvriadai, eKKadofxevovs
StjAovSti

\4ycuv rh

Piedagcg. ad fin. The.same comprehensive character ^jf Christian virtue is enlarged upon in Letter x. p. 72.
^^5^ KaT6Tri(T6su aixapriwy.
)ih_
j^
,

;,p

vi.

, j:)^ '' great,' 'extended,' as the ^^' ^ ' . j elevated, aa context requires, not
.

I-^sow renc ers it Ov a place of refreshment. ^ Or relreshed.'


'

'

84
Letter
'-

The universality of
Since

S.

PauVs

teaching.

never

we

are thus circumstanced,

my
;

brethren, let us
also

depart from the

way of

virtue

but

that

we

Cor.iiji.

should be such persons, he (St. Paul) exhorted, saying, Be ye followers of me, as I also am of Christ. For he not only

Tim.

2, 7.

gave this advice to the Corinthians since he was not their Apostle alone but also, since he was a teacher of the Gen^

tiles

in faith

and
;

verity, us also,

even

all

of us, he admo-

nished by them

and, in short, the things he wrote to each

particular person are

commandments common to all men"^. when he wrote to others, some he exhorted, as, for instance, in the Epistles to the Romans, and the Some he reproved, and was Ephesians, and Philemon.

On this

account,

indignant with them, as in the case of the Corinthians and


Galatians. But to some he gave advice, as to the Colossians and Thessalonians. The Philippians he approved of, and was made glad by them. The tiebrews he taught that the law was a shadow to them". But to his elect sons, Timothy and Titus, when they were near, he gave instruction when far away, he put them in remembrance. For he was all things to all men and being himself a perfect man, he adapted his teaching to the need of every one, so that by all means he might rescue some of them. Therefore his word was not without fruit; but, in every place, it is planted and productive even to this day. And wherefore,
; ;

my

beloved

For

it

is

necessary that

we should search
middle of them,

into the apostolic mind.


Epistles,

Not oidy

in the beginning of the


in the

but also

at their close,

and

he used persuasions and admonitions.

T hope, therefore,

that by your prayers, I shall, in no respect, give a false

representation of the plan of that holy man.


well skilled in these divine matters, and

As he was
the power of

knew

place, to

deemed it necessary, in the first make known the word concerning Christ, and the mystery regarding Him; and then afterwards to point to the correction of habits, so that when they had learned to know the Lord, they might readily acquiesce in the observthe divine teaching, he

ance of those things which

He commanded.

For when the

">
iii.

Conf. Letter

ii.

p. 15.

and Letter

Vid. note x to Letter

vii. p.

62.

p. 28.

observed in imparting religious instruction. 85

The order

to he

Guide

to the la\vs is

unknown, one does not readily pass A.D.

339.

on to the observance of them.

The faithful Moses, the minister of God, adopted this method for when he promulgated the words of the divine
;

dispensation of laws, he
to the

first
:

proclaimed the matters relating

knowledge of God
one Lord.

Hear,

Israel, the

Lord thy

Deut. 6,

4.

God

is

Afterw^ards, having shadowed

Him

forth

Him in Whom they ought to minds of Him Who is truly God then he further lays down the law relating to those things whereby a man may be well-pleasing to Him, saying, Thou shalf not commit adultery ; thou shall not steal; together with the other commandments. For also, according to the Apostolic teaching, ^(6 that draweth near to God must 6e-Heb. ii,6. Ueve that He is, and that He is a rewarder of them that seek Him. Now He is sought by means of virtuous deeds, as the prophet saith Seek ye the Lord, and when ye have Is. 55,6. 7, found Him, call upon Him; when He is near to you, let the ivicked forsake his ways, and the lawless man his thoughts.
to the people, and taught of

believe,
;

and informed

their

Tt will also

be well

if

man

is

not offended at the testimony


one God,

of the Shepherd, saying in the beginning of his book. Before


all things believe that there is

Who

created and

established

all these

things,

and from

non-existence called

them into being^.


o

And,

further, the blessed

Evangelists^

Tlie Syr. here


..

is

.OOll-iJOllD * \
v6ix(i}v
it

|rr>oVf>1^
A
c. "

o^riyhs

twu
^'

Conf.
said of
' '
J

Sap.

vi'i.v.
'

15.

where
rc
,

is

't
1
I

A^ % denoting i.u that it


J,.
,.,

wav

*-j wisdom,
to
1!

is

Ood who
\ which
\.
..

of

u He
i-

leads 4.U the


is
ii

the

JL 11 A.Ai uthor, according to what lollows ^-^ ^. ..! -a So. fk Kal KOi ruiv Tuiv (Tocpwv crocbujv diopQwTjjs. Sino6ci3T7is. So, exthe ex
I

pression in this place is not only applied to God as the Kramer of the laws, but also as the directing Guide to the ob-

^^- 1724. The manner in which quotatTon is here introduced alludes to wliat our Author sa}'^ more distinctly elsewhere-that the book is not included In the nrst in the Canon or Scripture. place referred to, it is styled 'a most ' ^x /^ ^ v r oia oe tiis wAeAtacoTaTTjs userul boos ^ ', ^ , ^,, _,_, rov Woia^ros. In the second piB\ou ^ ^ o u r ..iot the passage, S. Athan. is speaking ' ^ ,". t, Eu>;ebiaps quoting the work, and says, '\^' ''^ n^'^^"' y^ypanra^' enuSoKal
^'o'- i'

tlie

,>

'

-^"^^^

servanceofthem.
This passage from the Shepherd is quoted three other times by S. Athan. ^De Incarn. Verbi Dei torn. i. p. 39. De Decret. Nic. Synod, tom.i.p.lTG. AdAfrosEpiscop.Epist.
1'

npo<p.povcrL

of

Hermas

torn.

i.

p. 715.)
i.
'

It occurs in

Mandat.

Primum omnium,

Lib. ii. credere

^ -"^^f"^ ,'' IT .'^^'^ to the In the Epistle f*"^;?^ African bishops, the sentence in ques^.on is again introduced as quoted by l^e Greek text the the Eusebians. ^^'^c translator had before h.m, as runs ^VV^^'' '"! ^'^^^ ^,^^'^ passages, npcroz/ ^raurwu nlcrrevaou, on
^l'"^/
'^' ^^-"'^ ^

'^'' "

quod unus est Deus, qui omnia creavit et consummavit, et ex uihilo omnia fecit.' Vid.Cotel.Patt. Apostol.p. 85.

Karapriaas, Ka\ woiV(Tas eKjov fiv outos "^ ^^ ^^^a* t ^a""^"- 1 he same sentence is quoted by other fathers, as

7 '^"r"

7"^!,' '^"^


86
*S'.

PauVs

instructions to Timothy.

Letter those who brought to remembrance the words of the Lord in the beginning of the Gospels, wrote the things concerning our Saviour so that, having first made known the Lord, the Creator, they might command belief, when narrating the
'-

events that took place.


credited,

For how could they have been when writing respecting him who [was blind] from

John 1,1.

and those other blind men who recovered and those persons who rose from the dead, and the changing of water into wine, and those lepers who were cleansed; if they had not taught of Him as the Creator, writing. In the beginning was the Word^ Or, according to Matthew, that He Who was born of the seed of David, was Emmanuel, and the Son of the living God? He from Whom
his mother's vvomb,
their sight,

2 Tim. 3,

away their faces, but Whom we acknowledge and worship. The Apostle, therefore, also, as was meet, sent to others; but his own son he plainly reminded, that he should not
the Jews, with the Arians, turn
des])ise the things

in which he

2 Tim. 2, 8.

He
But

also enjoined

him:

from

the dead, of the

had been instructed by him. Christ, who rose seed of David, accordifig to my Gospel,

Remember Jesus

Tim.

4, 5.

he speaks of these things being delivered to him, to be always had in remembrance, so he immediately writes to him, saying, Meditate on these things: be engaged in them. For constant meditation, and the remembrance of divine words, strengthens piety towards God, and produces a love to Him inseparable and not merely formal i; as he (S. Paul) entertaining such feelings, speaks in behalf of himself and
as

Rom. 8, 35. others like-minded, saying boldly.

from
1

the love of

God? For

they""

What who are

shall separate us

such, being con-

firmed in the Lord, and possessing an unshaken disposition


Cor.6,17.

towards Him, and being one in

spirit, (for

he ivho

is

joined'

well as by the Arians, who, however, perverted its meaning. In the fragment of the thirty-ninth epistle, the
'

Shepherd'
1

is also
^

excluded from the


rendered
'

Canon.

The

Syriac
formal'
to

here
is

not

merely

which seems

"Q ?l.rr>.> -^ f, "'" AVn ^ take no other meaning

than 'inexpiable'

a sense scarcely admissible in this place. The Greek

was probably 07077^^ Trpbs a\n))v ax^}piarov koL ovk acpoaiov/j.euriv. Thig supposition would account for the Syriac misapprehension of the word. r Xhe Syriac text from here to the words, There is also such a proverb ^p ^^'h'j' ^^- ^^^^ ^^^" discovered since Mr. Ciireton s edition of the Syriac. Vid. note y. Letter x. p. 71. The Syriac will be found in the
'

Appendix.

The unstable character of


to the Spirit is

the wicked.

87
339.

one spirit^,) are sure as the moutit Sion; and A. P.


trials

although ten thousand


are founded

may

rage against them, they


J'^-

^^^' }

upon a rock, which is Christ*. In Him the careless take no delight and while they entertain no imaginations of good thoughts, they are sullied by temporal attacks, and esteem nothing more than the unstable things here, being reproachable as regards the faith. For either
;

Matt.

7,

26.

w.^\.tA:i,

the care of this world, or the deceitfulness of riches, chokes

^^*

them;

or, as

Jesus said in that parable which had reference

to them, since they have not established the faith that has

been preached

to

them, but are only for a time, immediately,


or

in time of persecution,

when

affliction arise th

through

the word, they are offended.


ations

Now

of

men

of evil imagin-

we
lies.

say, [they regard] not truth,

but falsehood; and

not righteousness, but iniquity, for their tongue learneth to

speak

They have done

they might repent.


actions,

and have not ceased, that For, persevering with delight in wicked
evil

they hasten thereto without turning back, even

treading underfoot the

commandment with regard

to neigh-

bours, and, instead of loving them, devise evil against them,


as the saint* testifies, saying.

And

those

who seek me

evil Vs. 33,

12.

have sjjoken vanity, and imagined deceit all the day.


that the cause of such meditation
is

But

none other than the

want of instruction, the divine proverb has already declared The son that forsaketh the commandment of his father meditateth evil ivords^. But for such meditation as this, inasmuch as it is evil, the Holy Spirit chides in these, and reproves too in other terms, saying. Your hands are polluted with
your fingers with sins ; your lips have spoken lawlessness, and your tongue imagineth iniquity: no man speaketh But what the end right things, nor is there true judgment. is of such perverse imagining. He immediately declares,
blood,

U. 59,

3. 4.

saying.

They

trust in vanities

conceive mischief,

and speak falsehood; for they and bring forth lawlessness. They have
adversity can overttirow, according to Who shall separate its from the love of Christ .^ Catena Aurea, vol. i. p. 292. ed. Oxford, 1841. " Vid. note k. Letter v. p. 39. * The exact words do not occur in The quotation is probably Scripture. made up of more than one provtrb.

T.s,59,4. 5.

proper reading of the text is, that is joined uato the Lord is one Spirit.' The Peschi to version adds ' with Him' is one spirit with Him. ' Conf. Pseudo-Chrys. 'As the Church built by Christ cannot be thrown down, so any such Christian who has built himself upon Christ no

The

He

that,

88

The den'ujm of .sinners

recoil

upon themselves;

Le^teu hatched the eggs of an asp, and woven a spider's iveh; and he ' who is prepared to eat of their eggs, when he breaks them finds gall, and a basilisk therein, but, again, what the hope Isaiah 59, of such is, He has already announced. Because
righteousness does not overtake them, ivhen they ivaited for light, they had darkness; when they waited for brightness, they ivalked in a thick cloud. They shall grope for the wall like the blind,

those who have no eyes shall they grope; they shall fall at noon-day as at midnight; ivhen dead, they shall groan. They shall roar together as a bear, or [mourn'] as a dove.

and as

This
those

is

the fruit of wickedness

these rewards are given

to those that

employ

it;

for perverseness does not deliver

regard it. But, in truth, against them it opposes and before them it tears, and rather prepares for them harm. Woe to them against whom these are borne
Itself,
!

who

Ps.37,

sharper than a two-edged sword, slaying beforehand those who will lay hold of it. For their tongue, according P- w,5. to the testimony of the Psalmist, is a sharp sword, and their teeth spears and arrowsy. But the wonderful part is that while often he against whom men imagine [harm] suffers nothing, they are pierced by their own spears: for they possess, even in themselves, before they reach others, anger, wrath, malice, guile, hatred, bitterness. Although they may not be able to bring these upon others, they forthwith return upon and against themselves, as the Psalmist prays,
12.

Heb.4,

for

it is

10.

Prov.5.22. is also

saying. Let their sword enter into their own heart\ There such a proverb as this: The icicked is encircled by the

chain of his sins.

The Jews
act

in their imaginings,

and in their agreeing


forgat
that

to

unjustly against

the

Lord,

brmgmg
P^.

they were

2, 1.

[divine]

exalt

vam indeed was

wrath upon themselves. Therefore also does the word lament for them, saying. Why do the people themselves, and the nations imagine vain things? For

the imagination of the Jews, meditating death against the Life% and devising unreasonable things

these words to the conduct of against our Lord in puitins Him to d?arh, as he also does here^ - Conf. S. Athan. Expos.'in ys^^imos, /^l^^--'" Psalmo. ' Ti Sd4 w. 644. n) po,u(paia p. avrwv ela4\doi eis
' '

ttjt

r.^/r^o

Z^'

'

""^"^"' ^"'^

"^^^''^..^^^^^'^^f^,^""-

J^'"

here

we must understand

P^'"^'^,"^ clause of this senteDc-e '""'" ' determine, that by ' Life'

Christ '-anst.

instanced in the case of the Jews.


against the

89
A,D.339.

Word

of the Father^.

For who that looks


their city,

upon

their dispersion,

and the desolation of

may
Is. 3,

not aptly say,


the righteous

TVoe unto them, for they have imagined a/2 evil imagination, saying against their oivn soul, let us hind

9.10.

man, because he

is
;

not pleasing to us\


for

And

full well is it so,

my

brethren

when they

erred con-

cerning the Scriptures, they

knew not

that he who diggeth ^cc].lO,s.

a pit for his neighbour falleth therein; and he who destroy eth And if they had not a hedge, a serpent shall bite him.

turned their faces from the L.ord, they would have feared what was before written in the divine Psalms The heathen
:

Ps. 9, 15.
^

are caught in the pit which they


they hid
is their

own foot

taken.

made ; in the snare which The Lord is knoivn when


is

executing judgments: by the works of his hands

the sinner
Ps. 35, 8.

Let them observe this, and bow that the snare they taken. know not shall come upon them, and the net they hid take But they understood not tbese things, for had they them.

done

so,

they ivould not have crucified the

Lord of

glory. iCot.2,S.

Therefore the righteous and faithful servants of the Lord, who are made disciples for the kingdom of heaven, and bring Mat.13,52.
forth from

new and old; and who meditate on the Bent. ivords of the Lord, when sitting in the house, when lying down since they are or rising up, and when walking by the way ; of good hope because of the promise of the Spirit which
it

things

6, 7.

said,

Blessed

is

the

man

that hath not ivalked in the counsel

Ps. l,

l.

of the ungodly, nor stood in the way of sinners, nor sat in the seat of corrupters ; but his delight is in the law of the Lord, and in His law doth he meditate day arid night; being

grounded

in faith, rejoicing in hope, fervent in spirit ^ they

..
b

Syr.

V "JaV V ' X^^SIIDQ^ (A\a.^^.


V

W |J
v.

- A^ ". lol-s'rflAVvn J-if5 C\L\^^ aKoya Kara rov A6yov

Tov UarpSs. Conf. Suicer. Thes.


"AAo'/os
torn.
i.

s.

p.

199.

The term

aKoyoL

appl'ed by Epiphanius to one ^acxKovcn ro'ivvv oi &\oyoL' ravrr\v yap avrots riOTjfxi rT]v iirel ovv rhu Xoyou oh 8ei-Kcai^vi-dau
is

class of heretics.

The quoted again in the 19th Letter. latter part occurs also in Wisd. ii. 12. where, however, we find 'E^eSpeufraAiej/ .^ ^^^^^ of AVc^e*'. Conf. Qasstiones Antiochum apud Athan. torn. ii. g^j p 250. . 8. Uepl 8e t-^u dea-jj-wy, oov ^Sr^aau rhu XpiJ-Thv, Aeyet TaKaviCav rj-ovs 'lovSaiovs 'Haaias oirpocpriTTis' oval ^^ \pvxv avrciu, Siort i^ovX^vaavro
^o^x^p
ivovripav KaO' kavTu^v, Aeyoi/res.

XovTai rhu irapa 'Ic^avvov KeKT]pvy^hov ^Ao7o:K:Ar,9-Vo'Taz.Epiph op.(Heres. Ii.) Par. 1022. torn. i. p. 423. ^ This passage is fouad in the L XX.
version of Isaiah,
c. iii. v.

^ff^/j^^y rhu SUaiou.


^J"^'

_^^lk h^Q'^ Jj^Ur-J


^-fc-^*^'
xii.
J

'in spirit i'


*

9, 10.

It is

fervent,' as in Bom. uiting,' as Prof. Larsow renders

1. not exit.

00

God

the comfort of the fious in time of affliction.

Letter have boldness to say, Mij mouth shall speak of ivisdom, and And Vl.\i\-s~ ^^^^ meditation of my heart shall he of understanding. Ps. 143, 5. again, / have meditated on all Thy works, and on the work Ps. Q'd, 6. of Thy hands has been my meditation. And, If I have re-

membered Thee on my
on Thee.
Ps. 19, 5.

bed, and in the morning have meditated Afterwards, advancing in boldness^, they say, 2%^ meditation of my heart is before Thee at all times. And

he immediately after introduces us to the end of such an


Psi9,
15.

The Lord is my Helper and my Redeemer. For to those who thus examine themselves, and conform
one, saying.
their hearts to the Lord, nothing adverse shall

happen

for,

indeed, their heart

is

strengthened by confidence in the

axx
vers.)

'

^*

They who trust in the Lord [shall be] mount Sion: he who dwelleth in Jerusalem shall not be moved for ever. For if, at any time, the crafty one shall be presumptuously bold against them, chiefly that he may break the rank of the saints, and cause a division among
"^^^^' ^^ ^^ ^^ written.

as the

even in this they look to the Lord, not only as an avenger on their behalf, but also, when they have already been beaten, as a deliverer for them. For this is the
;

brethren

Exod.

14,

divine promise;

And
Rom.
12,

further, although afflictions

The Lord shall fight for you. and trials from without

overtake them, yet, being fashioned after the apostolic words, and being stedfast in tribulations, and perseveriiig in prayers; by meditation, moreover, on the law; they stand
against those things which befall them, are well-pleasing to God, and give utterance to the words which areWritten,

Ps^1j9,

Afflictions

and

distresses are

come upon us; hut Thy com-

action,

Ps^n9,

And whereas, not only in but also in the thoughts of the mind, do men attend to deeds of virtue, he afterwards adds, saying. Mine eyes
meditation.
is

7nandments are

my

prevent the daivn, that


it

I might meditate on Thy words. For meet that the spiritual meditations of those who are whole should precede their bodily actions. And does not

Matt.5,28.

our Saviour, when intending to convey similar instruction, begin with the thoughts of the mind? saying. Whosoever looketh on a woman to lust after her, hath already committed
'

Syr. Tva^p-naia.

Syr.

ira^'p-qaia.

The wicked perverse


adultery
:

in thouyht

and deed.

91

and, Whosoever shall be angry ivith his brother^, A. P. 839. ^^^".5,22. For where there is no wrath, murder is lis guilty of murder. prevented and where lust is first removed, there can be no
;
j I

crime connected with adultery. Necessary then is meditation on the law, and uninteriTim.3,17. rupted converse with virtue, that the saint may lack nothing, things is these For by ivork. but be perfect to every good Timothy, the promise of eternal life, as Paul wrote to Exercise \^T\m.i, saying, and calling constant meditation exercise,

projlteth little;^[thyself unto godliness; for bodily exercise it has the since \but godliness is profitable for all things,

\promise of the 2^resent life, and of that which is eternal. Worthy, indeed, of admiration is the virtue of that man, brethren! for, through Timothy, he also enjoins upon
i

my

all^

the necessity of devoting the


;

mind

to nothing in pre-

ference to godliness

above every thing, to determine upon faith in God. For what favour has the perverse man commandments? to expect, though he may fancy he keeps the even to keep a unable is man perverse the rather, Nay,
yet,

portion

of the

law;

for,

as
;

is

his

conscience,

such, of

necessity,

must be his actions such, saying. The fool hath said


After
this, the

as also the Spirit reproves


in his heart, there is

no God.

Ps. 14,

1.

Word, shewing

that actions correspond with


14,2.

the thoughts, says,

They are corrupt ; they are profane mPs. The perverse man, then, is in every their machinations. body stealing, committing adultery, his respect corrupt in Even things. cursing, being drunken, and doing such like
;

of these things, as Jeremiah, the prophet, convicteth Israel lodge a far off in the had that I Oh, crying out and saying,

jer. 9, 2.

wilderness! then

would I

leave

my

people and depart from

them: for they are

all adulterers,

an assembly of oppressors,

lying and not truth has icho draw out their tongue as a bow; proceed from iniquities to they and prevailed upon the earth, on account Thus, known. not have they iniquities; but

Me

The word ^ikt^ is omitted here, the Vdgate, ^thiopic. and S. Jerome among the FaArabic. The Mss. for thers, also rejects it.
?

as

in

Conf. Christians, to the end of time. Letter ii. p. 14 and Letter in p. 2o. al.o Athan. ad Imp. Const. Apol. torn . 'O fxaKapios aiz6aToXos UavXos p. 247.
e/ccicrT^

the m'ost part, contain


h

it.

^M^"

^I'a

jov

t^aOvrod

Trap-fjy-

Any command
such,
is

as

given to a Christian, equally applicable to all

yeiAe, Ae7c.;f fiv a/xcAet k. t. A.

92

The

close connexion between faith

and godliness.

Letter of their wickedness and falsehood, and their deeds, in that ^lL_they proceed from iniquity to iniquity, he reproves their but, because they knew not the Lord, and machinations were faithless, he charges them with perverseness. For
;

faith

and godliness are


believes in

allied to each other,

and
is

sisters
is

and
of

he who
believes

the

Him is more^ He

godly, and he also


therefore

who
in a

godly,

who

state
;

wickedness, undoubtedly also erreth from the faith and he who falleth from godliness, falleth from the true faith. Paul, for instance, bearing testimony to the same point,
2 Tim. 2,
'

advises his disciple, saying,

^'

2 Tim. 2,

2 Tim. 3,
^^*

Avoid profane conversations ; for and their tvord doth eat as doth a canker, of whom are Hijmenceus and Philetus, In what their perverseness consisted he declares, saying, Who have erred from the faith, saying that the resurrection But again, desirous of shewing that faith is already pastK is yoked with godliness, the Apostle says. And all those
tliey rather advance in ungodliness^

ivho will live godly in Jesus Christ shall suffer persecution.

Afterwards, that no

man

should renounce godliness through

persecution, he counsels
2 Tim. 3,

them

to preserve the faith, adding,

Thou, therefore, contimie in the things thou hast learned, and


hast been assured
of.

And

as

when brother
;

is

helped by

brother, they

become

as a wall to each other

so faith
;

godliness, being of kindred growth,

hang together
is

and and he

who
in
1

is

occupied in the one, of necessity

strengthened by

the other.
godliness

Therefore, wishing the disciple to be exercised

unto the end,

and to contend

in

faith,

he

Tim.

4, 7.

counsels them, saying. Fight the good fight of faith, and lay hold on eternal life. For if a man first put away the perverseness of idols, and properly confesses Him is

Who

by faith with those who war against him. For of these two things we speak of faith and godliness the hope is the same, even everlasting life;
truly
also then fights

God, he

Tim.

4,

for he saith. Fight the


life.

goodfght of faith; lay hold on eternal

7.8.

exercise thyself unto godliness, for it hath the promise of the life that now is, and of that which is to

And,

come.

Conf. John

vii.

17.

'

If any

man

doctrine.
k

will do

Hi8

will,

he shall know of the

Conf. Letter

ii.

p. 18,

&c. note

p.

The erroneous doctrines of

the Avians.

93
A.D.339.

For this cause, the Avio-maniacs', who now have gone digged out from the Church, being opposers of Christ, have been have themselves they which into unbelief, a pit of they ungodliness, in advanced have they since thrust; and, of Rom. Son the blaspheming simple; the the faith overthrow of being His has and creature, a is He that saying God, and
from things which are not'\ But as then against the adApostle herents of Philetus and Hymena[?us", so now the theirs, saymg, to like ungodliness against men all forewarns God standeth sure, having this seal, The The foundation

16,

of Lord knoiveth them that are His; and. Let every one that it nameth the name of the Lord depart from, iniquitij. For deeds and wickedness from depart should man is well that a celebrate the of iniquity, that he may be able properly to the wicked of pollutions the with defiled is who he for
feast;
is

2 Tim. 2,

our God. not able to sacrifice the Passover to the Lord in Egypt said. We Exod. then were who people the also, Thence, our God. cannot sacrifice the Passover in Egypt to the Lord God, Who is over all, willed that they should go far

8,

For away from the

servants of Pharaoh, and from the furnace of set free from wickedness, and having being that iron; so notions, they carefully put away from them all strange

virtuous might be recipients of the knowledge of God and the 2Cor.6,\ depart from them: from Go saith. far He For deeds. man For a things. midst of them, and touch not the unclean virtuous on hold lay and sin, from depart will not otherwise and when he has deeds, than by meditation on his acts; will lay hold on been practised by exercise in godliness, he also Paul, reward of the confession of faith"; which
the
1

Vid. note

m KT.Va,
vlhu ToG

t, to Letter x. p. 77KoX e| ovK iuTo^v flua^ rhu

in his Encyclic Epistle.

been previously made by Alexander Vu\. Socrates

0oG (L.) In Orat. ii. contra Ar. p. 384. . 19. we find the Arians paying to S. Alexander, of the Son, KTia/ia e(rr\v, a\\' ovx i>s ej/ -raiv ariaIn other places, the words naTU}v.
they use respecting

H. E.
o

lib.

i.

cap. 0.

The

Syriac

jAujOA.^ >Q>*P
*to
is
'

n ; ^^tu:a-uwi;

^^-,

.^.^p-,,

require

this

,j,jj.^,iing_']j^5QjiD
"

a confessor.'

Him

are

i^ovK

^ ^^^ translation of

S::;;t.^5?r^yn:p"io7!t-6.^ Dire 5 18. Aaius afterwards as-

^^^ ^i^^:r^^;z:^^ Heb


(conl.
. .

VxetL
the

,lc.rir,eof .be creation of

Son

'

out of nothing'

Itnce

his followers

more boldly were denon,ina,ed


;

"'" ' iv. 140, n'l ''"' understand te P--;-< -'f^t tachcd to taith. '^^^^^"V^'"*'

'^i"T\^::4l';toTpaH::;;-f.beAria., with HymeoKus and Philetua bad

^X^^^^^X ^^^^^ no. ^%::L..


y^'. 'tex.
i

Teit.

8. v.

OfcoAo7f-

04

Christians in all parts united in spirit.


fight, possessed,


^^

Letter after he had fought the

of righteousness which was laid up;

namely, the crown which the righteous

Judge
him.
it

will give, not to

him
this,

alone, but to all

who

are like

For meditation like was always familiar


to

to the saints, should

and exercise in godliness, since be familiar to

us also, at such a time as the present,

when

the divine

word requires us
is

keep the

feast with them.

the feast, but the constant w^orship of

For what God, and the

recognition of godliness, and unceasing? prayers, with concord, from the whole heart ? In this manner, Paul, wishing
iThess.
5,

pray unthout ceasing;


let
Ps. 95,
1.

us to be thus disposed, enjoins, ^siying, Rejoice evermore; in every thing give thanks. Not,
therefore, in a divided manner,

us

all

but unitedly and collectively, keep the feast together, as the prophet exhorts,
let

saying,

come,

us rejoice in the Lord; let us

make a
not to

joyful noise unto


or

God our

Saviour.

Who then is so negligent,


command,
as

who

so disobedient to the divine

Ps. 19, 4.

forsake every thing, and run to the general and common assembly of the feast ? w^hich is not in one place only, for not one place alone keeps the feast but- into all the earth
;

their song has


Mai.
1, 11.

gone forth, and

to

the ends of the world their

words.

And the sacrifice is not oflfered in one place, but in every nation, incense and a pure sacrifice is offered unto
God.

When

in this united

manner from
shall

all

those

who

are

ascend to the gracious and good Father; when the Catholic Church, which is in every place, with gladness and rejoicing, celebrates together
the same worship to God when all men in common send up a song of praise and say, Amen^; how blessed will it not
;

in every place, praise

and prayer

be,

my

brethren

who
?

will not, at that time, be engaged,

praying devoutly

For even the walls of every adverse power, yea even of Jericho especially, falling down, and the giff of the Holy Spirit being then richly poured upon all
P Vid. note e, to Letter iii. p. 23. also Letter vn. p. 57. tor a parallel passage to this in q b. Atnan vid. Letter x. p. 68. and
r

Vid.
2.)

Conf. Letter x. p. G8. and note i. also John vii. 39. Rom. v. 9.
.xx. 22.

John

S.

Chrysostom (Horn

li

there to the same feenpture: ^cre by the general mode of expression.


1.

note

The correspondence

is

more marked by reference

says that the enmity of the flesh must be first removed, and v^^e must be made the friends of God, in order that we may be capable of'receiv'no the gift of the Holy Spirit.

The party of Eusehlus contend agahiat

S.

Athan.

95

men, every man perceiving the coming of the Spirit sliall A.D. 3:i<) We are all filled in the morning ivith Thy favour, a)id Ps. 9o, 14". we rejoice and are made glad in our days.
say,

Since then these things are


with the saints, and
let

so, let

us

make

a joyful noise

no one of us

fail

of his duty in these

things; thinking nothing of the affliction or the trials wliicli,


especially at this time, have been enviously directed against

us by

the party of Eusebius.

They even now wish

to

compass our death, on account of godliness, whose defender is the Lord. But, as faithful servants of the Lord, (since ye know that there is salvation for us in the time of trouble for our Lord also promised, saying. Blessed are ye when men revile you and persecute you, and say all manner of evil against you falsely,
injure us, and,
their accusations, to
;

by

Matt. 5,
^'" ^^'

for

My

sake.
is

Rejoice,

and

he

reivard

great in heaven.

Again,

exceeding glad, for your it is the word of the

Redeemer, that

world, but only those

not befall every man in this a holy fear of Him,) on this account, the more the enemies afflict us, the more should we be enlarged*; although they revile us, we should
affliction shall

who have

and in proportion as they would turn us from godliness, we shovdd boldly" preach it, saying, All these thinys are come upon us, yet have we not forgotten Thee. And we have not acted perversely with the Ariomaniacs'', who say that Tliou hast existence from those The Word, which is eternally with things that exist not.
still

contend';

aside

Ph. 44, 17.

is also from Him. Let us therefore keep the feast, my brethren, celebrating neither let us be it not as worthy of grief and mourning confounded with heretics through temporal troubles brought upon us by godliness. But if any thing that would promote joy and gladness should offer, let us attend to it; so that our heart may not be sad, like that of Cain; but that, like faithful and good servants of the Lord, we may hear the words, Enter into the joy of thy Lord. For we do not

the Father,

.Mat.2.'>,2l.

'

Vid. supra, note d,

p. 87.

.AIOAJ collect A A together,' I read ^L\OLJ


t

For

'

ourselves
'

boldly to others.
u

tempted, to renounce our profession, propose its acceptance by


^^i-i ira^fi-nffias.

contend.'

are to rejoice; reviled, to contend for the faith;

In

afflictions,

we

when when

* Conf. supra, p. 06.

and note a

also

Letter x.

p. 77.

note

t.

96

The Avians and

the

Jews equally opposed

to Christ.

Letter introduce days of mourning and sorrow, as a man may conbut we keep the feast, sider those of the Passover to be being filled with joy and gladness. We keep it then, not nor regarding it after the deceitful error of the Jews

'-

according to the teaching of the Arians, which takes away


the

Son from the Godhead, and numbers


;

Him among

crea-

but as viewing it according to the correct doctrine we derive from the Lord. For the deceitful error of the Jews, and the unbounded impiety of the Arians, involve nothing but sad reflections. The former, indeed, commenced the latter remove the occasion with killing the Lord of His conquering that death which was brought upon Him by the Jews, in that they say He is not the Creator, but a creature. For if He were a creature. He would have been
tures
;

holden by death

but

if
is

He was

not holden by death, as

the Scriptures aver,

He

not a creature, but the Lord of

the creatures, and the substance ^ of this immortal feast.

Ps. 2, 4.

and being For the Lord of death w^ould abolish death accomplished; for have all we would was Lord, what He the imagination of the unto life. But passed from death to them, vain in regard was Jews, and of those who are like contemplated, as they Him, since the result was not such but turned out adverse to themselves and at them He that sitteth i7i the heave?! shall laugh: the Lord shall have them m derision. Farther, when our Saviour was led to death,
;
;

He
Luke
^^*
23,

restrained

the

women who
Weep
not for

followed
;

Him

weeping,

meaning to shew that the Lord's death is an event, not of sorrow, but of joy, and For He does not derive that He Who dies for us, is alive. His being from those things which are not, but from the
saying unto them.
Father.
It truly is a subject of joy, that

Me

we can

see the signs of

victory against death, even our

own

incorruptibility, through

the

body of the Lord.

For since

He

rose gloriously,
;

it is

Rom.

5,

and His body remained without corruption, there can be no doubt regarding our incorruption^ For as by one man,
clear that the resurrection of all of us will take place

since
12. 18.
y

Syr. vTr6Qi<ns. 'Christ our Pass-

Dei,p. 73.
us
r}

over.' Cont. Letter x. p. 68. note h. 2 Conf. S. Athan. de Incam. Verbi

. 50.tis SeiiAAosTrepl a^aj/acias ovrios iiria-TwaaTo rohs avOpccirovs,

rov Xpia-rov (Travphs, Kal

rj

toO

Christ to he eagerly received as sustenance.


as saith Paul, (and it is the truth,) sin passed

97
all

upon

men, A .P.
i

339.

so by the resurrection of our Lord Jesus Christ, we shall For, he says, this corruptible must put on incorall rise. ruption,

Ccr. 15,

and

this

mortal must put on immortality.

But

this

took place in the time of the Passion, in which also our Lord died for us, for our Passover, Christ, is sacrificed, Therefore, because He was sacrificed, let each of us feed upon Him, and with alacrity and diligence partake of His
sustenance
is
;

Cot. 5,7.

since

He

is

given to

all

without grudging, and


4, 14.

John in every one a well of water flowing to everlasting life, month the of ninth the on days forty of begin the fast

We

Phamenoth (Mar.

5.);

and having,

in these days, served the

Lord with abstinence, and first purified ourselvcs% we also commence the holy Easter on the fourteenth of the month Pharmuthi (April 9.) Afterwards, extending the fast to us the seventh day, on the seventeenth of the month, let having Lord the of light the And rest late in the evening.
before dawned upon us, the
first day of the week will It behoves us, then, arose. Lord our illumine us, on which arises from good which joy the to rejoice and be glad with to Pentecost remain which weeks works, during the seven is the day P^.u?,2i. This saying. and giving glory to the Father,
it, which the Lord hath made: tee will rejoice and be glad in Whom through Christ, Jesus through our Lor.l and Saviour

(Tw^iaTOS audaraais avrou; Ag^\n,Tp. 53.


.
22.

TovTo yap

^ju

Kcna rov davarov


iraai, Koi

^f ^j^.j^
is

.'
-'

is

12qD1> '
'

!
'

w^i'c'i

Tp6TTaiQV

Ta6rw

iinSei^aaeai

KdvrasTnaTd'aaaeaiT^uTvapahTodyevoufwnu T?,s (bBopds aTTdXei^^ii', Kul Aonrhu -^ucnu r^u rwv a<.ixdTcc. iL<peap<Tiau, &a^.p i.4xvpou Ka\ t^'-P^^M" rf,. inl .duras iao^^U a.aardaem rer^pvKeu The word &cpeapro. rh lavroD .d-^. rp6.L. is used by S. Athan. in other

Tp6naia By faith, we look u^on Christ n'/CTjsthe crufitied, and see in His cross trophy He has erected against the suhdued. has great enemy whom he he g or.ous \Ne see further in t

most

liktlv the translation o{

results of that victory,


deliv>

^-^ ^^ "". ^ance from death and our re u

passaues of this treatise with reference the crucihxion of Christ, and is applied^by him to the crc.s itsel. Yid.

''J*^' f^^"*;,f .f ^C>H^ ^heophdus, the predecessor einjd,^

rection to eternal

4' ',-.

'^:,;::!V^ZZ^Z

'h^

l^t^-^^loT^^ifst^^
?^;ce
;^ tht reilii/rection of Christ,

[:;:;l'tl.;:^^oUfS^Jerome. Igi.ur dominicum l>ascha^eUbrantes,_sancn8

rb Tp6t
The

;.dfiea>s.

Coteh tom.

ii.

p. 113. ed.
'

Amst.
signs

1646.
>

1724.

Syriac here rendered

m. p. o. ^ ul note k, Letter

98

Conclusion.

Letter to the same, and to His Father, be glory and dominion for Amen. ever and ever. Salute one another with a holy kiss. All the brethren who are with me salute you. That ye may have health in
the Lord, I pray, brethren beloved.

Here endeth the eleventh Letter of holy Athanasius.

To

the

Beloved Brother and our fellow-labourer in the


,

Ministry Serapion^.
y

Thanks be
at all times,
it

Divine Providence for those things which, vouchsafes to us; for it has vouchsafed to us
to

now

also to

come

to the season of the festival.

Having,

therefore, according to custom, written the Letter respecting the festival, 1 have sent it to thee, our beloved; that through

thee

all

the brethren also

may be

able to

know

the day of

rejoicing. But because some Meletians, being come from Syria, have boasted that they had received what does not belong to them I mean, that even they were reckoned in the Catholic Church; on this account, I have sent unto
;

thee a copy of one letter of our fellow-labourers in the ministry^ w^ho are of Palestine, that when it reaches thee, thou mayest know the fraud of the pretenders in this matter.

necessary for

have said before, it was Bishops who are in Syria; and immediately those of Palestine sent us a reply, having

For because they boasted,

as I

me

to write to the

coincided in^ the

may

learn occasion to peruse the letters of

judgment against them in the manner you from the copy. That thou mayest not have
all

the Bishops one after


is

the other,

I have sent thee

[only] one, which

of like

character with

the rest, in order that

from

it,

thou mayest

it is in

This Letter being introduced, (a. the Ms.) after the eleventh, with the remark at the end of it, that there is no twelfth; together with the exhortations concerning fasting contained in it; we can have little doubt that it

bears the same date as the eleventh, and may suppose that it was sent together with it. This point regarding the date is of importance in the identification of the names of the Bishops mentioned at the close of it. Serapion, to whom it is addressed, we may conelude to be the same of that name,

there are ^^^ ^" ^l^/ ^^"^^V^jf^"* the works of S. ^than as well a^ one Ar>us^ of death the of on the subjec This last is add. essed,2.pcx7r.c...a5eX^V he exkoX crvKK^irovpyv ^^ Ki/piy. tellowpression rendered in the ext Cl.t. ^on of labourer in the ministry
ou'" "^i'"^^^^;> ^:?:!

P^^^^,*^^

cvKK.novn'is. ^^^^--^"^ ''r f,fof Letter is given nearly ,n the words to the preface Mr. Cureton, in his

^^^^^^^^

f
,

Syriac text.
^
c

trvWenovpyo
'fulfilled

who

was Bishop

of

Thmuis, and

to

whom

Qr, Cureton.

the

j^^nt judgment,

H 2

100

Neglect of the Lenten Fast a disgrace

to Christians,

I know also that when the purport of all of them. they are convicted in this matter, they will incur perfect odium at the hands of all men. And thus far concerning

know

the pretenders.

But

have farther deemed

it

highly necessary and very

urgent, to

make known

this to each one

for I have written that thou shouldest proclaim the fast of forty
to

your modesty

days to the brethren, and persuade them to fast; to the end


that, while all the

world

is

fasting, w^e

who

are in

Egypt

should not become a laughing-stock, as the only people

who
it

do not do not
it

fast,

but take our pleasure in these days.


because the Letter
is

For

if w^e
is

fast,

[only]

then read,

right that

we should take away

this

pretext also, and that

be read before the fast of forty

not

make

it is

daj^s, so that they may an excuse for neglect of fasting. Also, when read, they may be able to learn respecting the fast.

this

But, O, our beloved, whether in


disgrace that

this

way

or any other,
it is

exhort and teach them to fast forty days.

For

even a

when

all

the world does this, those alone

who

are in Egypt, instead of fasting, should find their pleasure.

For even I also, being grieved because men make a laughing-stock of us for this, have been constrained thus to write to thee. When thou, therefore, receivest the letters, and
hast read
return, our beloved, that I also
It.
(1

them and given the exhortation, write to me in may rejoice upon learning
it

But

have also thought

necessary to inform you of

d There is a similar notification of the appointment of fresh Bishops, appended to the nineteenth Letter. Theophilus, the predecessor of S. Cyril in the see of Alexandria, at the close of

similar ending to his third Paschal Letter. Indeed, some such form appears to have becomecustomary, whereby the ordaining Bishops notified to the

his first Paschal Letter, as translated

by b Jerome, imitates . Athanasius in this respect adopting almost his viry words. 5^alutate invicem in oscu o sancvo fealutant vos omnes qui
s^r hin^,
''; /r.sciatis

^' ^''
pro

"^^-^-^ario

beaH FH^^ ^"' ' ^";'"" ^"^mi. nt 'nT/T '''"' Lemnado omo H^ . 1^ "'

Sanctis

et

appointment of they ordained to any diocese. The Primate of Alexandria, as we know, had the sole privilege of ordaining all the suffragan Bishops, Probably the Paschal Letters, being sent annually, became, by degrees, th! ordinary channel of such communicathose

different districts the

whom

b te et Ecc'e n
bl oth

n p.

<

4 Ji.

: Vett Pat't'^a ed P ;J^ 10.0. ;w^ ed. Pan.,

T-;-' "r'^^^'"^^ ^7'^'^' ll p''""


'^

'

J"^''^
^^,

'': '"

'fu" 1 here

is

^"^'l^ ^^ the case, as we have een, with two out of the three Letters fTheophilus, which are extant. Va'^^'"^ '^y'^ (Observat. in Socrat. H. E. ^'''' "" ^^ ^^'^ ^otanda est diligens ^^"^^^^^ sanctorum patrum, qui depositd ha^retico sacerdote, nomeii cath.lici

*^^^-

Names

of recenlly appointed Bishops with their dioceses. 101

the fact, that Bishops have succeeded those wlio have fallen
asleep.

In Tanis, in the
instead of

stead of Elias,

is

Theodoruse.

In Arsenoitis, Silvanus^ instead of Calosiris.

In Paralus,
is

Nemesion

is

Nonnus '.
is

In Bucolia''

Ileraclius.

In Tentyra, Andronicus

instead of Saprion^ his father.

episcopi qui in ejus

locum substitutus

Holy Eastern Church. Gen.


vol.
i.

fuerat, cunctis episcopis significant, ut scilicet sciant, a quo ecclesiasticas

p.

115, 116.

To

the

list

Introd. there

ad quem scribere debeant. Sed et quoties mortuis episcopis alii in eoruni locum t'ueiant ordilitteras accipere, et

nati, eorum nomina reliquis episcopis indicare consueverat ordinator, ut scirent ad quo? scribere, et a quibus pacificas literas accipere deberent, ut discimus ex Theopbili epistolis paschalibus. The Greek of what is rendered in the text, ' so that to these you may write, and from these receive the canonical Letters,' is, according to what we find in the passage of Socrates referred to above ; (which passage is an extract of a Letter of the Council of Antioch, on the subject of the deposition of Paul of Samosata, and the appointment of Domnus in his stead;) rovTOis ypdcpTjTf, Kal to. Trapa 0TV03S TovTCjv KavoviKO. Sex^JcT^e ypa.jjifx.aT a (or, Tas KavoviKas iTnaroXas. Can. viii. Such Letters were Concil. Antioch.) called by the Latins, commiinicatorice
litterce.

given must be added the names of Bucolia, Stathma, the Eastern Garyathis, the Southern Garyathis. The mention of the last two would favour the supposition that there were also Bishoprics in the Western and the Northern Garyathis. The Synac of the word given in the text Elias' is
*

*SP |
to

N ^|.

This name

is

doubtless

be taken thus. There were two Egyptian Bishops of that name who subscribed their names at the Council
Prof. Larsow writes it Tanis is situate in Augustamnica Prima. Vid. Quatremere Me-

of Sardica.
'

Ilius,'

moires geogr. et histor. sur I'Egypte, torn. i. p. 284. &c. (L.) The word
'la.vis is

the

LXX.

rendering of ]r!i

in the various places


'

where

it is

found.

Silvanus was succeeded by Andreas, as we learn from the postscript to the nineteenth Letter.
g

The

epithet dp-qviKaX

was

also

The

Syiiac

is

*flOQJQJ, which

applied to them. Vid. Zonar. Observat. apud Bever. Synod, torn. i. p. 438. So in the quotation from Theophilus, given
iibove,

we

find

pacificas litteras.

Larsow writes Nunos. I tliink it is meant for Nonnus, w hich was the name of an Egyptian Bishop who was present Apol. contra at the Synod of Tyre.
Prof.

Tertullian makes mention of such Letters. De Prspscript. adv. Hseret. Communicatio pacis et apcap. 20. pellatio fraternitatis et contesseratio hospita'.itatis, quse jura non alia ratio
regit,
e

Ar.
^

torn-

i.

p.

154.

79.
diss'^rtation

Bucolia.

For a

on

quam ejusdem

sacramenti una

traditio.

In the Apologia contra Ar. Athan.

torn. i. p. 133. we have a list of ninety-four Egyptian Bishops, among others, who were present at the Coun. il of Sardica. As this was held A. D. 347. we might naturally expect to find among them some of the names of those mentioned above as recently appointed.

Op.

the situation of Bucolia, see the treatise by Quatremere, already referred to, In p. 2.33, he (torn. i. p. 224233.) writes; La contree de I'Elearchie ou des Bucolies, telle qu'elle nous a ete decrite p.ir les auteurs ancient, est, si je ne me ti ompe, parlaitement identique avec la province de Baschmour

peut etre

le

Baschmour

s'etendoit h

I'occident du bras de Damielte, le lontr des cotes de la mer, jusqu'au lac de

Bourlos.

Fabricius, in his Index Gto-

reference to this

list

has enabled

me

graphicus Episcopatuum orhis Cliristiani, mentions among the Egyptian


Bishoprics, ' ElearchiaJ, .-Egvpti secunda.'
in

to give, with a degree of certainty,

some

pruviticia

names which otherwi>e would have been more obscure, and which have been For a list mistaken by Prof. Larsow. of the Egyptian Bishoprics, the reader is referred to Neale's Hist, of the

'An Egyptian Bishop of the name of Saprion was amonja; tho-e as.sembled Apol. contra at the Synod of Tyre. Ar. tom. 1. p- lo4. . 70.

102 Names of recently appointed Bishops

tvith their dioceses.

In Thebais, Philon instead of Philon. In Maximianopolis, Herminus instead of Atras. In the lower Apollon is
in the place

Sarapion instead of Plution^. In Aphroditon, Serenus is In Rhinocoruron ', Salomon. of Theodorus. In Stathma, Arabion, and in Marmarica. In the eastern

In the Garyathis, Andragathius "^ in the place of Hierax. So that southern Garyathis, Quintus" instead of Nicon". to these you may write, and from these receive the canonical
Letters.

Salute one another with a holy kiss.

All the brethren

who

are with

me

salute you.

He

(Athan.) wrote this from

Rome.

There

is

no twelfth

Letter.

*>

Syr.

lO

^<^ \<^g^

"

Syr.

^CDQ^^J JQD. Larsow writes


There can
\re it is

In this word a Dolath is written in the Ms. instead of a Risch.


1 "'

this
little

word Kyanitos.
doubt that

Syr.

.cddA

.1^ ll
\<,

'

have

little

douht, that this is Jor Andragathius, as given in the test. One of the Egyptian Bishops at the Council of Sardica bore Larsow writes it Andragthis name.
thos.

Quintus, probably the same of that name who is enuraerated among those present at the Council of Sardica.
An Egyptian Bishop of that name had been present at the Synod of

Tyre.

LETTER

XIII

Coss. Marcellinus, Prohinus; Frcef. Longinus; Indict.

XIV.; A .D. 341.

Easter-day,
Dioclet. 57.

XIIL

Kal. Mali;

XXIV.

Pharmuthi;

^ra

J'X^Vm.

Even now, my

beloved brethren, I do not shrink from

notifying to you the saving feast % which occurs according to annual custom. For although, with afflictions and
sorrows, the opposers of Christ^ have oppressed you also
yet, God having comforted us by our mutual faith behold, I even write to you from Rome*^. Keeping the feast here with the brethren, still I also keep it with you in will and in spirit; for we send up prayers in common to God, Who hath granted lis not only to believe in Him, but also now to suffer for His sake. For, troubled as

together with us;


'^j

Phil. 1,29.

Vid. Letter x. p. 67. note e. The Arians (ot XP'^'^^^^'^X'^')' ^^^* Letter x. p. 75. note n. and p. I'd.
*
''

to Italy,
life

and came to Eome. In the Athanasius, prefixed to the Benedictine edition, we read, (p. xxxix.)
of

note

z.

Eo anno
lemnitas
Aprilis
;

(341.) incidit
in

Paschatis so-

that faith which we hold in common. Conf. Rom. i. 12. d S. Athan. had been obliged to

By

diem

decimam

nonam

leave

Alexandria some time before, havina: fled from the violence of Gregory the Cappadocian, on which occasion he left the city (according to the Index on the twentythird of Phamenoth (Mar. 19.). Gregory, immediately upon being constituted Bishop of Alexandria, became conspicuous by his of violence. acts S. Athan. after his withdrawal from Alexandria, remained for a short time at no great distance from the city, though it is uncertain where. It was during this period that he wrote the Encyclical Letter to the Bishops, against the illegal intrusion of Gregory

(A.D. 339.)

profectum arbitramurque Athanasium postremis hujus mensis diebus, mense JNIaio ad Italiae orae This Letter would, howappuli.^se. ever, favour the opinion tliat he reached Rome earlier than May. Tn the Index it is stated expressly tliat Gregory sent no Paschal Letter either for this year, or for those immediately preceding and In 340, his acts of tyranny following. and oppression left him no leisure. In this, and the following year, his illness is there stated as the preventing cause. Nor did this Pope write any Festal Letter even this year, (341,) the com'

mencement
in
ill

of his illness taking place

it.'

in

Because Gregory was severely t'le city, (A.D. 342,) the Pope
'

into his see.

He

afterwards took ship

was unable

to

send [any Letter].'

104

Heretical persecufio?is of the Church.

Letter we are, because


^^^^
- write,

we

are so far from you,

He moves

us to

that by a letter provoke one another to good^. For, indeed, numerous afflictions and bitter persecutions directed against the Church have been against us. For heretics, depraved in
their mind, untried in the faith, rising against the truth,

we might comfort ourselves, and

violently persecute the Cliurch


are scourged,
is
still

and of the brethren, some


;

and others torn asunder by the rack and, more hard, the ill-treatment reaches even to the Bishops. Nevertheless, it is not becoming, on this So far from account, that we should neglect the feast. neglecting the commemoration of it, even for a time, we should the rather bear it in remembrance. Now such things as seasons for feasts are not thought of by

what

the unbelievers, because they spend all their lives in revelling

and

follies;

and the

feasts that obtain

occasion of grief rather than of joy.

among them are an But to us in this


For such things
as

present
[to

life

they are especially an uninterrupted^ passage

heaven]

it is

indeed our season.

these serve for exercise and trial, so that, having approved

ourselves zealous and chosen servants of Christ,


Job 7,1.

we may be

fellow-heirs with the saints.

world

is

a trial

to

are proved in this

The whole men upon the earth. Nevertheless, they world by afflictions, labours, and sorrows,

For thus Job:

Jer. 17, 10.

to the end that each one also may receive of God such reward as is meet for him; as He saith by the prophet, / am the Lord, Who trieth the hearts, and searcheth the reins,

give to every one according to his ways. But he does not know the things of a man on his being tried for He knows them all before they come to pass but because He
to
first
;
:

Jer.20,

12.

good and philanthropic, He distributes to each a due reward according to his works, so that every man may exclaim, Righteous is the judgment of God As the prophet saith again. The Lord trieth justice, and understandeth the
is
!

reins.

And

further, for this cause

He

trieth each one of us,

'

Conf Heb.x. 24

'Provoke unto

is

love and to good works.' Prof. Larsow has translated this passage erroneously, through an oversight with
'resnect to the

the rendering of verse quoted,


r\
^

ei's

7rapo|u(r/.br in the

Syr.

^OOl JJ? the

rendering of

word vlr^l

lo'CLt^lD ~ V;^
>\

K^eM^c^SterTos in Lttter v.
p.

Vid. note

i,

39.

Chrhtians
either that to those

Ir'ied for their


it

onn good.

10-3

who know

not, our virtue ir.ay be A.D. 341.


:

by means respecting Job; Thwkest thou


discovered
teous ?

of the trials

hud upon us
I

as

was

said
'I'l^^^^-"^' vers.)

that

ivas revealed to ^^^^^

be seen righfor any other cause, than that thou shouldest

Or

that,

when men come

to a sense of their deeds,

they

may know

the temper of them, and

may

therefore

stedfast in the either repent of their wickedness, or remain


faith.

Now

the blessed Paul,

when troubled by

afflictions,

and persecutions, and hunger and

thirst, in every thing ivas li.m.s.a?.

Through us. a conqueror, through Jesus Christ, Who loved and believing yet, body; suffering, he was weak indeed in made was strength his hoping, he was strong in spirit, and
I

perfect in weakness.

But

the other saints also,

who had

a like confidence in
1,21.

with gladness; as God, accepted a probation^ such the Psalmist, Job said. Blessed be the name of the Lord. But and my reins my Lord, and try me: 'prove Search me,
as this
heart.

J-^-

rrov.-26,2.

For
;

since,

when

the strength

is

proved,

it

convinceth

advantage

therefore they, perceiving the purity and the the foolish back resulting from the divine fire, did not draw
rather received a character no injury at all from the things which appearing more bright, like gold from the

in trials^'like these. from them, suffering

But they

>

luippened, but
firei;

as

he

said,

Thou hast tried season; Thou hast proved me, and


I

who was tried by such exercise as this; my heart; Thou hast visited me in the nighthast not

V.

ir, 3.

found iniquity

in

me

m But, on the other and eating than more nothing actions, so that they know soon They danger''. as trials chinking and dying, account
The words
here, and in the follow'

so that

my mouth

shall not speak of the works of men. their hand, those who are lawless

Xa.>,
.^^ "^
^

Kai ,.

^iH<r^v

iXa^por^.v^

I.
vit

6:c. are all


'

.g lines, rendered P-h^4]-l from the root


'

'P--'
tenta-

JOS

;"

JJ'

^^.o... .aea.p6,..o.
to

^,'^s^,ra

idea ot p-obavit,' and convey the

There appears

he an error

in the

^ciAAt?

106

The martyrs perfected hy


that,

their sufferings.

Letter stumble at them J, so


XIII.

being untried in the faith, they

are given over to a reprobate mind, and do those things

which are not seemly.


2 Cor. 12,
10.

Therefore the blessed Paul, when urging us to such exercises as these, and having before measured himself by them, says, Therefore I take pleasure
infirmities.

lTim.4,r in afflictions^ in unto godliness.

And

again.

Exercise thyself

For since he knew the persecutions that accompanied those who chose to live in godliness, he wished his disciples to meditate beforehand on the difficulties connected with godliness
affliction arise,
;

that

when

trials

should come, and

they might be able to bear them easily, as having been exercised in these things. For in those things wherewith a man has been conversant in mind, there is a

hidden joy which he ordinarily experiences. In this way, the blessed martyrs, since they were first conversant w^ith trials, were quickly perfected in Christ '^, not at all regardPs. 49, 11

ing the injury of the body, while they contemplated the expected rest. But all those who call their lands hy their own names, and have wood, and hay, and stubble ^ in
their

Rom.

5, 3

thoughts; such as these, since they are strangers to troubles, are aliens from the kingdom of heaven . Had they, however,j known that tribulation worketh patience, and patience experience,

Cor. 9,

27.

and experience hope, and hope maketh not ashamed, they would have exercised themselves, after the example o] Paul, who said, I keep under my body and bring it inti

Syr.

^-A;* ^OOlTi

stumble

at them.' 1 thiuk the woid here used is the translation of the Greek Trra^cu, wliich it represents in James ii, 10.'

and iii. 2. Trials are looked upon by the righteous, as sent upon them by God, to refine and purity them. By the wicked, on the contrary, they are regarded as dangerous; as obstacles in the way. They stumble against them for a time; then emerge from

a notel as given above, is' obvious, and the sense consecutive. Two difff rent characters are described the martyrs and others, who sufi'er tribulation for the kingdom of heaven, are contrasted with those who seek all
in

Saints, which he finds in which he draws attention

it,

and

tc,

The

translation,

their

enjoyment

in this life,

occupying

them worse than they were


"'

before.

The
^

their thoughts with nothing better than wood, and hay, and stubble, and ' calling their lands after their own names.'

had advanced them


fection.
"

previous trials of the martyrs to Christian per. Conf. Col. i. 28. rdx^iop eV
iii.

The

plural

form

lAlj]

<

lands,'

is

worthy of notice.
translation
Lift

XpicTTCf 'ItjctoC.

Couf. 1 Cor.
Prof.

12.

It is the Peschito of xcipas in John iv. 35.

Larsow has entirely mistaken this passage. It does not contain the slightest allusion to the i/ivocafion of

V^, Ihe

'"'

up your eyes, and look upon the ^"^ again, in Jame^' v. 14. hire of the labourers, who have

reaped

down

yoxxv fields:

Temporal
subjection, lest

afflictions

and eternal glory.

107

when I have preached to others, I myself should ^^-p^^ ^"'^>''^'But they would easily have borne the he a castaivay. from time to afflictions which were brought upon them to by listened been had admonition prophetic time, if the in his yoke Thy up take to man a good for them, It is
because he youth; he shall sit alone and shall be silent, his cheek to him give will He him. upon yoke taken Thy Because who smiteth him ; he ivill be filed with reproaches. lie afflicteth, when ever; for a>cay cast for the Lord does not

hath

He

is

gracious, according

to

the

multitude of His tender

mercies^'.

For
stripes,

if all these

things should proceed from the enemies,

they shall avail nothing since from them we God; of mercies a-ainst the tender things, but God temporal being they shall quickly recover, tender mercies His out pouring being always gracious, my beloved Therefore, [Him]. on those who please but fix thmgs, temporal at look brethren, we should not
insults,

reproaches, yet

eternal. Though affliction our attention on those which are though insult and perend; may come, it will have an the hope which is in to s-ecution, yet are they nothing trifling compared with are For all present matters reserve

those

of which are future; the sufferings the hope that with compared time not being worthy to be the kingdom? with compared For what can be is to come^ all we could is what Or life ? or what is like to everlasting yonder. inherit shall we give here, compared with what

this

present

For we are
fore
it is

consider afflictions and not right, n.y beloved, to are laid up for us because persecutions, but the hopes which
.

heirs of

God, and joint-heirs with Christ.

ihere-

Ro-

8.

of persecutions.

may

Lssachar desires that g.,. persuade, as the Scripture saith, heritages; and when he widchis good, resting between the

Now

to this

the patriarch even the example of Tssachar,


..,

thi.

first V Serapion quote, the hK./s/>..^o/a passage of Scripture in


.c in praise of the asce

part of

'''^^'J'^'^}^\y,;, "Cent. Kom.


17.

h.

Cor.

i.

aU Monadw.s,
Hfe

Via. A.

Mai. Spicileg. Rom.

108

The example of

Tssacliar

proposed for imitation.

Letter satv that the rest was good, and the land fertile', he bowed his ^^"- shoulder to laboiir, and became a husbandman. Being consumed by divine love, like the spouse in the Canticles, he

which is profitable; mind was captivated not by the old alone, but by both the heritages. And further, like one expanding his win2-s% he beheld the rest which is in heaven, w^hile [he looked upon] the earth as full of good deeds rather, in since that is always new, and never truth, the heavenly grows old. For this earth passes away, as the Lord said
collected from the holy Scriptures that
for his

but that which

is

ready to receive the saints

is

immortal.

Now when
fully

Issachar, the patriarch, his

saw these

things,

he joyhis

made

boast of afflictions and

toils,

bowing

shoulders that he might labour.

And

he did not contend

with those who smote him, neither was he disturbed by insults; but like a man triumphing the more by these things,

and the more earnestly tilling his land, he received profit from it. The Word, indeed, scattered the seed, but he watchfully cultivated it, so that it brought forth fruit, even
a hundred-fold.

Now
that

what

is this,

my

beloved, but that

we

also,

when
;

the

and be discouraged, but should the rather press after the crown of the high
afflictions

enemies are set against us, should glory in

when we

are persecuted, w^e should not

V
''

^ ^<*

1*1
?

P^>I

Larsow transwords by
'

lates the last of these

hea-

venly,' stating in a nore that the context requires it. But I think it better to
^ take the root
.

,,

Kr\^ as^,

J and

to

consider

-1

an exact translation of the iriW of the LXX. vers. This will not be opposed to the context. The primary and literal translation may be adhered to, without affecting the more hidden and spiritual explanation. Jarchi translates the passage figuratively of Issachar being strong to bear the yoke of the law. The Jerusalem Targum thus paraphrases the verse. And he saw the rest of the world to come, that It was good, and the portion of the land of Israel, that it was pleasant; thereIt
'

*" '^ comment of S. Athan. on the passage. The patriarch looked upon th's world as the present portion assigned him by God; he duly estimated the blessings connected with it, notwithstanding its trials and afflictions; ^^^ he therefore willingly and cheer' fuUy acquiesced in his lot. Bui he looked forward to another and better heritage to be enjoyed hereafter, and it was the prospect of this especially, that was his stay and support. The literal explanation of resting between the heritages must be sought in the particular tract of land in which the
tribe
s

was

situated.

he inclined his shoulders to work the law and hi^s brethren brought unto him. xhis paraphrase appears to me in substance very similar
fore
in
gitts

Conf. S. Au^. Enarratio in Psalmum ciii. 13. (tom. iv. p. 1139. ed. Ben.) Pennte ergo animarum virtutes, bona opera, recte facta. Quisquis

Deum et proxiraum, animam habet pennatam, liberis alls, sancto amore volantem ad Dominum.
dilexerit

Sufferingsfor the truth should unite us more closely to God. lOi)


calling' in Christ Jesus our

Lord? and

that being insulted, A.l).

34i.

we should not be

disturbed, but should give our check to

the sniiter, and even bow the shoulder ? For the lovers of pleasure and the lovers of enmity are tried, as saith the blessed Apostle James, ivhen they are draivii away by their
I

J mnvs
*

],

own
I

lusts

and

enticed.

for the truth, and that


1

knowing that we suller those who deny the Lord smile and

But

let us,

persecute us, count

it

all joy,

my

brethren, according to the J:ime8l,2.

words of James, when we fall into trials of various temptqtians, knowing that the trial of our faith world th patience. Let us even keep the feast with rejoicing, my brethren, knowing that our salvation is reserved in the time of affliction. For our Saviour did not redeem us by ease; but He
abolished death by suffering for us.

And

respecting this,
Jo'' JG,
'

He

intimated to us before, saying. In the world ye shall have

tribulation.

But He

did not say this to every man, but to

who diligently and faithfully perform good service to Him, knowing beforehand, that they should be persecuted ^ho would live godly to Him. But evil-doers and deceivers 2 If will wax ivorse and tcorse, deceiving and being deceived.
those
therefore, like the expounders of dreams and false prophets,

Tim.

:;,

who

professed to give signs, these ignorant men, in the same

manner, being drunk, not with wine, but with their own wickedness, make a profession of priesthood, and glory in
their threats, believe

them not

but since we are

tried, let

For us humble ourselves, not being drawn away by them. shall there saying. Closes, so God warned His people by If rise np among you a prophet, or a dreamer of dreams, and shall give signs and tokens, and the sign or the token shall come to pass irhich he spake to thee, saying. Let us go and serve strange gods, which ye have not known; ye shall not
hearken unto the ivords of that prophet or that dreamer of dreams. For the Lord your God trieth you, that Jle may know whether you will love the Lord your God with all yrur

De.itJ.i.i.

So we, when we are tried by these things, will not But let us also separate ourselves from the love of God.
heart.

now keep

the feast,

my

beloved, not as introducing a day of


P'-j'-

as

tSvr.lAa-r^'callin./ not Prof. Larsow translates it.

'city,-

-'

'^-

"^^

^^"^^'''^

^''^

""^

Lout.

110

Conclusion,

Letter suffering, but of joy in Christ, by Whom we are fed every XTII. Let us be mindful of Him Who was sacrificed in the ^jay. days of the Passover for we celebrate this, because Christ
;

He Who once brought His the Passover was sacrificed. now abolished death, and hath and Egypt, of people out
him
had the power of death, that is, the devil, will also now turn him to shame, and again grant aid to those who are troubled, and cry unto God day and night. We begin the fast of forty days on the thirteenth of Phamenoth (9 Mar.), and the holy week of Easter on the eighteenth of Pharmuthi (Apr. 13.); and having ceased on the seventh day, being the twenty-third (Apr. 18.), and the first of the great week having dawned on the twenty -fourth of the same month Pharmuthi (Apr. 19.), let us reckon from
that
it till

Pentecost.

And

at all times let us sing praises, call-

ing on Christ, being delivered from our enemies Jesus our Lord, through

by Christ

Whom

to the Father

be glory and

dominion for ever and ever. Amen. Greet one another with a holy kiss. All those who are I pray, my beloved brethren, here with me salute you. that ye may have health in the Lord.

He

(Athanasius) wrote

this

also

from Rome.

Here

endeth the thirteenth Letter.

LETTER

XIV.

Coss.

Augustus Constantius III., Const ans II.; same Longinus ; Indict. XV.; Easter-day III. XVI. Pharmuthi; jEra Dioclet. 58.

Prcef. fhe

A..

D. 342.

Id. Apr.;
'

faster-day

onApr.ii.

The
the

gladness of our feast,


fails

my

brethren,

is

always near at

hand, and never

For on our behalf; even our Lord Jesus Christ, Who, having promised that His habitation with us should be perpetual, in virtue thereof cried, saying, Lo, I am with you all the days, [even to the ^^^att. ^^* end'\ of the world. For as He is the Shepherd, and the High Priest, and the Way and the Door, and every thing

those
is

who wish

to celebrate it^

Word

is

near,

Who

all things

28,

He has been revealed to us as the and the holyday, according to the blessed Apostle; Our Passover, Christ, is sacrifced. He also was waited for; He, too, caused a light to shine at the prayer of the Psalmist, who said, [Thou arf] my joy ; deliver me from those who surround me; this being indeed true rejoicing, this being a
at once to us, so further,
feast,

Cor. 6, 7.

P^-Si,

7.

true feast, even deliverance from wickedness, whereto a

man

attains

by altogether adopting an upright conversation,

and by his mind being bent on pious obedience towards God^. For thus also the saints all their lives long, were
like

men

rejoicing at a feast.

One found

rest in praying to
^r*

God,

as blessed David,

who

rose in the night, not once but


for songs of praise,

^^^'

seven times.

Another was celebrated

< * Conf. Letter v. p. 38. For the grace of the feast is not limited to one time, nor does its splendid brilliancy but it is always near, suffer an eclipse enlightening the conscience of those
;

Conf. Letter iii. p. 23. * For what is the feast, but the service of tlie And what is that service, but prolonged prayer to God, and unceasing thanksgiving?'
else

soul ?

who

earnestly desire

it.'

112

Christ our guide to the Feast.

Letter as the great Moses,


E^^d

who

sang a song of praise for the victory

1T~

Others performed worship with unceasing cheerfuhiess, like the great Samuel and the blessed Elijah who have ceased from their perfect
^^^'
;

Pharaoh, and those task-masters.

conversation, and

now keep

in their former instruction,

the feast in heaven, and rejoice which was by emblems, and out

of types understand the truth.

But what

sprinklings shall
?

celebrate the feast

Who

we
but

haste to this festival ?

we now emj^loy, while we then will thus be our guide, as None can do this, my beloved,
the

Him Whom

ye will name with me, even our Lord


said,

John 14,6. Jesus Christ,

Who

/ am

Way.

For

it is

He Who,

John 1,29. according to the blessed John, taketh

away

the sin of the

world.
Jer. G, 16.

He

also purifies

our souls, as Jeremiah the prophet

ways and see, and enand look which is the good path, and ye shall find in it cleansing for your souls. Of old time, the blood of the he-goats and the ashes of a heifer, sprinkled upon those who were unclean, were adapted only to purify the flesh but now, through the grace of God the Word, every
quire,
;

says in a certain place. Stand in the

man

Following Him, we may, even which is above, meditate beforehand on the feast which is eternal as also,'
here, as on the threshold of the Jerusalem
;

is

thoroughly cleansed.

the

^^la.k 10,

when they together followed the Saviour, Who was their Leader, have now become teachers of a like readiness of disposition, saying, Behold, we have
Apostles,

blessed

Exod.

19,

left all, and followed Thee. For the following of the Lord, and the feast which is of the Lord, is not accomplished by words only, but by deeds, every enactment of laws and commands involving a distinct performance. For as the great Moses, when administering the holy laws, exacted a promise from the people, respecting the practice

so that having promised, they

Exod.

12,

liars thus also, the celebration of the feast of the Passoverc moves no question, and demands no reply but when the word is given, the obedience of it follows for He saith. And the children of Israel shall keep the Passover mtendmg that there should be a ready peribrmance of the
:

be accused as

of them might not neglect them, and


;

The O

in

]ja^2))0

should probablj be omitted.

The typical character of

the Jewish Passover.


itself,

113
A^

commandment, while

the

thing

at the

same time,
these

842.

But should be rendered more easy'^ matters, I have confidence in your wisdom, and your docSuch points as these have been touched upon trinal care.
respecting

by
to

us often and in various Letters.

But now, which

is

above

all

things most necessary, I wisli

remind you, and myself with you, how that the command would have us not come to the Paschal feast profimely and but with sacramental and doctrinal without preparation as indeed we learn from rites, and prescribed observances
;
;

man tvho is of another nation, or Exo.L the historical account, Jiought ivith money, or uncircumcised, shall not eat the Passover.

12,

Neither should it be eaten in any house^; but He inasmuch as before we it to be done in haste groaned and were made sad by the bondage to Pharaoh,

commands

and the commands of the task-masters.

For when,

in former

were time, the children of Israel acted in this way, they tliat (the type) For type. the receive to worthy counted

had respect to this feast, nor was the feast now introduced on account of the type. As also the Word of God, when desire I have desirous of this, said to His disciples, With
desired to eat this Passover with you. as it is, is a wonderful one; for a
as for a

Luke 32,

The account, given us

man might

have seen^

and going out with them equipped These tlungs bread. unleavened and sandals, staves, and were typical. and shadows, in were, it as before, took place Image the of the invius, unto nigh is But now, the Truth Who, Light; true the Christ, Jesus Lord sihle God^, our

show

or a dance,

Col.

1,

la.

d The argument appears to be this, Moses, as we read in Exodus, ch. xix. of V. 3-7. heard from God the terms tie covenant He would make with the

lated

'

in

any part

of the house.'

But

children of Israel, obedience to all that God should command being imposed on them. Moses repeated these words obeto the Israelites, who promised
dience:
All that the Lord hath spoken the will we do.' (V. 8.) ,-^A; that promulgation ot the law takes place. The command to keep the Passover is renewed. (Levit.iv. 9.) The Israelites were therefore bound to keep it, as well
'

g.ven above appears to be required by the reference. Conf. Letter v. 'In one house f^^" - .^e p. 47 Catholic Church, eating the PassoNer

what

is

of the Lord. ,, ,, ,u^ translation *,^n^ltion ' I have g.ven this as the
of ll>- not |J>*

,.

^j^^^^

in
^^^^

tlie

The word is rather Ms. but it may be


this pas-

^^^^^^ ^^^
^
'

^^^^^^ ^^^^^

^^^^
^

in virtue of their promise, as duty of obedience to God.


e

by

their

of God.' translation of ^^ q^^- ^^5 a^^^^oty, (Col. i. 6.) be seen, but ^^^^^ ^^^ ^,^^^_^^^ ^^^^^^

Larsow translates -^^ invisible imnge


-^

'

j^

^^^^,x^

the

The

Syriac

is

herelA^^ OC^li^

Son, bath Christ His Onlv-begotten i. 18. manifested Him.' Conf. John

which would be more correctly trans-

114

Christ's sufferings the source of our blessings.


stafF,
is

Letter instead of a
' bread,
is

J^ohn

ic,,

John

7,

3,
.

// any man

waters befall us again even there the Lord will appear to us, imparting to us of His sweetness, and His life-giving fountain, saying,
thirst, let

our sceptre; instead of unleavened came down from heaven Who instead of sandals, hath furnished us with the preparation of the Gospel; and Who, to speak briefly, by all these hath guided us to His Father. And if enemies afflict us, through persecution. He again, in the place of Moses, will encourage with more than the words of that man, sayinoBe of good cheer; I have overcome the wicked one^. And If also, after we have passed over the Red sea, heat should again vex us, or some bitterness of the
the bread which
;

Why
fo

therefore do
all

come not with


trustu.g that
us,
it

Me, and drink. and why do we delay, and eagerness and diligence to the feast
to

him come

we

tarry,

and

vvas

that He changed our suiFerings for His happiness. For,'^ein. liTe He died that He might make us alive; beinc the Word H^

hungered and thirsted for us, though nourishes and gives us to drink of His saving giftst this is His gloiy, this the miracle of His divinify,

^ ho

indeed

Jesus who calleth us ? is all things laden in ten thousand ways for our salvation
is

Who

He
For

Loid,

Who

ca,e

down

i the

end of the ages', pro-

.^ XMx<.,,

and

in oh. ,7,

9
a",";

-A.fa ri.

i^...,

Heb
'

7^ C
via,.

'<

^- """IT V^J' L^^.^t^r '^"^^'^-^ j^fxiu eu trom memory. Also Qal '^^^' Conf. S. Athan. in ^^vpccfia rov OmnJ. yp6uor,^ % '^' ^>hi .a..a.n.. e. . ..^^'^Z '^' fhftLt
cl>.He .he ,n,ati' ,
'

have 'be?
Illur^

''^

^T^Z

Christ tJiesum

and substance ofthe Old Testament prophecies. 15


1

claimed a different day, not


the law, far from

as

it but

that

He

though He woiikl abolish A.D. should establish the law,


is

:m2.

and be the end of the law.


to every

For

Christ

the
;

end of the law Kom.

10,1.

one that helieveih in righteousness

as the blessed Rom. 3, 31.


:

Paul

saith,

Do

ive

make

void the law by faith ? by no means

we rather

establish the law.

who were wondering they said to tlie Pharisees, No man ever thus spake. What was it then tliat astonished those officers, or what was it whicli so ailected the men as to make them marvel ? It was nothing but tlie boldness and authority' of our Saviour. For on former occasions of their applying to the prophetical writings, and
these things astonished even the officers
so that

Now

sent

by the Jews,

Jolm

7, 46.

those skilled in the law, they perceived that they referred

Moses, prophet will the Lord raise up unto you o/Deut. your brethren, like unto me; to him hearken in all that he
for instance,

those

who

applied, not to themselves, but elsewhere.

IH,

commands you. Isaiah again, Behold, a virgin shall conceive and bear a Son, and ye shall call his name Emmanuel ^^\ By
others
also,

!>

7,

u.

prophecies were uttered

diffi^rently,

and

in

various ways, concerning the Lord.

But by

the Lord, of
;

Himself, and of no other, were these things prophesied to Himself He limited them all, saying, If any man thirst, let him come to Me not to any other person, but to Me. A man may indeed hear of those concerning My coming; l)ut he must not henceforth drink from others, but from Me. Therefore let us also, when we come to the feast, no hunger

Jolmr,:??.

come
to

as to old

common

shadows, for they are accomplished neither as feasts but let us hasten as to the Lord, Who is
; ;

Himself the

feast", not looking

upon

it

as an

indulgence and

For delight of the belly, but as a manifestation of virtue. utter and greediness, the feasts of the heathen are full of
indolence, since they consider they celebrate a feast

when

pensation came to an end wben Christ The Christian religion was appeared. the closing of the Jewish ceconomv, and therefore S. Paul speaks of Christians as those i(p' oU to tAtj rwv alwvwv KUTrivT-nae. 1 Cor. x. II. Tra/Jpjcrj'a koI avdeyTla Syr.
J

" These two texts are also quoted


together
in

Orat.

i.

contra Ar. tom.

i.

p. 3<3.i. . 64. " 'Christ

our passover.'
apparently

The

Svr.
for

,^A-Z"|
A

is

an error

-iCJlOA^f
-2

O-^)-

;;

116

Christians to vie with each other in holiness,

Lftter they are idle"; and they then work the works of perdition when they feast. Our feasts, on the contrary, are the

scenes of virtuous exercises, and the practice of temperance


Zeeh. 8,

word testifies in a certain place, saying, The fast of the fourth, and the fast of the ffth, and the fast of the seventh, and the fast of the tenth \mont}i\, shall he to the house of Judah for gladness, and rejoicing, and for pleasant
as also the prophetic feasts.

Since therefore this occasion for exercise


pointed, and such a day as this
voice gone forth
diligence to this
to
is

is

before ap-

come, and the prophetic


feast,

celebrate

the

let

us give

all

good proclamation, and

like those

who

are

opposed to each other in the race course, vie with each other in observing the purity of the fast? by watchfulness
;

by practice in the Scriptures by distributing to the poor, and by reconciliation with our enemies. Let us bind up those who are scattered abroad banish pride and instead thereof put on lowliness of mind, being at peace with all men, and urging the brethren to love. Thus also the blessed Paul was often engaged in fastings and watchings, and was willing to be accursed for his brethren. Also,
in prayers
; ; ;

again, the blessed David, having


Psa
7,-'.

humbled himself by
God,
if

fastings,
this,

used boldness, saying,


if there
is

O Lord my
in

have done

my hands, if I have repaid those who dealt evil with me, then may I fall from my enemies as a vain man. Acting thus, we shall conquer death; and receive an earnest

any iniquity

of the

kingdom of heaven.
N. T. where the word occurs, viz. 2 Corinth, i. 22. and 2 Corinth v 5 the word is applied to the Holy Ghost!
ThewordsofTheodoreton 2
22. are
these.

Conf.

feast IS not

splendour

of

Letter vii. p. 57' The an indulgence in food, nor clothing, nor days of
.

v P Conf. J Connth. ix. 24-27. Syr. , ^v (TTaSi^. J he exhortation is, to be as ready to celebrate the feast, when the d.Tuie command is given, as were he runners in the races to start when

Tn'c^r^

Corinth,

i.

koX rr,s yl^os ^|/cocr6v,

ebs ^Ss ^ypi<rc, rov irava-yiov Tr^e^aTos <T<bpa.


'O

oUv riva

koba^chi^aTciu

^,,xx6vtwu ayadiiu Scpwd^euo, rairvu " 5,^ .^^ 7^ ^'^^ ^^. ^^7, ^^,

with each other in proper y keeping: t, as the runners strove to surpass each other in ^peed q Syr.'ApPafi^u. Vid. note to Letter vi. p. .50. Conf. Eph. i. 13, that holy Spirit of promise, which is the earnest i^^f>aficou) of oir inheritIn both the other places in the ance.

->,.flo.

Vj'' ^^'^^

''" "/^y "'*' ^'^ /*^ '' ov Z ^^^ ^Ppo-^^Jf ^^^Kp6u r. ^^pos
'

'^'"^

TrauT6s.

Vide

Suicer. Thes.
.^^^'
'

14

'

\.^,' 'Ll't^"'^-.' ^rrham Spiritus 't' Sancti.' 1. e. prsesenfelicitatis animum his in terris

^^^

?T^ ""buere

*^^''*

tanquam arrha futura^ ^retschneider.

felici-

Conclusion.

117
A. P. 342.

We

muthi (April

begin the holy Easter feast on the tenth of Phar5.), desisting from the holy fasts on the

fifteenth of the

evening of the seventh day.

same month Pharmuthi (April 10.), on the And let us keep the holy feast on the sixteenth of the same month Pharmuthi (April 11.) adding one by one [the days] till the holy Pentecost, passing on to which, as through a succession of feasts, let us keep
the festival to the Spirit,
Christ, through

Who

is

always near us, in Jesus

and with Whom to the Father be Amen. glory and dominion for ever and ever.

Whom

The

fifteenth

and sixteenth are wanting.

LETTER

XVII.

i^^J!i^
Easter-(Jav on Apiil 1\ 7

Coss. Amantius, Alhinus; Prcef, Nestorius of

Gaza; IndicL

III, ; Easter-day, VII. Id. Apr, ; 19; jEra Dioclet, 61.

XII PharmutU; Moon

andria,

respecting Easter, beloved; that you also may notify the same to the districts of those who are at a distance, as is usual. Therefore after this present festival, I ,ean this which is on the twentieth of the month Pharmuthi, the first of the Paschal week ensuing will be on the vii Id. April; or, according to the Alexandrians, on the twelfth of Pharmuthi. Give therefore notice in all those districts, that the first day of the Paschal week is on the vii Id. April, on the twelfth of Pharmuthi according to the Alexandrian reckoning. That ye may be in health in Christ, I pray, my beloved brethren.

to the Presbyters and Deacons of Alexand the beloved brethren in Christ, greeting. According to custom, I give you notice

Athanasius,

my

i^^o'^::'l':r^^^^^ thltS.Atbargat^^^^^ at Easter A. V>. 344, upon Easter was to be obse vedTn 3^5 and not immediately after the .up^ph' ing Epiphany, as ^CaSan aierts In" have been the custom of the PatHarch
this Letter),

-
^Z''
'

'Agam,.,-

beloved,

is

Easter
^^'^^^^

ST! l^
iTl

"' tl ^T^l .^^'^^V^

^^'^"T*; "^^ he\o^e^, has God ,^T ^^T"'


'" *^^ .^^"^" ^^ '^^ ^^ ^^hould not be ^ "PPO^^ing that some of the
first

'^^-

^^'

of Alexandria. (Cass an cap. i. Edit. Lugdun

(^.1

The same

Paschal notice was l^rvedVith regard to the next Letter


vious
find

1606 n 3fi4 ^ period for forwa'rd^n. tV


In nrl

instance, the places ""^T '^'l Tl' ^""^"' ^"^^ ^^'^' "71-^'' '^''} '''^^^ alterations, and the
at

7"? P!^^^^^, ^^^^' '" the f delivered as homilies,

Epistles,

we

not

unfrpn^.p^H

P^^*^-^^"' !f ^^ f .^^^^'^'"^'"^ ^'''''' *^ *^^ ^^"" '^t ''^'^'' Ho^'e^'e'-, we know that,
in

course of celebration, at the tImeThev were written. Thus' the secon'f com!

reference'made to Easter^"

fn pT'T'T

,wTh V*^f o' ^V^Lrttlrlv^'

^ *^^ ^''^^^les of the "'""^ P'""^ f^-" ^'''^^'^-

^7' '''"''

LETTER

XVIII,

Coss.

Constantias

IK,

Constans III.,-

Pr<^f-

Nestorius

K.r>3i^,^

Indict.

PharmutM; IV.; Easter-day HI. Kal. Apr.; IF.

E-'-^lfy

3Ioon 21;

^ra

Dioclet. 62.

of Alexthe Presbyters and Deacons greeting. Lord, the in andria, brethren beloved that ye have well, dearly beloved brethren,

Athanasius,

to

Ye

have done

those holy Easter given the customary notice of the exactness. your acknowledged and districts; for I have seen notice, that, when By other letters I have also given you the next. concerning know may this year is finished, ye the same write to necessary it

Yet now

I have

thought

ye may also write with things that, since ye are exact, of this feast, which conclusion Therefore, after the care of the month twelfth the termination, on
is

now
iii

Pharmuthi, which
the

Apr.a, Eastei-day is on according t^ Pharmuthi, Kal. April; the fourth of


is

at its

on the

vii Id.

therefore the feast is finished, the Alexandrians. When e^rly districts, according to the .ive notice again in these Kal. in the on is week Paschal custom, thus: The first of the the to according Pharmuthi, April, which is the fourth of concernhesitate man Jexandrian reckoning. And let no saying. It is let any one contend, in.^ the day; neither twenty-seventh the held on requisite that Easter should be was discussed in the holy it for Phamenoth; of the month

The number

vii is

omitted in the Ms-

1^0
LErTF,
It

Dispute
'',

ivltk 7\'spect to the


all

time for observiny Eaafer.

Synod
for the

XVIII.

and

there settled^
it is

I say then that

it to be on the iii Kal. April. on the fourth of the month Pharmuthi;

week before

this is

much

too early

'^.

Therefore

let

there be no dispute, but let us act as becometh us.

For I

have thus written to the Romans


it

also.
it is

has been notified to you, that


fourth

Give notice then as on the iii Kal. April

the

of Pharmuthi, according to the Alexandrian


in the

reckoning.

That ye may have health


beloved brethren.

Lord, I pray,

my

dearly

This could not have been the Synod of Sardica, as Larsow states in a note, misled by an error in the index prefixed to the Letters. The Synod of
*

.CDolola
affirms.'

V^AiDj

^As

Paul

Sardica was not held till the following year, (A.D. 347.) In the index (Letter XV.) it is said, that the Council of Sardica was held in that year, (A.D. 343.) and published directions with respect to the time of Easter. The translator of the Letters appears to have confused between the Synod of

Adams, Esq. M.A. Fellow of Pembroke College, for the following


calculation.

I J. C.
*

am

indebted to the kindness of

The 14th day of the Moon, reckoning from the time of mean New Moon, took place on Sunday the 23d. According to the rule which obtained in later times, and continued in use until the
Gregorian reformation of the Calendar, the 14th day of the Ecclesiastical Moon took place on Saturday the 22d, which

Antioch and that of Sardica. At a Synod held at Antioch in A.D. 341, the Paschal question was discussed, (vid. Bever. Synod, torn. i. p. 430.), and this I conclude to be the Synod to which S. Athau. refers.
^

I think the Syr.

Jp*

would make Easter-day happen on the 23d. It would seem, therefore, that the decision of the Synod referred to, brought the Ecclesiastical Moon into
closer accordance with thai of the heavens, than the later Calendar would have done.

'

misit' is

an

error for
ter

V^
p.

<

confirmavit.'

In Let-

xix.

126.

we

find

\iD

yui^

LETTER
Coss. Rnjtnus, Eusehius
;

XIX

Prcsf, the

v.; Easter-day, Prid. Id. Apr.;


Dioclet.
(>:3;

same Nestcrius ; Indict. Pharmuthi XVIE; ^^

^^^^
onVpr.
12.
1, 3.

Moon

lb.''

God, the Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, for Eph. and now more such an introduction is fitting for an Epistle; to the thanksgiving especially, when accompanied with us brought hath Lord, in the Apostle's words^ because He to openly^ send to from a distance, and granted us again

Blessed

is

For this is the season of you, as usual, the Festal Letters. being not now prothe feast, my brethren, and it is near; but made claimed by trumpets, as the history records %

known and brought

suffered near to us by the Saviour, saypreached, on our behalf and rose again; even as Paul the of feast The ing, Our Passover, Christ, is sacrificed. the of nor plssover then is ours, not that of a stranger,
f. For the time of shadows is abohshed, Jews any longer now the month of and these old things have ceased; and should keep the new things is at hand, in which every man

Who

Cor. 5,

7.

feast, in

obedience to

Him who
the

said,
to

new
a

things,

and keep

Passover

Observe the month q/D..ut.l6,i. the Lord thy God^.

THs .as

the ,ear in which the

-^^.^^^^ V^^^^jLeftS^-

Rome
:
f

nearly

thit-e ) ears.

\,^r,..

,-,

i\i^

e.

1718

^;:f-;a"rkn';,^o\7d
Vid. note
Vid. note
s, to
o, to

-offered up.'

.he

Letter Letter

vi. p.
i.

45.

ua^e ,o Lencten,

.he fas..
'

'".S"-'

''"^

the

si.rinK,

i-enctcuL"'t.'

p. 12,

and

j^pgn,

'

the spring-fast,'

122

The

blindness of the Jews iinth regard to their law.


festival, and the Jews the feast of the heathen

L^rr.. Even the heathen fancy they keep


hypocritically feign llierein.

But

He
Is1,

reproves, as the breads of mourners; and

He

iJ.

advantage, though they

face from that of the Jews, inasmuch as they are outcasts, saying, Your new moons and yuw sabbaths soul hateth For actions not done lawfully and piously, are not of

turns His

My

may

be reputed to be

so,

but they

rather argue hypocrisy in those who venture upon them Therefore, although such persons as these fancy to them, c on Jer.c,.o

''''^ *' ^^"'fi=^^. yet they hear from the Your whole bumt-offerings are not acceptable, and your sacrifices do not please Me,- and although ye bring fine fiour,it ts vanity; incense also is an abomination unto Me i or God does not need any thing^; and, since there is nothing which can defile Him, He is full in

t^^T iather.

"'.^'

Lc.

,11.

Gal 3,23.
24.

Paul saith to the Galatians, Before faith came, we were kept guarded under the law, being shut up in the faith which should afterwards be revealed unto us; wherefore the law roasour instructor in Christ,
for

come;

regard to them, saying by Isaiah, I am full. INow there was a law given respecting these things, for the instruction of the people, and to prefigure things
as

He

testifies,

to

they walked in the day-time as in darkness; feeling loi^ but not touching, the truth we possess, h ch [was contained] the law'; conforming to the letter bu not attending to the spirit.
;

stand

^/fi therefore

But

the Jews

knew

that we might be justified not, neither did they under-

they looked on him, but turned away their faces from him when he was uncovered. For they knew not what they read, but erroneously substituted- one thing for another. The prophet, therefore, cried against them, say^ ^yr. apTos.

veiled

And when Moses

wa.s

Conf. Letter

ii

^/
''^'

and Letter iv. p. 32. The fe.ti'vais of the heathen are productive of mourninl and sorrow their food is &pros duKoiJ.
:

'"'^''''

''"^

^'^

"^^^^

-"^

'^^^

tZTTo"; "' ^'


k Thl' S
'

^''''- ^^'^'^^ ^^'^'''

(Ps.

cii.

10.)

on the contrary, attended with real and substantial joy: their food isl.os ayy4\c,u, '6.puos ovpauov AAA' ovS.i^Ss icxTLu iv^^hs 6 @a, Orat. ii. contra Arian. tom?i. p 392 (L) 6* yhp ^epl Qeov \6yos iarl, f^nSei^h's avrhv iniSm ehat, ^AA' avrdpKv Kal

Those of the Christian

n1

^'"'^"^

.
""^

*^^ *^^* '"


^'^^"^'

^.

this

compared Greek, than the Pe^J^^.f^^ '*" ^^'':''>" ' The word ds before '[j'^'""' ^^^ XptarJ),/ is rendered in both ^^'''''^^ ^^^^ering to eV. ^V-"
Sr'iwi!^
.

'""^^

^^^^

^.'?-.-l

'' ^'

\'t-

'

^f^ where

as
1.

in

Letter

ii.

p.

17.

vid. note

Scriptural reproofs of the Jews.


ing, Falsehood

123
a.D. 347.
rs. I8,

The Lord
childre?i

also therefore said concerning them,

and faithlessness have prevailed among them. The strange

have dealt falsely with me; the strange children have (l;^^x.) But how gently now does He reprove them, waxe7i old. believed Moses, ye tvould have believed Me, John 5, 46. ye saying, Had

But being faithless, they further also for he wrote of Me. the law, affirming things after their respecting dealt falsely them according to the understanding not but own pleasure,
Scripture; and, further, having as with hypocrisies distorted confidence. the plain text of Scripture, and this being their required U. hath Who Isaiah, by saying is angry with them,

He

i,

12.

your hands? burnt- Jer. very bold, he threatens, Gather together your whole not^^' spake I eat for and flesh; offerings with your sacrifices, 1 that day the in them commanded nnto your fathers, nor whole concerning Egypt, brought them out of the land of For they did not act as was burnt-offerings and sacrifices. according to law; but they right, neither was their zeal such days, as the rather sought their own pleasure in
these of

And by

Jeremiah, since they were

7,

21.

prophet
gathering?

accuses

them;

thrusting
for

their
strifes
fist,

themselves together

bondsmen, and and quarrels.


all

They

also

smote the lowly with the

and did

things

that tended to their

own

gratification.

without a feasf^ until the now of eating flesh, out end, although they make a display For, instead of the legallyof place and out of season. sacrifice to Baal; appointed lamb, they have learned to

For

this cause, they continue

they collect the wood, Jcr. 7, 18. instead of the true unleavened bread, their ivives prepare the and their fathers kindle the fire, and to the host of heaven, and dough, that they may make cakes that they may provoke Me pour out libations to strange gods, They have the just reward of to anger, saith the Lord. they pretend to keep the such devices; since, although is taken from their mouth, Passover, yet joy and gladness ^4 taken away from the cities Jerw, been hath There saith Jeremiah,
as the voice of ofJudah, and the streets of Jerusalem, the voice of rejoice; who those are glad, and the voice of those

who

the
/.. Is. .6, 3.

bridegroom, and
tvho

the voice of the bride.


sacrificeth
n

Therefore
as he

now

among them

an ox,

is

who smiteth a

avioproi'

1-24

Explanation of

the time

and circumstances under which


is

Lkttek man: and he who sacrificeth a lamb ^-^- dog; he that offer eth fine flour, is as
blasphemer".

as he

who

killeth

\if he offered^ swine's


is

blood; he that giveth frankincense for a memorial,

as a

Now
the

these

things

will

never

please

God,

neither hath
Is, 66, 3.

But He
this,

saith,

[divine] word required them of them. These have chosen their own ways; and their
in.

abominations are lohat their soul delighteth

And what

is

right for us to investigate the saying of the prophet, and especially with regard to those
?

my

brethren

For

it is

who heretically devise imaginations contrary to the law* By Moses then, God gave commandment respecting sacrifices;

and

all

the

book

called Leviticus, is entirely taken

with the arrangement P of these matters, so that


accept the offerer.
fault with
Is.

He

up might

1,12.

He therefore, by the Prophets, finds him who despised these things, as disobedient to the commandment, saying, / have not required these at your
Neither did

Jer. 7, 22.

hands.
fices,

I speak

to

your fathers respecting sacri-

nor

command them concerning whole bur nt-off'e rings.


has been ventured as an opinion, that the Scripis false.

Now

it

tures do not agree together, or that

commandment,
ever; far from
Heb.6,
18.

But

there

is

God, Who gave the no disagreement what-

it;

neither can the Father,

Who
Paul

is

truth, lie

/or

it is

impossible that

God

should

lie,

as

aflirms.

But
them,

these things are plain to those

who

riglitly consider

and

to those

who

receive with faith the writings of the law.

Now it appears to may God vouchsafe, by your prayers, that the remarks I presume to make may not be far from the truth that not at first were the commandment and the

me

law concerning sacrifices, neither did the mind of God, Who gave the law, regard whole burnt-offerings, but those things
Heb. 10,1.

Htb

9, 10.

which were pointed out and prefigured by them. For the latv contained a shadow of good things to come. And, Those things were appointed until the time of reformation. There-

though there sacrifices, by their means imparting instruction beforehand, withdrawing men from idols, and bringing them near to God, teaching them to understand the true character of the

fore, the

whole law did not

treat of sacrifices,

was

the law a

commandment concerning

present.
"

time then Therefore neither at the beginning, when God

ws

^AdcTcfy-nfios

(LXX.

vers.)

p Syr. rd^is.

the laio concerning sacrifices

was delivered

to the

Jews.

123
A. P. 347.

brought the people out of Egypt, did He command them concerning sacrifices or whole burnt-offerings, nor even till they came to mount Sinai. For God is not as man, that He should have a care of these things beforehand but His
;

might know Him Who is commandment was might disregard those and Word truly God, and also His exist not, but only which godsi, which are falsely called would be known to He Thus attain to the outward show-^. them out of the brought He them by those [signs] whereby the Red Sea. through pass land of Egypt, causing them to offer sacrito dared and But when they would serve Baal, miracles the andforgat existence, fices to those that have no thought and Egypt, in which were wrought in their behalf
given, that they
;

indeed, after the law, a of returning thither again; then as a law concerning serve commandment also was given to at one tune had which mind, sacrifices; so that with their they might exist, not on those [gods] which did

meditated
turn to

God; and learn not, m the first away their faces from idols, place, to sacrifice, but to turn commanded. For when He and o-ive heed to what God

Him Who

is

truly

saith,

/ have not spoken concerning sacrifices, He immecommandment concerning whole burnt-offerings, them, commanded which I diately adds, But this is the thing
saying, Obey
shall be to

neither given Jer.7,-22.

Jer. 7, 23.

My

voice,

Me

a people,
you.

and I will be to you a God, and ye ye shall walk in all the ways

and

then, being before instructed give their service to any one and taught, they learned not to know what time the shadow but the Lord. They attained to time that w;as at hand should last, and not to forget the of the herd be a sacnfice which no longer should the bullock bu all E.od.n,a. flock, nor the he-goat, to God, nor the ram of the by and purely spiritual manner, these things fulfilled in a words; conversation, with godj. constant pniyer, and upright be pleasing toJi'ni.Let P. .04, meditation as David sings, May my as incense, and the luting p.. u^,.. my prayer be set forth before Thee
that

I command

Thus

The evening sacrifice. of ny hands as the God <^^^'^2^-''*unto Offer viLo is in him, commands, saying. vows Off. th. v...... thy Lord and pay to the fice of praise, Uid. and put your trust in the sacrifice of righteousness,

Spint

also,

, ee!

^.Mv.v.0..

Tim.

6, 20.)

'

Svr.

4>a.Ta,r.'..

126
Letter

The
great

wilful obstinacy of the Jews.


also not the less poiiiteclly

^-^ Saul, saying, 7*


these things a

The

Samuel

reproved

not the

word

better than a gift^f

For by

man

fulfils

the law, and pleases God, as

He

Ps. 50, 23. saith.


Hose?. 6, 6.
'

The sacrifice of praise shall glorify Me. Let a man learn what this is, I ivill have mercy, and not sacrifice, and

not condemn the adversaries.

But

this

displeased them.

Ccr.2,

8.

They were not anxious


is

to understand, for

they would not have crucified the

Lord of

glory.

had they known, And what

the end of these, the prophet before pronounced, say-

Is. 3, 9.1 o.
'

ing.

Woe

unto their souls, for they have devised an evil


let

"'

thought, saying,

us bind the just man, because he

is

not

The end of such abandonment as this is pleasing to us^. nothing but error, as the Lord, when reproving them, saith, Afterwards when, Mat.22,29. Ye do err, not knowing the Scriptures. through reproof, they should have come to their senses, they
John 9,28. rather

knoiv that

waxed bold, saying. We are Moses"* disciples; and we God spake to Moses ; dealing the more falsely by
For had they

that very expression, and accusing themselves.

believed

Acts

8, 30.

him who heard, they w^ould not have denied the Lord, Who spake by Moses, at a time when He was near". But such was not the eunuch in the Acts for when he heard, Understandest thou wJiat thou readest ? he was not
;

ashamed
taught.

to

confess

his

ignorance,

and implored to be

Therefore, because he was like a learner, the grace

of the Spirit was given.


Prov.5,22. Ps. 55 15.
'
*

But as for them [the Jews], because they persisted in their ignorance, as the proverb saith,
Death came upon them.
.

For

the fool dies in his sins.

Like

these too, are the heretics, who, having fallen from a true

Ps. 14,

1.

conscience, dare to imagine to themselves atheism.

fool saith in his heart. There

is

no God.

For the They are corrupt,


as are fools

and become abominable


Mat.12,34. in

in their doings.

Of such

their thoughts,

the actions are


evil,

wicked.

For, as

He
w*ere

saith,
evil,

can ye, being

speak good things?

because they thouglit wickedness.


a

They Or how can

those

Apparently
32.
r]

loose quotation from


dvcrlau

was

Sam. XV.
Koi

loov d/co7? uTrep


iiraKpSacris virep

ayaOrjv,

(xreap

Koiuv.
t

their knowledge that God had spoken to him. Therefore, using their own argument, they ought the more to have believed Christ, Who spake to

Yid. note

The

to Letter xi. p. 91. Jews professed to be Moses'

them

directly in

His own person. Com-

disciples.

The

reason

they assigned

pare the fragment of the twenty-seventh Letter in the Appendix.

The
do just

disciples continued stedfast with the Lord.

127
A. D. 347,

he love,

minds are set upon fraud ? Or how shall who is prepared beforehand to hate ? How shall he be kind, who is bent upon the love of money ? How shall he be chaste, who looks upon a woman to lust after her? For
acts, wliose

Mat.15 19.

from

the heart

proceed

evil thoughts^ fornications, adulteries^


is

murders.

By them
for
this

the fool

wrecked, as by the waves of


these fleshly plea-

the sea, being led


sures'";

away and enticed by


also

stands

written,

The whole body of

fools

Having then associated with afterwards caught by a tempest, and perishes as Solomon says in the Proverbs, The fool and he wAo
is

entirely shipivrecked\
is

folly,

he

Ps.

-19, lo.

lacketh understanding shall perish together, and shall leave


their wealth to strangers'^.

Now
is

they suffer such things,


of
sagacity, there the

because there

is

not

among them' one sound

guide them.

For where there

mind to Word,
Prov,
i,.-).

which

is

that hath understanding shall p^ossess government

the pilot of souls, accompanies the vessel; for he ; they who

are without

government
is it

falling like the leaves.

Who

then

that altogether falls away, as

Hymenasus

and Philetus, because they entertained evil conceits respecting the resurrection, and suffered shipwreck in regard to the faith of it^? Judas also, being a betrayer, fell away from the Pilot, and perished with the Jews^. But the IMatt. i, [other] disciples since they were wise, and therefore re- ^ mained with the Lord, although the sea was agitated, and the ship covered with the waves, there being a storm'', and For they awoke the Mark 4, the wind contrary, yet fell not away. Word, Who was sailing with them, and immediately the ^^ sea became smooth at the command of its Lord, and they were saved. They then together became preachers and teachers relating the miracles of our Saviour, and also These things were teaching us to imitate their example. written on our account and for our profit, in order that by these tokens, we may acknowledge the Lord Who wrought
'

01^0 ^bJGI
error for
X I

appears
.

to

be

an

as referred to.
'

UoUjOT
not
here.

^"'^ """^

V^
his

"PF'""

' ""

know
is

what passage

is

in-

tended
'body'
y

J. _

The word
,

translated

IrDaa

literally 'lesh.
is

,_

,,

wrongly inserted in the Isls. * Conf. Letter li. p. 18. b Conf. Letter vii. p. 63.
having
himself.'
'^

'Judas
hanged

abandoned

Life,

This passage

the Proverbs.

not to be found in It occur? in the Psalms,

Syr. x^^l^^^-

128

The

luorld

compared with

the sea.

Lettfr them.

_?J2^
Ps. 104,

Let us therefore, in the faith of the disciples, hold For the world is like the sea converse with our Master d. to us, my brethren, of which it is written, This is the great and
ivide sea; there

^"

'

hast created to play in


this, as

go the ships; the Leviathan, which Thou it. We are carried along then in

one directs his course according to his


laid hold

by the wind, through our own free-will^; for every will, and either,

under the pilotage of the Word, he enters into rest; or, on by pleasure, he suffers shipwreck, and is in periF by storm. For, as in the ocean, there are tempests and waves, so in the world there are many afflictions and trials.
Mark4,
17.

The

unbelieving, therefore, ivhen affliction or persecution


offended, as the

ariseth, is

Lord
arise

said.

For being unconafflictions.

firmed in the faith, and regarding temporal things, he cannot


resist the difficulties

which

from

But

as

the house, built on the sand by the foolish man, so he, since
Luke
6, 49.

he

is

without understanding,
it

falls

before

the assault of

temptations, as
Heb.
5, 14.

were by the winds.

But

the saints,

having their senses exercised by reason of practice, and


being strong in
faith,

become

faint in trials

and understanding the word, do not but although, from time to time,
;

circumstances of greater

trial arise

against them, yet they

continue faithful
to a place
feast,

and,

them, they are delivered.


fire,

awaking the Lord, Who is with So, passing through water and

Ps. 18, 29.

where they can breathe freely, they duly offering up prayers, with thanksgiving, to God Who hath redeemed them. For either, being tempted, they are known, as Abraham or, suffering, they are approved, as Job; or, being oppressed and guilefully treated, as Joseph, they patiently endure it or, being persecuted, they are not overtaken but, as it is written, through God they leap) over the wall of wickedness, which divideth and separateth between brethren, and turns them from the truth. After this example, the blessed Paul, when he took pleasure in infirkeep the
; ;

mities, in reproach, in necessities, in persecutions,

and in

distresses for Christ, rejoiced,


1

and wished

all

of us to rejoice,

Thess. 5,

saying. Rejoice always


'^

in every thing give thanks,


faulty.
*"

18.

.^JwAj^Aj

^>

]ig^\Vn*->
[our] Master.'

'

But hold converse with

^:^?
rj/iui^

l^^-^
(?)

Zq^^A*

Prof.

Larsow

differently,

translates these words considering the text as

avrovofxia
f

kivSwov (Syr.)

iroie7.


The due observance of
the

FeasL
'

]i^)

For what is there so consonant with the feast, as turnina- A.D. from wickedness, and a pure conversation, and ])rayer offered without ceasing to God, with thanksgiving i Theret^

347.
.

fore let us,

my

brethren, looking forward to celebrate the


;

eternal joy in heaven, keep the feast here also


all

rejoicing at

times, praying incessantly,


I also

and

in every thing giving

thanks to the Lord.


those other wonders
that have

give thanks to God, as well for

He

has done, as for the various helps

now been

afforded us, in that though

chastened us sore,
earth,

He

He hath did not deliver us over to death, but

brought us from a distance, even as from the ends of the and hath united us again with you. I then, while I keep the fast myself, have been anxious to give you also

notice of the great feast of th^ Passover, so that

we may go
|2,

were, to Jerusalem, and eat the Passover, not in a divided manner, but as in one houses not sodden as ^^^as
it

up together,

in water, let us divide the

word of God

'

nor having, as
the

it

were, broken
the Gospel.

its

bones, let us
it

make void

commands

of

But, as

were, roasted with

fire,

with bitter

herbs, being fervent in spirit, in fastings and watchings,

with lying on the ground,


thanksgiving ^.

let

us keep

it

with penitence and

We

Phamenoth (Mar.

begin the fast of forty days on the sixth day of and having passed through that pro2.)
;

and prayers, we may be able to attain to the holy day. For he who regards lightly the fast of forty days, as one who rashly and impurely treadeth on
perly, with fasting

holy things, cannot celebrate the Easter


let

festival.

Further,

us put one ai^other

in

remembrance, and stimulate one


The Passover was to be eaten in one are to celebrate our Chrishouse. tian festival with unity of spirit; not in a divided manner, as the Schismatics, but in one house, * even in the Catholic Church.' Vid. Letter v. p. As the Paschal lamb was to be 41. roasted with fire, so we are to be fervent in spirit, * burning like a flame.' Vid. Letter iii. p. 23. As it was to be cateti with bitter herbs, so we are to observe

s When the flesh is sodden, the water becomes mixed with it. This was forbidden to the Jews. The sim-

We

plicity which is in Christ is to t>e observed by us: we are to know nothing save Jesus Christ, and Him crucified. (1 Cor. 2, -2 ) The bones of the Paschal lamb were not to be broken. The com-

are not to be frustrated ttjs (TO(pias ra ayia 56y/xaTa ttjs (KKX-naias iarlv^ airep iv
of

mands

God

by

us.

Ta

octtS

T^
ois

iracTxa- M^?

<rvyTpi$iv to7s "lovSai-

v(:uoiModeTf)Tai.
(

Athan. expos,
i.

in

Psahnos,

Ps. xxi. 15.) torn.

p.

82;.

feast with watchirgs and fastings, 'bringing forth worthy fruits of j^nance.'

our

130

Names

of recently appointed Bishops,

Lettek another not to be negligent, and especiiilly that we should ' fast those days so that fasts may receive us in succession,
;

and we may duly bring the feast to a close. The fast of forty days begins then, as was before said, on the sixth of Phamenoth (Mar. 2) and the great week of the Passion on And let us rest from the eleventh of Pharmuthi (Apr. 6.).
;

(Apr. 11.), on the seventh Let us keep the feast when the day, late in the evening. first of the week rises upon us, on the seventeenth of the
the fast on the sixteenth of
it

month Pharmuthi (Apr.


praising God, that

12.).

Let us then add, one after

the other, the seven holy weeks of Pentecost, rejoicing and

He

hath by these things made

known

to

us beforehand, joy and rest everlasting, prepared in heaven


for those of us,

through

truly believe in Christ Jesus our Lord; and with Whom, be glory and dominion to the Father, with the Holy Ghost, for ever and ever.

who

Whom,

Amen.
Salute one another with a holy kiss.
are with

The brethren who

me

salute you.
it

^T have also thought

necessary to give you accurate


^

information respecting the appointment


in the ministry

of Bishops, which

has taken place in the stead of our blessed fellow-labourers

from

whom

that ye may know to whom to write, and ye should receive letters. In Syene therefore,
;

Nilammon, instead of Nilammon of the same name. In Laton, Masis, instead of Ammonius. In Coptos, Psenosiris'', instead of Theodorus^ In Panos, because Artemidorus
desired
it,

">

Arius"

is

on account of his old age, and weakness of body, appointed in conjunction with him. In Hypsele, In

Arseniuso, having become reconciled to the Church.


Vid. Letter to Serapion, p. 98. note. ' Syr. KaTaa-Taais, a word notuncommon with S. A than., to denote the orlination of Bishops. Vid. du Fresne, Glossar. Grsec. s. v.
^ Probably the same of that name mentioned as having been present at the Council of Sardica, Athan. op. torn.
1.

written in the other places in occurs in this Letter. A Bishop of this name was present at the Council of Tyre, A.D. 334. Athan. op. torn. i. p. 155. n Several Bishops of this name were present at the Council of Sardica. There is a Letter extant of this
rectly
">

which

it

<>

p. 133. ' In the Syr. Ms. this word

is is

erro-

neously written 'Theorodus.' It

cor-

Arsenius to S. Athan. wherein he retracts his schismatical errors, and seeka re-admission into the Catholic Church, Athan. op. tom. i. p. 14G.

together with their Sees.

lol
In Anti- A. P.
34;

Lycos, EudaemonP, in the stead of Plusianus''.


nous, Arion', instead of

Ammonius and Tyrannus*.

In

Oxyrynchus, Theodorus, instead of Pelagius.


ciled to

In Nilopolis,

instead of Theon, Amatus*, and Isaac, having been recon-

each other.

In Arsenoitis, Andreas, instead of

Silvanus".

pammon.
instead

In Prosopoiitis% Triadelphus, instead of SeraIn Diosphacusy, on the river side, Theodorus,


In
Saiton
[Sais],

of Serapammon.
of

Paphnutius,
.

instead

Nemesion. In Xois, Theodorus, instead of Anubion; and there is also with him Isidorus, being reconciled to the Church. In Sethroitis% Orion, instead of Potammon^ In Clysma, Tithonas, instead of Jacob ^; and there is with him Paulus, having been reconciled to the Church.
P

who wa3
Sardica.
1 This

Probably the same of that name present at the Council of

tom.
*

i.

p.

9. . 10.

Prosopitis, (Qu.)
is

Neither of the
otlier

names

occurs in the Letter of Arsenius referred to in note o. This name is also found among the Bishops present at the Council of Sardica. -^

name

Syr.
is

^CDQl-ipQ^

(Tyrianus.)

sources as that of one of the Egyptian bishoprics. y Probably an error for Diospolis. ^ In the three words Triadelphus, Xois, and Sethroitis, a Nun is printed instead of a Yud. The Ms. often makes little or no distinction between

known from

This

most probably meant for Tyrannus, the Bishop of that name who
at the Council of Tyre. Athan. op. torn. i. p. 154. There were several Egyptian Bishcps of the name

the two letters; but independent

testi-

mony

fixes

it

in these particular cases.

was present

Syr. ,XJQ,j1oAju4.

An

error for

^rf\

1oA>

/ {?) TiOS-qs was one of the


at

reference to the of Ammonius. other writings of S. Athan. mentioned serve to will notes preceding in the verify several of the succeeding names.
t

Egyptian Bishops
Sardica. tom.

the Council of

i.

p. 133.

Svr.

^CdI^P^I

an
i.

error
p. 133.

for

in the postscript to the Letter to Serapion, p. 101.

Amantius. (Qu) Vid. torn. " Silvanus is mentioned

His

tioned,

successor Andreas, here menwas present at the Synod held at Alexandria A.D. 362. Athan. op.

Probably the Hishop of th-t name, whose death was caused by the injuries inflicted on him during a persecution of the Church, as recorded bv Athan. in his Hist. Ar. ad Monachos, tom. i. His successor, Orion, we may p. 277. suppose to have been the same who

was among those assembled


dica.

at Sar-

LETTER

XX.

A.T).34S.

Coss.

lT%tt

VI.;

PhUippus, Salia; Prcefect. the same Ne storms Indict. Easter-day III. Non. Apr.; VIII. FharmutU;
,-

jEra Dioclet. 64; M0071

18.

Let us now keep the feast, my brethren; for as our Lord then gave notice to His disciples, so does He now
Matt. 26,

that after some days is the Passover, Therein the Jews indeed betrayed the Lord, but ive celebrate His death as a feast, while we rejoice that then we

beforehand to us

obtained rest from our afflictions, and eagerly assemble


ourselves together, whereas

And

whereas we were
far off,

lost,

we formerly were dispersed. we have been found from


;

having been
Is. 53, 4.

we

are brought nigh;

and from having

been strangers, we have become His, Who suffered for us. Who bore our sins, as the and was nailed on the cross
;

prophet
*

saith,

and was
all

afflicted
grief,

remove from

of us

When we
John
7,

thirst,

He

too satisfies

37.

Ps. 63,

I.

and crying, If any man thirst, let For such is the love of the saints at all times, that they never once leave off, but offer the uninterrupted, constant sacrifice to the Lord, and continually thirst, and ask of Him to drink^; as David sang. My God, my God, early will I seek Thee; my soul tliirsteth for Thee ; many times my heart and flesh long eth for Thee in a barren land, without a path, and without water. Thus was I seen by Thee in the
sanctuary.
Isaiah the prophet also says.

for us, that He might and sorrow, and sighing. us with the feast, standing him come to Me, and drink.

Is. 26, 9.

From

the night

my
a

spirit seeketh
Conf. Letter
vii.

Thee early,
p.

God, because Thy command-

60,

6L

The

and the twentieth Letters has been


already noticed.

striking similarity

between the seventh

Spiritual thirst of the righteous.

133

ments are
longing
it

light.

And

another says,

My

hath for

Thy judgments

at all times.

soul faint etk for the A.D. S48. And again P'^r9,2o:
ivill Ps- 119, ^^' ^^'

he says, For Thy judgments

have hoped, and Thy law


cries

keep at all times.

Another boldly

out, saying,

eye is ever towards the Lord. And with him one The meditation of my heart is before Thee at all times. And Paul further advises. At all times give thanks; pray without ceasing. Those then who are thus continually
says,

Mine

Ps.

2.7,

15.

Ps. 19, I6.


1

Thess. 5,

engaged, are altogether waiting for the Lord, while they say. Let us follow on to know the Lord: we shall find Ilim ready as the morning, and He tvill come to us as the early and

Hos.

6, 3.

For not only does He satisfy morning; neither alone does lie give them to drink as often as they ask; but He gives them abundantly according to His loving-kindness, vouchsafing to them, at
the latter rain for the earth.

them

in the

all

times, the grace of the Spirit.

thirst for

He

immediately adds, saying,

And what it is they He that believeth on


who are

John

7,

38.

Me.

For, as cold luaters are pleasant

to those

thirsty, Prov. 25,


^'

according to the proverb, so to those

who

believe in the

Lord, the coming of the Spirit

is

better than all refresh-

ment and delight. It becomes us also then


rise early

in these days of the Passover, to

with the

saints,

and approach the Lord with


first

all

our soul
faith in

with purity of body, with confession and godly


;

Him
also

so that

when we have here


to
sit

drunk, and

been

filled

with these divine waters which [flow] from Him,

we may
there.

be able

at

table

with the saints in


is

heaven, and

may

share in the one voice of gladness which

For

this, skinners

having evinced no inclination, are


Matt. 22,

properly cast out, with the words sounding in their cars, Friend, how camest thou in hither, not having a wedding garment;' It is true that sinners also thirst, but not for
the grace of the Spirit; but, being inflamed witli wickedness, they are altogether set on fire

by pleasures,

as saith

But the Prov. 21, the Proverb, All day^ long he desires evil desires. those rise\^\^ unto who Wo saying, them, against cries Prophet ^^^ the until continue who drink; strong and follow up early, And since they run wild evening, for wine inflameth them.

134

The

deceitful nefis of the wicked.


thirst for the destruction

Letter in wantonness, they dare to


^

of

others.

Jer. 15,18,

drunk deceitful waters, which cannot be trusted, those things come upon them, which are stated ]jy i\-^q Prophet; My wound, saith he, is grievous; how shall

Having

first

I he

healed;

it

hath
is

surely/ been to

me

like deceitful waters,

in ivhich

there

no

trust.

The

second, again, while they

drink with those

who

are with them, lead astray and

throw

into coiifusion the

mind [which was


it.

desirous] of truth, and


wliat does he [the
his neighbour to

turn away the simple from


Hab.
vers.)
2, 15.
'

And

prophet] cry?

JVo unto him

who causeth

and maketh him drunk, that he may But those who dissemble, and steal look upo7i his caverns'^. Having first drunk away the truth, quiet their hearts. thereof, they go on to say those things which the whorish
driiik turbid destruction,
1

Prov.

9,

7.

woman

saith in the

Proverbs,

Lay

hold ivith delight on

hidden bread, and sweet stolen waters.


secretly, because they
Prov. 8, 2.

They

lay snares

have not the freedom of virtue, nor the boldness of V/isdom, who praiseth herself in the streets, and employeih freedom of speech in the broad ways*^,
preaching on high walls.

For

this reason,

they are bidden

to lay hold with delight^, because,

having chosen careless-

ness^

with
Mau.7,

15.

Matt. 23,

and from the blame of their wickedness, which would be speedy and On this account, the wolf puts on the skin of the public. sheep, sepulchres deceive by their whitened exteriors .
and pleasure, they
disguise their
steal the sweetness of truth,
it

own

bitter waters [to escape]

Satan, that

is*',

^-

The Syriae

translator appears to

Conf. Letter

ii.

p. 19.

The same
liy

have had before him the words avat^ottV 6o\epav, as some Mss. read, and as the passage is quoted in the Tomus ad Antiochenses, Athan. op. tom. i. The last p. 619 not avarpoTrfj 0oXpa. word in the verse 'caverns' {(nr-}\\aia) arises from the similarity betweeen the
J words

method of disjuising vrickedness


admixture of truth
is

an

.1 fc-v-^T'.vs ^s-^;,;^ (nakedness)and nini^O Dni7^


,
1 1

(caves).
^
'

iv

ralsTrXaTeiais Syr.
vii. p.

Cont. Letter

69.
IpR-

For
..

IZoiLQaClO)
'

IZai^iDOliQ^)

there reprobated; the same scriptural iUnstrations of the woif with the sheep's clothing, and the whitened sepulchres, are there adopted ; while in both places, immediately after these, Satan himself is introduced. There is this difference: there S. Atha,,asius treats of errors of doctrine here, of immorality of life, h -phe Syriac Ms. (which is imperfgct) ends here. The fragments that follow are derived from different sources, mention whereof is made in the notes.
;

APPENDIX

LETTER XXVII.
From
the

twenty-seventh

Festal

Letter

of

Athanasius,

Bishop

of Alexandria
'^

commencement is, ^" livmg Passover

and Confessor; of which the Again the season of the day of the

our joy and boast, but our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ, Who suffered for us, and by Himself made known to us the Father? For He is no otlier than He Who of old time spake by the Prophets but now He saith

For who

is

to every

man, / iVho speak am near\

Right well

is

this

word

John

4,

spoken; for He does not at one time speak, at another from the being silent; but continually and at all times, and man, every up without cessation, He stirs
beginning
speaks to every

man

in his heart.
There can be 'ETci 6.V., .5 ^a^a5,/ <toi. as little doubt that they are the translation of ahrhs 6
tola
i.

The fragment here giveri of The twenty-seventh Letter, as well as the succeeding fragments of the twentyand forty fourth, are from Syriac tr^slations, discovered by Mr. Cureton jHuotedb-Severus Patriarch of AnJohannes tToch in hs work agaiost Grammaticus, contained in the Syriac

\a\wu

irdpuf^t,

Kp.s-

ad Serapionem, torn. i. p 626. that b A than . 10. The context shows understood the words <5 AaXcvas denoting the person of Chr.st probably by connexion with the preceding verse

colleTon of the British Museum, (Cod


202.) and published Add 12 157. Letters. bv him 'with the prec'eding'
fol.

Their style would argue them of tnc the same translation. nart part 01

to

be

where the woman of famana sajs of the expected Mess.as, i,yayy^\^i ^M'" .d.ra. Conf. Heb. .. 1. 6 eras ro.s Trarpci^../ .... f^^^^J' P^<^!^'^^'^
'

xx. p. 1 26. V'"- Vid. al.o Letter ^^^^^ ^^ ^^^^ ^ ^.^^^^. ^^^^j^^ ^^^^^
is at one time referring to Christ, represented as speaking to Moses, at another, as being mar.

b \i\ *^ ;Q ^^*^kSCSDJ OOl PI There can These words are observable. are meant for be little doubt that they (John iv. 26.) the passage referred to,

Who

iSG

APPENDIX.

LETTER XXIX.
And
again,

from
is,

heginning

the tic enttj -ninth Letter, of which the " Sufficient for this present time are the

things which were before written by us."

s-^'^^f'

Exod.

14,

Joshua 10,
12

Matt. 27,

And the Lord proved the disciples, when He was asleep on the pillow, at which time a miracle was wrought, which is especially calculated to put even the wicked to shame. For when He arose, and rebuked the sea, and silenced the storm. He plainly shewed two things; that the storm of the sea was not from the winds, but from fear of its Lord, Who walked upon it; and that the Lord, Who rebuked it, was not a creature, but rather its Creator, since a creature is not obedient to a creature. For although the Red Sea was divided before Moses, yet it was not Moses who did it; for it took place, not because he spake, but because God commanded. And also if the sun stood still in Gibeon, and the moon in the valley of Ajalon, yet this was the work, not of the son of Nun, but of the Lord, Who heard his prayer. He it was, Who both rebuked the sea, and on the cross caused the sun to be darkened.

ATPENDIX.

137

LETTER XXXIX.
Of the particular
by the Church.
sius,

hooks and their niDnher, ivhick are received

From the thirty -ninth Letter of AthanaBishop of Alexandria, ivhich treats of the Paschal festival; wherein he defines canonically which are the
divine hooks ichich are received by the Church''.

But since we have made mention of heretics as dead, but of ourselves as possessing the Divine Scriptures for salvation; and since I fear lest, as Paul wrote to the
. . . .

2Cor. 11,3.

Corinthians, some few of the simple should be beguiled

from their simplicity and purity'', by the subtilty of certain men, and should afterwards read other books those called apocryphal led astray by the similarity of their names with the true books I beseech you to bear patiently, if I also write, by way of remembrance, of matters with which

you

are acquainted, influenced

by the need and advantage


I shall

of the Church.

In proceeding to make mention of these things,


adoj^t, to

commend my undertaking,

the pattern of

Luke
1,1.

the Evangelist, saying. Forasmuch as some have taken in Lute

hand, to reduce into order for themselves the books termed


a Tlie above fragment of the thirtyninth Letter has long been before the world, having been preserved in the original Greek, by Theodorus Balsamon. It may be found in the tirst volume of the Benedictine edition of ihe works of S. Athan. tom. i. p. 767. A Syriac translation of it ed. 1777. has been discovered by Mr. Cureton in an anonymous Commentary on the Scriptures in the collection of the

me

to

consider

it

as

the
It

work of a
less

different

translator.

adherea

\ r.urof.,1 caretul A ctvl^ r>ninnarfd compared the stjle, consideration ot ,K^ has led wi th that of the other Letters,
,

^* 1 ated iraii-utifu tran

12, 1(J8.) and volume. This translation does not contain quite so inuch as the fragment of the original, commencing ouly at the quotation from The heading above given is S. Luke.

British

Museum, (Cod.
to his

appended

closely to the Greek, than is the case in the other Letters with the few frap^ments that are extant more than once introducing explanations of the word The quotation from St. Apovrifp/inl. Luke differs widely in the choice of words fiom the same quotation, as Lastly, the found in Letter ii. p. 20. word 'heretics' is written very differently in this fragment from the mode uniformly adopted in the other Letters.
;

ithis

we

find

it

written,
>

UcL^j'oi '^
,
.

eigg^here,
'

n mo

mi'm

^, c,.i^;o from the Syriac.


,.

ayj/^TTjToj, fouud in
'
.

. the word. koI ttjs The Greek has \ j r m of r .u the somc Mss.
'

'

Scriptures

138
apocryphal,

APPENDIX.
and
to

mix them up with the divinely inwe have been fully persuaded, as they who from the beginning were eyewitnesses and ministers of the Word, delivered to the
spired
Scripture,

concerning which

it hath seemed good to me also, having been urged by the brethren, and having learned from the beginning, to bring before you the books included in the Canon, and handed down, and accredited as Divine to the

fathers

thereto

end that any one who has fallen into error may correct those who have led him astray; and that he who continues stedfast in purity, may again rejoice, having these things brought to his remembrance. There are, then, of the Old Testament, in all twenty-tv/o books in number: for, as I have heard, they are handed down the same in number as the letters among the Hebrews, The their respective order and names being as follows.
is Genesis, then Exodus, next Numbers, and then Deuteronomy. have Joshua, the son of Nun, and And again next, four books of Kings,

first

Leviticus, after that

Following them, we Judges, then Ruth.

and of them the first and second are reckoned one book, and so likewise the And again, after these, the first and third and fourth, one. second of the Chronicles are similarly reckoned as one book. Esdra again, the first and second as one. After these there is the book of Psalms, then Proverbs, next Ecclesiastes, and the Song of Songs. Job follows, then the Prophets, the twelve being reckoned as one book. Then Isaias, Jeremias, and with him Baruch, Lamentations, and^ the epistle; afterwards, Ezekiel and Daniel. Thus far constitutes the Old Testament. But we must not look upon it as a task to speak of the books of the New Testament. These then are, the four Gospels, according to Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John. Afterwards, the Acts of the Apostles, and the Catholic
Epistles, called of the Apostles, seven in

number

'^j

viz. of

James, one; of Peter, two; of John, three; and then, one Besides these, there are fourteen Epistles of the of Jude.

The Syriac has


is

which

the conjunction, rejected by the Henedictine

t'Jitors.

Syr.

'

And

the

S(

ven Epistles.'

APPENDIX.
Apostle Paule,
written in this order.
to the Corinthians
;

139

The

first,

to

the

Romans; then two

after these, to the

Gakitians; next, to the Ephesians; then to the Philippians

and to the Colossians; after these, two to the Thessalonians, and that to the Hebrews; and again, two to Timothy; one to Titus; and lastly, that to Philemon. To these, the
Revelation of John.

These are the fountains of salvation, that he who thirsteth satisfied with the words' they contain. In these alone is proclaimed the doctrine of godliness. Let no man add to them, neither let him take ought from them. For on this point the Lord put to shame the Sadducees, saying. Ye do err, not knowing the Scrijjtures. And He reproved

may be

Matt. 22,

Me, But

the Jev.s, saying. Search the ScrijHures, for they testify of'jl^^^^ 33' ^^^
,

for greater exactness, I


;

add

this also, considering it

necessary so to write

that there are other books besides

these, not indeed included in the Canon, but appointed

by

the Fathers to be read

by those who

are

come of

late,

Wisdom

wishing^ for admonition and instruction in godliness. The of Solomon, and the Wisdom of Sirach^, and
Esther, and Judith, and Tobit, and that which
is

called the

Doctrine of the Apostles, and the Shepherd.


former,

But the

my

brethren, are included in the Canon, the latter


is

being [merely] read; nor


writings.
to

there any mention of apocryphal

But

this is

favour their
as

own

an invention of heretics, writing them views, bestowing upon them their

approbation, and assigning to them a date, and producing

them

ancient writings, that thereby they might find

occasion to lead astray the simple.

Syr. Syr.

'Of
'

Paul.' living words.*

have had before him the Benedictine


reading, koI fiovKo/xfuois^ Syr. ' I'he Snu of Sirach.'

The Syriac

translator appears to

140

'

APPENDIX.

LETTER XLIV.
And
again,

from
is,

the forty-fourth Letter, of tvhich the com*'

7nenceme7it

All that our Lord

and Saviour Jesus

Christ did in our stead and for us."


therefore, the servants of the Chief Priests and the saw these things, and heard from Jesus, Whosoever is athirst, let him come to Me and drink; they perceived that this was not a mere man like themselves, but that this was He Who also gave water to the saints, and that it was He Who was acknowledged by the prophet Isaiah. For He was truly, as it were, the splendour of the light% and the

When,

John 7,37. Scribes

Word
John
^^'
7 37. iTien,

of

God

thus too

which gives drink.

He w^as the river from the fountain And then to Paradise, and now to all

He

gives the
let

man

thirst,

same gift of the Spirit, and says. If any him come to Me and drink. Whosoever
as saith the Scripture, rivers of living water

helieveth on

Me,

shall floio out of his belly.

This was not for


truly vouchsafes

man
life,

to say,

for the living

God,

Who

but and gives

the

Holy

Spirit.
Conf. Heb.

i.

3. airavyacriia rrji Sc^^tjs

auToO,

APPENDIX.
La]
]]j

Ill

.QJOl

y^]o

)jlSQQD

^1

lA*]*

.QAQSm
.oai!^

2cLw!:^2i!D>

5^1

l>ai^

.q\'^i

.ciq1qj

|llA

1i1

^^oi

IZoain?

li'la

oicri

.qSdoij

Ir^wol

v
T'

ai^oalo

^^u^ooi

Ul

oii1d>

^qjoi^

"liaoi

^jJLLiAk)

.QJCfi

.OQiSnool?
'r^Zu

^^01^

o1

il^^QCO

^>Zj I^aID

^oioA^l

^>

OOl

*-4^

]j^}
:

^oailiao

\zu*r^

IsLtSD
IcjliIdZj

jj-^k^^j

IZojOlCD
.

^^^^CD

^d]

p>

^oi

ill

bl^^o

lUyOJ

lASQx.

Ur^l

^OA^J

5>O,Q0

^OOlAiLSn^iJO

^201 .ooilnooLo

.ocTiaJLi.

.QJai

^1

^1
^1
.

.oAjlJ?

^q:j

142

APPENDIX.

ftOJ^Aj

^Qj]

.Qi^3j

od

f^L^sO

\p^^r^

I^Ujb

]Aiib,

t^r^D

^s^^

.onLft?

l^'^]

-^l

IZqjlQpqjqj

^^Lsd .qsZo^

loi^iljs

.oaLij

ooio
IZjjio
y-1j>

O'rO]

J-^cuj

|]qjo

cuir:)

^m^col?
looi

jib
p^Asj

'^Z
^^-fti^CJlJ

.oaili^

^
.

^Qs]j5
G1D

V,^iD

^3

OCn ]1a]}

]l4D>iO

^w^^l

APPENDIX.

14,3

^001

0^0*^2

pMO

giZqL)

octi

|ijuO^

^'^

^Ij

^1

ol

.ooil

^-jubijs*

liZoij IZo-L^o

Vioi

aV.0

Ua\?

U1

Ivr*

cil

^'A^]

W^

^,^

The
r,

note

p.

hitherto 86.

unpublished

text of part

of

the

eleventh

Letter.

Vid.

144

APPENDIX.

^0|al ai^a U

loai

]^ ^4

PO ^?

r^?

r*Or^

QJ

looi

*2i..A2Qk)

tool
.0301

"jZa^l

]>oiajo

IZo'^Gi*

.jspAk) pD
.

^La5

1^)0 -^o

}j^]^

cai
.

]ZUv^^
1^^-^
^ii>

.001^5

l^r^l
.

^-^

looi

jas
"Po

^
led
^"Io

J^ALD
.

pS l]o

"JOOS

^IjALO^
looi

001

^5

looi ^.^iJ^ZALD

^oAld p
^j>5

|]

^^

Ir^O'rS

^lO 0010

OOOI ^j,^'^^^ ^^G1|


.a.icn
1

\L^\

.boukj 0001

^^^m^

,.2^

.ooiL ]oai Aa]

^^^D

A^^D ^A,^'7s
.s,?v5

Zoo ^40
|^o;.s

^1

Aja'I'H'r*^

^-^-sjX^j

001

"jZa.si^200 ^OOl^aJ

Apparently an

error.

Vide note

f,

p. 72.

APPENDIX.

145

^^^
o2
.

^? ^oZo

li^CD >ii>Am*->\ ^1

^v ]^]

lb

1^^
jzii^iiD

U>As alai

-^lo looi 1-^

\^]

io,o

]Lj^ciil^

|j^oj

^1j

liiLiI

Ufrim^

UoSd> ]i^1

lailL

^^

uftj]

^|i ^.

Vv^

jD

^"U^j

"Uri^l

1-;lo

Zq^

lail^) 012)0. '^

U>pD

^
:

IZqajlTd
waiaK.lJ

cni^df^
\:^]

^su
^|i

lorlLj oiw^jio
jdicD

Zal ^oilo
^^>4!iD

Ij^IdiIdo

^>

l.'r^Aol

^Z'qA^

1r>A^? loilix

ZqIo

^p5

^j^nsLij
.

,-Acnj

'ro.

^jOi

1AjXj

]a>n ]iMnan
:

^01 IaAujo

loilLj jmi

tinn o\os^\o

]k>V.V<\

]aOL

pjoj

^A^a4

.^1j \^^^]

^-^i-w ]LDja>o ^-Aoilik

^Zol wocajj
IZojA^i^

IZoiSOiOio ^k\ i> V) >

^? ^-AoA

^io:.

'r^^ uioi

UjI

Ai/i.^>

^q1.Q2) U'r^

A^Vr-iA-.

The

xM.s.

reads

loOl]

'"cor-

The word

^Q*^
(

I.-^in

is

an

ectly.

error for

*SQ^f

Joli).

146

APPEKDIX,

ouA^I ^X5
r^..

]J"1

*|J3Qa liiimj

'^r:)!

]lal

ouZu]
1v^Sq1

Ur^^

Ai>?ll

onSoj

1jC3i

]ln>A

olo
Us)]

*jcn 1Z'rAi
:

IZojAAlDob

lAlio ouA^l lAoAaSo

Ijoi

^1j IIom

li^iA ?a*Ao lAloAi

h^^

2x110

]]]

tcLwJ

^oioAa]

jOtAiii

|,'iV)..>

^J^ll
C7iLk>

lyv-i^?

CTUSD

0Uk3
]k)iALD

Q.A ^Ido
jn^
]^*-^

'.

^JOOT

IZow^La

diloo

Vv*^

^slo

lA^oii^

cuLk]

IAdjotd
b

^
"i

'r^^O

]SQA**

a The hitherto unpublished Syriac text corresponding to p. 71 /3<,ofthe translation. Vide note y, p. 71-

"JZojA-eID
>

(virtue)

is

doubtless

an error

for

I^O A ai V)

(produce).

INDEX OF TEXTS.

GENESIS.

148
x^d. 3.

INDEX OF TEXTS.

INDEX OF TEXTS.
xxii. 13.

149

150
ix.

INDEX OF TEXTS.
13,

INDEX OF TEXTS.
X. 4.
xi. 23.

151

xii. 12.
xiij. 7.

115 49 00

48,67
(52,72

xiv. 1.
2.

x\i. 18.

70 03

CORINTHIANS.
24.

i.

152

INDEX OF TEXTS.

HEBEEWS.

INDEX.

A.
Ablahius, Pra?fect of the Prffitorimu, 35. Abraham, his trial through Isaac, 50.
AJfiictlon,

B.
Beasts, brute, comparison of sinners
Benefits,

with them, 15. God's, the return


quires, 39, 40.
sin, 59. of

He

re-

83, 107. God oui90. Amaton, Bishop of Nilopolis, 131. Ammonius, Bishop of Laton, 130. Ammonius, Bishop of Antinous, 131.

and praise, 28, by happiness,


comfort in
it,

a season for thanksgiving 109. to be followed

Bread, of

wisdom, 60.

Bucolia, 101.

C.

Andragathius, Bishop of the Eastern


Garyatliis, 102.

Cain, goes out from the presence of

Andreas, Bishop of Arsenoitis, 131. Andronicus, Bishop of Tentyra, 101. Angels, sustained by the divine vision,
their festive rejoicing, Christ their food, 62. Antinous, 131. Anubion, Bishop of Xois, 131. Aphroditon, 102.
10.
Avith

God, 72. Callinicus, 86.


Bishop of Arsenoitis, 101. Canon of Scripture, 138, 139. Christ, efficacy of His deatli, 47. the
Calosiris,

52.

Bestower of the

Spirit,

68,

71.

Apocryphal books, mixed up by some

Holy Scripture,
of,

138, 139.

ApoUon, 101.
apocr}-phal, 139. Apostles, doctrine Arabian, Bishop of Stathma, 102.

looked for in old time, 4. our example, 18, 15. His death to be borne in our bodies, 55. the food of the Saints, 59, 61. His deahngs manifold, 70. His patience under
sufferings, 72, 75.

His sulfcrings
Shepherd, 111.

our gain, 76, 114.

tlie

Arians, their erroneous opinions, 77, 78, 9i5. compared witli Jews, 78, 9(). misunderstand the Scriptures, 78. classed with Schismatics, 79. opposers of Christ, 79, 80, 93, 104. Ario-maniacs, 77, 93, 95. Arion, Bishop of Antinous, 131. Arius, appointed Bishop of Panes in conjunction with Artemidorus, 130. Arseniiis, reconciled to the Church, 130. Bishop of Hypselc, 130.
Arsenoitis, 101, 130.
Arte77iidorus,

the High Priest, 111. tlie Way, 111. the Door, 111. our Guide to tlie Feast, 112. the substance of the Old Testament prophecies, 115. tlio Pilot of souls, 127. always speaking to man, 135. the Old Ttstament miracles wrouglit by Him, 136. Clysma, 131. Coat of Christ, Schismatics rend it, 41,49. Coat of God, Arians rend it, 79.
Coptos, 130.

Bishop of Panos,

130.

Athanasius, S. zeal of, in discharge of duty, 22, 31,67. his sickness, 31. summoned by Constantine, 36. accused by tlie Melctians, 36. watched by his enemies, 67. writes from Rome, 104. again at Alexandria, 121. returns tf> Alexandria, 129.
Atras, Bishop of

Maximiauopohs,

101.

Danitl, liis fasting, 9, 't'S. David, his watchfuin* s*^, vent prayers, 111. Diosphacus, 131.

154
E.

INDEX.
Herminus, Bishop of Maximianopolis,
101.

Easter, dispute respecting the time for its celebration, 119, 1-20. Vide
Feast, Passover, Paschal Feast.

Hezekiah, praises God, 58, 69. Hierax, Bishop of the Eastern Garyathis, 102.

EUas, bis fasting, 9. Elias, Bishop of Tanis, 101. Elisha, Angels with him, 74. Esau, persecutes Jacob, 72. Esther, her prayers and fasting, 32. the Je-\\ish festival in her time, 80. Esther, book of, apocryphal, 139. Eudcemon, 36. Eudcemon, Bishop of Lycos, 181.
Eulogius, SG. Eusebius, his opposition to S. Athan.
95.

Hunger,
60.

spiritual, satisfied

by Christ,

Hypsele, 130.

Instruction, order to be observed in impaxling, 85. Isaac, sacrifice of, explained, 50, 51. Isaac, Bishop of Nilopolis, 131. Isidorus, Bishop of Xois, 131.
Ision, 36.
Israelites, their

F.

Faith and godliness, their intimate connexion, 92. Fast, to he sanctified, 7. character of a real, 7. \irtue of, 9. examples of, in Moses, Elias, and Daniel, 9. Feast, heavenly, blessings of, 13. Feasts, spiritual preparation for, 12. of the wicked, occasions of mourning, 17. established by the Jews on special occasions, 32. duty of Christians during them, 23, 33, 57, 110, 129. Christian, kept in order, J 7. of the heathen, 41, 115. of the Schismatics, 41. Jewish and Christian compared, 41. of the heathen ' bread of mom-ners,' 122. Fig-tree, cursing of the barren, 49. Food of the soul described, 8. the de^il the food of sinners, 8.

departure from Egypt, supported in the wilderness, 74. Issachar, his example, 107. the scriptural account of him explained, 108.
74.

J.

Jeroboam, allusion to, 17. Jews, misunderstood the paschal type, 10. consequence of their eiTor, 10. the termination of their polity foretold by the prophets, 48, 123. pmified in the wilderness, 53. their perverseness, 73, 126. their punishment, 89. their misconception of the law, 122. scriptural reproofs of

G.
Garyathis, (Eastern,) 102. Garyathis, (Southern,) 102. Gelous Hieracammon, 30. Gospel, the accomplishment of the Jewish administration, 82. itself to be fulfilled hereafter, 82.

them, 123. Job, his fortitude, 27, 42. Joseph, his pity towards his brethren, 72. Judas, his sin and punishment, 53. his end, 63. Judith, her fasting and prayers, 32. Judith, book of, apocryphal, 139.

L. Laton, 130. Lazarus, hungered on earth, is satisfied in heaven, 74. Lent, a time of purification, 54. neglect of, a disgrace to Christians, 100.

Grace of God, to be improved by us, 24, 47, 48. how acknowledged by the saints, 39. variously distributed,
71.

Life, Christian, in

what

it

consists, 57.

Lyeos, 131.

M. H.
Marmarica, 102.

Hananiah, Mishael, and Azariah, 69. HeracUus, Bishop of Bucolia, 101.


Heresies, perversions of the truth, 19. Heretics, compared witli the Jews, 49. Hernias, Shepherd of, quoted, 85.

Martyrs, perfected by sufierings, 106. Masis, Bishop of Laton, 130. Maximianopolis, 101.
Meletians, falsely and unsuccessfully accuse S. Athan., 36. their false

NDEX.
statements concerning themselves,
99.

155

Might, divine, 70. Moses, his fasting, 9. sustained dm-ing it by converse with God, 10. why permitted to approach the mount,
25, 72. his

Sacrifices, Jewish, explanation of their

example in

fasting, 53.

time and cii-cumstances, 124, 125. Saints, to be imitated, 40. tlieir true Ufe, 57. Saiton, 131.

the order of his teachiug, 85, 102.

Salomon, Bishop of Rhinocoruron, 1()2. Saprion, Bishop of Tentyra, 101. Sarapion, Bishop of the lower Apollon,
102.

N.
Nemesion, Bishop of Paralus, 101. Nemesion, Bishop of Saiton, 131. Nicofi, Bishop of the Southern Gai-y
athis, 102.

Saul persecutes Da\id, 72. Schismatics, rend the coat of Christ,


41, 49. their feasts, 41. compared with the Jews, 49. Scripture, Holy, contrasted with the traditions of men, 20. Sea, the, in what respects it represents the world, 128.

Nilammon, Bishop of Syene, 180.


Nilopolis, 131.

Nonnus, Bishop of Paralus, 101.

Serapammon, Bishop of Prosopontis, Serapammon, Bishop of Diosphacus,


131.

Ord'mances, Jewish, only till the time of Christ, 11. Orion, Bishop of Sethroitis, 131. Oxyrynchus, 131.

Serapion, letter to him, 99. Serenas, Bishop of Aphroditon, 102. Servant, unthankful, parable of, 23.
Sethroitis, 131.

Shadow, Jemsh, brought


10, 11.

to

an end,

P. Panos, 130. Paphnutius, Bishop of Saiton, 131. Paralus, 101. Paschal feast, Christ the object of it, 23. glory and extent of it, 3-'^. to be kept to the Lord, 50. Passover, Jewish, only till Christ, 34.
its typical chai'acter,
'

Shepherd of Hermas apocrj'phal, 139.


Shipwreck, Christian, 129. Silvan us. Bishop of Arsenoitis, 101,
131. Sinners, their degraded condition, 15. their ingratitude, 27. like eagles, they feed on dead carcases, 50. their unstable character, 87. their designs recoil upon themselves, 88. their deceitfulness, 134. Spit it. Holy, in what sense said to be quenched, 20. an earnest of heaven, 44. Spirit, unity of, among Christians, 38.
08, 94.

113, 12!).

Passover of the Jews' explained, 45. Paul, S. carried to Paradise, 82. the
universality of his teaching, 84. Paulus, Bishop of Clysma, 131.

Pelagius, Bishop of Oxyrynchus, 131. Philoti, Bishop of Thebais, 101. Plusianus, Bishop of Lycos, 131. Pint ion, Bishop of the lower Apollon, 102. Potammon, Bishop of Sethroitis, 131. Praise and thanksgi\ing, their con-

Stathma, 102. Syene, 130.

nection, 46.

Prodigal son, his return, 03. Prosnpontis, 131. Psenosiris, Bishop of Coptos, 130.

Talents, parable of, 47. Tanis, 101.

Qiiintus,

Bishop

of

the

Southern

Garyathis, 102.

Rhiuncornrou, 102.

Tentyra, 101. Thchais, 101. Theodoras, nisliof* of Tunis. KH. Theodoras, Bisliop of Aphroditon, 102. Thcodnrus, Bisliop .)f C'opU.s, 13(. Thendnrus, Bisliop of Diosphacus, 131. Theodnrus, Bisliop of Oxyrynchus, 181. T/uodnrus, Bishop of Xnis, 131. The,.,,, l{i>liop of Nilopolis, 131. Tiwis, dis<rnnK'nt of, neces.sarj-, .H. Ood the Kianior of, 4. Tilhnvns, Ki-.li. .{I ..f Cly^nin. I.3I.

156
ToUt, book

NDEX.
W.
Wisdom of Sirach, apocryphal, 139. Wisdom of Solomon, apocryphal, 139. Woman, Canaanitish, our Lord's treat ment of her, 61. TFor/rf, compared with the sea, 128.

of, apocryphal, 139. Triadelphus, Bishop of Prosopontis, 131. Trumpets, various uses of, among the

Jews, 4, 5. sound of, very terrible, 6. proclamation of Christian, 6, 49. Tyjiical, changed by Christ for the
spiritual, 34.

Tyrannus, Bishop of Antinous, 131.

X.
Xois, 131.

V.
Virtue, pliilanthropic, 72, 83.

Z.
Zeal, spiritual, compared with
fire,

25.

INDEX TO THE NOTES.

Ablabius, the office he probably held, 35, y. Aeciu.t, his erroneous doctrine, 93, ni. Antichrists, the term api^Ued to the
Ai'iaus, 75, n.

Easter-weck, meaning attached to tlio term, 04, g. Esther, the book of, not canonical,
32,
i.

Eudcemon, 31,

d.

F.
Fast, quadragesimal, declared by S. Cyril to be of Apostolic or Evangelic origin, 41, q. a time of purification for Easter, 54, k.

Arians, penei't Scripture, 19, q. 77, x. called Antichrists, 75, n. called Jews, 78, z. opposers of Christ, 78, z. compared with Siarofilrai, 79, e. Hymeneus and Philetus, 93, n. Arius, tlie \ision of Peter, Bishop of Alexandi'ia, concerning him, -11, s. Athanaaius, 8. date of his retm-n from Gaul, 60, c. sends Paschal Letters even when in exile, 08, m.

Gospel, the fulfilment of the Jewish law, 83, g.

B.
Bucolia,
its

Gregory, the Cappadocian, his intrusion into the see of Alexandria,


103, d.

situation, 101, h.

H.
C.
Callinicus, 31, d. Christ, called emphatically, 6 \a\wv,

Hermas, Shepherd

of, quoted several times by S. Athan. 85, p. Arians perverted its meaning, 85, p.

Ilyyinus, 31, b.

135, b.

Chronicon Paschale, corrected, 00, b. Constantinc, his approval of S. Athanasius, 32, e. Cosmos Indicopleustes, fragments of the Paschal Letters presel^ed by him, 15, b. 39, i. 63, h.

I, J.

Jcrohoitm, his feasts, roiroihs, 50, y.


Isia,'.U,<\.

17,

1.

crxicrfia-

Judith, the 32. i.

book

of,

nut oanuuical,

Deity, notions

of,

tht
i.

reflex of tbe

human mind,

10,

Leviathan, a type of Satan, ft, m. Literee connnunicntivji', 101, d.


Lit tree pacifica',
litl, A.

Easter, celebrated in tbe spring, 37, d. R21, g. the observance of it to remind us continually of the resurrection, 42, t. notice for it, when given, 11*^, a.

M.
yfaredonian heretics, called wytvfiarofjidxoi,

78, z.

Moan,

KiTlrsinstic-nl,

time of it, 120, d.

158

NDEX TO THE NOTES.


Scverus of Antioch, quotations made by him of the Festal Letters,

OJiciUus, SI, c. Ovinius, 81, d.

135,
Spirit,

a.

Holy, the

gift of

God, 68,

i.

a^pafichy, 44, d.

116, q.

P.
Pagius, corrected, 37,
a.

Palatini, their duties, 35, x. Passover, Jewish, stress laid on the particular season for its celebration, 23, d. the typical character of its different observances, 129, g. ' Passover of the Jews" illustrated, 45, g. Paterius, Prefect of Egypt, 37, b. Pentecost, the whole interval between Easter-day and TVhit-sunday, 35, u. a time of rejoicing, 35, u. a symbol of the world to come, 35, u. Philagrius, two prsefects of this name, 66, a.

Theophilus,

the
his

form in which
Paschal

he

concludes
100, d.

Letters,

Theodorus, Prsefect of Egypt, QQ, a. Trumpets, several uses of them, as

mentioned in Holy Scripture, 5,j. sound of them, associated in Holy Scriptm*e with something terrible,
6,1.

Tunica

inconsutilis, the

figure

of

it
s.

began with the Arian dispute, 41,

an apostate, 44,

b.

YI.

Saturdays and Sundays, not observed


as fasts, 54,

m.

Writers, Sacred, denoted &yios, 39, k.

by the word

INDEX
OF GREEK, HEBREW, CHALDEE, AND SYRIAC WORDS
FOUND
IN

THE NOTES.

A.

nas,

12.

>011, 38.

dyios, 39,
Aldloires, 9.

d-Woiarhs, 78. &\oyos, 89.


de(^^oxoi, 78.

IAIjI,

106.

6eo(p6pos,

-54.

appadwu, 41, 116.


&PTOS, 122. &Tpeirros, 78.

Oeupia, 32.

K.
KadapcTis TTpofSpTios,
.54.

V^.i

Karda-Tacris, 130.

KVpiUSVVfJLOS

KVpiUK^,

()''}.

M.
ypdixjjLara KavoviKb., 101,

V\Vv>

"jljiD,

73.

Si6p9uais, ol,

^fVoj, 79.
fi/co)*/,

15, 57-

i^ovK6vTioi, 93.
eTTJff-ToAal elpriViKoiy

101.
68777^ J

O.

.*^~>m

12.

Twy

y6fiu>y, 85.

46.

6/u^oAo7tri', 4(J.

160

INDEX OF GREEK,
n.

IIEBTxEW,

AND SYRIAC WORDS,


T.

Traff^a, 64'.

V7r(^0eo-i5,

96.

TTVcvfiaTOfxaxoi, 78.
iroA-iTeta, 80.

Trpoa-rdScs, 29.

trvpSw, 105.

(pavraa-ia, 20, 57, 125.

2.

VAa,

31.

adfi^arov fxiya, 54.


(TTOA^, 63.

X.
XiTwi/, 41, 49, 79.
Xpio'Td/J.axoi, 78.

(rvWeiTovpyol, 99.
cp^TjyuaTiO'ajUej/oy, 17.

l^iffiM.
Tarn, 101.
rd^is, 17, 34, 124.

22.

iiQlL,

71.

C:^-:>!|, 9.

]^yol,
Ti;7r(^Gj,

51.

?^X

101.

rpSiraiov, 97.

Tir?, 105.

41, 54. Tvpavvos, 32, 33.

^1

- U*,

23.

addp:nda/

LETTER XL.
Ye
ations;

are they that have continued with

Me

in

My

tempt- Lute
^^

22,
^*''

and I appoint

to

you a kingdom, as

My

Father hath

may eat and drink at My table then, to the great and called, Being in My kingdom. upper room which has been swept, heavenly Supper, in that let us cleanse ourselves, as the Apostle exhorted, /row all
appointed unto Me, that ye
JiUhiness of the flesh and spirit, perfecting holiness in the fear of God; that so, being spotless within and without,
within,

2 Cor.

7,

\.

without, clothing ourselves with temperance and justice; by the Spirit, rightly dividing the word of trutli
hear,

we may

Enter

into the jov of thy Lord.

21.

'

LETTER XLIL
For we have been
called, brethren,

and are now called

together, by Wisdom, and according to the Evangelical parable, to that great and heavenly Supper, and sufficient to Christ, I mean, to the Passover, for every creature
;

Who

is sacrificed.

Again, a

little

afterwards: They, there-

fore, that are thus prepared shall hear,

Enter

into the joy Matt.

25,

of thy Lord.
* The following fragments are appended, though not existing in the They are, however, Syriac version.

preserved in

the

original

Greek, bj

Cosmas Indicopleustes. Christiana Opinio de Mundo, lib. x. p. 317319.

16^

ADDENDA.

LETTER
Phil. 3,20.

XLIII.

Of us, then, whose also is the Passover, the calling is from above, and our conversation is in heaven, as Paul says; Heb.13,14. For we have here no abiding city, hut we seek that which is to come, v^hereto, also, looking forward, we properly keep the feast. And again, a little afterwards heaven truly is high, Ps. 115, 16. and its distance from us infinite; for the heaven of heavens, But not, on that account, are we to says he, is the Lord's. fearful, as though the way thereto were be negligent or impossible but rather should we be zealous. Yet not, as in the case of those w^ho formerly, removing from the east and finding a plain in Senaar, began [to build a tower], is there need for us to bake bricks with fire, and to seek slime for mortar; for their tongues w^ere confounded, and their work was brought to nought. But for us the Lord has consecrated a way through His blood, and hath made it And again. For not only has He afforded us coneasy. solation respecting the distance, but also in that He hath come and opened the door for us which was once shut. For, indeed, it was shut from the time He cast out Adam from the delight of Paradise, and set the Cherubim and the flaming sword, that turned every way, to keep the way of the tree of life now, however, opened wide. And He that sitteth upon the Cherubim having appeared with greater grace and loving-kindness, led into Paradise with himself the confessing thief, and having entered heaven as our foreAnd again. Paul also, runner, opened the gates to all. Phil..i, \'^' pressing toward the mark for the prize of the high calling, by it was taken up to the third heaven, and having seen those things which are above, and then descended, he teaches us, announcing what is written to the Hebrews, and Heb. 12, saying. For ye are not come unto the mtunt that might he touched, and that hurned with fire, and clouds, and darkness, and a tempest, and to the voice of words. But ye are come tmto Mount Sion, and unto the city of the living God, the heavenly Jerusalem, and to an innumerahle company of angels, and to the general assembly and Church of the first-horn, Who would not wish to enjoy which are written in heaven. the high companionship with these Who not desire to be
: ;

'

ADDENDA.
enrolled with these, that he
blessed of

163
Matt. 25,
''^^'

may

hear with them, Come, ye

Father, inherit the kingdom prepared for you from the foundation of the world.

My

LETTER XLV.
Let us
all

take

up our

sacrifices,

observing distribution to
it is

the poor, and

we

enter into the holy place, as

written
'

ivhither also our forerunner Jesus is entered for us, having '^^^^t'^^'

obtained eternal redemption


this is a great

proof that,
;

From the same And whereas we were strangers, we


aliens,

are

called

friends

from being formerly

we

are

become
of

fellow-citizens with the saints, and

made

children

the Jerusalem which is above, whereof that which Solomon built was a type. For if Moses made all things according to the pattern shewed him in the mount, it is
clear that the service

performed in the tabernacle was a

type of the heavenly mysteries, whereto the Lord, desirous that we should enter, prepared for us the new and abiding

way.
to

And

as all the old things

were a type of the new, so


is

the festival that

now

is, is

a type of the joy which

above,

which coming with psalms and


fasts.

spiritual songs, let us

begin the

BAXTFR, rRINTER, OXFORP.

t/

4611 !;ST2 01128

DATE DUE

m-