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FARM MANAGEMENT HANDBOOK OF KENYA

VOL. II
Natural Conditions and Farm Management Information
2nd Edition
PART B
CENTRAL KENYA
Subpart B2
Central Province
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This project was supported by German Technical
Cooperation (GTZ)
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Ministry of Agriculture
FARM MANAGEMENT HANDBOOK OF KENYA
VOL. II
Natural Conditions and Farm Management Information
2nd Edition
PART B
CENTRAL KENYA
Subpart B2
Central Province
by
Dr. Ralph Jaetzold
Prof. emeritus of Geography,
University of Trier / Germany
Helmut Schmidt
Former Farm Management Research Ocer
from the former German Agricultural Team of the GTZ
in the Ministry of Agriculture, Nairobi
Dr. Berthold Hornetz
Prof. of Agricultural Geography,
University of Trier / Germany
Dr. Chris Shisanya
Prof. of Agroclimatology,
Dept. of Geography
Kenyatta University, Nairobi
Contributions to the 1
st
Edition by: C.M. Kange & J.G.M. Muasya assessment of farm management data; Dr. Mechthild Kro-
nen soil requirements list; Prof. Dr. H. Kutsch computing of crop-water relations for yield probabilities; F.N. Muchena, B.J.A.
van der Pouw, W. Siderius and W.G. Sombroek basic soil maps; H. Ritz district climate tables; R. Swoboda execution of Small
Farm Survey; C.G. Wenner & S.N. Njoroge soil conservation.
Contributions to the 2
nd
Edition by: G. Awinyo digitizing of soil maps into GIS; T. Buettel support by analyzing remote
sensing data; M. Fiebiger rainfall data analysis, probability calculations, yield probabilities by simulation programs; Heike Hoef-
er project coordination in GTZ Nairobi; Philip Karuri assistance in the Farm Survey; Elizabeth Kimenyi & Anne Njoroge
coordination of farm survey; M. Mueller calculation and diagrams of growing periods, ENSO inuence; Dr. Anne W. Muriuki
& J.N. Qureshi soil and fertiliser recommendation maps and information; Dr. Dorothy Mutisya crops and fodder list; Birgit
Schmidt basics for maintaining and regaining soil fertility; Joshua Shivachi analysing the Farm Survey data using SPSS software;
J. Wieczorek computerization of climatic and fertiliser maps, tables and diagrams for GIS and printing; W. Zettelmeyer com-
puting farm data.
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Farm Management Handbooks of Kenya
VOL. I Labour Requirement Availability and Costs of Mechanisation
VOL. II Natural Conditions and Farm Management Information
Part II/M General Part (Methodology)
Part II/A WEST KENYA
Subpart A1 Western Province
Subpart A2 Nyanza Province
Part II/B CENTRAL KENYA
Subpart Bl Rift Valley Province, Middle and Southern Part
Subpart B2 Central Province
Part II /C EAST KENYA
Subpart C1 Eastern Province, Middle and Southern Part
Subpart C2 Coast Province
VOL. III Farm Management Information - Annual Publications
Part III/A Agriculture Land, Holdings and Farm Statistics
Part III/B Costs and Prices, Gross Margins, Cash Flows and Farm Models
VOL. IV Production Techniques of Livestock Enterprises
VOL. V Production Techniques and Economics of Horticultural Enterprises
In addition, there are District Farm Management Guidelines produced by the District Agricultural Oces
Publisher Ministry of Agriculture, Kenya, in Cooperation with the German Agency for Technical
Cooperation (GTZ)
VOL. II is supplemented by CD-ROMs with the information and maps in a Geographical
Information System. Additionally there are wall maps of the Agro-Ecological Zones per district group
(= the former large districts) for oces and schools.
Vol. II/B2 Printed in Nairobi 2006
Design & Layout by Jan Wieczorek, Trier.
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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
for the Support to the First Edition
In compiling this Handbook, we have relied on the support of many ocers from a variety of institutions
too numerous to mention, who made available their data and experience. We would like to thank them for
their invaluable assistance.
I would also like to thank my colleagues, the Research Ocers, the District Land and Farm management
Ocers, for their cooperation, and a special thank you to those who typed the draft edition.
Our particular thanks go to Prof. Dr. Ralph Jaetzold, University of Trier, for his seless support in compil-
ing this handbook and for his assessment of the natural conditions including land and population. His deep
understanding of the needs of agricultural extension ocers and farmers was a great asset. Our thanks also to
Dr. H. Kutsch, University of Trier, who computerized a large and complex amount of information involved
in establishing the AEZs.
Many thanks also to the sta of the Geographical Department of the University of Trier, Germany, for their
major eort in drawing up maps of outstanding quality, the centrepiece of the work.
Helmut Schmidt
Farm Management Research Ocer
Nairobi, May 1982
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
for the Support to the Second Edition
In revising this Handbook, various personalities and institutions were relied upon to provide the necessary
data required to update the previous data sets. In this regard, we would like to sincerely thank them for their
invaluable input in the exercise.
Special thanks go to the Ministry of Agriculture sta who undertook the Farm Surveys to elucidate on the
fundamental changes that have taken place in farming at the household level.
We are indeed very grateful to the people of Germany, who despite their limited nancial resources, have
continued to support Kenya. Of importance here is the German Agency for Technical Cooperation (GTZ)
and the German scientists who have been working for Kenya over the years. Last but not least, thanks to Mr.
Reimund Homann, the PSDA Coordinator, Nairobi, whose oce ably managed the Handbook revision
project.
Chris Shisanya Elizabeth Kimenyi
Prof. of Agroclimatology Assistant Director of Agriculture
Dept. of Geography FMD, MOA
Kenyatta University, Nairobi Kenya
Nairobi, January 2007 Nairobi, January 2007
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PREFACE to the Second Edition
Institutional memory is of paramount importance for planning and development. For any research or agricultural extension
to be successful, information on the natural farming potential is equally important.
In an eort to consolidate research - extension work of many years, the rst edition of the Farm Management Handbook
(FMHB) of Kenya Vol II (Natural conditions and farm management information), which described the conditions of the
Kenyan farming community at that time, was produced in 1982/83. Te handbook was in three parts i.e.:
A for Western Kenya (Western and Nyanza provinces)
B for Central Kenya (Central and Rift Valley provinces).
C for Eastern Kenya (Eastern and Coast provinces)
For more than two decades, the handbook has proved very valuable to researchers, planners, extensionists, developers etc.
Tis is a document that has been sought for enormously and hence the need to revise it in order to accommodate the changes
that have taken place in our country since the production of the rst edition. Some of these include: changes in the admin-
istrative boundaries, opening up of new farming areas due to population pressure, etc.
Tis second edition has been produced on the basis of Provincial administrative boundaries for the six Provinces i.e. West-
ern, Nyanza, Rift Valley, Central, Eastern and Coast. Te information will be availed in hard copies and in CD ROMS to
facilitate updating any future changes.
It is not possible to acknowledge the contribution of all the individuals who made this edition a reality but I need to men-
tion the following:
Tanks to the Ministry of Agriculture sta, especially the Agribusiness Department formerly Farm Management Division
sta at the headquarters (Mrs. E. W. Kimenyi, Mr. F. N. Nderitu, Mrs. A.W Njoroge, Mrs. A. W. Wanyama and Mr. P. T
Karuri), and the District sta, for their seless contribution; Prof. Chris Shisanya, leader of the revision team, for his tireless
eorts and guidance; Prof. Ralph Jaetzold for his enormous knowledge on the denition of the agroecological zones and his
great contribution to their mapping; Mr. George Awinyo (German Technical Cooperation (GTZ) Private Sector Develop-
ment in Agriculture (PSDA)) for his expertise and contribution in the area of Geographical Information Systems (GIS).
I also wish to thank the GTZ who have facilitated the production of this edition both nancially and by the use of their
personnel, specically the late Prof. Werner von der Ohe who supported the idea of the revision, and Mr. Reimund Ho-
mann (GTZ Programme Manager Private Sector Development in Agriculture PSDA), for supporting and taking up the
task to completion.
Dr. Wilson Songa, OGW
AGRICULTURE SECRETARY
Nairobi, May 2007
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TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
Acknowledgement for the Support to the First Edition 5
Acknowledgement for the Support to the Second Edition 5
Preface to the First Edition 6
Preface to the Second Edition 7
List of Abbreviations 11
Introduction to the Second Edition 12
1. GENERAL PART FOR CENTRAL PROVI NCE
1.1 EXPLANATION OF THE EVALUATION OF THE NATURAL POTENTIAL
1.1.1 Te Agro-Ecological Zonation for Kenya
1)
15
Table I: Agro-Ecological Zones of the Tropics in Kenya 16
Table II: Subzones According to Growing Periods for Annual Crops 18
1.1.2 Major Soils in Central Province 20
Table III: A Broad Estimate of the Dominant Characteristics of the Major Soil
Classication Units in Kenya . 23
1.1.3 Soil Requirements List for Crops in Central Province 24
Table IV: Soil Requirements List for Crops in Central Province 24
1.2 PRESERVING THE NATURAL POTENTIAL FOR THE FUTURE OF CENTRAL KENYA
1.2.1 Beware of Degrading the Areas of Natural Vegetation in the Agro-Ecological Zones of
Central Province to Maintain Water, Firewood and Even Medicinal Resources as
well as the Grazing Potential! 29
1.2.2 Maintenance, Replenishment and Improvement of Soil Fertility in Central Province 30
Annex I: Conversion Table of Nutrients into Fertiliser 33
1.2.3 Physical Soil Conservation 35
2. CENTRAL PROVI NCE
2.1 INTRODUCTION 41
Table V: Population Projections For Central Province Per District 41
Table VI: Absolute Poor Households and Persons in Central Province Per District 41
2.2 THE TEMPERATURE BELTS 42
2.3 RAINFALL AND AGROECOLOGICAL ZONES OF CENTRAL PROVINCE 43
2.4 RUNOFF-HARVESTING AGRICULTURE TO AVOID FAMINES IN SEMI-ARID LANDS OF
CENTRAL PROVINCE 44
Tables VIIa & b: Distances for Runo-Harvesting Agriculture 46-47
2.5 THE IMPORTANCE OF FERTILISING AND NUTRIENT RECYCLING
IN CENTRAL PROVINCE 48
Table VIII: Te Decrease (%) of Organic Carbon pH and Available Nutrients in Central Province
(During 5 Years of Maize Cultivation at the FURP Experimental Sites) 49
2.6 POSSIBLE CROPS AND VARIETIES IN CENTRAL PROVINVCE 51
Table IX: Agro-Climatological Crop List for Central Province of Kenya 52
Table X: Bioclimatologically Suitable Grasses and Other Fodder Crops for the Agro-
Ecological Zones in Central Province 70
1)
System Ralph Jaetzold. Method of calculation of growing periods and yield probabilities out of crop-soil water
relations by Horst Kutsch, Berthold Hornetz and Chris Shisanya see General Part (Methodology) of Vol. II/M II/M
10
2.7 POSSIBILITIES FOR AGROFORESTRY IN CENTRAL PROVINCE 75
Table XI: Nutrient Composition of Various Biomass 75
3. DI STRI CT I NFORMATI ON AND STATI STI CS
3.1 GENERAL REMARKS TO THE LAND USE POTENTIALS AND FERTILISER
RECOMMENDATIONS FOR THE DISTRICTS 77
3.2 NYANDARUA DISTRICT
TABLE OF CONTENTS 79
3.3 KIAMBU & THIKA DISTRICTS GROUP
TABLE OF CONTENTS 149
3.4 MURANGA & MARAGUA DISTRICTS GROUP
TABLE OF CONTENTS 247
3.5 NYERI DISTRICT
TABLE OF CONTENTS 343
3.6 KIRINYAGA DISTRICT
TABLE OF CONTENTS 425
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List of Abbreviations
AEZ = Agro-Ecological Zone
AEU = Agro-Ecological Unit
add. = additional
a. o. = and others
a.s.l. = above sea level
av. = average
b. = beginning, begin
bl. = black
br = bimodal rainfall
C. = Cooperative
ca. = circa, around
CAZRI =
Central Arid Zone Research Institute
(J odhpur, India)
CL = Coastal Lowland
comp. = composite
DLC = Dry Land Composite Maize
cv. = cultivar, cultivated variety
e. = end
E
0
= evaporation of a water surface
F. = Farmer, Farmers
FAO =
Food and Agriculture Organization of the
United Nations
f. i. = for instance
For. = Forest
FURP =
Fertiliser Use Recommendation Project
of the GTZ (1986-91)
GIS = Geographical Information System
gr. = growing; with crop name: green
GTZ =
Gesellschaft fr Technische Zusammen-
arbeit (the German Agency for Technical
Cooperation with Developing Countries)
H = Highland; with crop name: hybrid
h. = heavy
ha = hectar
i = intermediate rains
i.e. = item est (latin) =it means
IL = Inner Lowland
IRACC =
Information Research and Communication
Centre
ISFM = Integrated Soil Fertility Management
KARI = Kenya Agriculture Research Institute
KCB = Katumani Composite Maize B
KSS = Kenya Soil Survey
L = Lowland, lower
l = long
LU = Kenyan Livestock unit of 300kg
M = Midland
m = medium
m. = mid, middle
mat. = maturing
max. = maximum
min. = minimum
MSS = Marketing Support Services
NARS = National Agricultural Research Station
norm. = normally
O. = OIfce
p = permanent
pa = per annum (=per year)
p., per. = period
PET = Potential Evapotranspiration
pl. = planting
pr. = precipitation
PSDA =
Private Sector Development of
Agriculture (recent Project of GTZ)
r. = rains, rainy season
res. = resistant
R. = Reserve
s = short
sec. = secondary
St., Stn. = Station
TA = Tropical Alpine
TCF = Total crop failure
t = temperature; with yields: tons
tr = trimodal rainfall
U = Upper
u = uncertain
ur = unimodal rainfall
v = very
var. = variety
y. = year
< = less than
> = more than
~ = about, nearly, around
& = and
^ = followed by a...
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INTRODUCTION to the Second Edition
1. In general, the Kenyan farmer is well informed as to the potential of his own land, the labour force of his family
and the production techniques to be used when planting crops cultivated for generations. In the past, this was a
perfectly satisfactory situation, but today, the farmer is called on to feed a rapidly increasing population and earn
a major share of vital foreign currency through exports, i.e. he / she has to shoulder the cost of economic devel-
opment in Kenya, in particular in the urban areas. Terefore the farmer is the most important person for the
basis and the future of the nation. Traditional farming methods are no longer capable of meeting all the demands
made on the farming community; widespread application of scientic methods is required, but knowledge of
these methods is obtained, compiled and stored elsewhere, out of reach of the farmer.
Te Handbook has been compiled primarily to assist the agriculture eld advisor, who often has little scientic
training but who is the most important ocer in rural development. Extension work is organised within politi-
cal units, i.e. location, division and district, and therefore information has been compiled according to AEZs per
district resp. district groups, which in some cases has led to repetition. Te layout and approach of the book has
to be seen in this context.
A large number of ocers working in many dierent Ministries and institutions for rural development are also
increasingly in need of information about farming as their contact with practical farming is often very low. But
the handbook is designed for the interested farmers too, especially the young ones.
On the research side, it is not always clear what the needs of the farming community are. Tis results in an in-
creasing amount of research distant to farmers, especially on-station-research, which swallows resources urgently
needed to nd answers to more pressing problems; on-farm investigations (together with the farmers) we there-
fore need more and more.
Information ow from research to the farmer, and vice versa, and among the various institutions involved in
rural development is seriously hampered by the lack of a common source of reference.
Output of agricultural produce could be considerably increased if the knowledge already accumulated in Kenya
is available to the farmer. Te work output of the planning ocer could also be doubled and its quality substan-
tially improved if he had this knowledge on hand, which would go a long way towards improving the welfare of
the rural population.
Te increasing demand for information and communication calls for increased eorts to make the information
accumulated available.
2. Tis transfer of know-how to those who need it is a major task and can not be achieved by the Farm Manage-
ment Division (FMD) of the Ministry of Agriculture alone - it requires a joint eort. Te Farm Management
Division has now made a major eort to establish and compile information required by the farmers and those
who work for the farming community.
Tis information was published in ve volumes of the Farm Management Handbook of Kenya of which Vol. II
Natural Conditions and Farm Management Information
1
is the centrepiece, rst published in 1982/83. Now
it is a long time out of print but still very much looked for. In spite of very few funds available for it, the new
edition has been prepared since 2003.
1
Farm management information which depends largely on nancial facts had to be excluded, like gross margins, cash ows, farm models.
It is published by the FMB occasionally and can be obtained from the Ministry of Agriculture, Kilimo House.
13
3. Te Farm Management Approach is the most reliable method yet developed to assist farming. It is
therefore very desirable that other institutions try to make use of the system. Te use of the Handbook
is compulsory for all ocers of the Ministry of Agriculture. Due to pressure of other work and very few
funds, the new edition of the Handbook had to be done as a sideline job
2
. Farm management informa-
tion in particular is incomplete and there is much scope of improvement. Assistance and suggestions are
most welcome.
It is of course evident that the information given cannot be blindly applied but requires assessment for
its relevance to the actual case. Much of it, especially fertilizer recommendations, will be replaced within
the next ten to twenty years. It is important to take note of these replacements.
Te information is given per district and per subzones of the Agro-Ecological Zones, but the diversity of
the farms in any AEZ and the limitations of the data base make it essential to evaluate the data supplied
i. e. it is most important to read the accompanying explanations and to compare each subzone with the
soil pattern to adjust the information to the dierent Agro-Ecological Units.
4.. Te Vol. II of the Farm Management Handbook consists of the following parts:
a) A West, B Central, and C East Kenya, divided in seven smaller, better manageable subparts
by six provinces and a general part
and it is supplemented by
b) Large AEZ maps of the district groups printed in colour (scale mainly 1:250 000) as wall
maps for oces and schools
c) A data bank and CD ROMs with a Geographical Information System (GIS) of all
important agro-ecological information for each spot. All items are kept by the Farm Man-
agement Research Ocer (FMRO) of the Ministry of Agriculture.
Te Farm Management Research Ocer (FMRO) of the Ministry of Agriculture keeps all items.
5. It was not possible to compile a complete list of authors of the sources used as in most cases they were
unknown. Most information used and/or included was established or compiled by persons working
in the Kenyan Civil Service or for the Government; thus the Kenyan Government owns the product of
their work. We all are grateful to them.
6. Te value of these books containing the natural conditions should not be overestimated.Te yield poten-
tials of the Agro-ecological subzones are only a rough guide. First of all the soils of the Agro-ecological
units in the subzones must be carefully considered to evaluate their suitability and ability to improve
and sustain their fertility, resp. Secondly the marked conditions play an important role in the decision
what is suitable at a certain place at present times. Terefore the agro-economic conditions must always
be considered in analysing the natural potentials of the Agro-Ecological Zones for recommendations or
decisions.
3
One of the dierent samples of reduced economic use of the natural potential of Agro-Ecological Zones
by worsening of the infrastructure is cotton. Mismanagement in the cotton cooperatives and the cotton
board caused long delays and sometimes even reduced payments to the cotton farmers. Tis discouraged
the planting of cotton very severely, especially where small farmers had often occurred debts of produc-
tion means. So for many years there were large parts of the cotton zone without cotton in Kenya until
a new initiative by the government encouraged cotton planting even beyond the cotton zones. Former
cotton farmers have planted additional maize for market. Te maize price has increased considerably
2
It was impossible to assess the large amount of statistical data in detail. - Also there was not enough time and money to undertake
a new dierentiated farm survey. Only a few questions, mainly about the possible increase of yields by good farm management
could be placed systematically by the Agriculture Ocers in typical Agro-Ecological Units.
3
Jaetzold, R.: Te Agro-ecological Zones of Kenya and their Agro-economical Dynamics. Materialien zur Ostafrikaforschung, Vol.
6, Geographische Gesellschaft, University Trier 1987.
14
since 1990 due to population increase and famine. It should be kept high by the Government to encour-
age farmers to plant enough to ensure national food security. Famine disasters are occurring, when a low
maize price discouraged planting and then a drought diminished yields.
A general problem is the competition of maize with sorghum and millets, which increase the risk of
famine in marginal areas. A high maize price encourages maize planting in the sorghum and millet zones
instead of the more drought-resistant sorghum and millet varieties requiring less water. Only if the alti-
tude is above 800 m maize outyields sorghum and millets, and only as long as there are at least 250 mm
of well distributed rainfall during the growing season. But the higher risk with maize is taken because
people rely on internationally aided famine relief in case of crop failure.
Due to social change and mobility, a farmer who eats sorghum und millet is considered backward in
many countries. Due to changing nutritional habits, maize our is also preferred to sorghum and millet
our, which can be slightly bitter, and the demand and price for these small grains is generally dropping.
Finally the loss by birds is less with maize than with most small grain cereal varieties, and the children
who in former times had to chase the birds away have now to go to school. In a situation where maize
fetches at least 50% more money than sorghum or bulrush millet, the advice of the agro-ecologists to
plant more sorghum and millet is not taken up in the marginal foot plains of the highlands of East and
North East Africa. Terefore maize is planted as a staple food also beyond the economic limits of maize
cultivation in the AEZ 5. Partly it would be more realistic to call it Livestock-Marginal Maize Zone
instead of L.-Millet or L.-Sorghum Zone, but we keep to the well known system. In the drier parts of
Zone 5 farmers have now realised that grass seeding in fenced plots is protable.
7. In the rst edition of this handbook 1982/83 the main focus was to adjust agriculture to the dierent
climate conditions in an optimum way. Tis goal has been achieved to a great extent. But in the mean-
time the decreasing soil fertility due the agro-mining by overpopulation has become the main problem.
Recycling of exploited nutrients is a must for the long term survival of the country.
8. Te population pressure has made people hungry in the search for land even in the risky areas shown in
the rst edition of the Handbook. Now it is necessary to demonstrate to the people not only the risks
but the potential for chance -cropping too..
Our best wishes are with the farmers.
Te editors and the authors.
Nairobi and Trier, August 2004
15
1.1 EXPLANATION OF THE EVALUATION OF THE NATURAL POTENTIAL
1.1.1 METHOD OF THE AGRO-ECOLOGICAL ZONATION by Ralph Jaetzold
Simple agro-ecological zones were established by FAO in 1978
1
. Tey are suited to make decisions in in-
ternational and long term agricultural policy. In order to give advice to farmers in the districts a more dif-
ferentiated system showing yield probabilities and risks as well had to be developed:
1. Te zone groups are temperature belts (Table I) dened according to the maximum temperature limits
within the main crops in Kenya can ourish; cashew and coconuts for the lowlands, sugar cane and
cotton for the lower midlands, Arabica coee for the upper midlands (usually known as Highlands
- the term midlands is used here to denote their central importance), tea for the lower highlands, py-
rethrum for the upper highlands. Te highest zone is high altitude rough grazing i.e. tropical alpine (or
afro-alpine) vegetation. Te threshold values of annual mean temperatures have been established along
similar lines to those of H.M.H. BRAUN
2
but supplemented by limiting factors for many crops e.g.
mean minimum temperatures, frost, etc.
2. Te main zones (Table I) are based on their probability of meeting the temperature and water require-
ments of the main leading crops i.e. climatic yield potential, calculated by computer (see General Part).
Te zones are roughly parallel with Brauns climatic zones of the Precipitation/Evaporation Index, but
there are dierences according to the inuence of the length and intensity of arid periods, a factor also
considered by the computer programme. In a rst order the average annual precipitation is compared
with the average annual evapotranspiration. Te name of the main zones refers to potentially leading
crops and many of them can be grown in other zones too:
Maize zones: LH 1-3; UM 1-4; LM 1-4 (+5); L 2-4 (+5)
Hybrid maize in zones: LH 1-3; UM 1-3; LM 1-3
Wheat in zones: UH 2-3; LH 2-4
Unirrigated rice in zones: L 1-3; LM 1-2
Irrigated rice in zones: L 1-6; (7); LM 1-6, (7)
Sorghum in zones: UM (1-3), 4-5; LM (1-3), 4-5; L (1-3), 4-5
Finger millet in zones: LH (1-3); UM (1-3), 4; LM (1-3), 4, (5); L (1-3), 4, (5)
Groundnuts in zones: LM (1-2), 3-4; L (2-3), 4
Cotton in zones: LM (2), 3-4; L (2), 3-4
1
FAO (1978): Report on the Agro-ecological Zones Project. Methodology and Results for Africa. (= World Soil Resources Rep.,
48/1), Rome.
2
Kenya Soil Survey, (1982): Exploratory Soil Map and Agro-Climatic Zones Map of Kenya, scale 1:1 000 000, Rep. E 1, Nairobi.
16
17
( ) mean that in these zones the crop is normally not competitive to related crops (f.i. dwarf millets to
maize)
Livestock is possible in all zones. Decreasing stocking rates from 1 to 7 (from 0.4 ha up to more than
25 ha per livestock unit of 300 kg)
Te colours assigned to the main zones become lighter at cooler higher zones altitudes (Table I). Addi-
tionally they become more red in the drier climates. Rain starts earlier at higher altitudes. Tis is due to
the fact that with the same amount of water, the production of biomass is still less in cooler altitudinal
climates. Also, the chances to ripe a crop before the end of the rainy seasons become smaller in these
higher belts because of the increasing length of growing periods. Terefore, the Ranching Zone which
covers Zone 6 in the Lowlands occurs already in Zone 5 in the Lower Highlands and even in Zone 4 in
the Upper Highlands.
3. For the necessary information to farmers, these main zones are divided into subzones according to the
yearly distribution and the length of the growing periods on a 60% probability factor i.e. the given
length of the growing period should be reached or surpassed in at least 6 out of 10 years (Table II).
Growing periods are dened as seasons with enough moisture in the soil to grow most crops, starting
with a supply for plants to transpirate more than 0.5 ETo, coming up to > ETo (in the ideal case) during
the time of peak demand, and then falling down in the maturity phase again (calculated by the computer
programme WATBAL)
3
. Te length is normally given in decades (i.e. a ten day period) for medium
soils. Figures are also available for heavy and light soils
4
, and they are also considered in the computer
programmes MARCROP
5
and WOFOST
6
for the yield potential.
Tese programmes compare the water requirements curves of almost all the main crops (as provided
by the FAO 1977
7
and 1979
8
), re-calculated by H. KUTSCH for Kenyan varieties and adapted to the
dierent agro-climates, with the rainfall occurrences in Kenya from 1930 to 1990
9
, in decades (10 day
periods), and their eects on the water supply to the root zone for 3 soil groups and 3 plant population
densities. On this basis, an ecological land use potential has been drawn up for each subzone, showing
climatic yield expectations and chances.
Te length of the growing period is the key to selecting the right varieties of annual crops within an agro-
ecological zone. Te symbols used for the length of the growing periods are straightforward:
vl = very long
l = long
m = medium
s = short
vs = very short
3
WATBAL.MODULE 1. It was developed by H. Kurscu and H.J. Scuuu (1983): Simplied computer-based modelling of
water balance in dened crop stands.- In: L. Riixii & H. Giioii (eds.) (1983): Informationsverarbeitung Agrarwissenschaft.
Miinchen.
4
Heavy soil means heavy loam; clay may have less available water for plants. Light soil means loamy sand.
5
=WATBAL.MODULE 2 & 3. Callibrated for Kenya by B. Hoixirz (see Hoixirz and Suisax\a in General Part), based on
the mathematical approach of Kurscu and Scuuu , described in the rst edition of the Farm Management Handbook of Kenya
(1982), Vol. II, Part A, p. 17-28.
6
See R. Rorrii (1993): Simulation of the biophysical limitations to maize production under rainfed conditions in Kenya: Evalua-
tion and application of the model WOFOST.- (= Materialien zur Ostafrika-Forschung, 12), Geographische Gesellschaft Univer-
sitat Trier.
7
FAO (1977): Crop Water Requirements.- (= Irrigation and Drainage Paper, 24), Rome.
8
FAO (1979): Yield Response to Water.- (= Irrigation and Drainage Paper, 33), Rome.
9
If there were enough completely recorded years, the standard period 1961-90 was used. Recent data were not available in reason-
able quantities or too expensive. It is only for important stations that they were used.
18
Tese are further dierentiated to give further information for choosing the variety with the most adequate
growing period by the use of combined terms like short to medium, medium to long, etc. (Table II).
If it is not desirable to subdivide the growing period in this way, the letter f for fully occurs before the
symbol for the period.
Te growing period formula is put in brackets if there is a weak performance i.e. although the moisture
content is su cient for growth, the peak demand which is ETo is not satised in the right time.
Where there are two rainy seasons per annum (bimodal rainfall areas), this is shown by a plus sign (+) be-
tween the two growing periods to show the yearly pattern.
If there is no distinct arid period of at least three decades (30 days) between humid growing periods, the sign
A is introduced i.e. both periods are bridged together. Expressed in words, it means ... followed by.
TABLE II: SUBZONES ACCORDING TO GROWING PERIODS FOR ANNUAL CROPS
Formula Cropping seasons
Length of growing periods
1
exceeded in 6 out of 10 yrs.
Samples of combination during
the year in Kenya
p normally permanent more than 364 days
vl very long 285 364 days
vl/l very long to long 235 284
l/vl long to very long 215 234
l long 195 214
l/m long to medium 175 194
m/l medium to long 155 174
m medium 135 154
m/s medium to short 115 134
s/m short to medium 105 114
s short 85 104
s/vs short to very short 75 84
vs/s very short to short 55 742
vs very short 40 543
vu very uncertain min. gr. p. <6 out of 10 y.
Additional information:
ur = unimodal rainfall,
br = bimodal rainfall,
tr = trimodal r.
i = intermediate rains (at least 5 decades more than 0.25 ET0)
4
( ) = weak performance of growing period (in most decades less rain than ET0)
+ = distinct arid period between growing periods
A = no distinct arid period between growing periods (followed by)
f = full, i.e. no subdivision of growing periods, for inst. fm means 115 - 174 days
1
Growing period = enough moisture for cereals and legumes from seed to physical maturity. Figures show the time in which rain and
stored soil moisture allow evapotranspiration of more than 0.5 ET0 (in medium soils of at least 60 cm depth), enough for most
crops to start growing. During main growing time they need more of course (about full potential evapotranspiration ET0).
2
Lowlands and Lower Midlands, in UM, LH and UH 65 - 74 days
3
Lowlands, in LM 45 - 54 days, in UM 50 - 64 days, in LH and UH 55 - 64 days
4
Tat means moisture conditions are above wilting point for most crops
19
4. Te climatic agro-ecological zones are printed on soil maps, derived from the Kenya Soil Survey Maps
of the Districts in the Fertilizer Use Recomm. Project of the GTZ, to show the mosaic of agro-ecological
units within the zones. In nal maps the soil units were roughly shaded where experiments have shown
which inputs are needed for higher fertility (see maps of Fertiliser Recommendations and Farm Survey
Areas).
Te soil should be considered as closely as possible. Te Fertiliser Use Manual of KARI
10
makes the re-
sults of the FURP applicable for farmers. For many areas special reports from the Kenya Soil Survey also
exist. Te average yield expectations given for the Agro-ecological Zones of a district only show what is
climatically possible (on prevailing soils) when other conditions are optimized.
5. Terefore, many other factors apart from soil and climate have to be considered such as technologically
standard, possibilities of additional irrigation
11
and so on. From the given agro-ecologically land use
potential for each AEZ it has to be chosen carefully what is economically and sociologically reasonable
for the time being
12
.Te agro-ecological zones are illustrated by rainfall and water requirement diagrams.
Te curves in the diagrams are calculated or if proper data are not available they are estimated for
optimum water requirements of crops from seeding to physical maturity. Harvest is later according to
ripening stage, but then the plants need little or even no water.
10
A.W. Muiiuxi and J.N Quiisui: Fertiliser Use Manual. A comprehensive guide on fertiliser use in Kenya. KARI Nairobi 2001.
11
Articial irrigation possibilities are normally not yet considered in the land use potentials of Agro-ecological Zones, because they
go beyond the climatic natural potential. Nevertheless, we are able to calculate if requested decadically water requirements of ir-
rigated crops for dened sites.
12
R. Jairzoio: Te Agro-Ecological Zones of Kenya and their Agro-Economical Dynamics. (= Materialien zur Ostafrika-For-
schung, 6), Geographische Gesellschaft Universitat Trier 1987.
20
1.1.2 MAJOR SOILS IN CENTRAL PROVINCE
According to the international FAO classication
Acrisols
Acrisols are acid soils with a low base status, which are strongly leached but less weathered than Ferralsols and
appear in the southern and southeastern parts of Kirinyaga and Kiambu (but also in small areas of southern
Nyeri and Muranga) associated with Ferralsols and Luvisols. Tey are developing mainly on basement rocks
like granites, but also on colluvium from volcanic rocks (e.g. on the western slopes of the Nyandarua Range).
Te base saturation percentage (BSP) of the B horizon is less than 50 %; thus indicating low fertility.
Te most common type is called orthic, but they also appear as humic (with an umbric A horizon, rich in
humic substances), ferralo-chromic (with ferralitic properties due to stronger weathering or high chroma)
and ando-humic.
Andosols
Andosols are black, well drained, less weathered, mostly shallow soils which have developed on volcanic
ashes in the Upper Highland Zones (UH) and the lower parts of the Tropical Alpine Zones (TA) of Mt.
Kenya and the Nyandarua Range. Due to high fertility and sucient rainfall in these areas, vegetation on
these soils particularly in the UH- is performing well, so that the topsoil is enriched with organic/humic
substances; therefore, they mainly appear as humic and mollic types.
Arenosols
Arenosols are coarse, weakly developed mostly sandy soils with an identiable B horizon and a clay content
of less than 18 % and appear in small areas of southeastern Kiambu District near Tika. Tey are developing
on colluvial substrates from basement rocks. In Central Kenya Arenosols appear mostly as ferralic types with
high sesquioxide contents.
Tey have a low fertility and are exhausted already after a few seasons of cultivation.
Cambisols
Cambisols are brown (forest) soils with cambic B horizons as a major feature; layers are dierentiated
and changing characteristically due to their (relatively) young age. In Central Kenya they are developing
mainly on basement rocks (gneisses are dominating), associated with Ferralsols and Acrisols in some parts of
southern and southeastern Tika and Kirinyaga Districts; they also occur on other various parent materials
like basic igneous rocks. Cambisols are less weathered than most of the other soils of the humid tropics and
contain quite high amounts of clay minerals with high nutrient reserves (like illites and montmorillonites),
minerals (like phosphate, potassium etc.) as well as juvenile materials.
Usually they appear as chromic types, but also calcic (on calcareous or petrocalcic materials), humic, nito-
humic or nito-chromic (on igneous rocks).
Ferralsols
Ferralsols normally are strongly weathered soils of the humid tropics with oxic horizons. Soil fertility is low
to very low due to low mineral contents, kaolinites (as clay minerals) and a low CEC of less than 16 me/100
g of clay. Tey are developing mainly on basement rocks like granites, gneisses and quarzites, but also on
igneous rocks (like trachytes, syenites, phonolites etc.) and are often associated with Acrisols and Luvisols.
In Central Kenya Ferralsols are occurring in the southern and southeastern parts of Kirinyaga and Kiambu
Districts (and in small areas of Nyeri District); they have developed in former times under more humid
conditions, in particular on the tertiary peneplains, which are stretching from the highlands of Central
Kenya down to the coastal hinterlands.
Te most common types here are the orthic and rhodic ones (with red to dusky red oxic B horizons), but
also nito-rhodic.
21
Fluvisols
Fluvisols are recent alluvial soils of the oodplains with depositional rather than pedogenetic proles and
mostly a high fertility due to high amounts of organic/humic and mineral substances as well as loamy and
sandy fractions.
Te common eutric type possesses a high base content with a BSP of more than 50 %.
Histosols
In Eastern Kenya Histosols are organic (peat) soils of the Tropical-Alpine Zones I and II on Mt. Kenya and
the Nyandarua Range; on the upper parts of these mountains they are combined with rock outcrops, on
Mt. Kenya with ice. Tey possess a low fertility due to imperfect drainage and a low base saturation of less
than 50 %.
Lithosols
Lithosols are shallow soils of less than 10 cm depth developed on hard rocks of dierent origin. Very often
they also appear as a result of strong soil erosion.
Luvisols
Luvisols are strongly leached soils (lessivs), having argillic B horizons with a relatively high base status and
BSP of more than 50 %. In Central Kenya they normally develop on basement rocks (mainly gneisses), but
also on igneous rocks and colluvium. Tey mainly cover parts of the peneplains (like on the footslopes SE
of Mt. Kenya) and are usually associated with Ferralsols.
Most common are the chromic, ferralo-chromic, rhodic, but also orthic types. Nito-ferric Luvisols occur on
the western slopes of the Nyandarua Range in Nyandarua District.
Nitosols
Nitosols or Nitisols develop on tertiary and even older basic igneous rocks (like basalts, tus etc.) and
contain emerging argillic horizons with prominent shiny clay skins. Tey are soils with normally high
fertility due to high contents of montmorillonites (as dominating clay minerals), minerals and available soil
water as well as a high Cation Exchange Capacity (CEC) and mainly occur on the upper slopes of Mt. Kenya
and the Nyandarua Range, covering the Lower Highland, Upper Midland and in smaller strips the Lower
Midland Zones. Tese soils possess very good potentials for growing tea and coee.
Almost all types of Nitosols are occurring in Central Kenya. Te dystric type has a moderate fertility with
a relatively low base status and a BSP of less than 50 %; the eutric type has a relatively high base status and
a BSP of more than 50 %, but is also moderately fertile. Te mollic and humic types are more fertile and
have a mollic/humic A horizon.
Phaeozems
Phaeozems are well drained, less weathered clayey soils (the clays consist mainly of montmorillonites) with
high contents of organic/humic substances in the topsoil as well as a high CEC and plant-available soil
water; thus possessing a high fertility. In Central Kenya they have developed on tertiary basic igneous
rocks like olivine basalts, phonolites and tus and occur mainly on the drier semihumid to semiarid high-
level savannah plains northwest of Mt. Kenya (northern parts of Nyeri Districts stretching down north to
the Laikipia Plateau) and west of the Nyandarua Range (Ol Kalou-Nyahururu area) (leeward sides of the
mountains).
Te luvic type is dominating (verto-luvic, ando-luvic, chromo-luvic).
22
Planosols
Planosols are soils with an albic E horizon, hydromorphic properties and a slowly permeable B horizon,
developing on dierent parent materials of the bottomlands. Larger areas of Planosols in Central Kenya
occur on the imperfectly drained plateaus and high-level structural plains of Nyandarua District west of the
Nyandarua Range (weathered on volcanic ashes and other pyroclastics).
Tey appear as dystric (with a low base status and BSP of less than 50 %), eutric (high base status and BSP
more than 50 %) and solodic types.
Regosols
Regosols are weakly developed soils from unconsolidated materials like igneous and basement rocks, often
associated with Lithosols. In Central Province they usually appear on the footslopes of inselbergs, hills and
scarps as well as recent volcanoes.
Dystric types with a low base status and BSP less than 50 % are as common as eutric ones with a high base
saturation of more than 50 %. On recent volcanoes ando-calcaric types are occurring.
Vertisols
Vertisols (Black Cotton Soils) are dark montmorillonite-rich, poorly drained cracking clays of the
bottomlands with peloturbation processes. Te clay content is higher than 30 %. Tey develop on alluvial
and colluvial materials (so called secondary Vertisols) as well as on basic rocks (like basalts; so called
primary Vertisols). Usually they contain high amounts of CaCO3 and other minerals with a high CEC
due to the montmorillonitic clay minerals.
Te predominant pellic type is characterized by a low chroma of less than 1.5.
Reference:
Laxoox, J.R. (Ed., 1991): Booker Tropical Soil Manual.-Longman Group, London, New York
23
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24
TABLE IV: SOIL REQUIREMENTS LIST FOR CROPS IN KENYA
Crops Preferred texture pH Drainage Remarks
GRAIN CROPS
Maize
(Zea mays)
light to medium 5.5-8.0
Free draining
soils
Not on very acid soils,
not on water logging soils
at least moderately fertile
soils.
Wheat
(Triticum aestivum)
light to medium 6.5-8.0
Moderately well
to well drained
soils
In waterlogging
conditions very poor
yields, moderately to
highly fertile soils.
Durum wheat
(Triticum durum)
light to medium 6.5-8.0
Well drained
soils.
Moderately drought
tolerant.
Triticale
(Triticum x secale)
medium to heavy 6.5-8.0 Well drained soils
Tolerates salinity,
moderately drought
tolerant
Barley
(Hordeum vulgare)
medium 6.5-8.0 Well drained soils
Intolerant of
waterlogging, tolerates
salinity (-1%),
moderately fertile soils
Oats
(Avena sativa)
medium 6.5-8.0
Moderately
drained soils
Also on poor soils
Foxtail millet
(Setaria italica)
medium 5.0-8.0 Well drained soils
Quickly growing but not
very drought tolerant
Proso millet
(Panicum miliaceum)
medium 5.0-8.0 Well drained soils
Some varieties drought
tolerant
Bulrush millet
(Pennisetum typhoides)
light to medium 5.0-8.0 Well drained soils
Drought tolerant tolerates
salinity
Finger millet
(Eleusine coracana)
medium 6.5-8.0
Moderately
drained soils
Turcana varieties drought
tolerant
Sorghum
(Sorghum vulgare)
medium to heavy 4.5-8.5
Moderately well
to well drained
soils
Low to moderately fertile
soils
LEGUMINOUS
CROPS
Tepary beans
(Phasolous acutifolius)
medium 6.0-7.5 Well drained soils Drought tolerant
Cow peas
(Vigna unguiculata)
light 5.0-7.5
Free draining
soils
Drought tolerant
Moth beans
(Vigna aconitifolia)
medium to light 6.0-7.5 Well drained soils Drought tolerant
Green grams
(Vigna aureus)
medium 6.0-7.5 Well drained soils Drought tolerant
Black grams
(Vigna mungo)
medium 6.0-7.5 Well drained soils Drought tolerant
25
TABLE IV: Continued
Crops Preferred texture pH Drainage Remarks
Chick peas =Yellow
grams (Cicer arietinum)
heavy (Black
Cotton soils )
5.0-7.5
Moderately to
well drained soils
Fairly drought tolerant
Beans
(Phaseolus vulgaris)
medium 6.0-7.5
Free draining
soils
Not drought tolerant,
need moist soil
throughout the growing
period.
Bonavist beans=Njahe
(Dolichos lablab)
medium 6.0-7.5 Well drained soils
Very drought tolerant
Trop.lima beans
(Phaseolus lunatus)
various 6.0-7.0 Well drained soils
Grows well also on
infertile soils
Horse beans
(Vicia equine)
medium 5.5-7.5
Moderately to
well drained soils
Drought tolerant
Horse grams
(Dolichos uniorus)
medium 5.5-7.5
Moderately to
well drained soils
Drought tolerant
Groundnuts
(Arachis hypogea)
light 6.2-7.5
Well drained
to somewhat
excessively
drained soils
Until harvesting the
soil must be moist, but
sensitive to impeded
drainage; moderately
fertile soils.
Bambarra nuts
(Voandzeia subterranea)
light 6.2-7.5 Well drained soils
Soil aeration must be
adequate, not on heavy
soils with pans; thrive
better than groundnuts on
poor soils.
Garden peas
(Pisum sativum)
medium
5.5-7.5
(see
beans)
Well drained soils Some N good for start
Pigeon peas
(Cajanus cajan)
light
5.0-7.5
No info.
Free draining Fairly drought tolerant
Soya beans
(Glycine max.)
medium
5.5-7.5
(opt.6.0-
6.5)
Moderately well
to well drained
soils
Moderately fertile soils
OIL SEED CROPS
Sunfower
(Helianthus annuus)
medium (heavy) 6.0-8.0
Moderately
drained soils
Very drought tolerant
Linseed
(Linum usitatissium)
medium 5.5-7.5
Moderately
drained soils
Drought tolerant
Rai
(Brassica juncea)
medium to heavy 6.0-8.0
Moderately
drained soils
Drought tolerant
Rapeseed
(Brassica napus)
medium 5.5-7.0
Moderately
drained soils
Not drought tolerant
Simsim (Sesamum
indicum)
light to medium 6.0-7.5
Free draining
soils
Moderately drought
tolerant
26
TABLE IV: Continued
Crops Preferred texture pH Drainage Remarks
SaIfor (Carthamus
tinctorius)
medium 6.0-8.0
Moderately
drained soils
Tolerates salinity,
moderately drought
tolerant
Castor
(Ricinus communis)
medium 6.0-7.5
Free draining
soils
Moderately drought
tolerant, not on saline
soils.
TUBER CROPS
Sweet potatoes
(Ipomea batatas)
various (wide
range; swamps to
eroded areas)
various
Various but
planted on ridges
in swamps
Drought tolerant, need
moderately fertile soils
Potatoes
(Dolanum tuberosum)
light to medium 4.5-8.0
Free draining
soils
Not so drought tolerant,
need good supply of
nutrients
Cassava
(Manihot esculenta)
light to medium various
Free draining
soils
Very drought tolerant,
not on very stony or
shallow soils, sensitive to
impeded drainage, thrives
also on less fertile soils
Taro-Cocoyam
(Colocasia antiquorum)
light to medium 4.5-8.0
Tolerates
waterlogging
Grows esp. well on
riverbanks, demands a
fertile soil
White Guinea yam
(Dioscorea rotundata)
medium 4.5-7.0
Moderately to
weakly drained
soils
Moderately fertile soils.
Greater yam
(D.alata)

Yellow Guinea yam
(D.cayenensis)

Buffalo gourds
(Cucurbita foetidissima)
light 6.0-7.5 Well drained soils Very drought tolerant
Marama beans
(Tylosema esculenteum)
medium 6.0-7.5 Well drained soils Very drought tolerant
Vigna
(Vigna lobatifolia)
light to medium 6.0-7.5 Well drained soils Very drought tolerant
FIBRE CROPS
Cotton
(Gossypium hirsutum)
medium to heavy 6.0-8.0
Well drained
soils, sensitive to
impeded drainage
Tolerates salinity (0,5-
=0,6%); moderately to
high fertile soils; should
contain bor
Flax
(Linum usitatissimum)
medium 5.5-7.5
Moderately
drained soils
New Zealand fax
(Phormium tenax)
medium 5.5-7.5
Moderately
drained soils
27
TABLE IV: Continued
Crops Preferred texture pH Drainage Remarks
SaIfor (Carthamus
tinctorius)
medium 6.0-8.0
Moderately
drained soils
Tolerates salinity,
moderately drought
tolerant
Castor
(Ricinus communis)
medium 6.0-7.5
Free draining
soils
Moderately drought
tolerant, not on saline
soils.
TUBER CROPS
Sweet potatoes
(Ipomea batatas)
various (wide
range; swamps to
eroded areas)
various
Various but
planted on ridges
in swamps
Drought tolerant, need
moderately fertile soils
Potatoes
(Dolanum tuberosum)
light to medium 4.5-8.0
Free draining
soils
Not so drought tolerant,
need good supply of
nutrients
Cassava
(Manihot esculenta)
light to medium various
Free draining
soils
Very drought tolerant,
not on very stony or
shallow soils, sensitive to
impeded drainage, thrives
also on less fertile soils
Taro-Cocoyam
(Colocasia antiquorum)
light to medium 4.5-8.0
Tolerates
waterlogging
Grows esp. well on
riverbanks, demands a
fertile soil
White Guinea yam
(Dioscorea rotundata)
medium 4.5-7.0
Moderately to
weakly drained
soils
Moderately fertile soils.
Greater yam
(D.alata)

Yellow Guinea yam
(D.cayenensis)

Buffalo gourds
(Cucurbita foetidissima)
light 6.0-7.5 Well drained soils Very drought tolerant
Marama beans
(Tylosema esculenteum)
medium 6.0-7.5 Well drained soils Very drought tolerant
Vigna
(Vigna lobatifolia)
light to medium 6.0-7.5 Well drained soils Very drought tolerant
FIBRE CROPS
Cotton
(Gossypium hirsutum)
medium to heavy 6.0-8.0
Well drained
soils, sensitive to
impeded drainage
Tolerates salinity (0,5-
=0,6%); moderately to
high fertile soils; should
contain bor
Flax
(Linum usitatissimum)
medium 5.5-7.5
Moderately
drained soils
New Zealand fax
(Phormium tenax)
medium 5.5-7.5
Moderately
drained soils
28
TABLE IV: Continued
Crops Preferred texture pH Drainage Remarks
Pyrethrum
(Chrysanthemum
cinerariaefolium)
medium 5.6-7.5 Well drained soils
Sugarcane
(Saccharum spp.)
light to medium 5.0-7.0
Moderately well
to well drained
soils
Sensitive to water
logging;groundwater
should be below1m
depth. On heavy soils
cambered beds, ditches or
furrows must be formed
for drainage. Moderately
fertile soils
Tea (Camellia sinensis) medium
4.0-6.0
(4.5-5.5)
Free draining
soils
Soil with good water
retaining capacity is
essential, very sensitive
to CaCO
3
(0%) and
CaS0
4
(0%),grows also
on less fertile soils
Tobacco
(Nicotiana tabacum)
medium
(5.0) 5.5-
6.5
Well drained soils
Not on heavy or/and
saline soils, very sensitive
to CaCO
3
(>1% of the
fne earth) and CaSO
4
(~0.5 oI the fne earth).
Tung Oil
(Aleurites fordii)
medium 4.5-6.5 Well drained soils
Ye-eb nuts
(Cordeauxia edulis)
medium No info. Well drained soils Very drought tolerant
29
1.2 PRESERVING THE NATURAL POTENTIAL FOR THE FUTURE OF CENTRAL PROVINCE
1.2.1 BEWARE OF DEGRADING THE AREAS OF NATURAL VEGETATION IN THE AGRO-ECO-
LOGICAL ZONES OF CENTRAL PROVINCE TO MAINTAIN WATER, FIREWOOD AND ME-
DICINAL RESOURCES AS WELL AS THE GRAZING POTENTIAL!
Te Agro-Ecological Zones 0-3 are originally zones of forest according to the natural vegetation. AEZ 0
corresponds to everwet evergreen rainforest, AEZ 1 to evergreen rainforest, AEZ 2 to seasonal rainforest because
of one or two dry months. AEZ 3 has three to ve dry months, it corresponds to seasonal semi-deciduous
moist forest or a high grass - broad leaved trees savannah, which might be caused edaphically by waterlogging
soils (mbugas) or very poor leached senile soils, both unsuitable for most trees. On other soils, it might be a
secondary vegetation caused by re outbreaks. Te tall grass supresses the young trees and if it is set ablaze,
it produces a lot of heat that kills most of the trees.
AEZ 4 corresponds to woodland, it is either deciduous in subzones with unimodal rainfall as towards West
Kenya and in Tanzania, or hard-leaved evergreen in bimodal rainfall subzones with two dry seasons as in East
Kenya, where plants have hard or hairy leaves to avoid sheding them o twice a year. Te grass grows to
about 1 m tall.
Forests (and woodlands) are necessary also for agriculture because they minimize surface-runo and store
water in their deep, unhardened soils to recharge underground wells, creeks and streams during the dry sea-
sons. It is partly for these reasons that the Nyandarua Forest as well as the smaller ones must be conserved.
Forest protection is necessary for other reasons too: Firewood collection (not cutting!), timber, medicinal
plants and genetic resources. A network of forest reserves is necessary to conserve biodiversity.
A network of protected areas is also a must for the drier Agro-Ecological Zones 4-6.Te corresponding natu-
ral vegetation in AEZ 5 is a short grass savannah with small leaved thorny trees and bushes. Zone 6 is bushland
with very short but still perennial grass, therefore it is suitable for ranching - if the grass (the standing hay for
the dry season) is not eradicated by overgrazing.
Good management of the remaining natural vegetation by farmers especially herders is important: In AEZ 3
it is necessary to avoid burning which kills the regrowth of trees and ecologically valuable bushes. But the
main danger here is overgrazing which puts the balance between grass and bushes to the bush side. Bush en-
croachment can nally nish the grazing potential. Tis is the same danger in AEZ 4 and 5 but with shrubby
species (shrub encroachment, thorny in AEZ 5). In the rst stage, poisonous or bitter herbs not eaten by
livestock thrive abundantly, leading to some sort of green degradation.
In AEZ 6 the eradication of grass by overgrazing promotes at rst dwarf shrubs (dwarf shrub encroachment),
then in the better subzones thorny low shrubs grow up. Te grazing potential has severely decreased, only
goats as browsers remain. In a nal stage, due to overuse and soil denudation, the shrubs disappear and
desertication becomes evident. Reseeding fenced plots before it is so bad is now practised. Originally semi-
desert indicates Zone 7, full desert Zone 8.
Another problem that is aggravating not only the cropland but even the grazing land is soil degradation.
Te animals take in nutrients through the vegetal material they ingest and release the same through dung.
Farmers need to utilise these dung on their elds in order to replenish the depleted soil nutrients.
30
1.2.2 MAINTENANCE, REPLENISHMENT AND IMPROVEMENT OF
SOIL FERTILITY IN KENYA
Soil fertility depletion has been described as the major biophysical root cause of the declining per-capita
food availability in smallholder farms in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), with a decline from 150 to 130 kg per
person over the past 35 years in production
1)
. In the densely populated Western Province, for example, it
went down to 60 kg for cereals! Emerging evidence attributes this to insucient nutrient inputs relative
to exports, primarily through harvested products, leaching, gaseous losses and soil erosion. Tis results in
yields that are about 2-5 times lower than potential. Adequate and better solutions to combat nutrients
depletion where known, are often limited in application because of the dynamics and heterogeneity of the
African agro-ecosystems in terms of biophysical and socio-economic gradients. Tis calls for system-specic
or exible recommendations, rather than monolithic technical solutions such as blanket fertilizer recom-
mendations.
Despite diversity of approaches and solutions and the investment of time and resources by a wide range
of institutions, soil fertility degradation continues to prove to be a substantially intransigent problem, and
as the single most important constraint to food security in the continent
2)
. For example, soil loss through
erosion is estimated to be 10 times greater than the rate of natural formation. Return to investment in
soil fertility has not been commensurate to research outputs
3)
. Farmers are only likely to adopt sound soil
management if they are assured of return on their investment. Integrated soil fertility management (ISFM)
is now regarded as a strategy that helps low resource endowed farmers, mitigate many problems and the
characteristics of poverty and food insecurity by improving the quantity and quality of food, income and
resilience of soil productive capacity.
Essentially, ISFM is the adoption of a systematic conscious participatory and broad knowledge intensive
holistic approach to research on soil fertility and that embraces the full range of driving factors and conse-
quences such as biological, physical, chemical, social, economic and political aspects of soil fertility degra-
dation. Te approach advocates for careful management of soil fertility aspects that optimise production
potential through incorporation of a wide range of adoptable soil management principles, practices and
options for productive and sustainable agroecosystems. It entails the development of soil nutrient manage-
ment technologies for adequate supply and feasible share of organic and inorganic inputs that meet the
farmers production goals and circumstances. Te approach includes other important aspects of the soil
complex; soil life, structure and organic matter content. Te approach integrates the roles of soil and water
conservation; land preparation and tillage; organic and inorganic nutrient sources; nutrient adding and
saving practices; pests and diseases; livestock; rotation and intercropping; multipurpose role legumes and
integrating the dierent research methods and knowledge systems. Te approach also includes a social and
economic dimension.
Te increasing adoption of ISFM as a long-term perspective and holistic approach derives its success on the
emergence of a consensus on its guiding principles. Tis paradigm is closely related to the wider concepts
of Integrated Natural Resources Management (INRM), thereby representing a signicant step beyond the
earlier, narrower concept and approach of nutrient replenishment/recapitalization for soil fertility enhance-
ment
2)
. ISFM thereafter embraces the full range of multiple options (MPOs) and driving factors and con-
sequences (namely: biological, physical, chemical, social, economic and political), of soil degradation in
dierent farming systems and land types. Te ISFM MPOs may include:
a) Integrated Nutrient Management (INM), which is the technical backbone of ISFM approach. It
entails integrated use of organics as well as in-organic sources of plant nutrients; as well as the en
tirety of possible combinations of nutrient-adding practices and nutrient saving techniques. Te
latter INM is perceived as the judicious manipulation of nutrient inputs, outputs and internal
ows to achieve productive and sustainable agricultural systems
4)
.
b) Integrating the benecial and deleterious eects of the relationship between abiotic factors (includ-
ing tillage, soil and water management) and biotic stresses (including integrated pest and disease
management; integrated crop management).
c) Integration of crop and livestock production.
31
d) Integration and greater productive use of local and indigenous knowledge, innovations,practices
and resources and science knowledge based-management system.
e) Integration of policy and institutional framework, as well as on-site and o-site (landscape)
eects.
Fertiliser is a term used to refer to any inorganic or organic material, natural or synthetic in origin that is
added to soil or other growing media to supply plant nutrients. Inorganic or mineral fertilisers originate
from ores, air, sediments or ashes. Organic fertilisers originate from organic materials such as animal or hu-
man waste and compost. Fertilisers may be in solid, liquid or gaseous forms. Te mineral nutrient content
and solubility of a fertiliser in water determines its eciency. Plant fertiliser use eciency is inuenced by
climate (e.g. temperature and rainfall) and soil factors such as soil pH, mineral content and humus
5
. Gener-
ally, the nutrient content of organic fertilisers is usually lower than that of inorganic fertilisers but it is more
stable and not so much endangered by outwash or insoluble xation (phosphorus to iron).
Most inorganic fertilisers are mined from ores or sedimentary deposits, except for those that contain nitro-
gen (N) which is synthesized with high energy input from the air. Because of the high element concentration
and high solubility of the inorganic fertilisers, their benecial eects on plant growth are quick and easy to
recognise. Tere are two types of mineral fertilisers on the Kenyan market: straight and compound. Straight
fertilisers contain one nutrient while compound fertilisers contain two or more nutrients. Every inorganic
fertiliser has a particular grade. Te fertiliser grade refers to the percent nutrient content of nitrogen, phos-
phorus and potassium. Nitrogen is expressed in % N, phosphorus as % phosphate (P
2
O
5
) and potassium
as % potassium oxide (K
2
O). It is mandatory that this N-P-K (i.e. N-P
2
O
5
-K
2
O) information be displayed
on the outside of each fertiliser bag. For example, the fertiliser 17-17-17 contains 17% nitrogen, 17% P
2
O
5
and 17% K
2
O in every 100 kg of fertiliser. Te remaining 49 kg in the fertiliser is ller material. Important
inorganic fertilisers found in the Kenyan market include: Ammonium sulphate (SA), Calcium ammonium
nitrate (CAN), Urea, Single Super Phosphate (SSP), Triple Super Phosphate (TSP), Phosphate rock, Muri-
ate of Potash (MOP), Sulphate of Potash, Lime (calcium carbonate).
Some common organic fertilisers used in replenishing soil fertility in Kenya include bone meal, crop resi-
dues (e.g. maize stover, bean trash, napier grass trash, tree/hedge cuttings) animal manure (e.g. cattle, sheep,
goat, pig, poultry) and compost
6)
. Te nutrient contents in manure vary enormously depending on the
source, method of processing, application and storage. Herbaceous legumes too are commonly used as green
manure in Kenya. Usually, the legume is grown in pure stand and cut just before full bloom (or owering
stage), while the N content is at or near the maximum. After wilting the leaves, the green manure is incorpo-
rated with the soil to facilitate decomposition. Grain legumes can also contribute to a soils nitrogen budget
when included as part of the rotation because of the nitrogen left behind in the roots and residue remaining
after removal of the seed. In addition to herbaceous legumes, several tree species also x nitrogen thereby
substantially increasing the nitrogen capital of the soils. Te most notable ones used for agroforestry are fast
growing and belong to the following genera: Leucaena, Calliandra, Erythrina, Gliricidia and Sesbania. Slow
growing nitrogen xing xing trees include: Albizia, Inga, Acacia and Faidherbia albida. Some soils need
inoculation with the nitrogen xing bacteria which make nodules on the roots of the Leguminosae family.
Another green manure shrub worth mentioning is Tithonia diversifolia. Although not a legume itself, Titho-
nia is considered an excellent green manure because of its ability to accumulate plant nutrients quickly, its
rapid decomposition. Green manuring with Tithonia is being promoted vigorously in Western Kenya and
Nyanza provinces, for example, to improve soil fertility in nutrient depleted soils and with promising results,
particularly in maize and vegetable production.
Improved fallow systems oer a quick way to regenerate soil fertility because they require shorter fallow
periods than natural fallow and the only investment required is seed. Te plant species of choice should
be fast growing high nitrogen xers. Where soil fertility has declined tremendously, the performance of
improved fallow can be increased by supplying the other limiting nutrients (other than nitrogen e.g. potas-
sium and phosphorus) to the improved fallow. In Western Kenya, it has been proved scientically that elds
sown with maize and beans in which the improved fallow was Crotolaria gramiana or Tephrosia vogelii was
used had higher economic return than where natural fallow was used or the continuous cropped elds
6)
.
32
Te improved fallow was most benecial when phosphorus (a limiting nutrient in the region) was applied
at the time of planting the fallow. Extending improved fallow systems for soil fertility improvement should
be reasonably easy in Kenya given that many smallholder farmers know the value of leaving land to fallow
naturally. But with small and diminishing acreage per farm, there is almost no land left to regenerate in a
fallow period in Central Province.
Conventional wisdom maintains that food security in Africa and Kenya in particular will be achieved by
presenting smallholder farmers with a basket of crop and land management options from which they may
choose the practices that best suit their site-specic needs and socio-economic conditions
7)
. Several dierent,
and often competing, soil fertility management recommendations for maize-legume intercrops are oered
to farmers in Kenya through a variety of outreach activities.
Tese options include Green Revolution fertiliser technologies (FURP), soil nutrient replenishment
with rock phosphate (PREP), fortied composting (COMP), relay intercropping with Lablab purpureus
(LABLAB), staggered-row intercropping (MBILI) and short-term improved Crotolaria grahamiana fallows
(IMPFAL). Tese management options have been examined in western Kenya along with maize control
receiving no external inputs over three growing seasons
7
. Data were collected on crop yield, input costs, la-
bour requirements and crop returns. Averaged over three seasons, production costs were (PREP = $119/ha)
> (FURP = $101) > (MBILI = $98) > (COMP = $95) > (LABLAB = $74) > (IMPFAL = $67) > (No inputs
= $62). Average maize yield (LSD
0.05
= 0.2) ranged between 1.5 t/ha (No inputs) and 2.8 t/ha (MBILI).
Average legume yields (LSD
0.05
= 27) ranged between 203 kg/ha (No input bean) to 500 kg/ha (MBILI
bean). Overall benet cost ratios (LSD
0.05
= 0.17) were FURP (2.22) = No inputs (2.28) < COMP (2.48)
= LABLAB (2.52) < IMPFAL (3.03) < MBILI (3.44). Clearly all these recommended technologies oer
potential to many farmers in West Kenya, and Kenya at large, but the ability of farmers to provide the neces-
sary input costs and labour remains uncertain. Perhaps it is time we focussed attention upon how farmers
basket of options is lled rather than how full it has become.
NOTES:
1
Naxowa, S.M. (2003): Perspectives on soil fertility in Africa. In: Gicuuiu ir ai. (Eds.). Soil fertility Management in Africa: A Re-
gional Perspective. Academy Science Publishers (ASP) & Tropical Soil Biology and Fertility of CIAT (TSBF), Nairobi, pp. 1-50.
2
Saxcuiz, P.A. and Liax\, R.R.B. (1997): Landuse transformation in Africa: Tree determinants for balancing food security
with natural resource utilization. European Journal of Agronomy, 7: 1-9.
3
African Highlands Initiative (AHI) (1997): Phase 1 Report. ICRAF, Nairobi.
4
Sxaiixc, E.M.A., Fiisco, L.O. and Di Jacii, A. (1996): Classifying, monitoring and improving soil nutrient stocks and ows
in African Agriculture. Ambio, 25: 492-496.
5
Humus can store the given nutrients 25 times better than a senile tropical soil, thus preventing the outwash by heavy rains.
6
Muiiuxi, A.W. and Quiisui, J.N. (2001): Fertiliser Use Manual: A comprehensive guide on fertiliser use in Kenya. Kenya Agri-
cultural Research Institute (KARI), Nairobi, p. 149.
7
Woomer, P.L. (2004): Cost and return on soil fertility management options in western Kenya. Abstracts of the International
Symposium of the African Network for Soil Biology and Fertility (AfNET) of TSBF institute of CIAT, Yaounde, Cameroon, May
17-21, 2004, pp. 147-148.
33
34
35
1.2.3 PHYSICAL SOIL CONSERVATION
By C. G. Wenner and S.N. Njoroge
Classication of land
Te land of a farm can be classied as to slope and soil, with the dierent classications needing dierent
considerations:
1) Flatland, sloping less than 2%, can usually be farmed without any special soil conservation mea-
sures except contour farming.
2) On gentle slopes between 2 and 12% terracing is not obligatory according to the present Agricul-
ture Act, but terracing is usually desirable on slopes exceeding 5%. In semi-arid areas and in areas with
erodible soils, even slopes less than 5% (2 5%) usually need to be terraced.
3) On slopes exceeding 12%, but not exceeding 55%, terraces (preferably developed bench terraces)
should be used if the depth of the soil is more than about 0.75m. For very steep slopes modied bench
terraces are recommended, i.e. narrow ledges cut into the slope, suitable for fruit trees, fodder trees, forest
trees and coee.
4) Slopes exceeding approximately 55% should be covered with grass and/or forest. Under certain
conditions it might be permissible to cultivate tea, sugar cane or bananas with a layer of trash on the
ground.
5) Soils which are rocky, stony or shallow, should be used as pasture or for forest or they should have
stone terraces.
Soil conservation in general
The basic protection of soil against erosion is good farm management:
1) Ploughing and planting along the contour
2) Rotation of crop and grass
3) Manure favouring the growth of crops
4) Leaving crop residue on the ground
On slopes, good farm management by itself is not sucient and it has to be combined with terraces.
Terraces
Terraces can be made by machinery or, usually, by hand.
Terraces made by machinery
Mechanised soil conservation can only be used on slopes which are not too steep (preferably 2 12%). Two
types of terraces are used:
1) Te channel terrace
2) Te ridge terrace
Te V-shaped terrace, on one or both sides of a ridge, will usually be lled up by sediment and will thus
develop into a bench terrace. But this could as well have developed from a grass strip.
Terraces made by hand
Terraces can develop from:
1) unploughed strips
2) Grass planted in one or two rows
3) Trash lines laid along the terrace line
In the strips, water ows will be distributed between the grass stems and most of the water will be inltrated
into the ground.
To hasten the formation of a bench terrace you can make a ridge by digging a channel (2 feet wide, 2 -3 feet
deep) and throwing the soil uphill, using the so-called Fanya Juu method.
Bench terraces are usually preferable to channel terraces, as the benches change the degree of slope. Tey also
retain eroded soil, moisture and nutrients.
36
Length of terraces
Terraces should not, if possible, be many hundreds of metres long. More than 400 m should be avoided.
Gradient of terraces
Terraces can be level or graded. Level terraces should be constructed on gentle slopes in permeable soils in
dry areas. For graded terraces the following gradients are recommended: in erosion resistant soils (clay) 1%,
normally 0.5% and in erodible soils (silty, sandy) 0.25%.
37
Vertical interval between terraces
Te vertical interval (V.I) between terraces depends on the slope and has been calculated in three dierent
ways in Kenya:
A/ Te ordinary formula-V.I. (in feet) = (percentage slope/ 4) + 2
B/ Te bench formula-V.I (in feet) = (percentage slope/ 8) + 1
C/A constant V.I. of 5-6 or 2.5-3 feet (1.5-1.8 or 0.75 - 0.90m).
Te method selected depends on the slope:
5-12% A, B or C,
but the horizontal interval is preferably not greater than 80 Feet (24m) on erodible soils.
12-35% B or C
35-55% C or modied bench terraces.
As shown above, a constant vertical interval (method C), corresponding to the eye height of a man can be
used on slopes between 5% and 55%. Te vertical interval will vary with the eye height of the person setting
out of the terraces, i.e between 5 and 6 feet (1.5 and 1.8m). Such variation can be disregarded in setting out
terraces. If terraces are needed on slopes between 2% and 5%, see table. Te vertical intervals will then be
less than the height of a person, because the horizontal interval should be a maximum of 24 m (80 feet):
Slope
%
Vertical interval Horizontal interval
in meters in feet in meters in feet
2 0.5 1.7 24 80
3 0.7 2.3 24 80
4 1.0 3.3 24 80
5 1.2 4.0 24 80
Horizontal interval between terraces
Te horizontal interval (H.I.) between terrace edges (grass strips) is calculated as H.I.= (V.I x 100/% of
slope)
If the V.I. is expressed in feet, the H.I. will be in feet.
If the V.I. is expressed in meters, the H.I. will be in meters.
CUTOFF DRAINS
In general
Large water ows coming from outside a farm have to be diverted from the farm by a cut o drain, e.g.
collecting water from a hillside, or preventing water from a plateau from owing down a terraced slope, or
taking care of water from a roadside ditch .
Cuto drains should be dug only when there is evidence of large water ows which cannot be stopped
through normal terracing. Below the banks of terraces channels can be excavated instead of making cuto
drains.
In the survey of a cuto drain, you should start with the outlet point. If you cannot discharge the water in a
safe way do not dig any cuto drain. Before measuring and setting out the pegs, you should walk along the
proposed cuto drain, checking that the drain is properly sited regarding houses, cultivation, rocky ground
etc.
Do not dig any cut o drain if the farmers do not agree to do terracing below the drain and to maintain the
the channel by removing the soil sedimentation. Special forms should be used.
Length of cuto drains
As in terracing cuto drains should usually not be larger than 400m. If it is dicult to nd a natural wa-
terway within 400m, it might be better to make the cuto drain essentially longer than 400 m instead of
38
digging an expansive articial waterway.
Gradient of cuto drains
Te same as for graded terraces (see previous page)
Intervals between cuto drains
Usually one cuto drain only is needed on a slope. Only at very long slopes might an extra cuto drain be
dug in exceptional cases.
Size of cuto drains
As to design of cuto drains, and for the approximate dimensions of the cuto channel see the gure below
on this page. A cuto drain dug by hand is often 5 feet (1.5 m) wide at the top, 3 feet (0.9 m) wide at the
bottom and 2 feet (0.6 m) deep, giving a cross-section of 0.7 m
2
. A cuto drain constructed by a motor
grader often has a V-shaped cross-section and is made 6-8 feet wide (1.8-2.4 m) and 2.5 feet deep (0.75 m),
giving a cross-section of 0.7-0.9 m
2
.
In semi-arid overgrazed areas cuto drains, especially in silt and sandy soils, are useless without grazing
control and establishment of grass cover on the ground round the gullies.
ARTIFICIAL WATERWAYS
In general
Te water from cuto drains as well as from terraces should be discharged into natural watercources (rivers)
or onto nonerodible areas such as stony ground or permanent pasture with a good grass cover. If it is not
possible to nd such an outlet point within a reasonable distance, the excess water has to be taken down
the slope by an articial waterway, covered with grass. A di culty in constructing waterways is that protec-
tive grass cannot be established in the rst year or two. Consequently it would be reasonable to construct
the articial waterways and plant grass two years before the construction of the cuto drains and terraces.
Another way is to remove the grass before excavating the waterway and afterwards replace the grass as shown
in the gure below on the next page.
39
A waterway should be wide (5 feet at least) and shallow (1 feet deep) to minimize erosion.
Width of waterways
Te width can be varied depending on the size of the catchment area and the steepness of the slope. Te
necessary width in feet of an articial waterway in erodible soils can be read from the table below:
Catchment area of the
waterways in acres
Steepness of the slope
less than 6% 6 - 12% more than 12%
5 5 6 8
10 6 8 10
15 7 11 17
20 8 15 23
30 9 23 34
40 12 30 44
50 16 38 56
In erosion resistant soils such as clay and clay loam, the width as shown in the table can be much less, but
not less than 5 feet. If the central 1/3 of the waterway is covered with stones, the width as shown in the table
can be decreased by about a half.
Experience has shown that farmers hesitate to accept even half of the widths recommended. An alterna-
tive then is to construct check dams as recommended for the oor in gully control (see gure on the next
page).
Depth of waterways
Te depth of a waterway is related to the width in the following way:
Width up to 10 feet 10 - 20 feet more than 20 feet
Depth 1 foot 1 1/4 feet 1 1/2 feet
40
41
2. CENTRAL PROVINCE
2.1 INTRODUCTION
Covering an area of 13,220 km
2
, that is approximately 2.3% of the total Kenyas landmass, Central Province
excluding Nairobi is the second smallest and third most densely [282 persons/km
2
] populated after Western
and Nyanza, respectively. It is made up of seven districts namely: Kiambu, Tika, Nyeri, Nyandarua, Kirin-
yaga, Muranga and Maragua (see Table V). Straddling in the heartland of the Kenya highlands, it contains
unique agro-ecological zones and subzones as well as magnicent landforms that include forests and catch-
ments. Based on the 1999 census
1)
, Central Province had a population of 3,724,159 persons equivalent to
13.0% of the countrys total population. Using logistic regression
2)
functions, evidence suggest that the high
fertility rates will persist resulting to serious implications including: unemployment, migration, landlessness
and environmental degradation (Tables V & VI). In Kenya, Central Province boast of better living standards
than any other rural region. Poverty
3)
is relatively modest: 31%, though its spatial distribution is likely to
be skewed to the left.
TABLE V: POPULATION PROJECTIONS FOR CENTRAL PROVINCE PER DISTRICT
(Source: CBS, Analytical Report on Population Projections Vol. VII: 32)
District 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010
KIAMBU 775,548 782,823 789,602 795,866 801,601 806,790 810,724 814,427 817,891 821,110 824,077
KIRINYAGA 475,535 478,868 481,877 484,554 486,891 488,880 490,096 491,161 492,072 492,826 493,419
MURANGA 356,939 352,981 348,667 344,004 339,001 333,664 327,724 321,618 315,352 308,928 302,352
NYANDARUA 506,171 517,986 529,598 540,984 552,118 562,975 573,038 583,006 592,869 602,614 612,230
NYERI 683,490 683,115 682,185 680,698 678,654 676,053 672,321 668,331 664,084 669,579 654,818
THIKA 667,525 667,159 666,251 664,799 662,802 660,262 656,617 652,721 648,572 644,173 639,523
MARAGUA 400,945 400,570 399,866 398,833 397,471 395,781 393,426 390,919 388,260 385,450 382,488
TOTAL 3,882,021 3,918,438 3,952,369 3,983,728 4,012,433 4,038,407 4,058,098 4,076,631 4,093,972 4,110,086 4,124,937
TABLE VI: ABSOLUTE POOR HOUSEHOLDS AND PERSONS IN CENTRAL PROVINCE
PER DISTRICT (Source: Modifed aIter CBS, 2001: 16)
District Households below poverty
3)
line 1999 Individuals below poverty
3)
line 1999
KIAMBU 44,330 225,117
KIRINYAGA 26,742 138,307
MURANGA 19,839 105,387
NYANDARUA 24,396 145,205
NYERI 39,442 200,047
THIKA 40,092 195,375
MARAGUA 21,205 117,389
TOTAL 216,047 1,126,826
1)
Population and Household Census (1999), Counting Our People for Development: Population Distribution by Administrative Areas and
Urban Centres, Volume I, Republic of Kenya.
2)
Analytical Report on Population Projections (Vol. VII), Kenya 1999 Population and Housing Census
3)
According to Participatory Poverty Assessment report oI 2001 defned poverty ' as the inability |Ior households and/ or individuals| to
meet their basic needs including land, employment, food, shelter, education, health etc cited from Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper
42
(September, 2001) p.13, CBS.
Central Province is by nature the best province of Kenya: Young volcanic soils on rain-harvesting slopes in
suitable table altitudes. Agriculture had the best conditions of Tropical Zones. Infrastructure is also the most
developed of Kenya. But why are there today over a million poor people in Central Province?
1. It is the third overpopulated province of Kenya. In 1979 there were 173 people per km
2
and still 0.34 ha
per head of agricultural land. In 1999 the Census count 282 people per km
2
and the agricultural land per
head was reduced to 0.2 ha. Estimates for 2006 are 307 people/km
2
and only 0.17 ha remained for each
person, not enough to live from it (a farm has 0.8 ha average). Tis average looks still too positive due to
larger areas in Nyandarua and Nyeri district, but in AEZ UM 2 of Kiambaa Division of Kiambu it is 0.4 ha
only.
2. Te problem is very much aggravated because the originally fertile soil is now depleted from many nutri-
ents due to permanent cultivation and almost no return to the shambas. Te average maize yields today per
ha are less than half of those recorded in the rst Farm Survey 1977 in spite of higher inputs now!
3. Te permanent low prices for the cash crops. especially coee, keep farmers poor. Te prices will not rise
again because the number of producers increases but the number of consumers resp. buyers decreases.
To counteract this catastrophic situation, the farmers have to concentrate rst on family planning. Tree
children are the maximum if the land is too small to be split into two farms. Te second child may marry
into another farm, the third has to nd another job which is very dicult anyway with a relation of 3 farm-
ers to a non- farmers job.
Secondly but even more important: Replenish the soil fertility by any means. If possible buy cattle manure
from Maasai or sewage waste from the towns. Use alley-planted (4 m apart) deep rooting trees or bushes
like Leucaena or Tithonia to pump nutrients from deep, less leached subsoil to the surface. Teir twigs can
be converted either directly by mulch to the soil or even more protable by feeding it to animals and put
the manure back (see fertility chapter). Maintain the fertility by recycling the taken nutrients as much as
possible: Mulched straw returns about 20 % of the nutrients only. Terefore the eaten ones must also be
returned, may be by using covered pails as toilets, leave them until the dangerous germs are rotten, and then
bury the contents in the elds. In the third place it is more important for the future to increase the produc-
tion of food crops (instead of cash crops) because the prices for them will rise with the increasing demand
in Kenya.
2.2 THE TEMPERATURE BELTS
Te annual mean temperature in Kenya has remarkably increased due to the global warming during the
period since the rst edition of the Farm Management Handbook 1983. A 0.5C increase in the eastern
Lowland Zones counts for ca. 100 m rise of the upper limits of this thermal belt.
Te increase in the Lower Midland Zones is a bit less due to more clouds. It is 0.35C. Tis means that the
upper limit for cotton has gone up for about 60 m, and the coee at the former lower limit of the Upper
Midland Zone is facing more diseases and quality problems.
Te temperature in the Highland and Upper Midland Zones has not changed signicantly. Te mean
maxima rose by 0.2C, but this was almost compensated by a decrease in the minimum temperature.
It has to be kept in mind, however, that the threshold mean temperature of 18C for the upper boundary
of the coee zones is a conventional gure for the climatological system only. In fact due to local conditions
and new coee varieties, the coee growing altitude may increase. Additionally, it has to be considered that
microclimatic eects are aecting the zonal temperatures. Te vicinity of forests can decrease the mean
43
maxima by shade and evaporative consumption of calories by the trees. Te nightly ow down of heavy
cold air from Nyandarua Range may accumulate in depressions and at areas like the Kinangop Plateau
and decrease the mean minimum temperature for almost 3C. Te microclimate has to be considered for
temperature sensile crops like maize. Besides the danger of frost, temperatures below 8C reduce the organic
synthesis almost to zero.
2.3 RAINFALL AND AGRO-ECOLOGICAL ZONES IN CENTRAL PROVINCE
Te average annual rainfall increases from less than 400 mm in the low eastern plains to more than 2200
mm on the southeastern windward side of the Nyandarua Range in 2200 2700 m, the main altitude for
condensation and rain from the clouds of the SE Trade winds.
Te distribution of rainfall is typically bimodal with two distinct rainy seasons, the rst one with its peak in
April and the second with the peak in November; the intervening dry season is distinct, except in the misty
and cloudy altitudes above 1800 m, and west of the Nyandarua Range and Mt. Kenya where middle rains
induced from Western Kenya occur.
Te pattern of the Agro-Ecological Zones is typical for the Eastern part of the Kenyan Highlands. It starts on
Nyandarua Range with the Tropical Alpine Zones TA I and II. Tey are National Park now but some parts of
TA I could possibly be opened up for seasonal grazing stock from the over-populated zones below the
forest. Te forest reserves are mainly situated in steep wet areas unsuitable for agricultural use (UH 0 and
UH 1). Te row of Agro-Ecological Zones LH 1, UM 1-5 and LM 3-4 occurs at descending altitudes to-
wards the footplains in eastward direction. Towards the Laikipia Plateau and the Rift Valley rain shadow oc-
curs, therefore the zones UH 2, 3 and LH 2, 3, 4, 5 indicate decreasing rainfall already in higher altitudes.
Agriculturally, there is a complicated situation on the northwestern side of the province because the two
growing periods of the year are connected to the western middle rains, but they are weak and their occur-
rence is very unreliable here. Tis may cause extreme dry spells, especially when the growing of maize needs
alot of water during the tusseling stage.
44
2.4 RUNOFF-HARVESTING AGRICULTURE
Central Province has not many areas of zones 4 and 5 fortunately, where this system is necessary to increase
the moisture available for plants. Nevertheless it is good to practice it in wetter zones too (with smaller dis-
tances between the ridges), because it protects also from soil leaching, denudation and erosion. If the eld is
slopy, the runo can be caught by ridges (matutas) which are made parallel to the contour lines. Tey have
to be about 25 cm high and 50 cm wide. According to the expected rainfall and to the water requirement of
the crop, the distance between the ridged rows has to be wider the lower the rainfall is and the higher the wa-
ter requirement , which has to be fullled by the harvested water from the runo surface (Table VII a & b).
It is at the average about 30 % of the rainfall. Dierent shapes are suitable for dierent areas and purposes
(Fig.2.4.1 & 2.4.2).
Tis matuta system protects from soil denudation by harvesting the runo. Tie-ridging with short blocking
ridges rectangular to the rows might be necessary to avoid water-concentration at the lowest point of a long
ridge which can cause a break through of the water, opening an erosion channel. Holes for higher demand-
ing crops like bananas (Fig. 2.4.1) collect higher amounts of water, and ridges like half moons (Fig. 2.4.2)
avoid too long ridges.
Fig. 2.4.1: Runoff-harvesting agriculture
45
Te rotting crop residues have a mulching and composting eect to help maintaining the fertility. Fertilizer
will not be washed away.
Te system can also be used for fodder plants and grass. It is most necessary in Zone 5 even for some subsis-
tence crops. It functions best if the slopes are gentle and a compact subsoil has a slow inltration rate for the
rain water. At these places it is helpful to soil and water conservation. In LH 4 and 5 the soils on volcanic
ashes have a high inltration rate and little runo. Terefore these zones are not listet in Table VII.
Fig. 2.4.2: Runoff -harvesting agriculture
46
TABLE VIIa: DISTANCES FOR RUNOFF-HARVESTING AGRICULTURE
FIRST RAINY SEASON (start normally end of March) AND MIDDLE RAINS (J uly- Sept.)
AEZ & Subzone Maize variety
a)
Suggested
intercrop
b)
Distance of ridged
rows
c)
Plant distance in
row
c)
UM 3-4 H 511, 5.. or EMCO 92 SR - 83cm (2 feet) 30cm (1foot)
UM 4
s+s Katumani comp. B Early mat. beans 75cm (2 feet) 30cm (1foot)
s/vs+s/vs Katumani comp. B
Very early mat.
beans
83cm (2 feet) 30cm (1foot)
LM 4
s+s/vs Katumani comp. B Dolichos beans 75cm (2 feet) 30cm (1foot)
s/vs+s/vs Dryland composite Cowpeas 90cm (3feet) 30cm (1foot)
s/vs +vs/s
Dryland comp. or dwarf
sorghum
Cowpeas 90cm (2feet) 30cm (1foot)
UM 5
vs/s +vs
Katumani comp. B or
dwarf sorghum
V. e. mat. green
grams like KVR 26
<1600m
105cm (3 feet) 30cm (1foot)
a)
Practice dry planting, or if late, the seeds should be soaked in water about 20hours before planting, especially
where the growing period is very short.
b)
If the April rains are below normal, the intercrops should be uprooted and used as a spinach. Complete
mulching of unshaded interrows from mid May onward is important.
c)
Farmers should also try the next closer and wider spacing of the resp. AEZ to meet rainfall variability. In wet
years the wide spaced plots give less yields but in dry years more than the normal spaced ones. This helps to
avoid Iamine. Farmers in the wetter zones 3 and 4 should also have normal felds Ior higher yields in normal
and wet years. Ridging ploughs are very helpIul Ior preparing the runoII-catching felds.
d)
Bulrush millet (if possible awned var.) 120x 20cm, very early mat. foxtail or Proso millet 45x10cm
e)
Bulrush millet (if possible awned var.) 120x 25 cm, very early mat. foxtail or Proso millet 60x10cm
47
TABLE VIIb: DISTANCES FOR RUNOFF-HARVESTING AGRICULTURE
SECOND RAINY SEASON (start normally end of October)
AEZ & Subzone Maize variety
a)
Suggested
intercrop
b)
Distance of ridged
rows
c)
Plant distance in
row
c)
UM 3-4 H 511, 5.. or EMCO 92 SR - 83cm (2 feet) 30cm (1foot)
UM 4
s+s Katumani comp. B Early mat. beans 75cm (2 feet) 30cm (1foot)
s/vs+s/vs Katumani comp. B
Very early mat.
beans
83cm (2 feet) 30cm (1foot)
LM 4
s+s/vs Katumani comp. B Cowpeas 90cm (3 feet) 30cm (1foot)
s/vs+s/vs Katumani comp. B Cowpeas 90cm (3feet) 30cm (1foot)
s/vs +vs/s Dryland composite Cowpeas 105cm (3feet) 30cm (1foot)
UM 5
vs/s +vs
Dryland comp. B or dwarf
sorghum
- 125cm (4 feet) 36cm (1 foot)
a)
Practice dry planting, or if late, the seeds should be soaked in water about 20hours before planting, especially
where the growing period is very short.
b)
If the April rains are below normal, the intercrops should be uprooted and used as a spinach. Complete
mulching of unshaded interrows from mid May onward is important.
c)
Farmers should also try the next closer and wider spacing of the resp. AEZ to meet rainfall variability. In wet
years the wide spaced plots give less yields but in dry years more than the normal spaced ones. This helps to
avoid Iamine. Farmers in the wetter zones 3 and 4 should also have normal felds Ior higher yields in normal
and wet years. Ridging ploughs are very helpIul Ior preparing the runoII-catching felds.
d)
Bulrush millet (if possible awned var.) 120x 25 cm, very early mat. foxtail or Proso millet 60x10cm
48
2.5 THE IMPORTANCE OF FERTILIZERS APPLICATION AND NUTRIENT RECY-
CLING IN CENTRAL PROVINCE
Soils in the Central Province of Kenya are less variable than in the Western and Eastern Province due to the
homogenous geological conditions of the area.
In most parts of the province soils on volcanic deposits, mainly basaltic lava, are dominating due to tectonic
activities associated with the uplifting and rifting of the Rift Valley system during tertiary, pleistocene and
recent times. On and around Mt. Kenya and the Nyandarua Range Nitosols, Andosols and Phaeozems are
developing on those volcanic layers. Due to their high contents of nutrients, primary minerals and montmo-
rillonitic clay with minerals, these juvenile soils (in most areas combined with favourable rainfall conditions)
possess a high fertility. Population density within the rural areas is extremely high. Terefore, cultivation of
cash and food crops is very intensive outside the protected areas (Forest Reserves, National Parks). Perma-
nent cropping and lack of resources for replenishing soil nutrients is leading to serious soil degradation and
exhaustion particularly in the smallholder farming areas.
Small pockets of strongly weathered and therefore leached soils like Ferralsols, Acrisols and Luvisols are
dominating on basement rocks in the southern and southeastern parts of Tika, Maragua, Muranga and
Kirinyaga Districts. Like in the more fertile areas, here, a growing population is leading to continuous cul-
tivation too, nally serious soil degradation, nutrient depletion and soil erosion (in the hilly areas) is going
on.
As a consequence many people are forced to migrate to the urban areas (in particular Nairobi, Nakuru,
Tika) but only a few nd jobs there.
Articial fertilization can increase the yields of food crops considerably, as the Fertiliser Use Recommendation
Project (FURP, 1987-1992) and the Fertiliser Extension Project (FEP, 1993-1994) have shown. But for sus-
tainable farm management it is necessary to combine it with nutrient recycling by any kind of farm manure,
biomass from hedges/trees, crop residues, even human sewage (under hygienic control!) and ashe residues
from cooking res. Te addition of cost-eective microbiological substrates like EM (Eective Microorgan-
isms), rhizobia and mycorrhizae to farm manure or soils directly is delivering promising results to soil fertil-
ity (Hoixirz/Suisax\a/Giroxca, 2000)
1)
.
Te gures in Table VIII (and also others from the FURP experiments) demonstrate that continuous cul-
tivation even on fertile Nitosols is depressing the pool of macro- and micronutrients like potassium in the
soil. PH-gures are lowered too by the exhaustion of calcium, magnesium and micronutrients by crop roots.
Similar observations can be made on Ferralsols like at NRRC Kiboko (on-station-experiments), where po-
tassium was decreased by as much as 50 % within four cropping seasons (Hoixirz, 1997)
2)
.
Articial fertilizers seem to accelerate the decrease of pH as well as the reduction of the other nutrients
because of the intensication of crop growth (Table VIII). During the FURP experiments the dierence at
Githunguri was not signicant because of juvenile soils, but in the trial site of NARL the loss of potassium
and Mg, for instance, was much higher with NP fertilizer than without (see Control). Potassium could be
given articially too (if payable by the smallholders), but the depleted micronutrients normally cannot be
added because most of them are not yet known or measured. Te content of organic materials in the soils
(shown by the Org.C data) (Table VIII) is drastically decreasing due to continuous cultivation thus aect-
ing in particular soil physical conditions like inltration, bulk density, water holding capacity, etc.. Tese
measurements correspond to the observations of OKOBA (2005, 51-70)
3)
on farmers elds in Gikuuri
catchment of Runyenjes Division, Embu District, where rill erosion has become so serious that crop yields
have decreased by more than 50 % on elds with typical erosion indicators like supercial stoniness and
sedimentation. Altogether the permanent cultivation without nutrient recycling means depletion of the vital
natural resources by agromining.
4)
49
TABLE VIII: THE DECREASE (%) OF ORGANIC CARBON, PH AND AVAILABLE
NUTRIENTS IN CENTRAL PROVINCE (during 5 years of maize
cultivation at the FURP experimental sites)
Treatment FURP Site Soil AEZ Org.C pH K Ca Mg
Control
Githunguri
(Kiambu D.)
---------------
NARL
(Kiambu D.)
Humic
Nitosols
----------
Humic
Nitosols
LH 1-
UM 1
--------
UM 3
-15.7 %
---------
-13.6 %
-5.7 %
--------
-6.8 %
-43.6 %
-----------
-20.7 %
-20.4 %
----------
-7.8 %
-23.4 %
-----------
-2.5 %
P: 0 kg/ha
N: 75 kg/ha
Githunguri
(Kiambu D.)
---------------
NARL
(Kiambu D.)
Humic
Nitosols
----------
Humic
Nitosols
LH 1-
UM 1
--------
UM 3
-7.9 %
---------
-13.3 %
-9.2 %
--------
-9.0 %
-33.0 %
-----------
-36.6 %
-18.6 %
----------
-13.1 %
-19.0 %
-----------
-9.8 %
P: 75 kg/ha
N: 0 kg/ha
Githunguri
(Kiambu D.)
---------------
NARL
(Kiambu D.)
Humic
Nitosols
----------
Humic
Nitosols
LH 1-
UM 1
--------
UM 3
-12.3 %
---------
-18.2 %
-5.5 %
-----------
-3.0 %
-31.9 %
-----------
-36.2 %
-28.6 %
----------
-0.2 %
-16.0 %
-----------
-5.3 %
P: 75 kg/ha
N: 75 kg/ha
Githunguri
(Kiambu D.)
---------------
NARL
(Kiambu D.)
Humic
Nitosols
----------
Humic
Nitosols
LH 1-
UM 1
--------
UM 3
-8.8 %
---------
-24.7 %
-3.4 %
--------
-7.0 %
-24.4 %
-----------
-47.5 %
-18.4 %
----------
2.3 %
-4.8 %
-----------
-4.3 %
During the time of the FURP experiments it was observed that the application of farm yard manure is suited
to ameliorate the decrease of soil fertility or even maintain the productivity of the soil. In some cases manure
increases the loss due to its high N content, which favours crop growth too. According to observations of
Lixasi et al. (2001)
5)
95 % of the smallholders in the highlands of Kenya use livestock manure for crop pro-
duction. Supply of cattle manure in the highlands of Kenya can be improved by ordering the dung material
from the neighbouring pastoralist communities (like Maasai and Samburu) as it was done in former times.
However, in any case manuring must be supplemented as much as possible by other organic materials and
ashes for recycling the nutrients.
Meanwhile a lot of research has been done on the management of soil fertility in the Kenyan highlands.
A number of studies describe the positive impact of the use of biomass from mucuna, crotalaria, tithonia,
calliandra and leucaena hedges/trees as well as manure for soil fertility improvement (e.g. Mucixoi et al.,
1999; Muruo et al., 2000; all cited in: Mucuiiu et al., 2003)
6)
. In on-station-/o-farm-experiments on
humic Nitosols at Chuka, Meru South District (UM 2), Mucuiiu et al. (2003)
6)
found out, that grain
yields of maize H 513 were increased up to three times (compared to the control) when using cattle manure
or the pruned materials of the above-mentioned plants solely or in combination with small amounts (30
kg/ha) of inorganic N fertilizer; best results were obtained over four seasons by tithonia and tithonia plus 30
kg/ha of inorganic N (4.7 t/ha and 4.8 t/ha, respectively.). Te hedges were also decreasing the rate of soil
erosion. After introducing the new technologies in farmers eld days, similar experiments were performed
by farmers. Te results demonstrate that yields of maize H 513 generally improved as a result of using the
introduced fertilizer measures; however, the improvements of grain yields varied signicantly with the dif-
ferences in the day-to-day management of the materials by the farmers (e.g. labour requirement).
50
Other technologies to prevent soil erosion were introduced into the smallholder farming systems several
years ago like Fanya Juu terraces, Matuta ridges, contour ploughing and strip farming. Tose soil and water
conservation measures are practised widely in Central Kenya and are very eective in the hilly/mountainous
areas. Tey can be combined with techniques of organic and inorganic fertilizing in order to maintain soil
fertility as a whole.
1)
Hornetz, B., Suisax\a, C.A. and N.M. Giroxca (2000): Studies on the ecophysiology of locally suitable cultivars of food crops
and soil fertility monitoring in the semi-arid areas of Southeast Kenya .- (= Materialien zur Ostafrika-Forschung, Heft 23), Trier, (= Materialien zur Ostafrika-Forschung, Heft 23), Trier,
133pp.
2)
Hoixirz, B. (1997): Ressourcenschutz und Ernhrungssicherung in den semiariden Gebieten Kenyas.- Reimer Verlag, Berlin,
301pp.
3)
OKOBA, B.O. (2005): Farmers indicators for soil erosion mapping and crop yield estimation in central highlands of Kenya.- (=
Tropical Resource Management Papers, 62), Wageningen, 143pp.
4)
In Germany farmers calculate that, apart from nitrogen and the micronutrients, 5 tons of maize per ha need a replacement of 50
70 kg Phosphorus P2O5, 125 140 kg of Potassium K2O, 30 50 kg Calcium CaO and 30 50 kg Magnesium MgO plus
some Sulphur, Iron, Manganese, Zinc, Boron, Molybdenum and Copper, normally present in volcanic soils, but in the long run
the one or another may be worked out too which reduces the yields. 20 tons of potatoes need 20 30 kg P2O5, 110 130 kg
K2O, 2 10 kg CaO and 6 20 kg MgO. If it is not possible to buy it, return it by natural ways.
5)
Lixasi, J.K., Taxxii, J.C., Kixaxi, S.K. and P.J.C. Haiiis (2001): Manure management in the highlands of Kenya.- Second
edition, HDRA Publications
6)
Mucuiiu, M., Mucixoi, D., Kaxcai, R., Mucwi, K.J. and A. Micuixi (2003): Organic resources for soil fertility manage-
ment in Eastern Kenya.- In: Savaia, C.E.N. et al. (Eds., 2003): Organic resource management in Kenya: Perspectives and guide-
lines.- FORMAT Nairobi, 184pp.
51
2.6 POSSIBLE CROPS AND VARIETIES IN CENTRAL PROVINCE
To have the right seed at the right time and at the right place is crucial for agricultural development besides
soil fertility. Terefore many crops and varieties are listed here. Most of them are commercially available,
although this means they are very dicult to get for the poor farmers in areas far from big centers. Many
seed centers with credit facilities are necessary.
In the Table IX the dierentiation of the growing period into physical maturity and harvest was only made
for the main food crop maize because for other crops the data are unknown or scattered.
Te chapter includes additionally a Table X with fodder crops. As natural grazing becomes scarce and the
rest is destroyed by overuse, planting of grasses, legumes, fodder trees and shrubs is an esseential task for the
survival of livestock.
Several listed varieties are in experimental stage, not yet available. Others are mentioned here as possibilities
for the future. Tey are either already successful in other countries or have a promising potential so that
experimenting with them should be done or repeated. One of these are the bualo gourds (Cucurbita foe-
tidissima) from Arizona. Te tubers and seeds are a native food for the Indians living in the semi-desert there.
Tis subtropical plant does not ower under tropical seasonal constant daylight duration. But it produces
remarkable tubers. Tey increase season by season until they are needed in a drought when other crops fail.
Te starchy tubers are bitter but this bitterness can be washed out by salty water. Research is going on at the
Department of Agriculture, University of Tucson, Arizona.
Another native tuber crop are the Marama beans (Tylosema esculentum) of the Kalahari which have also ed-
ible seeds.
Very early maturing foxtail and hog millets and moth beans are bred in the Central Arid Zone Research Insti-
tute (CAZRI) in Jodhpur, India, as well as rai (Brassica juncea), an oil seed crop related to rapeseed. Tese
are crops for the fringe of the semi-desert, growing with 150 180 mm in two months or less. Te yield
potential cannot be high with such a short vegetative cycle, but they are security crops if the rainy seasons
become too short.
In the AEZ-potentials of the districts, these crops are printed in italics to indicate that something still has to
be done for their introduction and ecological distribution.
Fortunately, the Central Province has very small semi-arid areas with very short growing periods. Here in
the highlands, especially the Kinangop Plateau, the high-altitude crops are more important, for instance a
potatoe from Peru, which is resistant to night frost.
52
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69
SPECIAL CROP PHYSIOLOGICAL ATTRIBUTES
*1 Good heat and leaf rust tolerance
*2 Streak resistance
*3 Resistance to Maize Streak Virus, tolerant to low Nitrogen levels, drought tolerant, good husk cover.
*4 Tolerant to Grey Leaf Spot, resist. to lodging, good husk cover.
*5 Resistant to Folia diseases and pests. Good husk cover hence good storage. Sweet for roasting and ugali. Very popular.
*6 Performs better than wheat in marginal areas and on acidic soils
*7 New release but yields are much lower, more resistance, tolerant to anthracose
*8 All these 5 varieties are resistant to bean root rot and bean stem maggot.
*9 Nodulates well with indigenous soil bacteria (i.e. promiscuous). Adoption success story from Zimbabwe. Currently
introduced in Kenya, but is susceptible to Fusarium wilt at high altitudes, e.g. in Meru.
*10 Very drought tolerant, from Kalahari, big tubers much more important than the beans (see root crops).
*11 Drought tolerant and thrives in poor soils
*12 Both varieties are resistant to ACMD (mosaic virus)
*13 All MM varieties promising for resistance to ACMD
*14 Food security crop, very drought tolerant (from Kalahari)
*15 Nuts give technical wax. J ojoba (Simmondsia sinensis) needs a cold period below 15C mean temperature for at least 2
months to induce fowering. In Eastern Province this can be Iound only at high altitudes oI the leeward side oI Mt. Kenya.
Sources: Kenya National Crop Variety List, Kenya Plant Health Inspectorate Service (KEPHIS) 2003; Kenya Agricultural
Research Institutes Annual Reports; Internet and international crop handbooks
70
TABLE X: BIOCLIMATOLOGICALLY SUITABLE GRASSES AND OTHER FODDER CROPS FOR
THE AGRO- ECOLOGICAL ZONES IN CENTRAL PROVINCE
UPPER HIGHLAND ZONES (norm. above 2300 m a.s.l.)
Grasses:
Kikuyu grass (Pennisetum clandestinum) UH 1,(2)
Rye grass (Lolium perenne), except in wheat areas (dangerous weed) UH 1,2,3,(4)
Cocksfoot (Dactylis glomerata) UH 1,2,3,4
Tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) UH 1,2,3,4
Blue grass (Andropogon gayanus) UH 1,2,3
Cereals:
Oats (Avena sativa) UH 1,(2)
Fodder barley (Hordeum vulgare)/m.mat. var.B 106 UH2
Fodder barley (Hordeum vulgare)/e.mat. var.Amani UH 3,4
Legumes:
Lucerne (Medicago sativa)
cv. Hunter river UH 1,2,3
cv. Trifecta UH 1,2,3
cv. Hunterfeld UH 1,2,3
Kenya white clover (Trifolium semipilosum) cv. Safari UH1,2,3 Safari UH 1,2,3
White clover (Trifolium repens) UH1,2,3
Alsike clover (Trifolium hybridum) UH 1,2,3
Tarwi (Lupinus mutabilis) UH 1,2,3
Subterranean clover (Trifolium subterraneum) UH 3,4
Purple vetch (Vicia benghalensis) UH 1,2,3
Calopo (Calopogonium mucunoides) UH 1,2,3
Glycine (Neonotonia wightii)
cv. Cooper UH 1,2,3
cv. Tinaroo UH 1,2,3
Shrubby stylo (Stylosanthes scabra)
cv. Seca UH 1,2,3
cv. Fitzroy UH 1,2,3
Common stylo (Stylosanthes guianensis)
cv. Alupe Composite UH 1,2,3
cv. Cook UH 1,2,3
Trees and Shrubs:
Calliandra (Calliandra calothyrsus) UH2,3
Leucaena (Leucaena leucocephala)
cv. K8 UH 1,2,3
cv. Peru UH 1,2,3
cv. Cunningham UH 1,2,3
LOWER HIGHLAND ZONES (norm. between 1 800 and 2 300 m a.s.l.)
Grasses:
Kikuyu grass (Pennisetum clandestinum) LH 1,2
Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum) in lower places (up to 2000m)
cv. Clone 13 LH 1,2
cv. Bana LH 1,2,3
Nandi setaria ( Setaria sphacelata) LH 1,2,3
Rhodes grass (Chloris gayana) in lower places up to 2000 m
cv. Elmba Rhodes and Boma Rhodes LH 1,2,(3)
71
Congo grass (Brachiara ruziziensis) LH2,3
Signal grass (Brachiaria decumbens) cv. Basilisk LH1,2,3 Basilisk LH 1,2,3
Urochloa (Urochloa mossambicensis) LH 1,2,3
Paspalum (Paspalum dilatatum) LH 1,2,3
Andropogon (Andropogon gayanus) LH2,3
Rye grass (Lolium perenne), not in wheat areas (weed) LH 1,2,3,(4)
Root crops:
Sweet potato vines (Ipomea batatas) LH 1, 2,3
Fodder beets (Beta vulgaris)/cv. alba DC LH 1,2
Fodder radish (Raphanus sativus) LH 1,2
Yam bean (Pachyrhizus tuberosus), up to 2000m LH 1,2,3
Yam bean/var. with short veg.cycle LH 3,(4)
Legumes:
Common stylo (Stylosanthes guianensis), lower places
cv. Alupe Composite LH 1,2,3
cv. Cook LH 1,2,3
Shrubby stylo (Stylosanthes scabra)
cv. Seca LH 1,2,3
cv. Fitzroy LH 1,2,3
Green leaf desmodium (Desmodium intortum) LH 1,2
Silver leaf desmodium (Desmodium uncinatum) LH 1,2,(3)
Glycine (Neonotonia wightii)
cv. Cooper LH2,3,(4)
cv. Tinaroo LH2,3,(4)
Caribean stylo (Stylosanthes hamata) cv. Verano LH1,2,3 Verano LH 1,2,3
Subterranean clover (Trifolium subterraneum) LH 3,4
Calopo (Calopogonium mucunoides) LH 3
Lucerne (Medicago sativa)
cv. Hunter river LH 1,2
cv. Hunter feld LH 3
cv. Trifecta LH 1,2
Purple vetch (Vicia benghalensis) LH2,3
Alsike clover (Trifolium hybridum) LH 1,2,3
Tropical kudzu (Pueraria phaseoloides) LH2,3,4
Velvet bean (Mucuna pruriens) LH 3,4
Lablab bean (Lablab purpureus)
cv. Rongai LH 3,4
cv. K1002 LH 3,4
J ack bean (Canavalia ensiformis) LH 3,4
Sunhemp (Crotalaria ochroleuca) LH 3,4
Lupins (Lupinus albus) cv. Ultra LH1,2 Ultra LH 1,2
Lupins (Lupinus angustifolia) LH 1,2
Trees and shrubs:
Calliandra (Calliandra calothyrsus) LH2,3
Leucaena (Leucaena leucocephala)
1)
cv. K8 LH 1,2,3
cv. Peru LH 1,2,3
cv. Cunningham LH 1,2,3
Leucaena tricandria LH 1,2,3
Mexican wild fower (Tithonia diversiIolia) LH 2,3
1)
Leucaena leucocephala is attacked by the psyllid, Leucaena tricandria is resistant to it.
72
UPPER MIDLAND ZONES (E of the Rift Valley between 1 300 and 1 800 m)
Grasses:
Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum)
cv. Bana UM 1,2,3,(4)
cv. Bajra UM 1,2,3,(4)
Nandi setaria ( Setaria sphacelata) in higher places UM 1,2,3,4
Rhodes grass (Chloris gayana) in higher places
cv. Pokot Rhodes UM 1,(2)
cv. Mbarara Rhodes UM 1,2,(3)
cv. Masaba Rhodes UM 1,2,(3)
cv. Elmba Rhodes UM 2,3,(4)
cv. Boma Rhodes UM 2,3,(4)
Star grass (Cynodon dactylon) UM 1,2,3
Maaai love grass (Eragrostis superba) UM 3,4
Congo grass (Brachiaria ruziziensis) UM 2,3
Signal Grass (Brachiaria decumens) cv. Basilisk UM 2,3
Giant panicum (Panicum maximum)/var. Makueni UM 3,(4)
Guinea grass (Panicum maximum) UM 1,2,3
Coloured guinea grass (Panicum coloratum) UM 2,3
Buffel grass, African Foxtail (Cenchrus ciliaris) UM 4,(5)
Andropogon (Andropogon gaianus) UM 3,4,5
Rye grass (Lolium perenne) UM 2,3,4,(5)
Columbus grass (Sorghum halepense) UM 1,2, 3,
Enteropogon (Enteropogon macrostachyus) UM 4,5
Plume chloris (Chloris roxburghiana) UM 4,5
Root crops:
Sweet potato vines (Ipomea batatas) UM 1, 2,3,4
Flemingia ( Flemingia vestita or congesta)
2)
UM 1,2,3
Yam bean (Pachyrhizus tuberosus) UM 1,2,3,(4)
Psoralea patens/P.cinerea UM 3,4
Legumes:
Siratro (Macroptilium atropurpureum) UM 2,3,4
Common stylo (Stylosanthes guianensis) UM 1,2
Desmodium species UM 1,2
Glycine (Neonotonia wightii)
cv. Cooper UM 2,3,(4)
cv. Tinaroo UM 2,3,(4)
Butterfy pea (Clitoria ternatea) UM 1,2
Townsville lucerne (Stylosanthes humilis) UM 2,3
Barrel medic (Medicago truncatula) UM 3,4,(5)
Moth bean (Vigna aconitifolia) UM 4,5
Tropical kudzu (Pueraria phaseoloides) UM 1,2,3
Shrubby stylo (Stylosanthes scabra)
cv. Fitzroy UM 2,3,4,(5)
cv. Seca UM 2,3,4,(5)
cv. fruticosa 41219A UM 4
Carribean stylo (Stylosanthes hamata) cv. Verano UM 3,4 Verano UM 3,4
Lablab bean (lablab purpureus)
cv. Rongai UM 3,4
cv. K1002 UM 3,4
Archer axillaris (Macrotyloma axillare) cv. Archer UM 1,2,3
2)
Suitable cover legume between coee rows.
73
Velvet bean (Mucuna pruriens) UM 1,2,3,4
Calopo (Calopogonium mucunoides) UM 3,4
Purple vetch (Vicia benglanesis) UM 3,4
Lupins (Lupinus albus) cv. Ultra UM 1,2,3
Lupins (Lupinus angustifolia) UM 1,2,3
Centro (Centrosema pascuorum)
cv. cavalcade UM 4
cv. virginianum UM 4
Aeschynomene americana cv.Glenn UM 4
Macrotyloma (Macrotyloma africanum) UM 3,4,5
Alysicarpus rugosus cv. CPI 14384 UM 3,4
J ack bean (Canavalia ensiformis) UM 3,4
Sunhemp (Crotalaria ochroleuca) UM 3,4
Desmanthus virgatus cv. CPI 144576 UM 3,4
Trees and shrubs:
Leucaena (Leucaena leucocephala)
1)
, cv. Peru, K 8, Cunningham UM 2,3,4
Leucaena tricandria UM 2,3,4
Saltbush (Atriplex nummularia) UM 4,5,(6)
Gao tree (Acacia albida) UM 4,5,(6)
Mesquite (Prosopis julifora) UM 5,6
Algarrobo (Prosopis chilensis) UM 5,6
Sesbania (Sesbania sesban) UM 1,2,3,4
Mulberry (Morus alba) UM 1,2,3,4
Calliandra (Calliandra calothyrsus) UM 1,2,3
Cassia (Chamaecrista rotundifolia cv.Wynn) UM 3,4
Mexican wild fower (Tithonia diversiIolia) UM 2,3
L0WER MIDLAND ZONES (norm. between 800 and 1300/1500 m a.s.l)
Grasses:
Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum)
cv. Bana LM 1,2,3,(4)
cv. Bajra LM 1,2,3,(4)
Maasai love grass (Eragrostis superba) LM 3,4
Guinea grass (Panicum maximum) LM 2,(3)
Guinea grass (Panicum maximum)/cv. Makueni LM 3,(4)
Buffel grass (Cenchrus ciliaris) LM 3,4,(5)
Plume Chloris (Chloris roxburghiana) cv. horse tail grass LM 3,4,5,6
Columbus grass (Sorghum halepense) LM 2,3,4
Enteropogon (Enteropogon macrostachyus) LM 5,6
Root crops:
Sweet potato vines (Ipomea batatas) LM 2,3,4
Psoralea patens/P.cinerea LM 3,4,(5)
Legumes:
Common stylo (Stylosanthes guianensis)
cv. Alupe Composite LM 1,2
cv. Cook LM 1,2
Townsville stylo (Stylosanthes humilis) LM 2,3
Butterfy pea (Clitoria ternatea) LM 1,2,3,(4)
Siratro (Macroptilium atropurpureum) LM 2,3,(4)
Glycine (Neonotonia wightii) LM 2,3,(4)
cv. Cooper LM 2,3,(4)
cv. Tinaroo LM 2,3,(4)
74
Centro (Centrosema pubescens) LM 2,3,4
Moth bean (Vigna aconitifolia) LM 4,5
Sunhemp (Crotalaria ochroleuca) LM 2,3
Velvet bean (Mucuna pruriens) LM 2,3,4
Lablab (Lablab purpureus)
cv. Rongai LM 2,3,4
cv. K1002 LM 2,3,4
Lupins (Lupinus albus) cv. Ultra LM 2,3
J ack bean (Canavalia ensiformis) LM 2,3,4
Stylo (Stylosanthes guinanensis) cv. seca LM 4,5
Shrubby stylo (Stylosanthes scabra) cv. ftroy LM 4,5
cv. fruticosa 41219A LM 4,5
Desmanthus virgatus cv. CPI 144576 (under experiment) LM 4,5
Centro (Centrosema pascuorum) cv. cavalcade LM 4,5
Centro (Centrosema pascuorum) cv. virginianum LM 4,5
Macrotyloma (Macrotyloma africanum) LM 4,5
Trees and shrubs:
Leucaena (Leucaena leucocephala)
1)
cv. Peru LM 3,4
cv. K8 LM 3,4
cv. Cunningham LM 3,4
Leucaena diversifolia LM 2,3,4
Leucaena tricandria LM 3,4
Saltbush (Atriplex nummularia) LM 4,5,(6)
Gao tree (Acacia albida) LM 4,5,(6)
Mesquite (Prosopis julifora) LM 5,6
Algarrobo (Prosopis chilensis) LM 5,6
Mexican wild fower (Tithonia diversiIolia) LM 1,2,3
Sesbania (Sesbania sesban, improves the soil) LM 1,2,3,4
Cassia (Chamaecrista cassia rotundifolia) cv Wynn LM 4,5
Cassia siamea LM 2,3,4
Gliricidia (Gliricidia sepium, improves the soil) LM 2,3,4
Sources: Kenya National Crop Variety List, Kenya Plant Health Inspectorate Service (KEPHIS) 2003;
Kenya Agricultural Research Institutes Annual Reports.
1)
Leucaena leucocephala is attacked by the psyllid, Leucaena tricandria is resistant to it.
75
2.7 POSSIBILITIES FOR AGROFORESTRY IN CENTRAL PROVINCE
Planting of trees, bushes and shrubs by the farmers is a system, which has six benets: Firewood, timber,
fodder, fruits or nuts, green manure and medicine. In the Agro-Ecological Zones 13 it can replace partly
the forest ecosystem, which was the natural climax vegetation. But in agroforestry, one has to carefully
consider if the accompanying crops require optimal light conditions or shade. Maize, for example, requires
more light, and, therefore shading trees or bushes must be planted some distance from the maize rows. On
the contrary, many vegetables and legumes require less light and can easily be grown in the shade and mixed
with higher plants. Another problem is the competition for water and nutrients or suppression by other
plants. For instance, eucalyptus trees are very demanding in water and nutrients, and their leaves dont give
a good humus layer because they contain inhibitors for soil life and other plants. It is better to plant maca-
damia nuts (in UM2-3), mangoes (in LM34) or other useful agroforestry trees (e.g. Grevillea robusta and
Melia volkensii).
Important are the bushes for green manuring which can be planted as hedges. Best results, which almost
tripled the maize yields in experiments, were obtained with twigs and leaves of the Mexican tithonia (Ti-
thonia diversifolia) incorporated into the soil through biomass transfer technology (tested in Zone UM 2
near Chuka, but it grows in LH 23, UM 3 and LM 13 too)
1
. One major advantage of tithonia is that it
produces large quantities of biomass and tolerates regular pruning, which is a favourable characteristic for
its use for biomass transfer. Compared to many other plants, the biomass contains high levels of nutrients as
shown in Table 1. Tough tithonia is mainly found on the roadside, a lot of labour is required for collecting
it. To reduce the labour, farmers can plant their own tithonia on their farms. Suitable places to grow tithonia
on the farm include external boundaries and along soil erosion control structures where they will also be
useful for controlling soil erosion especially if the land is sloping. It is advisable to plant it as near as possible
to places where crops will be planted in order to reduce labour for carrying the biomass.
Te biomass transfer of leucaena (Leucaena leucocephala and Leucaena tricandria, in LH 13, UM 24,
LM3-4) and calliandra (Calliandra calothyrsus, in LH 23, UM13) also results in an impressive increase
in maize yield
2
. Leucaena tricandria is generally a new species in Kenya, which was recently identied to be
resistant to leucaena psyllid insect pest (Heterophylla cubana) by researchers at Embu. Farmers are familiar
with Leucaena leucocephala that had been brought into the country earlier but was attacked by the psyllid
and is no longer a very useful species in most areas of Kenya. Te leaves of L. tricandria are rich in nutrients
and contain on average 3.7% nitrogen, 3.3% potassium, 0.26% phosphorus, 1.2% calcium and 0.3% mag-
nesium
3
. Te leaves decompose faster than those of calliandra due to its lower tannin content.
TABLE XI: NUTRIENT COMPOSITION OF VARIOUS BIOMASS
Species Nitrogen (%) Phosphorus (%) Potassium (%)
Tithonia diversifolia 3.6 0.3 4.3
Grevillea robusta 1.4 < 0.1 0.6
Maize stover 0.9 0.1 0.4
Bean stover 0.7 0.1 1.4
Source: Mucixoi, D. et.al. (2004: 49)
Calliandra is a small leguminous tree belonging to the family Mimosoideae that originated from Central
America. Prunings harvested from calliandra contain substantial amounts of nutrients in the leaves averag-
ing: 3.5% Nitrogen, 1.6% Potassium, 0.21% Phosphorus, 0.6% Calcium, and 0.24% Magnesium
3
. Be-
cause of its high tannin content, it decomposes slower than either tithonia or leucaena. Its response in terms
of improving crop production has been observed to be slower and usually good response is obtained after
the second season of incorporation.
76
As fodder, there are many trees, bushes and shrubs suited for each Agro-Ecological Zone (see list in the
general part). Here below, we give only a few important examples:
Leucaena (L. leucocephala, tricandria and diversifolia), tithonia and calliandra are typical for the humid and
semi-humid zones as described above. For farmers with livestock, it is possible to feed prunings to animals
and as a result get increased milk. Calliandra and leucaena is highly palatable fodder, rich in crude protein,
which is desirable for high milk production. Research has shown that 3 kg of fresh prunings of calliandra or
leucaena give the same milk response as 1 kg of dairy meal
3
. Because on average farmers feed 2 kg of dairy
meal per day, it has been recommended that 6 kg of fresh biomass of calliandra or leucaena can be used to
substitute for 2 kg of dairy meal. While feeding this amount, a farmer would need about 500 trees to feed
one cow for one year. To improve soil fertility, manure from animals should be recycled to the farms. Tis
is advantageous because the farmer will benet from increased milk yields and improved manure quality.
Sesbania (Sesbania sesban) and mulberry (Morus alba) are useful and grow well in the transitional Zone 4.
For the semi-arid zones, the most suitable trees are the Gao tree (Acacia albida, in UM, LM and IL 4, 5, (6) )
and the saltbush (Atriplex nummularia, in UM, LM and IL 4-6). Te competition with crops for the limited
rain water has to be put into consideration.
Te above mentioned Australian saltbush is very suitable for the productivity restoration of denuded places.
It thrives well even in semi-deserts. Livestock do not usually like eating much of it and hence it grows until
a point in time when another drought is in place and no apparent forage is available, except its leaves. Tis
is the time when livestock have no choice but to browse the leaves of the saltbush for survival.
For further information please contact:
World Agroforestry Centre, P.O. Box 30677, Nairobi. Email: icraf@cgiar.org,
Website: http://www.cgiar.org/icraf .
Saroneem Biopesticides Ltd., P.O.Box 64373, Nairobi. Email: drocco@icipe.org
(Involved in the promotion of the neem tree in agriculture)
1
Mucuiiu, M., Mucixoi, D. et al. 2003: Organic Resources for Soil Fertility Management in Eastern Kenya. In:
Organic Resource Management in Kenya: Perspectives and Guidelines. Edited by Savaia, C.E.N., Oxaii, M.N. &
Wooxii, P.L. - FORMAT, Nairobi, p. 2633.
2
Muiirui, F.M. et al.1994: Report of a Survey on Agroforestry Technologies Used for Fodder Production and Soil
Fertility Improvement in Meru District, Kenya. National Agroforestry Regional Project, Regional Research Centre,
Embu, Kenya.
3
Mucixoi, N., Mucuiiu-Muxa, M., & Mucwi, J. (EDS.) (2004): Soil Fertility Extension Manual (Draft). Nairobi,
90pp.
77
3. DISTRICT INFORMATION AND STATISTICS
3.1 GENERAL REMARKS ON THE LAND USE POTENTIALS AND FERTILISER RECOMMENDA-
TIONS FOR THE DISTRICTS
Te land use potentials given in the following pages are climatically based. Good husbandry, crop protection
and rotation are also essential, especially for combating diseases (for instance fungus in the wet climates)
1)
and insect pests. Te yield expectations given in the AEZ are only valid if these farm management standards
are optimal and the soils are suitable, well manured and fertilised.
It must be remembered that the classication of yield potentials in > 80 % = very good, 6080 % = good,
40-60 % = fair and 20-40 % of the optimum = poor (under eld conditions) is still a rough calculation
or even only an estimate (for these crops for which exact water requirements are not yet available). Mainly
those crop varieties are listed who give the highest quantities of yields compared to a low risk (see Tables 5a,
b,...). A fair potential of a high yielding maize variety can produce more than a good potential of an early
maturing , more safe, but naturally less yielding one.
Te growing seasons and yield potentials are calculated for medium textured soils, if not otherwise stated.
For heavy soils they are roughly 1-2 decades longer (if the agro-humid period is not weak), on light soils
about one decade shorter.
2)
Tere are very good volcanic soils in this region but also very poor ones which
need considerable improvement. Te soil maps and descriptions are derived from the district soil maps of the
Kenya Soil Survey in the Fertiliser Use Recommendation Project of the GTZ. Te symbols are simplied to
make it easier for non-specialists to use them. An introduction is given to the soils of each district group.
Te crop potentials are basically calculated by the computer program MARCROP (named after MARginal
CROPs) of Berthold Hoixirz
3)
. Te annual crops in the potentials are listed in the following order: cereals;
pulses; tubers; oil seed; real cash crops; fruits and vegetables
4)
. Te perennial crops are listed more or less
according to their importance. Te diagrams of the growing periods and the detailed tables of the yield
expectations are prepared only for the marginal and semiarid zones near the fringe of rainfed cultivation.
Tey are included as an appendix after the driest AEZs (to which they belong) to visualise the risks and
chances there. Te calculation could not include cotton because there exists no specic water requirement
prole for the bimodal variety. Te calculation of the growing periods for the subzones and diagrams is done
by the more basically, related program WATBAL (named after WATer BALance) of B. Hoixirz and H.
Kurscu. As a more zonal climatic program, it does not consider the deep rooting of specic crops. Terefore
it is possible that even with a short growing period, a specic crop can yield something due to deep roots
still reaching the deeper moisture. Tis is the reason that the potentials in the text and yield tables are better
than in the small tables below the diagrams of the growing periods. Explanations of both programs see Vol.
II/M Methodology.
Some new crops are recommended, e.g. the early and very early maturing varieties of the cereals foxtail and
proso millet, or the perennial drought tolerant crops bualo gourds and Marama beans
5)
. Te information
available about them is still limited but they may be suitable for drier areas beyond the limits of reliable
maize cultivation. Although these new crops may not t into the present nutrition patterns, customs will
change due the population pressure on food supplies. In the potentials they are printed in italics to indicate
that they are not yet commonly available.
Very little information exists about pasture and forage apart from real rangeland (Piarr and Gw\xxi 1977)
6)
.
Te recommendations given are therefore only a very rough guide, and fodder cultivation depends on many
factors besides climate and soil. Te main problems outside the largescale farming area and Maasailand
are overgrazing and soil erosion, which are destroying the means of livelihood of coming generations. Te
livestock unit (LU) in our estimated stocking rates is 300 kg liveweight (a local bull or nine sheep or eleven
goats). Tis is for smallholders with partly indigenous cattle a more realistic gure nowadays than the
78
Standard Stock Unit (SSU) of 1000 lb (450 kg) introduced by the British. Te LU corresponds to the
Tropical Livestock Unit (TLU) which means a local cow of the Tropics (250 kg, a bull has 300 kg).
Some remarks on the Fertiliser Recommendation Tables: Te increase of yield by the two fertilizing elements
Nitrogenium and Phosphorus is not sustainable. For such a productivity, for instance, every 1,000 kg of
maize needs a replacement
7)
of 25 kg N (partly naturally: H
2
NO
3
synthesis by lightning, N xing nodulation
of rhizobias on beanroots), 4 kg P and 24 kg Potassium (K
2
CO
3
), additionally Calcium, Magnesium, and
Micronutrients like Bor, Copper, Cobalt, Molybdenium and others. If in the tables these elements are
not marked, it means that they were not yet in decit during the years of the experiments of the Fertiliser
Use Recommendation Project of the GTZ and KSS 1987-92. But since this time, continuous cultivation
without sucient fertilizing and manuring may have caused deciencies.
Cassava which is now being extensively grown on the exhausted soils still needs for sustainability of yields
per 10,000 kg
7)
30 kg N, 10 kg P, 70 kg K, 20 kg Ca and 10 kg Mg. Groundnuts are a demanding crop,
1,000 kg of unpeeled nuts need 60-70 kg N, 5-6 kg P, 40-50 kg K, 20-30 kg Ca and 8-17 kg Mg plus
micronutrients.Te yield potentials given are for non-eroded and non-depleted soils. Te yields on eroded
soils go down to a third
8)
, on depleted soils they are even lower.
Higher fertiliser rates as recommended may become uneconomic, at least after some years, because enforced
production by two fertilisers only brings the others more quickly to the yield limiting minimum content in
the soil. Recycling of taken nutrients by any way (even excrements) is the nal answer to achieve sustainable
soil fertility for coming generations.
1)
Phytosanitary aspects could not be considered here, see special handbooks like that from IRACC mentioned below or the Crop
Protection Handbook.
2)
Heavy soil means heavy loam, clay may have less available water for plants.
3)
Details see Hoixirz, B., Suisax\a, Chr. & Giroxca, N.: Crop water relationships and thermal adaptation of kathika beans
(Phaseolus vulgaris) and green grams (Vigna radiata) with special regard to temporal patterns of potential growth in the drylands
of SE-Kenya.- Journal of Arid Environments 48, 2001,
4)
It was impossible to list all vegetables which may be grown in each AEZ. Information about vegetables not mentioned may
be found in Vol. V of the Handbook, or obtained from IRACC: Small Holder Farming. Handbook for Self Employment.-
Marketing Support Services Ltd., Nairobi 1997.
5)
Bualo gourds and Marama beans produce big tubers after some seasons. Bitter substances may be washed out by salty water.
Seeds contain protein and oil but there is little or no owering in the Inner Tropics. Marama beans see Nat. Academy of
Sciences: Tropical Legumes. Washington, D.C. 1979; Bualo gourds see Nat. Academy of Science: Underexploited Plants with
Promising Economic Value. Washington 1975. New information is obtainable in the internet. Seeds may be ordered from the
experimental stations: Very early mat. millet from Central Arid Zone Research Institute (C.A.Z.R.I.) in Jodhpur, India; bualo
gourds from University of Tuscon, USA; Marama beans from Botanical Garden in Windhoek, Namibia.
6)
Piarr, D.J. and Gw\xxi, M.D. (Eds.): Rangeland Management and Ecology in East Africa. London 1977.
7)
Figures by chemical analyzis of the crop, averages printed in international handbooks. Tey are approximates, depending on
varieties too.
8)
Oxona, O.: Farmers indicators for soil erosion mapping and crop yield estimation in central highlands of Kenya. - Trop.
Resource Man. Papers 62, Wageningen University 2005, T. 8 p. 88.
78
79
3.2 NYANDARUA DISTRICT
TABLE OF CONTENTS District Page
3.2.1 Natural Potential 3
Introduction 3
Annual Rainfall Map 5
Table 1: Annual Rainfall 6
Table 2: Temperature 7
Table 3: Potential Evapotranspiration 7
Seasonal Rainfall Maps 8
Table 4: Climate in the Agro-Ecological Zones 10
Agro-Ecological Zones Map 11
Agro-Ecological Zones and Subzones (=Legend to the AEZ Map), with Land Use
Potentials and Water Availability &Requirement Diagrams 12
Soil Map 20
Soil Distribution, Fertility and Major Characteristics with Legend to the Soil Map 21
3.2.2 Population and Land 24
Table 5: Population 24
Table 6: Composition of Households 6: Composition of Households 6: Composition of Households 27
Table 7: Available Land Area per AEZ and Household 30
3.2.3 Agricultural Statistics 31
Development and Trends of Major Cash Crops 31
Table 8: Pyrethrum 31
Distribution of Farming Activities During the Year 32
Tables 9 a-g: Farming Activities in the Agro-Ecological Zones 32
3.2.4 Farm Survey 37
Table 10: Farm Survey Sites Representative of the Dominating
Agro-Ecological Subzones and Units 37
Farm Survey Areas and Fertiliser Recommendations Map 39
Tables 11 a-e: Assets, Land Use, Farming Intensity and Inputs 40
Tables 12 a-e: Cropping Pattern 47
3.2.5 Introduction to the Actual Land Use Systems and to the Potential Intensication
by Better Farm Management in Dominating Agro-Ecological Subzones 54
Tables 13 a-e: Increase of Yields by Better Farm Management 55-62
UH1 vl i of the Sheep-Dairy Zone 54
UH2 vl/l of the Pyrethrum-Wheat Zone 56
UH3 (l) i (vs/s) of the Wheat-Barley Zone SW of Ndaragwa 58
NYANDARUA 1
80
UH3 (l/vl) of the Wheat-Barley Zone SE of Ol Kalou 58
UH3 (l/vl) of the Wheat-Barley Zone of North Kinangop 58
3.2.6 Fertiliser and Manure Recommendations for Important Agro-Ecological Units 63
Map of Important Agro-Ecological Units 65
Tables 14 a-e: Fertiliser and Manure Recommendations: 67-71
UH1 vl^i or two, MV2 and RB3 of the Sheep-Dairy Zone 66
UH2 vl/l or two, UBP1 of the Pyrethrum-Wheat Zone 66
UH2-1 vl i - p, UV1 of the transitional Pyrethrum-Wheat Zone 68
UH3 l/vl or two & (l/vl), LPC of the Wheat-Barley Zone 68
UH3 (l/vl), LP2 of the Wheat-Barley Zone 70
NYANDARUA 2
81
NYANDARUA
3.2.1 NATURAL POTENTIAL
INTRODUCTION
Te Nyandarua District consists mainly of the Kinangop Plateau, Oljororok Plateau and the Ol Kalou
Salient, both situated in the rainshadow of the Nyandarua Range. For this reason the rains decrease rapidly
from east to west, with the annual average diminishing from more than 1400 mm at the foot of the Range to
700 mm in the Malewa Valley. Te district consists of six divisions namely: North Kinangop, South Kinan-
gop, Kipipiri, Oljororok, Ndaragua and Ol kalau. Tere are 26 Locations and 75 Sub-locations.
Te dierence in the 66 % reliability of rainfall
1)
during the agrohumid periods is even greater, from more
than 1000 mm to less than 300 mm in the rst rainy season 600 to 100 mm in the second one, Te reason
is that the rains become more scattered throughout the year and are not concentrated enough to create long
pronounced agro-humid periods. Te number of agrohumid decades (10 day periods), i.e. growing periods
for cultivated plants, decreases from 36 on the southeastern border of the district to less than 5 on the low-
est point in the southwest. Also towards the Laikipia Plateau the rains are decreasing quickly, therefore the
agrohumid periods become not only shorter but in intensity.
On the southeastern side of the Kinangop Plateau there are two main peaks of rainfall, one in April-May
and one in October (see Diagram Sasumua, p. 12), and there is enough rain or mist in most of the other
months. Te humid period lasts normally from March to December/January. Te reliability of these rains is
so high that in four out of ve years the months April - November have sucient moisture for the successful
growing of crops, and even permanent crops like pyrethrum do well.
However, a few kilometers westward the picture is quite dierent (see Diagram North Kinangop, p. 13). Te
additional rains caused by the upward ow of the easterly trade winds cease and the two rainy seasons are
not so pronounced. Te months July/August and January/February can be really dry, because the area lies in
the rain-shadow. Fortunately, in normal years there is so much moisture in the soil that deep rooting crops
get still sucient water, but dry years make pyrethrum cultivation dicult, as the columns in the diagram
indicate.
Towards the western rim of the plateau, the main rainy season becomes so short (March to May), that soil
moisture is not sucient to last beyond June. August can be dry below the wilting point as the middle rains
are very weak. Te second rainy season (or, if the small middle rains are called second rains, the third
rains) which cause slightly sub-humid conditions from November to December are also uncertain and not
heavy enough to ensure successful cultivation. Terefore permanent crops or a second crop are not advisable
here.
Te northern areas, the Ol Kalou Salient, show a remarkable contrast to the other rainfall areas (see Diagram
Ol Kalou, p. 15). Te instability of the air near the equator causes rain especially from July to September,
between the sub-humid periods April - une and November. For annual crops it would be better to have the
high water surplus rst, and for permanent ones the dry season is too dry (below 0.25 PET from Decem-
ber - February).
Te main climatic problem is the low night temperature. Cold air, generated during clear nights on the
moorlands of the Nyandarua Range, ows down to the Kinangop Plateau and Ol Kalou Salient, causing
night frosts which makes maize cultivation too hazardous.
3)
Only the western parts of the plateaus, further
away from the Aberdare Range and where valleys give an outlet to this stream of cold air, have some months
free of frost but there it is often too dry for maize. Absolute minimum temperatures are shown on table
2. Near the ground the temperatures can be up to 3.5C lower than the given gures of the weather huts.
Micro-climate is important, so that mixed areas between LH (no frost) and UH (with frosts) occur. Frost
temperatures last only a few hours before sunrise. For special crops like sensitive vegetables or strawberries,
simple protection with sheets of plastic would be sucient.
Te main soil problem on the Kinangop Plateau and in the Ol Kalou Salient is waterlogging (see Soil Map
3
82
NYANDARUA
and description).
2)
Te best area of the district lies west of the Ol Kalou Salient. It is a hilly upland in the Rift Valley of
suciently high altitude to attract enough rain to meet the requirements of agro-ecological zones UH
1, 2, and LH 2.
1)
The amounts will be surpassed normally in 10 out of 15 years.
2)
More detailed information in RACHILO, J .R.: Soil Conditions in the Kinangop Area. Kenya Soil Survey, Site Eval, rep, no, 34.
Nairobi 1978
3)
See Table 2 Geta Forest Station and former Mkungi Estate. Station Sasuma Dam is not typical because the big water is a temperature
reserve.
4
83
NYANDARUA 5
84
NYANDARUA
TABLE 1: RAINFALL FIGURES FROM SELECTED TYPICAL STATIONS HAVING AT
LEAST 15 YEARS OF RECORD
No. and
altitude
Name of Station
Agro Ecol.
Zone &
Subzone
Kind of
records
Annual
rainfall
mm
Monthly rainfall in mm
J F M A M J J A S O N D
8936015 Nyahururu, UH 3-2 Average 968 33 38 55 117 92 86 131 152 68 42 82 71
2354m K.C.C. (closed) l/vl or two 66% 792 0 2 14 70 55 45 82 95 56 12 14 12
9036025 North Kinangop, UH2 Average 1123 41 61 75 114 167 92 71 93 106 99 106 71
2624m Forest Stn. (closed) vl i or two 66%
1
1010 23 28 60 114 123 64 51 68 82 77 85 47
9036055 Ol Kalou, Railway UH-LH 3 Average 774 29 14 34 88 88 83 91 127 61 52 76 30
2361m Station (closed) (l/vl) 66%
1
685 5 0 13 60 70 51 73 110 45 35 40 5
9036065 Naivasha, Nanga UH 3 Average 838 54 60 88 158 109 42 29 42 48 58 84 67
2432m Gerri (closed) mi (vs/s) i 66%
1
750 29 35 70 124 80 31 18 33 35 42 59 32
9036116 Deighton Downs LH4 Average 783 31 29 68 96 59 56 102 106 42 40 82 73
2128m Airstrip (closed) (vs^s)+(vs) 66%
1
700 6 12 35 76 38 40 80 78 30 18 50 37
9036135 KARI Oljororok. UH2 Average 990 33 31 47 116 111 99 140 158 78 54 68 55
2371 m Res. Station vl/l or two 66%
1
820 8 15 36 60 77 69 130 137 63 36 52 25
9036188 Sasumua Dam UH 1 Average 1620 79 97 155 325 254 86 64 65 57 149 199 90
2475m (closed) p or l/vl^m 66%
1
1450 50 76 93 275 216 75 46 46 43 105 153 57
9036241 Geta UH2 Av. 1199 41 46 71 164 167 108 108 119 121 106 91 57
2590 m Forest Station vl i or two 66%
2
9036264 N. Kinangop UH2 Av. 1099 57 42 57 162 184 100 98 110 102 82 71 34
2478 m Mawingo Scheme vl/l or two 66%
2
9036289 Wanjohi UH 3 Av. 947 34 32 48 117 127 78 95 135 89 77 75 40
2465 m Chiefs Camp (l/vl) 66%
2
9036290 Malewa Farmer LH4 Av. 717 33 31 38 107 97 71 69 86 66 55 48 16
2311 m Co-op Society (l) 66%
2
9036303 Ragia UH 1 Av. 1518 66 78 132 295 258 93 64 50 60 148 177 97
2523 m Forest Station p or l/vl^m 66%
2
9036304 Mirangi-Ini UH 1-2 Av. 1251 17 22 72 136 186 161 152 126 127 88 143 21
2677 m ChieIs OIfce vl i or two 66%
2
9036305 Silibwet UH2 Av. 1151 30 40 25 117 164 149 163 166 109 62 87 39
2585 m Dispensary vl/l or two 66%
2
9036307 Kangui UH2 Av. 977 24 25 33 103 132 101 124 202 87 61 52 33
2584 m Secondary School vl/l or two 66%
2
9036312 Chamata Gate UH2 Av. 1091 31 29 65 145 119 102 108 158 87 67 96 84
2827 m vl/l or two 66%
2
1
These fgures oI rainIall reliability should be exceeded normally in 10 out oI 15 years.
2
Not calculated because not enough years available to GTZ.
6
85
NYANDARUA
TABLE 2: TEMPERATURE DATA
No. and
altitude
Name of
Station
AEZ
1
Kind of
records
Temperature inC
Belt
limits
J F M A M J J A S O N D Yr.
8936068
2348m
Ol jororok
Farmers T.C.
UH-LH
2-3
3200m
UH
2330m
LH
Mean max. 21.5 22.7 22.9 21.6 20.8 20.1 19.6 19.9 21.9 22.0 20.1 21.0 21.2
Mean temp. 15.7 16.2 16.5 16.1 14.5 14.0 13.5 13.6 13.9 15.0 15.1 15.4 14.9
Mean min. 9.9 9.6 10.0 10.5 8.2 7.8 7.4 7.2 5.9 7.9 10.1 9.8 8.7
Abs. min. 4.1 4.3 3.0 4.8 3.7 1.6 1.5 2.2 2.5 2.5 3.6 4.0 3.2
9036135
2371m
KARI.
Ol J ororok.
Agr. Exp. Stn.
UH
2-3
Mean max. 22.5 23.4 23.5 22.2 21.9 20.9 19.5 19.4 21.0 21.5 20.4 20.7 21.4
3050m
UH
2160m
LH
Mean temp. 14.0 14.5 15.1 15.0 14.3 13.3 12.9 12.9 12.9 13.7 13.9 13.7 14.0
Mean min. 5.5 5.5 6.7 7.7 6.7 5.6 6.3 6.3 4.7 5.8 7.4 6.9 6.3
Abs. min. -0.8 -1.3 0.6 1.7 0.0 -0.3 -0.7 0.3 -0.3 -1.1 0.1 -0.6 -1.3
9036241
2590m
Geta Forest
Station
UH 2
Mean max. 19.7 20.4 20.1 18.7 18.0 17.3 16.3 16.5 17.6 18.2 18.1 19.1 18.3
2940m
UH
2030m
Mean temp. 12.2 12.6 12.9 12.7 12.2 11.1 10.7 10.8 11.3 12.2 12.2 12.0 11.9
Mean min. 4.7 4.7 5.7 6.6 6.3 4.8 5.0 5.1 4.9 6.2 6.2 4.8 5.4
Abs. min. -1.1 -1.1 -0.6 1.1 1.0 -1.1 1.1 1.0 2.0 1.1 2.0 -1.1 -1.1
1
AEZ=Agro-ecological zone
TABLE 3: AVERAGE POTENTIAL EVAPOTRANSPIRATION
No. and
altitude
Name of Station
Type
1)
AEZ
Average Potential Evapotranspiration PET in mm
Av. Rainfall
J F M A M J J A S O N D Year
Year
in mm
%
of PET
8936068 Ol jororok
UH -
LH2
144 137 155 126 103 91 93 101 93 128 116 133 1422 ca. 970 ca. 68%
2348m Farmers T. C.
9036135 KARI
UH2 130 128 144 121 115 100 94 100 65 120 107 121 1345 990 74%
2371m Agric. Res. Stn.
1)
Type of equation: calculated by formula of PENMAN & MCCULLOCH with albedo for green grass 0.2; see
MCCULLOCH (1965): Tables for the Rapid Computation of the PENMAN Estimate of Evaporation.- East African
Agricultural & Forestry J ournal, Vol. 30, No.3, p. 286-295.
AEZ=Agro-Ecol. Zone, explainingtableseegeneral part. Zone, explaining table see general part.
7
86
NYANDARUA 8
87
NYANDARUA 9
88
NYANDARUA 10
TABLE 4: CLIMATE IN THE AGRO-ECOLOGICAL ZONES
Agro-
Ecological
Zone
Subzone
Altitude
in m
Ann. mean
temperature
inC
Ann. av.
rainfall
in mm
66% reliability
of rainfall
1)
60% reliability of cereal and
legumes growing period
1
st
rainy s.
in mm
2
nd
rainy s.
in mm
1
st
rainy s.
2)
in days
2
nd
rainy s.
in days
Total
3)
in days
TA I +II
Trop.-Alpine
Moor- and
Heathlands
>3000 <10.0 National Park, limited grazing potential
UH 0
Forest Zone
2740-3000 11.5-10.0 1500-2200 1000-1300 600-700 200 or more 160-165 360-365
UH 1
Sheep and
Dairy Zone
p or l/vl^m
2400-3000 14.6-10.0
1150-1600 750-1000 300-550 200 or more 150-160 350-360
l/vl^m Steep slopes, Forest Reserve or National Park
vl i >1200 >800 >200 200 or more ca. 100 ca. 300
UH2
Pyrethrum-
Wheat Zone
vl i or two
2400-3000 14.6-10.0
1000-1200 600-750 200-300 190 or more 140-150 330-340
l i m/s 950-1100 450-600 200-400 190 or more 120-130 310-320
vl/l or two 950-1100 500-650 180-220 180 or more 110-120 290-300
UH 3
Wheat-Barley
Zone
l/vl or two
2370-2430 14.7-13.7
900-1100 500-650 130-200 170 or more 100-110 270-280
(l/vl) 850-1050 350-550 120-180 170 or more 90-100 260-270
(l) i (vs/s) 800-1100 500-600 150-180 160 or more 70-90 230-250
(l/m) i (s) Small, see Nyeri District
m i (vs/s) i 870-990 350-500 140-200 140-160 70-90 220-250
UH4
Ranching Zone
u r i 2280-2370 14.9-13.5 850-950 300-450
4)
100-150
LH 3
Wheat/
(Maize)-Barley
Zone
(l/vl)
2250-2280 15.2-15.0
800-900 500-550 130-180 150 or more 60-70 210-220
(l/m) i
(vs/s)
850-950 450-600 150-200 150 or more 60-70 210-220
LH4
Cattle-Sheep
Barley Zone
(l)
2190-2280 15.6-15.0
800-900 300-400 90-150 140 or more 60-70 200-210
(vs)^(s)
+(vs)
800-900 350-450 100-150 90 or more 30-40
LH5
Lower High-
land Ranching
Zone
u r i
2070-2190 16.6-15.6
700-750 250-300
5)
50-100
t r 750-850 250-350
5)
50-100
1)
Amounts surpassed normally in 10 of 15 years, falling during the agro-humid period which allows growing of most
cultivated plants. First rainy season plus middle rains.
2)
More if growing cycle of cultivated plants continues into the period of second rainy season.
3)
Only added if rainfall continues at least for survival (>0.25 PET) of certain long term crops, and this time is included.
4)
No cultivation due to frequent night frosts.
5)
Unsuitable distribution for crops.
89
NYANDARUA 11
90
NYANDARUA 12
AGRO-ECOLOGICAL ZONES AND SUBZONES
TA = TROPICAL- ALPINE ZONES
TA I +
II
= Tropical-Alpine Moor and Heathlands
Here National Park
Limited grazing potential
UH = UPPER HIGHLAND ZONES
UH 0 = Forest Zone
UH 1 = Sheep and Dai ry Zone
UH 1
p or
l/vl^m
= Sheep and Dairy Zone
with permanent cropping possibilities, dividable in a long to very long cropping season
followed by a medium one
(see Diagram Kinangop, Sasumua Dam)
Upper places very steep and too important as a catchment area, therefore Forest Reserve or Nat.
Park. Small strip of outside lower places cleared, there:
Good yi el d potenti al (av. 60 80%) of the opti mum)
1
st
rainy season, start norm. mid March: Oats (Apr.-S., ~60%); peas, potatoes
1)
; late mat. rapeseed
(~60%); cabbage, carrots, kohlrabi, celery, radish, endive, rampion, leek, spinach
2
nd
rainy season, start norm. mid Oct.: Oats (Oct.-F.); peas, potatoes
1)
; med. mat. rapeseed;
vegetables
91
NYANDARUA 13
Fai r yi el d potenti al (av. 40- 60% of the opti mum)
1
st
to 2
nd
rainy season: Very late mat. maize
3)
, late mat. triticale
2
nd
rainy season: Medium mat. triticale (b. of S.-m. J an.) m. mat. wheat
Whole year: Pears and plums below 2600 m
Pasture and f orage
About 0.5 ha/LU on secondary pasture of Kikuyu grass; very suitable for grade dairy cows; rye
grass (Lolium perenne)
6)
and Kenya white clover to improve pasture; fodder oats and others (see
Table X)
UH 1
l/vl^m
= Sheep and Dairy Zone with a long to very long cropping season followed by a medium
one
Steep slopes, Forest Reserve or National Park
UH 1
vl i
= Sheep and Dairy Zone with a very long cropping season and intermediate rains
Small, see Nakuru District
UH 2 = Pyret hrum- Wheat Zone
UH 2
vl i
or two
= Pyrethrum-Wheat Zone
with a very long cropping season and intermediate rains, dividable in two variable
cropping seasons and i.r.
(see Diagram N- Kinangop)
92
NYANDARUA
Good yi el d potenti al
1
st
rainy season, start norm. end of March: Triticale, oats; horse beans (below 2700m), peas; late
mat. potatoes
4)
; rapeseed; cabbages, kales, carrots (70-80%), kohlrabi, celery, endive, rampion,
leek, radish, spinach
2
nd
rainy season, start indistinctly around Aug.: Oats, l. mat. wheat
3)
like Kenya Bongo (b. of J une-
e. of Dec.), m. mat. barley; peas, rapeseed, cabbages, kales, carrots, celery, endive, rampion,
leek, radish
Whole year, best pl. time March/Apr.: Pyrethrum (70-80%); rhubarb
Fai r yi el d potenti al
1
st
rainy season: Very late mat. maize like Kenya Kudu (March/Apr.-J an.) on frost-free slopes,
late mat. wheat
3)
2
nd
rainy season: E. mat. wheat; potatoes; kohlrabi, spinach
Whole year: Pears, plums, apples below 2600m
Pasture and f orage
0.6-0.8 ha/LU on secondary pasture of Kikuyu grass and tufted grass
2)
; Merino and Corriedale
sheep best above 2700m, grade dairy cows below that; rye grass (Lolium perenne)
6)
, tall fescue
(Festuca arundinacea) and cocksfoot (Dactylis glomerata) to improve pasture, Kenya white clover
for dairy cows; other fodder crops see Table X
UH 2
l i m/s
= Pyrethrum-Wheat Zone
with a long cropping season, intermediate rains and a medium to short cropping season
Almost the same as UH 2 vl i because mists are bridging the two rainy seasons
UH 2
vl/l
or two
= Pyrethrum-Wheat Zone
with a very long to long or two cropping seasons or two
(see Diagram Nyahururu)
Potentials are mainly for the hilly northern and eastern parts of the district. On the Kinangop
plateau extended water-logging soils and frosts are excluding several crops
14
93
NYANDARUA
Good yi el d potenti al
1
st
rainy season, start norm. end of March: M. mat. wheat varieties (see Table IX)
3)5)
(b. of May-
m. Oct.), late mat. wheat like Kenya Kudu
3)
, triticale, m. mat. barley like Sabini; peas
3)
, horse
beans (below 2700m); rapeseed; potatoes
3)4)
; carrots, cabbages, celery, endive, rampion, leek,
raddish, kohlrabi, kales, spinach
2
nd
rainy season, start indistinctly around J une/J uly: E. mat. wheat like K. Tembo and other var.
(see Table IX); potatoes; carrots, celery, endive, rampion, leek, radish, kales
Whole year: Pyrethrum
Fai r yi el d potenti al
2
nd
rainy season: Peas, rapeseed; cabbages, kohlrabi
Whole year: Pears, plums, apples <2600m (like most other crops not on the water-logging soils
of the Kinangop Plateau)
Poor yi el d potenti al
1
st
rainy season: High alt. maize on frost-free places
Pasture and f orage
Suitable for Merino sheep and grade dairy cows; around 0.8 ha/LU on secondary pasture of Kikuyu
and tufted grass
2)
; perennial rye grass
6)
for improving pasture on suitable soils, other grasses and
fodder crops see Table IX.
UH 2
(l/m) i (s)
= Pyrethrum-Wheat Zone
with a (weak) long to medium cropping season, intermediate rains, and a (weak) short
one
Small, potential see Nyeri District
UH 3 = Wheat - Barl ey Zone
UH 3
l/vl
or two
= Wheat-Barley Zone
with a very long cropping, dividable in two variable cropping seasons
Good yi el d potenti al
1
st
rainy, start norm. end of March: Late mat. wheat (April-Oct./N.), m. mat. wheat (May-O./N.),
m. mat. barley (J une-N.), m. mat. triticale (April-S., 60-70%); seed peas (March- J une/J uly,
~60), potatoes (March-July); rapeseed (April/May-b. oI Sep., 60-70), linseed or fax; green
onions (shallots); cabbages, caulifower, kohlrabi, carrots
Fai r yi el d potenti al
1
st
rainy season: Very late mat. maize (only on microclimati frost-free places, ~40%), oats (April-
b. oI Sep.); m. mat. sunfower like Comet (lower Irost-Iree places); carrots, kales, celery,
endive, rampion, leek, radish
2
nd
rainy season, start norm. around Aug. but no distinct dry period before that: E. mat. barley;
potatoes
4)
and e. mat. vegetables
Whole year: Pyrethrum, apples, pears, plums
Pasture and f orage
More than 1 ha/LU on secondary pasture of mixed grasses; suitable for grade beef cattle, dairy
cows and Merino sheep; barley B 106 for stockfeed; rye grass
6)
, cocksfoot and tall fescue to
improve pasture; subterranean and Kenya white clover for dairy cows
UH 3
(l/vl)
= Wheat-Barley Zone
with a (weak) long to very long cropping season
(see Diagram Ol Kalou)
Good yi el d potenti al
1
st
rainy season, start norm. end of March: M. mat. barley like Sabini, late mat. wheat
3)
(~60%), m.
mat. wheat (May-b. of Oct.); potatoes (~60%, frost free places)
4)
Fai r yi el d potenti al
1
st
rainy season: Oats; peas, broad beans, rapeseed, linseed, fax; cabbage, kales (to 2
nd
rainy
season), carrots, kohlrabi, caulifower, turnips
2
nd
rainy season, start indistinctly around J uly (with a 3
rd
very small peak in Oct.): Potatoes (frost-
free places), carrots, turnips
Whole year: Pyrethrum; New Zealand fax (below 2500m), apples, pears, plums
15
94
NYANDARUA 16
Poor yi el d potenti al
1
st
rainy season: Very late mat. maize
2
nd
rainy season: Cabbage, caulifower, kohlrabi
Whole year: Citrus
Pasture and f orage
Moor and grassland, well suited for Merino sheep, less for grade beef cattle and dairy cows;
around 1.3 ha/LU on natural pasture of mixed grasses; fodder crops and other forage see Table X
UH 3
(l) i
(vs/s)
= Wheat-Barley Zone
with a (weak) long cropping season, intermediate rains, and a (weak) very short to short
one
No reliable good yield potential
Fai r yi el d potenti al
1
st
rainy season, start norm. mid March: E. and m. mat. wheat, m. mat. barley like Sabini;
potatoes
Whole year: Pyrethrum (on deep soils), apples, pears, plums
Pasture and f orage
About 1.5-2 ha/LU on natural pasture, 0.9-1.5 ha/LU on artifcial pasture oI rye grass
6)
; subterranean
or Kenya white clover and barley B 106 for additional forage; well suited for Merino sheep and
grade beef cattle
95
NYANDARUA
UH 3
m i
(vs/s)
= Wheat-Barley Zone
with a medium cropping season, intermediate and a (weak) very short to short one
(see Diagram Naivasha Nanga Gerri)
No reliable good yield potential. Many places waterlogged
Fai r yi el d potenti al
1
st
rainy season, start norm. March: E. and m. mat. wheat, m. mat. barley like Sabini; linseed;
potatoes, peas, cabbages, carrots
Whole year: Pyrethrum (like other crops on deep, free draining soils)
Pasture and f orage
About 1.5-2 ha/LU on natural pasture, 1-1.5 ha/LU on artifcial pasture oI rye grass
6)
or cockfoot;
subterr. or Kenya white clover and barley B 106 for additional forage; Merino sheep, dairy cows
and grade beef cattle do well
UH 4 = Upper Hi ghl and Ranchi ng Zone
UH 4
ur i
= Upper Highland Ranching Zone
with unimodal rainfall and intermediate rains
Not suited for agriculture due to low rainfall and frequent night frosts. Some chances with frost
resistant crops and varieties from Bolivia or Peru
Grassland and forage
Around 2 ha/LU on natural grassland
17
96
NYANDARUA
LH = LOWER HIGHLAND ZONES
LH 3 = Wheat / ( Mai ze) - Barl ey Zone
LH 3
(l/vl)
= Wheat/(Maize)-Barley Zone
with a (weak) long to very long cropping season
7)
(see Diagram Ol Kalou)
Good yi el d potenti al
1
st
rainy season, start norm. e. of March/mid April: Late mat. wheat like Kenya Bongo, m. mat.
barley like Kenya Research; potatoes (e. of March-J uly)
Fai r yi el d potenti al
1
st
rainy season: L. mat. maize of H6...series a.o. var. (see Table IX); peas, rapeseed, linseed or
fax, m. mat. sunfower like Comet; cabbage, kales, carrots, caulifower, beetroot, spinach
2
nd
rainy season, start norm. e. of J une/J uly: E. mat. wheat like Kenya Tembo (b. of J une-b. of N.)
a. o. var. (see Table IX), e. mat. barley like Tumaini; m. mat. beans (lower places); rapeseed;
potatoes; tomatoes, kales, beetroot
Whole year: Black wattle, oranges and other citrus (lower places)
Pasture and f orage
Good for grade beef cattle and Merino sheep. Around 1.5 ha/LU on natural grassland; 0.7-1.2
ha/LU on artifcial pasture oI Nandi Setaria; barley B 106 Ior stockIeed and other Iodder crops
(see Table X)
LH 3
(l/m) i
(vs/s)
= Wheat/(Maize)-Barley Zone
with a (weak) long to medium cropping season, intermediate rains, and a (weak) very
short to short one
Potential almost the same as above but no late mat. wheat, and all planting during 1
st
rainy
season
LH 4 = Cat t l e- Sheep- Barl ey Zone
LH 4
(l)
= Cattle-Sheep-Barley Zone
with a (weak) long cropping season
Fai r yi el d potenti al
1
st
rainy season, start norm. b. of April: Late mat. wheat like Kenya Bongo, m. mat. wheat like
Kenya Research; potatoes; m. mat. sunfower like Kenya White (40-50); rapeseed leaves as
a vegetable
2
nd
rainy season, stary norm. e. of J une (middle rains): E. mat. wheat like Kenya Tembo (~40%)
a.o. var. (see Table IX), e. mat. barley like Tumaini; potatoes, tomatoes, green onions
Pasture and f orage
About 2-3 ha/LU on natural grassland; barley B 106 or subterranean clover as additional forage
for high grade cattle
LH 4
(vs)^(s/m)
+ (vs)
= Cattle-Sheep-Barley Zone
with a (weak) very short cropping season, followed by a (weak) short to medium one
and a (weak) very short cropping season
(See Diagram Ngobit, Deighton Downs)
Fai r yi el d potenti al
1
st
rainy season, start norm. end oI March: Not suIfcient Ior crops
2
nd
rainy season, start norm. mid J une: E. mat. barley like Tumaini; rapeseed as vegetable
Poor yi el d potenti al
1
st
rainy season: Late mat. wheat like Kenya Bongo (to 2
nd
rainy season)
2
nd
rainy season: E. mat. wheat like K. Ngiri a.o. var. (see Table IX); green onions
Pasture and f orage
3-4 ha/LU on natural grassland; subterr. clover as add. forage for high grade cattle
18
97
NYANDARUA
End Notes
1)
Spraying against fungus diseases important
2)
Te bad tufted grass Eleusine jeageri and Pennisetum schmperi are expanding if the areas are overgrazed
3)
Sometimes frost damage, esp. S.-F., local micro-relief important. (Lakes of cold air)
4)
Blight resistant varieties important
5)
Med. mat. varieties t better into the moisture supply than late mat. ones
6)
Not in wheat areas because it is a bad weed
7)
LH 3-UH 3, depending on microclimate, inversion makes bottomlands full of cold air at night
LH 5 = Lower Hi ghl and Ranchi ng Zone
LH 5
tr
= Lower Highland Ranching Zone with trimodal rainfall
Not suitable for rain-fed agriculture
Pasture and f orage
Normally5-6 ha/LU on natural short grass savanna. No proper forage
LH 5
ur i
= Lower Highland Ranching Zone with unimodal rainfall and intermediate rains
Almost the same as above but forage or hay important for bridging longer dry season
19
98
NYANDARUA 20
99
NYANDARUA 21
SOIL DISTRIBUTION, FERTILITY AND MAJOR CHARACTERISTICS
Te physiography of the Nyandarua District is dominated by the Aberdare Range in the east. Te landscape
around it consists of undulating to rolling typography, the volcanic foothills of the range. Te plateaus
mostly occur in the central and southern part of the district. Miscellaneous land types and swampy areas
occur east and southeast of Ol Joro Orok. An uplifted volcanic bloc arises west of this town.
Te higher parts of the mountains contain soils of unit MV 2 which are of moderate to high fertility and
with a humic topsoil of high fertility are found. Soils of the hills are generally variably fertile and many
places have shallow, stony soils or the steep slopes are unsuitable for cultivation (unit HV 1). Te uplands
in the western part of the district are of moderate to high fertility (units RB 3 and UBP 1), in the southern
part they have a thick humic topsoil and are highly fertile (UV 1 and UP 1).
On the plateaus, various soils are found: in the northern part, unit LPC, composed mainly of highly fertile
soils, and in the southern part, dierent types of heavy plateau soils with very poor drainage and moderate
to low fertility (LV 1 and LV 2). In the western part, soil units LP 1 and LPC with soils of high fertility are
found.
LEGEND TO THE SOIL MAP OF NYANDARUA DISTRICTS
1. Explanation of the rst character (physiography)
M Mountains and Major Scarps
H Hills and Minor Scarps
L Plateaus and High-Level Structural Plains
F Footslopes
R Volcanic Footridges
U Uplands, Upper, Middle and Lower Levels
S Swamps
V Minor Valleys
2. Explanation of second character (lithology)
B Basic and Ultra-Basic Igneous Rocks (basalts, nepheline phonolites; older basic tus included)
BP do with inuence of volcanic ash predominant
P Pyroclastic Rocks
V Undierentiated or Various Igneous Rocks
100
NYANDARUA 22
3. Soil description
MV1 Imperfectly drained, shallow to moderately deep, dark greyish brown, very friable, acid
humic to peaty, loam to clay loam, with rock outcrops and ice in the highest parts:
- dystric HISTOSOLS, lithic phase, with LITHOSOLS and Rock Outcrops
MV2 Well drained, very deep, dark reddish brown to dark brown, very friable and smeary, clay
loam to clay, with thick acid humic topsoil; in places shallow to moderately deep and rocky:
- humic ANDOSOLS, partly lithic phase
HV1 Well drained, shallow, dark reddish brown, friable strongly calcareous, bouldery or stony
loam to clay loam; in many places saline:
- LITHOSOLS; with calcic XEROSOLS, lithic, bouldery and saline phase and Rock
Outcrops
LB4 Well drained to moderately well drained, deep, very dark greyish brown, rm, cracking clay
with a (thick) humic topsoil:
- verto-luvic PHAEOZEMS
LB6 Imperfectly drained, deep, black to dark grey, very rm, cracking clay; in places with a
topsoil:
- pellic VERTISOLS and verto-luvic PHAEOZEMS
LP1 Well drained, moderately deep to very deep, dark brown, friable and slightly smeary, clay
loam to clay; with a humic topsoil:
- ando-luvic PHAEOZEMS
LP2 Imperfectly drained, deep, very dark grayish brown, mottled, rm clay, abruptly underlying
a thick topsoil of friable silty clay loam:
- dystric and eutric PLANOSOLS
LP3 Poorly drained, deep, very dark grayish brown to very dark grey, mottled, very rm clay,
abruptly underlying 30-45 cm of silty clay loam to clay loam:
- dystric PLANOSOLS
LP4 Poorly drained, deep, very dark greyish brown to very dark grey, mottled, slightly sodic,
very rm clay, abruptly underlying 25-45 cm of silt loam:
- solodic PLANOSOLS
LPC Complex of:
well drained, deep to very deep,very dark grayish brown to dark brown, friable and slightly
smeary, clay loam; with a humic topsoil:
- ando-luvic PHAEOZEMS
and:
imperfectly drained, deep, very dark greyish brown to black, rm, moderately calcareous,
cracking clay; with a humic topsoil:
- verto-luvic PHAEOZEMS
RB1 Well drained, extremely deep, dark reddish brown to dark brown, friable and slightly
smeary clay, with an acid humic topsoil:
- ando-humic NITISOLS; with humic ANDOSOLS
101
NYANDARUA 23
RB2 Well drained, extremely deep, dusky red to dark reddish brown, friable clay, with an acid
humic topsoil:
- humic NITISOLS
RB3 Well drained, extremely deep, dusky red to dark reddish brown, friable clay; with inclusions
of well drained, moderately deep, dark red to dark reddish brown, friable clay over rock,
pisoferric or petroferric material:
- eutric NITISOLS; with nito-chromic CAMBISOLS and chromoc ACRISOLS and
LUVISOLS, partly lithic, pisoferric or petroferric phase
RB5 Well drained, moderately deep to deep, dark reddish brown, friable to rm clay, with a
humic topsoil:
- chromo-luvic PHAEOZEMS.
FV1 Well drained, deep to very deep, reddish brown, friable clay, with an acid humic topsoil:
- ando-ACRISOLS
UBP1 Well drained, deep to very deep, dark reddish brown to dark red, rm clay; with inclusions
of imperfectly drained, moderately deep, dark grayish brown clay:
- nito-ferric/chromic LUVISOLS; with gleyic LUVISOLS
UP1 Well drained, very deep, dark reddish brown to dark brown, very friable and smeary, silty
clay loam, with a humic topsoil:
- mollic ANDOSOLS
UV1 Well drained, deep to very deep, dark reddish brown to very dark greyish brown, friable and
slightly smeary clay, with a humic topsoil:
- ando-luvic PHAEOZEMS
S1 Poorly drained to very poorly drained, very deep, dark grayish brown to dark olive grey,
rm to very rm, strongly calcareous, strongly saline, strongly sodic clay; in many places
with fragipans at various depths:
- gleyic SOLONCHAKS, sodic phase and partly fragipan phase
VC Complex of:
Well drained to poorly drained, shallow to deep, dark reddish brown to black, rm, silty
clay to clay; in places calcareous and /or cracking; in places rocky and stony:
- GLEYSOLS, FLUVISOLS, CAMBISOLS, VERTISOLS etc.
NOTES for denitions (of underlined words):
1. mollic Nitisols and chromo-luvic Phaeozems: soils are equally important
2. mollic Nitisols, with chromic-luvic Phaeozems: Nitisols are prevalent
3. in places: in < 30% of the area
4. in many places: in 30-50% of the area
5. predominantly: in > 50% of the area
6. deeper subsoil: below 80 cm
102
NYANDARUA 24
3.2.2 POPULATION AND LAND
NYANDARUA DISTRICT
Nyandarua district is the most expansive in Central Province, occupying an area of 3,304 km
2
. Moreover, it
is the least densely populated. According to the Population and Household Census of 1999, the total popu-
lation stood at 479,902 people while the total number of households was 104,401. Population density rose
from 66 persons/km
2
in 1979 to 145 persons/km
2
in 1999. Tis phenomenal population growth rate can
partly be attributed to internal migration from the neighbouring districts. It suces to note that its popula-
tion has doubled in the last two decades resulting to an increased pressure on land use resources.
Nyandaraua district is made up six administrative divisions: Ol Kalou, Ol Joro Orok, Kipipiri, South Kinan-
gop, North Kinangop and Ndaragwa with 26 Locations and 79 Sub-locations and varying population
density patterns (Table 5). Table 6 shows household distribution as well as composition. With cold agro-
ecological zones and other dicult climatic conditions, agricultural productivity and livestock husbandry
practices are restricted (Table 7).
TABLE 5: POPULATION IN NYANDARUA DISTRICT PER DIVISION, LOCATION AND
SUB-LOCATION (Source: Census 1999)
DIVISION / LOCATION /
SUB-LOCATION
Male Female Total Households
Area
in km
2
Density
OL KALOU 48,868 49,938 98,806 21,247 592.2 167
OL KALOU 6,541 6,702 13,243 3,016 101.9 130
Mawingo 2,535 2,714 5,249 1,082 50.5 104
Munyeki 4,006 3,988 7,994 1,934 51.4 156
TUMAINI 4,154 3,990 8,144 1,757 77.7 105
Kanjuiri 2,960 2,796 5,756 1,215 55.6 104
Upper Gilgil 1,194 1,194 2,388 542 22.1 108
KAIMBAGA 6,920 7,275 14,195 3,287 112.1 127
Gichungo 4,268 4,508 8,776 2,135 47.6 184
Kandutura 2,652 2,767 5,419 1,152 64.5 84
RURII 9,841 10,198 20,039 4,329 132.7 151
Rurii 3,946 4,193 8,139 1,736 62.6 130
Matura 3,938 4,125 8,063 1,645 33.9 238
Passenga 1,957 1,880 3,837 948 36.2 106
NGORIKA 5,577 5,763 11,340 2,491 45.7 248
Ngorika 5,577 5,763 11,340 2,491 45.7 248
NDUNDORI 15,835 16,010 31,845 6,367 122.1 261
Matindiri 1,465 1,517 2,982 545 27.1 110
Sabugo 6,717 6,653 13,370 2,790 32.8 408
Ruiru 2,744 2,744 5,488 1,080 24 229
Melangine 4,909 5,066 9,975 1,952 38.2 261
OL JORO OROK 32,311 32,918 65,229 14,844 381.9 171
GATIMU 8,044 8,067 16,111 4,106 73.8 218
Kanguo 1,320 1,296 2,616 576 25.4 103
Gikingi 2,849 2,815 5,664 1,608 9.9 572
Gatimu 3,875 3,956 7,831 1,922 38.5 203
GATHANJ E 12,083 12,209 24,292 5,168 130.9 186
Gathanje 3,374 3,373 6,747 1,401 55.6 121
103
NYANDARUA 25
DIVISION / LOCATION /
SUB-LOCATION
Male Female Total Households
Area
in km
2
Density
Silibwet 5,827 6,032 11,859 2,528 49.8 238
Ngano 2,882 2,804 5,686 1,239 25.5 223
OL JORO OROK 5,008 5,133 10,141 2,447 71.2 142
Oraimutia 1,159 1,151 2,310 530 29.1 79
Nyairoko 825 792 1,617 384 20.2 80
Lesirko 3,024 3,190 6,214 1,533 21.9 284
WERU 7,176 7,509 14,685 3,123 106 139
Weru 2,932 3,110 6,042 1,285 55.5 109
Gatumbiro 1,858 2,007 3,865 836 27.4 141
Kirimangai 2,386 2,392 4,778 1,002 23.1 207
KIPIPIRI 38,162 40,731 78,893 16,527 543.8 145
Kipipiri 8,891 9,463 18,354 3,875 143.5 128
Miharati 4,508 4,848 9,356 1,943 58.3 160
Githioro 4,383 4,615 8,998 1,932 85.2 106
WANJ OHI 8,834 9,310 18,144 3,830 146.7 124
Wanjohi 5,656 5,958 11,614 2,469 66.8 174
Gatondo 1,748 1,792 3,540 729 49.5 72
Rironi 1,430 1,560 2,990 632 30.4 98
MALEWA 5,824 6,236 12,060 2,493 93.1 130
Malewa 2,670 2,939 5,609 1,172 40.5 138
Ndemi 3,154 3,297 6,451 1,321 52.6 123
GETA 9,436 10,096 19,532 4,129 64.7 302
Geta 2,653 2,853 5,506 1,176 20.4 270
Mikeu 2,280 2,477 4,757 1,005 18.5 257
Kiambogo 2,249 2,332 4,581 1,011 15.8 290
Makumbi 2,254 2,434 4,688 937 10 469
LERESHWA 5,177 5,626 10,803 2,200 95.8 113
Lereshwa 2,216 2,463 4,679 986 28.4 165
Kiriko 2,961 3,163 6,124 1,214 67.4 91
SOUTH KINANGOP 41,544 42,829 84,373 18,663 348.1 242
NYAKIO 13,409 14,037 27,446 5,723 109.3 251
Mukeu 2,820 3,102 5,922 1,197 20 296
Karangatha 3,427 3,503 6,930 1,494 12.9 537
Rwanyambo 3,091 3,087 6,178 1,247 13.2 468
Githabai 1,788 1,912 3,700 807 37.7 98
Koinange 2,283 2,433 4,716 978 25.5 185
MAGUMU 13,047 13,394 26,441 6,315 84.6 313
Gitwe 2,547 2,458 5,005 1,202 11.9 421
Karati 3,028 3,058 6,086 1,187 30.6 199
Matura 3,130 3,268 6,398 1,523 22.8 281
Bamboo 4,342 4,610 8,952 2,403 19.3 464
NJ ABINI 15,088 15,398 30,486 6,625 154.2 198
Njabini 3,904 3,948 7,852 1,793 30.8 255
TABLE 5: Continued
104
NYANDARUA
DIVISION / LOCATION /
SUB-LOCATION
Male Female Total Households
Area
in km
2
Density
Tulaga 3,786 3,830 7,616 1,376 70.2 108
Muruaki 3,638 3,822 7,460 1,576 30.2 247
Kiburu 3,760 3,798 7,558 1,880 23 329
NORTH KINANGOP 32,762 34,594 67,356 13,983 475.3 142
N. KINANGOP 15,397 16,082 3,1479 6,657 242.1 130
Mikaro 1,420 1,512 2,932 579 61.2 48
Nandarasi 4,650 4,819 9,469 2,141 45.2 209
Mkungi 3,105 3,153 6,258 1,290 30.6 205
Kitiri 2,277 2,309 4,586 911 63.4 72
Kinja 3,945 4,289 8,234 1,736 41.7 197
ENGINEER 17,365 18,512 35,877 7,326 233.2 154
Murungaru 5,525 6,071 11,596 2,381 72.6 160
Kahuru/Muruaki 7,329 7,840 15,169 2,918 96 158
Gathara 4,511 4,601 9,112 2,027 64.6 141
NDARAGWA 41,405 43,840 85,245 19,137 683.6 125
KAHUTHA 8,694 8,841 17,535 4,064 197.1 89
Kariki 1,674 1,704 3,378 820 47.6 71
Muricho 3,056 2,993 6,049 1,468 45 134
Kianjogu 1,423 1,509 2,932 634 52.1 56
Kiriogo 1,317 1,388 2,705 588 18.9 143
Uruku 1,224 1,247 2,471 554 33.5 74
SHAMATA 10,269 10,746 21,015 4,535 177.7 118
Shamata 2,634 2,889 5,523 1,187 31.6 175
Simbara 1,004 1,071 2,075 450 19.9 104
Pesi 1,481 1,385 2,866 641 50 57
Kirima 2,671 2,777 5,448 1,166 53.3 102
Karandi 2,479 2,624 5,103 1,091 22.9 223
LESHAU 5,673 6,231 11,904 2,636 98.8 120
Karagoini 2,819 3,106 5,925 1,269 48 123
Mbuyu 2,854 3,125 5,979 1,367 50.8 118
KIRIITA 7,730 8,341 16,071 3,731 43.4 370
Shauri 2,591 2,883 5,474 1,152 18.5 296
Mairo-inya 5,139 5,458 10,597 2,579 24.9 426
MATHINGIRA 4,893 5,310 10,203 2,246 80.5 127
Leshau 3,559 3,832 7,391 1,611 61.5 120
Ndivai 1,334 1,478 2,812 635 19 148
KANYAGIA 4,146 4,371 8,517 1,925 86.1 99
Kanyagia 1,387 1,446 2,833 671 18.8 151
Kihara 1,090 1,109 2,199 526 36.3 61
Muruai 1,669 1,816 3,485 728 31 112
TABLE 5: Continued
26
105
NYANDARUA
TABLE 6: COMPOSITION OF HOUSEHOLDS IN NYANDARUA DISTRICT PER DIVISION,
LOCATION AND SUB-LOCATION (Source: Census1999) Census 1999)
DIVISION / LOCATION /
SUB-LOCATION
Total Number of
Households
Farmers Family
Persons per
Household
15 years and
above
Under 15
years
OL KALOU 21,247 2.5 2.1 4.7
OL KALOU 3,016 2.4 2.0 4.4
Mawingo 1,082 2.6 2.2 4.9
Munyeki 1,934 2.2 1.9 4.1
TUMAINI 1,757 2.5 2.1 4.6
Kanjuiri 1,215 2.6 2.2 4.7
Upper Gilgil 542 2.4 2.0 4.4
KAIMBAGA 3,287 2.3 2.0 4.3
Gichungo 2,135 2.2 1.9 4.1
Kandutura 1,152 2.5 2.2 4.7
RURII 4,329 2.5 2.1 4.6
Rurii 1,736 2.5 2.2 4.7
Matura 1,645 2.6 2.3 4.9
Passenga 948 2.2 1.9 4.0
NGORIKA 2,491 2.5 2.1 4.6
Ngorika 2,491 2.5 2.1 4.6
NDUNDORI 6,367 2.7 2.3 5.0
Matindiri 545 3.0 2.5 5.5
Sabugo 2,790 2.6 2.2 4.8
Ruiru 1,080 2.7 2.3 5.1
Melangine 1,952 2.8 2.4 5.1
OL JORO OROK 14,844 2.4 2.0 4.4
GATIMU 4,106 2.1 1.8 3.9
Kanguo 576 2.4 2.1 4.5
Gikingi 1,608 1.9 1.6 3.5
Gatimu 1,922 2.2 1.9 4.1
GATHANJ E 5,168 2.5 2.2 4.7
Gathanje 1,401 2.6 2.2 4.8
Silibwet 2,528 2.5 2.2 4.7
Ngano 1,239 2.5 2.1 4.6
OLJ OROROK 2,447 2.2 1.9 4.1
Oraimutia 530 2.4 2.0 4.4
Nyairoko 384 2.3 1.9 4.2
Lesirko 1,533 2.2 1.9 4.1
WERU 3,123 2.5 2.2 4.7
Weru 1,285 2.5 2.2 4.7
Gatumbiro 836 2.5 2.1 4.6
Kirimangai 1,002 2.6 2.2 4.8
KIPIPIRI 16,527 2.6 2.2 4.8
KIPIPIRI 3,875 2.6 2.2 4.7
Miharati 1,943 2.6 2.2 4.8
27
106
NYANDARUA
DIVISION / LOCATION /
SUB-LOCATION
Total Number of
Households
Farmers Family
Persons per
Household
15 years and
above
Under 15
years
Githioro 1,932 2.5 2.1 4.7
WANJ OHI 3,830 2.6 2.2 4.7
Wanjohi 2,469 2.5 2.2 4.7
Gatondo 729 2.6 2.2 4.9
Rironi 632 2.6 2.2 4.7
MALEWA 2,493 2.6 2.2 4.8
Malewa 1,172 2.6 2.2 4.8
Ndemi 1,321 2.6 2.2 4.9
GETA 4,129 2.6 2.2 4.7
Geta 1,176 2.5 2.2 4.7
Mikeu 1,005 2.6 2.2 4.7
Kiambogo 1,011 2.4 2.1 4.5
Makumbi 937 2.7 2.3 5.0
LERESHWA 2,200 2.6 2.3 4.9
Lereshwa 986 2.6 2.2 4.7
Kiriko 1,214 2.7 2.3 5.0
SOUTH KINANGOP 18,663 2.4 2.1 4.5
NYAKIO 5,723 2.6 2.2 4.8
Mukeu 1,197 2.7 2.3 4.9
Karangatha 1,494 2.5 2.1 4.6
Rwanyambo 1,247 2.7 2.3 5.0
Githabai 807 2.5 2.1 4.6
Koinange 978 2.6 2.2 4.8
MAGUMU 6,315 2.3 1.9 4.2
Gitwe 1,202 2.2 1.9 4.2
Karati 1,187 2.8 2.4 5.1
Matura 1,523 2.3 1.9 4.2
Bamboo 2,403 2.0 1.7 3.7
NJ ABINI 6,625 2.5 2.1 4.6
Njabini 1,793 2.4 2.0 4.4
Tulaga 1,376 3.0 2.5 5.5
Muruaki 1,576 2.6 2.2 4.7
Kiburu 1,880 2.2 1.9 4.0
NORTH KINANGOP 13,983 2.6 2.2 4.8
N. KINANGOP 6,657 2.6 2.2 4.7
Mikaro 579 2.7 2.3 5.1
Nandarasi 2,141 2.4 2.0 4.4
Mkungi 1,290 2.6 2.2 4.9
Kitiri 911 2.7 2.3 5.0
Kinja 1,736 2.6 2.2 4.7
ENGINEER 7,326 2.6 2.3 4.9
Murungaru 2,381 2.6 2.2 4.9
TABLE 6: Continued
28
107
NYANDARUA
DIVISION / LOCATION /
SUB-LOCATION
Total Number of
Households
Farmers Family
Persons per
Household
15 years and
above
Under 15
years
Kahuru/Muruaki 2,918 2.8 2.4 5.2
Gathara 2,027 2.4 2.1 4.5
NDARAGWA 19,137 2.4 2.1 4.5
KAHUTHA 4,064 2.3 2.0 4.3
Kariki 820 2.2 1.9 4.1
Muricho 1,468 2.2 1.9 4.1
Kianjogu 634 2.5 2.1 4.6
Kiriogo 588 2.5 2.1 4.6
Uruku 554 2.4 2.1 4.5
SHAMATA 4,535 2.5 2.1 4.6
Shamata 1,187 2.5 2.1 4.7
Simbara 450 2.5 2.1 4.6
Pesi 641 2.4 2.1 4.5
Kirima 1,166 2.5 2.2 4.7
Karandi 1,091 2.5 2.2 4.7
LESHAU 2,636 2.4 2.1 4.5
Karagoini 1,269 2.5 2.2 4.7
Mbuyu 1,367 2.4 2.0 4.4
KIRIITA 3,731 2.3 2.0 4.3
Shauri 1,152 2.6 2.2 4.8
Mairo-inya 2,579 2.2 1.9 4.1
MATHINGIRA 2,246 2.5 2.1 4.5
Leshau 1,611 2.5 2.1 4.6
Ndivai 635 2.4 2.0 4.4
KANYAGIA 1,925 2.4 2.0 4.4
Kanyagia 671 2.3 1.9 4.2
Kihara 526 2.3 1.9 4.2
Muruai 728 2.6 2.2 4.8
TABLE 6: Continued
29
108
NYANDARUA 30
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109
NYANDARUA 31
3.2.3 AGRICULTURAL STATISTICS:
Development and Trends of Major Cash Crops in Nyandarua District
Te agriculturally potential land in Nyandarua is approximately 201,100 ha. Te farms are a result of post
independence settlement schemes; hence portray uniform size and organization. Besides food crops espe-
cially Irish potatoes, forage and livestock are major economic enterprises. Te main cash crops are wheat,
pyrethrum and cut-owers. Te trend in pyrethrum production has been on the decline due to delayed pay-
ment by Pyrethrum Board of Kenya (PBK), while that of cut-owers has been on upward trend.
TABLE 8: NYANDARUA DISTRICT, PYRETHRUM AREA, PRODUCTION AND
YIELD TRENDS (Source: Ministry of Agriculture DAOs Annual Reports and PBK)
Year
Area
ha
Production tons
(in metric tons of dried owers)
Yields
kg/ha
1980/81 3,764 1,401 372
1981/82 4,736 1,894 400
1982/83 5,694 1,500 263
1983/84 3,750 1,404 374
1984/85 4,013 1,290 321
1985/86 4,230 1,353 320
1986/87 2,800 843 301
1987/88 2,970 1,039 350
1988/89 3,175 1,329 419
1989/90 3,480 1,392 400
1990/91 3,730 1,492 400
1991/92 3,980 1,470 369
1992/93 4,435 2,218 500
1993/94 4,649 2,325 500
1994/95 3,537 1,415 400
1995/96 4,100 2,050 500
1996/97 4,000 1,310 328
1997/98 3,500 1,999 571
1998/99 3,632 2,179 600
1999/00 1,176 366 311
2000/01 3,701 1,405 380
2001/02 3,550 1,415 399
2002/03 3,765 1,499 398
2003/04 3,110 916 294
2004/05 1,120 387 345
110
NYANDARUA 32
DISTRIBUTION OF FARMING ACTIVITIES DURING THE YEAR PER WEEK AND AGRO-ECOLOGI-
CAL ZONES
111
NYANDARUA 33
112
NYANDARUA 34
113
NYANDARUA 35
114
NYANDARUA 36
115
NYANDARUA 37
3.2.4 FARM SURVEY IN NYANDARUA DISTRICT
In Nyandarua district, according to the 2004 FS, three major agroecological zones were surveyed (Table
10). Even though comparatively similar agroecological zones and subzones were covered in the 2004 FS,
the 1978 FS was too general and less informative. For instance, in the 2004 FS, AEZ UH 3 was divided into
three Subzones dened by specic agroclimatic regimes and soil types. In the 1978 FS, mean household
farm sizes were: UH 2 4 (- LH 3): 14.0 ha and UH 2: 9.0 ha. In the 2004 FS, mean household farm sizes
were: UH 1 (5.0 ha), UH 2 (2.8 ha), UH 3 [5.9 ha, 4.7 ha & 7.5 ha for the respective Subzones]. By all
indications, mean household farm sizes have substantially reduced in size by greater proportions. Tis can
easily be attributed to the rapid population growth rates and intra district migration
1)
, especially from
Kiambu Tika, Nakuru and Nyeri districts. In the long run the implications are of this reduced farm sizes
likely to be more serious and impact negatively on food production potential per household as well livestock
production potential capacities.
Smaller mean household farm sizes in the Sheep & Dairy AEZ UH 1 and Pyrethrum Wheat AEZ UH
2 are an indication of clustered population hot spots. Such high density population spots are a function of
three main factors, namely: network accessibility and markets, climate and soils. Tese two AEZ are geo-
graphically strategic and well positioned as transitional points to urban centres in Central Kenya and the Rift
Valley, especially Nyahururu, Nakuru and Nyeri. Equally, mean annual rainfall is high and well distributed
in the year. Temperatures are moderately cool and comfortable. Soils are fertile, deep and well drained. On
the other hand, the vast AEZ UH 3 and its Subzones exhibit large mean farm sizes (5.0 ha/farmer). Basically,
this is a large-scale farming region. For example, the Subzone UH 3 (l) i (vs/s), with mean household farm
size of ca. 6.0 ha, as represented by Kandutura sublocation of Kaimbaga location of Ol Kalau division, is
the dominant wheat growing area (Table 12c). Mechanized farming and ranching are the common land use
practices (see details in Subzone discussions).
In terms of crops and seasonality, a symmetry pattern emerges. Te dominant annual crop in both seasons
for both UH 1 & UH 2 AEZs is Irish potatoes besides pears and plums. An increased diversity of crop po-
tential exists in UH 3 as shown by the mean number of crops grown per year (Tables 11c to 11e), ranging
from 4.4 in Kandutura to 9.2 in Kanyagia location of Ndaragwa division.
TABLE 10: FARM SURVEY SITES IN NYANDARUA DISTRICT
District
No. in
Kenya
Agro-Ecological Unit
Farm Survey Sites
AEZone Subzone Soil Unit
NYANDARUA
111 UH 1-2 v l i
RB 3 &
UBP1
Oljororok Division & Location,
Nyairoko Sub-location
112 UH2-1 vl/ l
UBP1 &
RB 3
Ol Kalou Division & Location,
Ndundori Sub-location
113 UH 3 (l) i (s/vs) RB 1
Ol Kalou Division, Kaimbaga Location,
Kandutura Sub-location
114 UH-LH 3 (l/ v l) LP 2
N. Kinangop Division, Engineer Location,
Kahuru South Sub-location
115 UH 3 (l/ v l) RB 1
Ndaragwa Division, Kanyagia Location,
Kihara South Sub-location
1)
Nyandarua is the largest district in Central Province. It is quite expansive and partly semi-arid along the
Laikipia border.
116
NYANDARUA 38
In all Subzones, mean use of certied seeds at planting is very low: < 25%. No farmer reported using im-
proved seeds in Kahuru South sublocation in Engineer location of North Kinangop division. Te reason
may be danger of frost, then the money for improved maize seeds would be lost. Application of both N and
P fertilizers is not systematic. Farmers indicated greater preference in applying more P to N fertilizers on
their farms in all Subzones (Tables 11a 11e).
Farming for business is a concept that smallholder farmers must pursue in order to achieve their expecta-
tions of higher living standards. Diversifying and integrating farming enterprises and targeting production
for the market are the most dependable ways of survival in smallholder farming in Central Kenya. Ecient
and innovative utilization of available organic resources can greatly improve and sustain production in a
smallholder farming system. Farmers need to be better trained and provided with information on the various
management approaches. Organizations both belonging to the public and private sectors must work more
closely with small-scale farmers, and, to learn from them as clearly many farmers have discovered important
solutions to problems experienced elsewhere. Marketing produce is a major constraint to many small-scale
farmers because they are not well organized and positioned to complete with established enterprises. Access
to credit has to be improved to enable farmers diversify into various income generating enterprises.
117
NYANDARUA 39
118
NYANDARUA
TABLE 11a: ASSETS, LAND USE, FARMING INTENSITY AND INPUTS IN AEZ UH 1 -2
OF NYANDARUA DISTRICT
Subzone: vl i, Soil unit: RB 3 & UBP 1 Survey Area 111 (Nyairoko)
Range
Assets People on farm
Land
ha
Livestock Numbers
Family
Adults
Casual
Labourers
Number of
children
under 14 years
Dairy Cross
Sheep &
Goats
Poultry
Avg.0 5.02 3.6 0.07 5.27 4.27 2.6 2.6 1.73
Avg.1 5.02 4.32 2 9.29 9.85 2.6 3.71 2.6
Up. Qu. 3.55 5 0 8 10 2 2 3
Lo. Qu. 0.75 1 0 0 0 2 0 0
Land Use
Range
Ann. Crops
ha
Perm. Crops
ha
Permanent pasture &
Fodder Crops
ha
Forage
ha
Fallow
ha
Other Use
ha
Avg.0 1.17 0.12 1.70 0.01 0.01 0.28
Avg.1 1.17 0.46 2.83 0.20 - 0.36
Up. Qu. 1.85 0.03 1.3 0 0.2 0.17
Lo. Qu. 0.52 0 0.06 0 0.04 0.13
Farming Diversity & Stocking Intensity
Range
Cropping
Diversity
Crops/year
Stocking Rate
Improved Cattle
% of total
Farm Land
TLU/ha
Permanent pasture & Fodder
Crops
TLU/ha
Dairy Cross
Sheep &
Goats
Dairy Cross
Sheep &
Goats
Avg.0 3.3 1.20 0.06 19.00 2.33 0.03 36.79 81.1
Avg.1 3.3 1.44 1.39 1.34 1.68 1.19 1.56 97.3
Up. Qu. 4 1.55 0 - 4.23 0 - 100
Lo. Qu. 2 1.47 0 - - - - 100
TLU: Tropical Livestock Unit is a KARI derived factor loading for animals stock in the tropics e.g. dairy =1.1,
local breeds=1.0, cross breeds=1.05, sheep=0.11 and goats=0.09.
Inputs Applied
Range
Improved
seed used
% of area
Fertilizer applied as pure nutrient
kg/ha
Manure
applied t/ha
Plant protection
N P
2
O
5
K
2
O
Insecticide
kg/ha
Fungicide
kg/ha
AC AC PC AC PC AC PC AC PC AC PC AC PC
Avg.0 16.4 8.9 - 91.2 - - - 3.8 - - - 2.24 -
Avg.1 30.7 88.6 - 94.3 - - - 8.8 - - - 2.4 6.1
Up. Qu. 28.6 0 0 89.2 - - - 1.6 - - - 2.2 -
Lo. Qu. 0 0 - 72.1 - - - 0 - - - 1.0 -
NOTES:
Avg.0 =average of all sample farms
Avg.1 =average of farms, excluding zero entries
Up. Qu./Lo. Qu. =Upper/Lower Quartile, referstoindividual farms, 50%of all samplecasesliebetweenthese =Upper/Lower Quartile, refers to individual farms, 50% of all sample cases lie between these
AC =Annual crops
PC =Perennial crops
42
119
NYANDARUA 43
TABLE 11b: ASSETS, LAND USE, FARMING INTENSITY AND INPUTS IN AEZ UH 2 - 1 OF
NYANDARUA DISTRICT
Subzone: lv/l, Soil unit: UBP 1 & RB 3 Survey Area 112 (Ndundori)
Range
Assets People on farm
Land
ha
Livestock Numbers
Family
Adults
Casual
Labourers
Number of
children under
14 years
Dairy Zebu
Sheep &
Goats
Poultry
Avg.0 2.79 3.97 0 4.4 0 3.93 0.47 2.57
Avg.1 2.79 3.97 0 5.5 - 3.93 1 2.85
Up. Qu. 3.64 5 0 7.25 0 4.25 1 4
Lo. Qu. 1.55 2.75 0 1 0 3 0 1
Land Use
Range
Ann. Crops
ha
Perm. Crops
ha
Permanent pasture &
Fodder Crops
ha
Fallow
ha
Other Use
ha
Avg.0 1.57 0.10 0.13 0.02 0.90
Avg.1 1.57 0.19 0.13 - 0.90
Up. Qu. 2 0.2 0.2 0.04 1.24
Lo. Qu. 0.8 0 0 - 0.75
Farming Diversity & Stocking Intensity
Range
Cropping
Diversity
Crops/year
Stocking Rate
Improved
Cattle % of
total
Farm Land
TLU/ha
Permanent pasture & Fodder
Crops TLU/ha
Dairy Zebu
Sheep &
Goats
Dairy Zebu
Sheep &
Goats
Avg.0 4.4 1.60 0 0.32 33.39 0 6.73 100
Avg.1 4.4 1.60 0 0.40 33.39 0 8.42 100
Up. Qu. 6 1.53 0 0.40 27.5 0 7.25 100
Lo. Qu. 3 1.95 0 0.13 - - - 100
TLU: Tropical Livestock Unit is a KARI derived factor loading for animals stock in the tropics e.g. dairy =1.1,
local breeds=1.0, cross breeds=1.05, sheep=0.11 and goats=0.09.
Inputs Applied
Range
Improved
seed used
% of area
Fertilizer applied as pure nutrient
kg/ha
Manure
applied
t/ha
Plant protection
N P
2
O
5
K
2
O
Insecticide
kg/ha
Fungicide
kg/ha
AC AC PC AC PC AC PC AC PC AC PC AC PC
Avg.0 20.6 2.5 41 62 - - - 4.0 - - - 0.9 -
Avg.1 38.5 9.2 76 62 - - - 4.2 - - - 1.9 -
Up. Qu. 26.8 3.5 35 60 - - - 3.5 - - - 0.6 5.7
Lo. Qu. 0 0 - 75 - - - - - - - 0 -
NOTES:
Avg.0 =average of all sample farms
Avg.1 =average of farms, excluding zero entries
Up. Qu./Lo. Qu. =Upper/Lower Quartile, referstoindividual farms, 50%of all samplecasesliebetweenthese =Upper/Lower Quartile, refers to individual farms, 50% of all sample cases lie between these
AC =Annual crops
PC =Perennial crops
120
NYANDARUA 44
TABLE 11c: ASSETS, LAND USE, FARMING INTENSITY AND INPUTS IN AEZ UH 3 OF
NYANDARUA DISTRICT
Subzone: (l) i (vs/s), Soil unit: RB 1 Survey Area 113 (Kandatura)
Range
Assets People on farm
Land
ha
Livestock Numbers
Family
Adults
Casual
Labourers
Number of
children under
14 years
Dairy Zebu
Sheep &
Goats
Donkey Poultry
Avg.0 5.90 5.87 2.23 25.23 0.16 0 2.90 3.97 1.06
Avg.1 5.90 6.74 5.75 30.08 1 - 3.21 12.3 1.94
Up. Qu. 8 8 1 32 0 0 4 1 2
Lo. Qu. 1.2 2 0 5 0 0 2 0 0
Land Use
Range
Ann. Crops
ha
Perm. Crops
ha
Pasture & Fodder
ha
Fallow
ha
Other Use
ha
Avg.0 2.07 0.14 2.12 0.02 1.55
Avg.1 2.07 0.14 2.12 0.02 1.55
Up. Qu. 2.4 0.1 2.8 1.1 1.6
Lo. Qu. 0.8 0 0.05 0.27 0.08
Farming Diversity & Stocking Intensity
Range
Cropping
Diversity
Crops/year
Stocking Rate
Improved
Cattle % of
total
Farm Land
TLU/ha
Permanent pasture & Fodder Crops
TLU/ha
Dairy Zebu
Sheep &
Goats
Dairy Zebu
Sheep &
Goats
Avg.0 5.74 1.09 0.38 0.86 3.05 1.05 2.38 76.6
Avg.1 5.74 1.26 0.97 1.02 3.50 2.72 2.84 87.95
Up. Qu. 7 1.1 0.13 0.8 3.14 0.36 2.29 100
Lo. Qu. 4 1.83 0 0.83 44 0 20 75
TLU: Tropical Livestock Unit is a KARI derived factor loading for animals stock in the tropics e.g. dairy =1.1,
local breeds=1.0, cross breeds=1.05, sheep=0.11 and goats=0.09.
Inputs Applied
Range
Improved
seed used
% of area
Fertilizer applied as pure nutrient
kg/ha
Manure
applied
t/ha
Plant protection
N P
2
O
5
K
2
O
Insecticide
kg/ha
Fungicide
kg/ha
AC AC PC AC PC AC PC AC PC AC PC AC PC
Avg.0 15.5 2.1 - 22.7 - - - 2.8 - - - 1.0 -
Avg.1 25.3 6.6 - 24.3 - - - 2.9 - - - 1.3 -
Up. Qu. 23.4 2.1 - 33.3 - - - 2.5 - - - 0.9 -
Lo. Qu. 0 0 - 12.5 - - - 1.3 - - - 0 -
NOTES:
Avg.0 =average of all sample farms
Avg.1 =average of farms, excluding zero entries
Up. Qu./Lo. Qu. =Upper/Lower Quartile, referstoindividual farms, 50%of all samplecasesliebetweenthese =Upper/Lower Quartile, refers to individual farms, 50% of all sample cases lie between these
AC =Annual crops
PC =Perennial crops
121
NYANDARUA 45
TABLE 11d: ASSETS, LAND USE, FARMING INTENSITY AND INPUTS IN AEZ UH - LH 3 OF
NYANDARUA DISTRICT
Subzone: l/vl, Soil unit: LP 2 Survey Area 114 (Kahuru South)
Range
Assets People on farm
Land
ha
Livestock Numbers
Family
Adults
Casual
Labourers
Number of
children under
14 years
Dairy Zebu
Sheep &
Goats
Donkey Rabbits
B/
hives
Poultry
Avg.0 4.68 5.93 0.6 5.8 0.03 0.7 0.17 7.43 2.93 1.33 2.57
Avg.1 4.68 6.14 2.25 8.7 1 7 5 10.14 3.03 3.08 3.35
Up. Qu. 4.62 7.25 1 9.25 0 0 0 12.75 4 2 4
Lo. Qu. 1.4 3.75 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0.75
Land Use
Range
Ann. Crops
ha
Perm. Crops
ha
Permanent pasture &
Fodder Crop
ha
Forage
ha
Fallow
ha
Other Use
ha
Avg.0 1.40 0.06 2.95 0.01 0.01 0.17
Avg.1 1.40 0.08 2.95 0.08 - 0.17
Up. Qu. 1.86 0.1 2.46 0 - 0.2
Lo. Qu. 0.8 0 0.44 0 0.16
Farming Diversity & Stocking Intensity
Range
Cropping
Diversity
Crops/year
Stocking Rate
Improved
Cattle % of
total
Farm Land
TLU/ha
Pasture & Fodder
TLU/ha
Dairy Zebu
Sheep &
Goats
Dairy Zebu
Sheep &
Goats
Avg.0 9.23 1.42 0.42 2.75 2.21 0.27 4.27 89.14
Avg.1 9.23 1.47 1.53 1.14 2.29 0.98 1.77 92.21
Up. Qu. 11.25 1.90 0.53 3.51 3.24 0.31 6 100
Lo. Qu. 6 2.95 0 - 9.43 0 - 86.93
TLU: Tropical Livestock Unit is a KARI derived factor loading for animals stock in the tropics e.g. dairy =1.1, local
breeds=1.0, cross breeds=1.05, sheep=0.11 and goats=0.09.
Inputs Applied
Range
Improved
seed used
% of area
Fertilizer applied as pure nutrient
kg/ha
Manure
applied t/ha
Plant protection
N P
2
O
5
K
2
O
Insecticide
kg/ha
Fungicide
kg/ha
AC AC PC AC PC AC PC AC PC AC PC AC PC
Avg.0 - 0.6 15.0 19.2 - - - 1.7 - - - 0.9 -
Avg.1 - 6.1 - 21.4 - - - 3.3 - - - 0.9 -
Up. Qu. - 0 - 21.5 - - - 0.3 - - - 0.8 -
Lo. Qu. - 0 - 13.3 - - - 0 - - - 0.5 -
NOTES:
Avg.0 =average of all sample farms
Avg.1 =average of farms, excluding zero entries
Up. Qu./Lo. Qu. =Upper/Lower Quartile, referstoindividual farms, 50%of all samplecasesliebetweenthese =Upper/Lower Quartile, refers to individual farms, 50% of all sample cases lie between these
AC =Annual crops
PC =Perennial crops
122
NYANDARUA 46
TABLE 11e: ASSETS, LAND USE, FARMING INTENSITY AND INPUTS IN AEZ UH 3 OF
NYANDARUA DISTRICT
Subzone: l/vl, Soil unit: RB 1 Survey area 115 (Kihara)
Range
Assets People on farm
Land
ha
Livestock Numbers
Family
Adults
Casual
Labourers
Number of
children under
14 years
Dairy Zebu
Sheep &
Goats
Poultry
(Local)
Poultry
(Exotic)
Avg.0 7.46 6.13 0.2 17.13 3.17 3.33 3.13 2.93 2.43
Avg.1 7.46 6.57 6 20.56 23.75 100 3.13 3.38 3.04
Up. Qu. 11.4 7 0 25 0 0 3 5 3
Lo. Qu. 2 2.75 0 7 0 0 2 1 1
Land Use
Range
Ann. Crops
ha
Perm. Crops
ha
Permanent pasture &
Fodder Crops
ha
Fallow
ha
Other Use
ha
Avg.0 2.38 0.08 4.79 - -
Avg.1 2.38 0.29 4.79 - -
Up. Qu. 2.5 0.03 6.48 - 2.39
Lo. Qu. 0.8 0 0.7 - 0.5
Farming Diversity & Stocking Intensity
Range
Cropping
Diversity
Crops/year
Stocking Rate
Improved
Cattle % of
total
Farm Land
TLU/ha
Permanent pasture & Fodder
TLU/ha
Dairy Zebu
Sheep &
Goats
Dairy Zebu
Sheep &
Goats
Avg.0 4.27 0.93 0.21 0.47 1.41 0.04 0.72 91.3
Avg.1 4.27 1.00 0 0.57 1.51 0 0.86 100
Up. Qu. 5 0.68 0 0.44 1.19 0 0.77 100
Lo. Qu. 3 1.51 0 0.7 4.32 0 2 100
TLU: Tropical Livestock Unit is a KARI derived factor loading for animals stock in the tropics e.g. dairy =1.1,
local breeds=1.0, cross breeds=1.05, sheep=0.11 and goats=0.09.
Inputs Applied
Range
Improved
seed used %
of area
Fertilizer applied as pure nutrient
kg/ha
Manure
applied
t/ha
Plant protection
N P
2
O
5
K
2
O
Insecticide
kg/ha
Fungicide
kg/ha
AC AC PC AC PC AC PC AC PC AC PC AC PC
Avg.0 24.5 2.2 - 24.0 - - - 1.2 - - - 0.4 -
Avg.1 27.2 13.5 - 26.6 - - - 1.6 - - - 1.0 8.1
Up. Qu. 28.1 0 - 18.0 - - - 2.1 - - - 0.4 -
Lo. Qu. 14.0 0 - 12.5 - - - 0.2 - - - 0 -
NOTES:
Avg.0 =average of all sample farms
Avg.1 =average of farms, excluding zero entries
Up. Qu./Lo. Qu. =Upper/Lower Quartile, referstoindividual farms, 50%of all samplecasesliebetweenthese =Upper/Lower Quartile, refers to individual farms, 50% of all sample cases lie between these
AC =Annual crops
PC =Perennial crops
123
NYANDARUA 47
TABLE 12a: CROPPING PATTERN IN AEZ UH 1 - 2 OF NYANDARUA DISTRICT
Subzone: vl i, Soil units: RB 3 & UBP 1 Survey Area 111 (Nyairoko)
First Rainy Season
Annual & Bi-annual Crops
Crops
Average
0
ha
Average
1
ha
Upper
Quartile
ha
Lower
Quartile
ha
Total Sample Area of 30 Farms
ha %
Irish potatoes 0.77 0.77 1.3 0.2 23.0 68.35
Maize 0.28 0.39 0.4 0 8.5 25.26
Maize & fodder 0.04 0.43 0 0 1.3 3.86
Peas 0.01 0.13 0 0 0.25 0.74
Pyrethrum 0.02 0.60 0 0 0.6 1.78
Total Sample Area 1.12 33.65 100
Second Rainy Season
Annual & Bi-annual Crops
Crops
Average
0
ha
Average
1
ha
Upper
Quartile
ha
Lower
Quartile
ha
Total Sample Area of 30 Farms
ha %
Irish potatoes 0.67 0.78 1.2 0.2 20.2 87.07
Maize & fodder 0.05
1)
0.70 0 0 1.4 6.03
Peas 0.05 1.60 0 0 1.6 6.90
Total Sample Area 0.77 23.2 100
1)
0.04 ha continuing Irom frst rainy season
Perennial Crops
Crops
Average
0
ha
Average
1
ha
Upper
Quartile
ha
Lower
Quartile
ha
Total Sample Area of 30 Farms
ha %
Pears 0.08 0.40 0 0 2.4 60
Trees 0.05 1.60 0 0 1.6 40
Total Sample Area 0.13 4.0 100
NOTES:
Avg.0 =average of all sample farms
Avg.1 =average of farms, excluding zero entries
Up. Qu./Lo. =Upper/Lower Quartile, refers to individual farms, 50% of all sample cases lie between these
124
NYANDARUA 48
125
NYANDARUA
126
NYANDARUA
TABLE 12b: CROPPING PATTERN IN AEZ UH 2 - 1 OF NYANDARUA BISTRICT
Subzone: vl /l, Soil units: UBP 1 & RB 3 Survey Area 112 (Ndundori)
First Rainy Season
Annual & Bi-annual Crops
Crops
Average
0
ha
Average
1
ha
Upper
Quartile
ha
Lower
Quartile
ha
Total Sample Area of 30 Farms
ha %
Cabbages 0.13 0.39 0.56 0 3.9 8.48
Irish potatoes 0.71 0.82 3 1 21.2 46.09
Kales 0.01 0.3 0 0 0.3 0.65
Maize 0.53 0.62 2 1 16 34.78
Maize & beans 0.03 0.8 0 0 0.8 1.74
Peas 0.04 0.4 0 0 1.2 2.61
Pyrethrum 0.09 0.65 0 0 2.6 5.65
Total Sample Area 1.54 46.0 100
Second Rainy Season
Annual & Bi-annual Crops
Crops
Average
0
ha
Average
1
ha
Upper
Quartile
ha
Lower
Quartile
ha
Total Sample Area of 30 Farms
ha %
Cabbages 0.13 0.43 0.56 0 3.9 14.23
Kales 0.01 0.3 0 0 0.3 1.09
Maize & beans 0.03 0.8 0 0 0.8 2.92
Peas 0.04 0.4 0 0 1.2 4.38
Irish potatoes 0.71 0.82 3 1 21.2 77.37
Total Sample Area 0.92 27.4 100
Perennial Crops
Crops
Average
0
ha
Average
1
ha
Upper
Quartile
ha
Lower
Quartile
ha
Total Sample Area of 30 Farms
ha %
Pears/plums 0.10 0.20 0.2 0 3.13 99.37
Tea 0.00 0.02 0 0 0.02 0.63
Total Sample Area 0.1 3.15 100
NOTES:
Avg.0 =average of all sample farms
Avg.1 =average of farms, excluding zero entries
Up. Qu./Lo. =Upper/Lower Quartile, refers to individual farms, 50% of all sample cases lie between these
127
NYANDARUA 49
TABLE 12c: CROPPING PATTERN IN AEZ UH 3 OF NYANDARUA DISTRICT
Subzone: (l) i (vs/s), Soil unit: RB 1 Survey Area 113 (Kandutura)
First Rainy Season
Annual & Bi-annual Crops
Crops
Average
0
ha
Average
1
ha
Upper
Quartile
ha
Lower
Quartile
ha
Total Sample Area of 30 Farms
ha %
Beans 0.02 0.2 0 0 0.6 0.97
Cabbages 0.01 0.1 0 0 0.3 0.48
Cabbages & kales 0.00 0.04 0 0 0.75 1.21
Carrots 0.02 0.14 0 0 0.35 0.56
Maize 0.13 0.5 0 0 4 6.45
Maize & beans 0.53 0.63 0.8 0.2 16.5 26.61
Maize & peas 0.03 0.33 0 0 1 1.61
Onions 0.01 0.4 0 0 0.4 0.65
Peas 0.06 0.15 0.1 0 4 6.45
Irish potatoes 0.19 0.22 0.2 0.1 5.85 9.44
Irish potatoes & beans 0.00 0.1 0 0 0.1 0.16
Irish potatoes & peas 0.01 0.2 0 0 0.4 0.65
Pyrethrum 0.15 0.27 0.2 0 4.55 7.34
Vegetables 0.01 0.1 0 0 0.2 0.32
Wheat 0.90 3.5 0.2 0 23 37.10
Total Sample Area 2.07 62.0 100
Second Rainy Season
Annual & Bi-annual Crops
Crops
Average
0
ha
Average
1
ha
Upper
Quartile
ha
Lower
Quartile
ha
Total Sample Area of 30 Farms
ha %
Beans 0.02 0.13 0 0 0.5 6.19
Cabbages 0.00 0.05 0 0 0.1 1.24
Cabbages & kales 0.01 0.15 0 0 2.75 34.03
Carrots 0.01 0.12 0 0 0.38 4.70
Peas 0.05 0.15 0.1 0 1.6 19.80
Irish potatoes 0.17 0.21 0.2 0.1 2.35 29.08
Irish potatoes & beans 0.00 0.1 0 0 0.1 1.24
Potatoes & peas 0.01 0.2 0 0 0.2 2.48
Vegetables 0.00 0.1 0 0 0.1 1.24
Total Sample Area 0.27 8.08 100
128
NYANDARUA 52
Perennial Crops
Crops
Average
0
ha
Average
1
ha
Upper
Quartile
ha
Lower
Quartile
ha
Total Sample Area of 30 Farms
ha %
Apples 0.007 0.03 0.00 0 0.20 19.42
Loquats 0.001 0.02 0 0 0.02 1.94
Pears 0.004 0.02 0 0 0.13 12.62
Plums 0.023 0.03 0.03 0 0.68 66.02
Total Sample Area 0.034 1.03 100
NOTES:
Avg.0 =average of all sample farms
Avg.1 =average of farms, excluding zero entries
Up. Qu./Lo. =Upper/Lower Quartile, refers to individual farms, 50% of all sample cases lie between these
TABLE 12d: Continued
129
NYANDARUA 53
TABLE 12e: CROPPING PATTERNS IN AEZ UH 3 OF NYANDARUA DISTRICT
Subzone: (l/vl), Soil unit: RB 1 Survey area 115 (Kihara)
First Rainy Season
Annual & Bi-annual Crops
Crops
Average
0
ha
Average
1
ha
Upper
Quartile
ha
Lower
Quartile
ha
Total Sample Area of 30 Farms
ha %
Broad beans 0.05 0.2 0.03 0 1.4 2.11
Cabbages 0.04 0.24 0 0 1.2 1.81
Garden peas 0.01 0.15 0 0 0.2 0.30
Kales 0.00 0.1 0 0 0.1 0.15
Maize 0.55 0.87 0.8 0 16.5 24.89
Maize & peas 0.01 0.4 0 0 0.4 0.60
Maize, beans & peas 0.3 0.69 0.45 0 9 13.57
Irish potatoes 0.44 0.49 0.6 0.2 13.3 20.06
Irish potatoes & peas 0.01 0.2 0 0 0.2 0.30
Pyrethrum 0.08 0.42 0 0 2.5 3.77
Wheat 0.72 4.32 0 0 21.5 32.43
Total Sample Area 2.21 66.3 100
Second Rainy Season
Annual & Bi-annual Crops
Crops
Average
0
ha
Average
1
ha
Upper
Quartile
ha
Lower
Quartile
ha
Total Sample Area of 30 Farms
ha %
Beans 0.01 0.1 0 0 0.2 1.52
Cabbages 0.03 0.27 0 0 0.8 6.06
Maize 0.01 0.2 0 0 0.2 1.52
Peas 0.00 0.1 0 0 0.1 0.76
Irish potatoes 0.38 0.45 0.45 0.2 11.7 88.64
Irish potatoes & peas 0.01 0.2 0 0 0.2 1.52
Total Sample Area 0.44 13.2 100
Perennial Crops
Crops
Average
0
ha
Average
1
ha
Upper
Quartile
ha
Lower
Quartile
ha
Total Sample Area of 30 Farms
ha %
Citrus 0.043 0.65 0 0 1.3 59.09
Oranges 0.02 0.2 0 0 0.6 27.27
Passion fruits 0.003 0.1 0 0 0.1 4.55
Plums 0.003 0.1 0 0 0.1 4.55
Tree tomatoes 0.003 0.1 0 0 0.1 4.55
Total Sample Area 0.073 2.2 100
NOTES:
Avg.0 =average of all sample farms
Avg.1 =average of farms, excluding zero entries
Up. Qu./Lo. =Upper/Lower Quartile, refers to individual farms, 50% of all sample cases lie between these
130
NYANDARUA 54
3.2.5 INTRODUCTION TO THE ACTUAL LAND USE SYSTEMS AND POTENTIAL
INTENSIFICATION BY BETTER FARM MANAGEMENT
A more detailed description can be found together with calculations of rentability in the Farm Manage-
ment Guidelines of each district and in the KARI Fertilizer Use Manual (Muriuki and Qureshi, 2001). An
additional important reference material is Small Holder Farming Handbook for Self Employment. First
published in 1997 by Information Research and Communication Centre (IRACC) & Marketing Support
Services Ltd, Nairobi.
Te main Agro-ecological Zones in which farm surveys were conducted are: UH 1, UH 2 and UH 3.
Subzone UH 1- 2 vl i of the Upper Higland Sheep - Dairy Zone with tendency to the
Pyrethrum - Wheat Zone
Tis is the Sheep Dairy Zone with a very long cropping season and intermediate rains represented by Nyairoko
sublocation in Ol Joro Orok division of Nyandarua district. Mean annual rainfall amounts between 1200
1400 mm with 66 % probability of 400 800 mm and 600 700 mm during the 1
st
and 2
nd
rains season,
respectively. Te 60 % reliability length of growing cereals and legumes during the 1
st
and 2
nd
rains season
is more than 100 days and 240 250 days, respectively. A combination of soil types prevails namely: eutric
Nitosols (dominant) with nito-chromic Cambisols, chromic Acrisols and Luvisols are in this Subzone.
In this Subzone, mean household farm size is 3.3 ha with an average of 3.6 dairy cows per farmer. Out of
the sample no farmer reported keeping local zebu animals but instead, improved cross breeds were reported:
mean 0.07 cows/farmer (Table 11a). In addition, mean household adult and casual labour force engaged
is 2.6 persons/farmer. Te dependants, i. e. < 14 years population reported a mean of 1.7 children/farmer.
Growing of forage is a common land use: mean acreage of 0.01 ha/farmer, used largely for feeding the dairy
animals.
Tis Subzone does not exhibit a diversity of crops and cropping patterns (Table 12a). Dominant annual
crops in both seasons, in the order of importance are: Irish potatoes, maize, maize & fodder intercropped,
pyrethrum and peas. Te only major permanent crops reported here are: pears and trees. It was not easy to
establish the type of trees farmers were referring to. Application of N is selective and random as evidenced
by a low mean of about 9.0 kg/ha, though farmers seems to prefer applying P fertilizers (mean: 91.2 kg/ha)
on their annual crops. Tis, however, does not translate into better yields (Tables 11a & 13a). Application
of organic farm manures is discouraging, with high input farmers just applying less than 2.0 t/ha! Without
exaggerating, this Subzone contains very high agricultural potentials largely underutilized and unexploited.
To optimize and accelerate the pace of rural development, the government should review and initiate a
proper land tenure policy so as to attract investors. On the other hand, farmers should be encouraged to
adopt sound land use management techniques [e.g. recycling crop residues, minimum tillage, mulching]
coupled with advisory information.
131
NYANDARUA 55
TABLE 13a: INCREASE OF YIELDS BY BETTER FARM MANAGEMENT IN
AGRO- ECOLOGICAL UNITS
1)
OF ZONE UH 1 - 2, vl i. RB 3 & UBP 1
Survey Area 111 (Nyairoko)
Crop, Yields
3)
and Inputs
AEZ: UH 1 - 2 SHEEP DAIRY ZONE
Subzone: v l i (Period in days
2)
: 1
st
rainy season: 100 or >; 2
nd
rainy season: 240250)
Unit with predom. Soil: RB 3 =eutric NITOSOLS; with nito-chromic CAMBISOLS and
chromic ACRISOLS and LUVISOLS, partly lithic, pisoferric or petroferric phase
Reliable rainfall: 1
st
rainy season:
400- 800 mm
2
nd
rainy season: 600 700 mm in
at least 10 out of 15 years
Farmers in Prod. Level Farmers in Prod. Level
Maize local pure
stand
Yields
3)
kg/ha
Fertilizer:
N kg/ha
P
2
O
5
kg/ha
K
2
O kg/ha
Manure t/ha
I=low II=med.
4)
III=high
5)
AEU Pot.
6)
I=low II=med.
4)
III=high
5)
AEU Pot.
6)
- - -
Maize
diff. varieties
Yields
3)
kg/ha
Fertilizer:
N kg/ha
P
2
O
5
kg/ha
K
2
O kg/ha
Manure t/ha
-
-
-
-
3288
0
-
7.5
3375
37
-
15.7
4500
Maize local
intercropped
with peas
Yields
3)
kg/ha
Fertilizer:
N kg/ha
P
2
O
5
kg/ha
K
2
O kg/ha
Manure t/ha
Hybrid maize
intercropped
with peas
Yields
3)
kg/ha
Fertilizer:
N kg/ha
P
2
O
5
kg/ha
K
2
O kg/ha
Manure t/ha
Notes
1)
Source: Small Farm Survey (2004)
2)
Figures of these cereals growing periods should be reached or surpassed in 6 out of 10 years; growing periods may be
considered longer due to immediately following second rainy season by middle rains. Then the second growing period is
shorter than the given fgures
3)
Achieved average yields with average rainfall
4)
Farmers with medium inputs
5)
Farmers with high inputs of fertilizer, insecticides, soil and water conservation
6)
Potential yield according to crop list and local climate of this Agro-Ecological Unit if soils are optimally fertilized, plus
optimal crop management
132
NYANDARUA 56
Subzone UH 2, vl /l of the Upper Highland Pyrethrum - Wheat Zone
Tis is a Pyrethrum Wheat Zone, with a very long to long or two cropping seasons as represented by Ndundori
sublocation and location of Ol Kalau division in Nyandarua district. Mean annual rainfall amount is 950
1100 mm with 66 % probability of 500 600 mm and 150 180 mm during 1
st
and 2
nd
rains season,
respectively. Te 60 % chances of growing length of cereals and legumes more than 180 days and between
110 120 days during 1
st
and 2
nd
rains season, respectively. Te fertile Luvisols soil type dominates this
Subzone.
According to the 1978 FS, mean household farm sizes were 9.0 ha/farmer. Compared to the 2004 FS, mean
household had dropped to a third (ca. mean: 2.72 ha) as shown in Table 11b. While dairy domestication is
common (mean: 4 cows/farmer), poultry rearing and keeping of local zebus were not reported. Large family
sizes exist here as evidenced by means of 4 adults/farmer, 0.5 casual/farmer and 2.6 children/farmer. Use of
certied seeds at planting is very low: ~ 21 %. Very few farmers apply agro- fertilizers as well as manures,
thus yields are quite low (Tables 11b & 13b).
Crops and cropping diversity is low. In order of importance, Irish potatoes, maize and cabbages are domi-
nant in the 1
st
rainy season, while during the 2
nd
rainy season, Irish potatoes and cabbages are grown. Other
annual crops grown, again in the order of importance are: pyrethrum, peas and kales. Pears and plums are
the major permanent crops in this here, though some farmers seem to have started experimenting growing
tea in this Subzone.
133
NYANDARUA 57
TABLE 13b: INCREASE OF YIELDS BY BETTER FARM MANAGEMENT IN
AGRO-ECOLOGICAL UNITS
1)
OF ZONE UH 2 - 1, vl/l, UBP 1 & RB 3
Survey Area 112 (Ndundori)
Crop, Yields
3)
and Inputs
AEZ: UH 2 - 1 WHEAT PYRETHRUM ZONE
Subzone: v l/l (Periods in days
2)
: 1
st
rainy season: 100 or >; 2
nd
rainy season: 170 - 200)
Unit with predom. Soil: UBP 1 =nito-ferric/chromic LUVISOLS; with gleyic LUVISOLS
Reliable rainfall: 1
st
rainy season:
300 500 mm
2
nd
rainy season: 450 650 mm in
at least 10 out 15 years
Maize local pure
stand
Yields
3)
kg/ha
Fertilizer:
N kg/ha
P
2
O
5
kg/ha
K
2
O kg/ha
Manure t/ha
Farmers in Prod. Level Farmers in Prod. Level
I=low II=med.
4)
III=high
5)
AEU Pot.
6)
I=low II=med.
4)
III=high
5)
AEU Pot.
6)
- - -
Maize
diff. varieties
Yields
3)
kg/ha
Fertilizer:
N kg/ha
P
2
O
5
kg/ha
K
2
O kg/ha
Manure t/ha
641
0
60
-
3.5
900
3.5
60
-
5
2121
7.25
-
-
11.8
4000
Maize local
intercropped
with peas
Yields
3)
kg/ha
Fertilizer:
N kg/ha
P
2
O
5
kg/ha
K
2
O kg/ha
Manure t/ha
Hybrid maize
intercropped
with peas
Yields
3)
kg/ha
Fertilizer:
N kg/ha
P
2
O
5
kg/ha
K
2
O kg/ha
Manure t/ha
Notes
1)
Source: Small Farm Survey (2004)
2)
Figures of these cereals growing periods should be reached or surpassed in 6 out of 10 years; growing periods may be
considered longer due to immediately following second rainy season by middle rains. Then the second growing period is
shorter than the given fgures
3)
Achieved average yields with average rainfall
4)
Farmers with medium inputs
5)
Farmers with high inputs of fertilizer, insecticides, soil and water conservation
6)
Potential yield according to crop list and local climate of this Agro-Ecological Unit if soils are optimally fertilized, plus
optimal crop management
134
NYANDARUA 58
Subzones UH 3, (l) i (s/vs) and (l/v l) of the Upper Highland Wheat-Barley Zone
Tese are the Wheat Barley Zones, with a (weak) long cropping season, intermediate rains, and a (weak) short
to very short one, and two other subzones with a (weak) long to very long cropping season as characterized by
Kandutura sublocation (hereafter = S
b
1) of Kaimbaga location in Ol Kalau division and Kahuru South
sub-location (hereafter = S
b
2) of Engineer location in North Kinangop division, and Kihara sub-location
Kanyagia location (hereafter = S
b
3) in Ndaragna division. It is important to understand the overlap and
naming identity of these agro ecological Subzones (see Table 10). In S
b
1, the mean annual rainfall amount
is between 800 1100 mm, with 66 % chances of 500 600 mm and 150 180 mm during the 1
st
and 2
nd
rainy seasons, respectively. Moreover, the 60 % reliability of length of cereals and legumes growing in the 1
st
and 2
nd
rainy seasons is more than 160 days and between 70 90 days, respectively. Te major soil type is a
deep fertile ando-humic Nitosol. Similarly, in the latter Subzones (S
b
2 and S
b
3) mean annual rainfall is 900
1100 mm with 66 % probability of 500 650 mm and 130 200 mm during the 1
st
and 2
nd
rainy seasons,
respectively. Te 60 % reliability of length of growing period for cereals and legumes is more than 170 days
and between 90 110 days, respectively. Te dominant soil types here are dystric to eutric Planosols in S
b
2,
and ando- and verto-luvic Phaeozems in S
b
3.
Covered by three Subzones, this AEZ UH 3portrays a complex of land use systems and cropping patterns.
Mean farm household size were comparable in S
b
1 and S
b
2 (ca. mean: 5.9 and 5.0 ha, respectively), as well
as number of dairy cows per farmer: ~ 6 cows/farmer. Te mean household farm size in S
b
3 is 7.5 ha and
an average of 6 dairy cows/farmer (Tables 11c - 11e). No poultry keeping was reported in S
b
1 while mean
local poultry was 7.4 birds/farmer in S
b
2. In Sb 3, both local and exotic birds are kept with averages of 3.2
and 3.3 per farmer, respectively. However, one farmer of Level II reported rearing only exotic birds: ~ 100.
Donkeys, rabbits and beekeeping, with respective means: 0.03, 0.7 & 0.17 per farmer were reported in
S
b
2. Tis evidence is a pointer to the diverse domestication and complicated land use patterns prevalent in
this AEZ.
By comparing the mean numbers of people per household in S
b
1, S
b
2 and S
b
3 (Tables 11c 11e), family
adults in S
b
1 and S
b
2 are quite similar (2.90 & 2.93) but greater in S
b
3: (3.13). Te pattern for children
< 14 years (dependants) is higher in S
b
2 (2.57) & S
b
3 (2.43) and almost half in S
b
1 (1.06). Use and ap-
plications of agrofertilizers is very low across this AEZ. Ranging from nil in S
b
2 to ~ 25 % in S
b
3 use of
certied seeds at planting as well as application of ~ 1 kg/ha to 2.2 kg/ha of N fertilizers potential maize
yields are suboptimal throughout this Subzone (Tables 13c 13e). Within these Subzones farmers show
greater preference for P fertilizers, at least 19 kg/ha in S
b
2 and a far lesser tendency in applying farm ma-
nures especially in Sb 1 (low input farmers: 1.3 t/ha).
Crops and cropping patterns in both seasons is closely similar throughout the zone. As Table 12c shows, in
S
b
1, during the 1
st
rain season, maize & beans intercrop dominate annual crops followed by wheat, Irish
potatoes, pyrethrum and peas. During the 2
nd
planting season very few crops are grown. In order of impor-
tance, these are: cabbages & kales intercrop, Irish potatoes, peas and beans. Permanent crops are dominated
by intercrops of apples & oranges, pear and plums. In the Subzone S
b
2, during the 1
st
planting season, the
annual crops grown, in order of importance are: Irish potatoes, cabbages, carrots and wheat. During the
2
nd
rains season the crops grown in order of importance are: Irish potatoes, peas, oats, cabbages, carrots and
wheat. Te plums, apples, and loquats in that order dominate the permanent crops (Table 12d). Finally, in
S
b
3, wheat, maize, Irish potatoes intercrop of maize, bean & peas in that order are important annual crops
during season the 1st rains season, while in the 2
nd
rains season Irish potatoes and cabbages are the dominant
crops. Citrus fruits and oranges are dominant over passion fruits, plums and tree tomato (Cyphomandra
batacea) or ribena trees as permanent crops (Table 12e). Tree tomato or ribena were introduced in this
region only 10 years ago. A tree can produce about 20 kg of fruit a year, yields of 15 17 tonnes per hectare
in well established systems. In the local market, a kilogram of the ribena fruits fetches at least USD 0.2. An
acre under ribena in the current spacing regime can net over USD 400 per month compared to USD 40
from an acre of well managed tea crops
1)
.
High crop yields can be achieved in this agroecological zone if farmers invest organic resources back into the
135
NYANDARUA 59
soil. Te most crucial factor is how farmers identify those resources and decide on appropriate approaches
to eectively utilize them. Te farming system produces dierent by-products from various farm enterprises.
Tese by-products are important resources and when well processed and strategically applied result in much
more ecient nutrient cycling and livestock-interactions
2)
.
Notes
1)
Esipisu, I. (2005): Gatanga farmers torn between tea and ribena. In: Horizon, Daily Nation. Tursday,
November 24, 2005, pp. 26 27.
2)
Lekasi, J. K., Tanner, J. C., Kimani, S. K. and Harris, P. J. C. (2001): Managing Manure to Sustain Small-
holder Livelihoods in the East African Highlands. HYDRA Publications. Kenilworth, UK.
136
NYANDARUA
TABLE 13c: INCREASE OF YIELDS BY BETTER FARM MANAGEMENT IN A MAIN
AGRO-ECOLOGICAL UNIT
1)
ZONE OF UH 3, (l) i (s/vs), RB 1

Survey area 113 (Kandutura)
Crop, Yields
3)
and
Inputs
AEZ: UH 3 WHEAT BARLEY ZONE
Subzone: (l) i (s/vs) (Periods in days
2)
: 1
st
rainy season: 160 or >; 2
nd
rainy season: 75 90)
Unit with predom. Soil: RB 1 =ando-humic NITISOLS; with humic ANDOSOLS
Reliable rainfall: 1
st
rainy season:
500 600 mm
2
nd
rainy season: 150 180 mm in
at least 10 out 15 years
Maize local pure
stand
Yields
3)
kg/ha
Fertilizer:
N kg/ha
P
2
O
5
kg/ha
K
2
O kg/ha
Manure t/ha
Farmers in Prod. Level Farmers in Prod. Level
I=low II=med.
4)
III=high
5)
AEU Pot.
6)
I=low II=med.
4)
III=high
5)
AEU Pot.
6)
- - -
Maize
diff. varieties
Yields
3)
kg/ha
Fertilizer:
N kg/ha
P
2
O
5
kg/ha
K
2
O kg/ha
Manure t/ha
Maize local
intercropped
with peas
Yields
3)
kg/ha
Fertilizer:
N kg/ha
P
2
O
5
kg/ha
K
2
O kg/ha
Manure t/ha
Hybrid maize
intercropped
with peas
Yields
3)
kg/ha
Fertilizer:
N kg/ha
P
2
O
5
kg/ha
K
2
O kg/ha
Manure t/ha
-
0
20
-
2
1800
2.5
35
-
3
1854
3.3
40
-
4.3
3500
Notes
1)
Source: Small Farm Survey (2004)
2)
Figures of these cereals growing periods should be reached or surpassed in 6 out of 10 years; growing periods may be
considered longer due to immediately following second rainy season by middle rains. Then the second growing period is
shorter than the given fgures
3)
Achieved average yields with average rainfall
4)
Farmers with medium inputs
5)
Farmers with high inputs of fertilizer, insecticides, soil and water conservation
6)
Potential yield according to crop list and local climate of this Agro-Ecological Unit if soils are optimally fertilized, plus
optimal crop management
60
137
NYANDARUA 61
TABLE 13d: INCREASE OF YIELDS BY BETTER FARM MANAGEMENT IN A MAIN
AGRO-ECOLOGICAL UNIT
1)
OF ZONE UH(-LH) 3, (l /vl), LP 2
Survey area 114 (Kahuru South)
Crop, Yields
3)
and Inputs
AEZ: UH 3 WHEAT BARLEY ZONE with tendency to LH 3
Subzone: (l/v l) (Periods in days
2)
: 1
st
rainy season: 170 or >; 2
nd
rainy season: 100 - 110)
Unit with predom. Soil: LP 2 imperf. drained dystric and eutric PLANOSOLS
Reliable rainfall: 1
st
rainy season:
500 650 mm
2
nd
rainy season: 130 200 mm in at least 10
out of 15 years
Maize local pure
stand
Yields
3)
kg/ha
Fertilizer:
N kg/ha
P
2
O
5
kg/ha
K
2
O kg/ha
Manure t/ha
Farmers in Prod. Level Farmers in Prod. Level
I=low II=med.
4)
III=high
5)
AEU Pot.
6)
I=low II=med.
4)
III=high
5)
AEU Pot.
6)
- - -
Maize
diff. varieties
Yields
3)
kg/ha
Fertilizer:
N kg/ha
P
2
O
5
kg/ha
K
2
O kg/ha
Manure t/ha
-
-
-
-
-
900
0
-
-
-
1110
8.5
-
-
2.8
3000
Maize local
intercropped
with
beans
Yields
3)
kg/ha
Fertilizer:
N kg/ha
P
2
O
5
kg/ha
K
2
O kg/ha
Manure t/ha
Hybrid maize
intercropped
with peas
Yields
3)
kg/ha
Fertilizer:
N kg/ha
P
2
O
5
kg/ha
K
2
O kg/ha
Manure t/ha
Notes
1)
Source: Small Farm Survey (2004)
2)
Figures of these cereals growing periods should be reached or surpassed in 6 out of 10 years; growing periods may be considered longer
due to immediately Iollowing second rainy season by middle rains. Then the second growing period is shorter than the given fgures
3)
Achieved average yields with average rainfall
4)
Farmers with medium inputs
5)
Farmers with high inputs of fertilizer, insecticides, soil and water conservation
6)
Potential yield according to crop list and local climate of this Agro-Ecological Unit if soils are optimally fertilized, plus optimal crop
management
138
NYANDARUA 62
TABLE 13e: INCREASE OF YIELDS BY BETTER FARM MANAGEMENT IN A MAIN
AGRO-ECOLOGICAL UNIT
1)
OF ZONE UH 3, (l/vl), RB 1
Survey area 115 (Kihara)
Crop, Yields
3)
and Inputs
AEZ: UH 3 WHEAT BARLEY ZONE
Subzone: (l/v l) (Periods in days
2)
: 1
st
rainy season: 170 or >; 2
nd
rainy season: 90 100)
Unit with predom. Soil: RB 1 =ando- humic NITOSOLS, with humic ANDOSOLS
Reliable rainfall: 1
st
rainy season:
350 550 mm
2
nd
rainy season: 120- 180 mm in
at least 10 out of 15 years
Maize local pure
stand
Yields
3)
kg/ha
Fertilizer:
N kg/ha
P
2
O
5
kg/ha
K
2
O kg/ha
Manure t/ha
Farmers in Prod. Level Farmers in Prod. Level
I=low II=med.
4)
III=high
5)
AEU Pot.
6)
I=low II=med.
4)
III=high
5)
AEU Pot.
6)
- - -
Maize
diff. varieties
Yields
3)
kg/ha
Fertilizer:
N kg/ha
P
2
O
5
kg/ha
K
2
O kg/ha
Manure t/ha
-
-
-
-
-
4416
0
-
-
5.4
4489
9.7
56
-
6.6
6000
Maize local
intercropped
with peas
Yields
3)
kg/ha
Fertilizer:
N kg/ha
P
2
O
5
kg/ha
K
2
O kg/ha
Manure t/ha
Hybrid maize
intercropped
with peas
Yields
3)
kg/ha
Fertilizer:
N kg/ha
P
2
O
5
kg/ha
K
2
O kg/ha
Manure t/ha
Notes
1)
Source: Small Farm Survey (2004)
2)
Figures of these cereals growing periods should be reached or surpassed in 6 out of 10 years; growing periods may be
considered longer due to immediately following second rainy season by middle rains. Then the second growing period is
shorter than the given fgures
3)
Achieved average yields with average rainfall
4)
Farmers with medium inputs
5)
Farmers with high inputs of fertilizer, insecticides, soil and water conservation
6)
Potential yield according to crop list and local climate of this Agro-Ecological Unit if soils are optimally fertilized, plus
optimal crop management
139
NYANDARUA 63
3.2.6 FERTILISER AND MANURE RECOMMENDATIONS FOR IMPORTANT
AGRO-ECOLOGICAL UNITS
Te Fertiliser Use Recommendation Project of the GTZ (1986 - 92) had four trial sites in the Nyandarua
district, one on Nitisols at Charagita in UH 2, the second at Oljororok Agricultural Research Center in UH
3 on fertile Phaeozems, the third atTulaga which is UH 3 on Planosols with poor drainage and low fertility,
and the fourth at Njabini on fertile Phaeozems in UH 2. For the other zones, subzones and units Muiiuxi
and Quiisui showed which results from other districts could be representative (see map of Fertiliser Rec-
ommendations and Farm Survey Areas) and made curves for fertiliser response
1
.
Recommended rates of an AEU increase into a wetter subzone and decrease into a drier one if the soil unit
extends there (see dark and light grey shades in the small maps). We have tend to lower the rates due to the
low nancial basis of the smallholder farmers. Te optimum can be calculated from the curve formulas in
Muiiuxi & Quiisui Fertiliser Use Manual, KARI, Nairobi 2001. In the long run the minimum amount
must be given to maintain the nutrient content. Some quantities for this can be seen at the end of this chap-
ter and in the chapter 3.1 General Remarks.
Higher recommendations are given in the Smallholder Farming Handbook of the IRACC and MSS, Nai-
robi 1997, but the economic investment and risk is too high for the local farmers here. A rural small credit
system for the inputs could help a lot. Where scientic sources for quantifying the rates are lacking, some
conclusions could be taken from the dierence of inputs and yields between the low and high production
levels of the Farm Survey 2004/05. An empty column Other Nutrients Recommended does not mean that
there is nothing to be applied, but it is because of lack trials data. Signs of deciencies and methods of ame-
liorating these can be seen in Muiiuxi, A.W. and Quiisui, J.N. (2001), Table 1&2, p.22-23.
Finally it must be mentioned again that fertilising alone will increase the yields only for some years. Te
micronutrients not included in the fertiliser become exhausted. Manuring almost up to the full return of the
extracted nutrients is a must in order to have a stable agrobiological system with continuous production
2
.
On the other hand even macronutrients like potassium (K) which is not yet mentioned because there is still
enough in the soil, must be given in the long run because 1 t of maize needs 23 kg K, 1 t of sorghum even
45 kg, 1 t of groundnuts 50 kg. Cassava is less demanding, only 7 kg K per t, but needs additionally 2 kg of
cobalt (Co) and 1 kg of magnesium (Mg)
3
.
1
Muiiuxi, A.W. x Quiisui, J.N.: Fertiliser Use Manual. Nairobi xaii :oo1.
2
Southern China has parts with similar soils to Kenya and stabilized productivity there for hundreds of years by returning to the elds as
much as possible, even the ashes, excrements and urea.
3
Figures in handbooks, from international experience.
140
NYANDARUA 64
141
NYANDARUA 65
142
NYANDARUA 66
143
NYANDARUA
TABLE 14a: FERTILISER AND MANURE RECOMMENDATIONS FOR
AGRO-ECOLOGICAL UNITS UH1 vl i or two, MV2 and RB3 of the SHEEP-
DAIRY ZONE
Crop varieties and
Season
Av. Exp. Yield +
Response-curve
kg/ha
Recommended
Fertiliser Rates
kg/ha
Av. Yield
Increase if
this Rate is
Applied
1)
kg/ha
Av. Yield
Increase if
5 t/ha Manure
are Applied
2)
kg/ha
Other Nutrients
Recommended
First Rainy Season
Hybrid maize
3080+7 N
+4.7P
not economical
now, but in the
long run 20P are
good
* Lime, Mg
Hybrid maize & peas 3070 +9N Lime, Mg
Cabbages
3)
43,620+84 P
+2 NP
50P+50N 9,200 Lime, Mg
There is no typical second rainy season as an own growing period, the late maturing
crops continue from the rst rainy season
Sources: MURIUKI & QURESHI: Fertiliser Use Manual 2001, p. 121; IRACC: conclusions from the Farm Survey
2004
1)
Doublerateswill bringalmost doubleincreaseif climateissuitableandtherearenopestsanddiseases. Double rates will bring almost double increase if climate is suitable and there are no pests and diseases.
2)
MURIUKI & QURESHI recommend an application every 5 years
3)
Phosphatestronglyrecommendedfor sustainabilityof theyields; * Nodataavailable Phosphate strongly recommended for sustainability of the yields; * No data available
TABLE 14b: FERTILISER AND MANURE RECOMMENDATIONS FOR AGRO-ECOL-
OGICAL UNIT UH2 vl/l or two, UBP1 of the PYRETHRUM-WHEAT ZONE
Crop varieties and
Season
Av. Exp. Yield +
Response-curve
kg/ha
Recommended
Fertiliser Rates
kg/ha
Av. Yield
Increase if
this Rate is
Applied
1)
kg/ha
Av. Yield
Increase if
5 t/ha Manure
are Applied
2)
kg/ha
Other Nutrients
Recommended
First Rainy Season
Hybrid maize
Almost similar to
UH 1 vl i
Hybrid maize & peas
Cabbages
43,620+84 P
+2 NP
50P+50N 9,200
There is no typical second rainy season as an own growing period, the
late maturing crops continue from the rst rainy season
Semi-perennial crops
Pyrethrum 300
1 teaspoon of DSP
per planting hole
4)
ca. 600-700
Sources: MURIUKI & QURESHI: Fertiliser Use Manual 2001, p. 121; IRACC: Smallholder Farming Handbook for
Self Employment, Nairobi 1997, p. 183; conclusions from the Farm Survey 2004
1)
Doublerateswill bringalmost doubleincreaseif climateissuitableandtherearenopestsanddiseases. Double rates will bring almost double increase if climate is suitable and there are no pests and diseases.
2)
MURIUKI & QURESHI recommend an application every 5 years
3)
Phosphatestronglyrecommendedfor sustainabilityof theyields Phosphate strongly recommended for sustainability of the yields
4)
After 2months1kgof C.A.N. orA.S.N. per 80mof row(seeIRACC, p. 183) After 2 months 1kg of C.A.N. or A.S.N. per 80m of row (see IRACC, p. 183)
67
144
NYANDARUA 68
145
NYANDARUA
TABLE 14e: FERTILISER AND MANURE RECOMMENDATIONS FOR AGRO-
ECOLOGICAL UNIT UH3 (l/vl), LP2 of the WHEAT-BARLEY ZONE
Crop varieties and
Season
Av. Exp. Yield +
Response-curve
kg/ha
Recommended
Fertiliser Rates
kg/ha
Av. Yield
Increase if
this Rate is
Applied
1)
kg/ha
Av. Yield
Increase if
5 t/ha Manure
are Applied
kg/ha
Other Nutrients
Recommended
First Rainy Season
Hybrid maize 3865
2)
* *
Hybr. maize & peas 2814 +0.14 NP not economical - * *
Peas 1630 * *
Cabbages
10234 +
831 P - 6.46 P
2
50 P 25400 * *
Potatoes 5090 +48 P 100 P 4800 * *
There is no typical second rainy season as an own growing period, the
late maturing crops continue from the rst rainy season
E. mat. varieties of peas, cabbages and potatoes (on frost-free places) can be planted 2
nd
time in middle rains
Sources: MURIUKI & QURESHI: Fertiliser Use Manual 2001, p. 121; IRACC: conclusions from the Farm Survey
2004
1)
Doublerateswill bringalmost doubleincreaseif climateissuitableandtherearenopestsanddiseases. Double rates will bring almost double increase if climate is suitable and there are no pests and diseases.
2)
Exp. yieldsnear Tulagaonwell drainedunexhaustedsoils, transitional to Exp. yields near Tulaga on well drained unexhausted soils, transitional to LH 3; * No data available
TABLE 14c: FERTILISER AND MANURE RECOMMENDATIONS FOR AGRO-
ECOLOGICAL UNIT UH 2-1 vl i - p, UV1 of the TRANSITIONAL
PYRETHRUM- WHEAT ZONE
Crop varieties and
Season
(not suitable for
maize)
1)
Av. Exp. Yield +
Response-curve
kg/ha
Recommended
Fertiliser Rates
kg/ha
Av. Yield
Increase if
this Rate is
Applied
kg/ha
Av. Yield
Increase if
5 t/ha Manure
are Applied
kg/ha
Other Nutrients
Recommended
First Rainy Season
Peas
830 +13.7 N +
74 P - 0.43 P
2
50 N +25P 2260
*
bur
recommended
every year
except for
carrots
C.A.N. is
better than
ammonium-N
fertilisers in
this area of high
rainfall
M. mat. cabbages
23245 +305 N +
1.66 N
2
+
383 P - 1.57 NP
50 N +20 P 17200
Potatoes
14000 +86.6 N +
327 P - 1.97 P
2
50 N +20 P 10100
Carrots
2813 +125 N +
499 P
50 N +25P 18700
There is enough moisture almost the whole year, these crops may be planted 2 - 3 times
Semi-perennial crops
Pyrethrum 300
1 teaspoon of DSP
per planting hole
2)
ca. 600-700
Sources: MURIUKI & QURESHI: Fertiliser Use Manual 2001, p. 121; IRACC: Smallholder Farming Handbook for
Self Employment, Nairobi 1997, p. 183; conclusions from the Farm Survey 2004
1)
For maizeit istoocoldhere, fertilisingwouldbeuneconomical. For maize it is too cold here, fertilising would be uneconomical.
2)
After 2 months 1kg of C.A.N. or A.S.N. per 80m of row (see IRACC, p. 183); * No data available
69
146
NYANDARUA 70
147
NYANDARUA
TABLE 14d: FERTILISER AND MANURE RECOMMENDATIONS FOR AGRO-ECOL-
OGICAL UNITS UH3 l/vl or two & (l/vl), LPC of the WHEAT-BARLEY ZONE
Crop varieties and
Season
Av. Exp. Yield +
Response-curve
kg/ha
Recommended
Fertiliser Rates
kg/ha
Av. Yield
Increase if
this Rate is
Applied
1)
kg/ha
Av. Yield
Increase if
5 t/ha Manure
are Applied
kg/ha
Other Nutrients
Recommended
First Rainy Season
Hybrid maize 6900 in l/vl
2)
not economical
*
3)
P
3)
Hybr. maize & peas 6550 in l/vl
2)
*
3)
P
3)
Peas
715 +
2.6 N - 0.03 N
2
*
3)
P
3)
Cabbages 62400
2)
*
3)
P
3)
Potatoes 27200
2)
*
3)
P
3)
There is no typical second rainy season as an own growing period, the
late maturing crops continue from the rst rainy season
E. mat. varieties of peas, cabbages and potatoes (on frost-free places) can be planted 2
nd
time in middle rains
Sources: MURIUKI & QURESHI: Fertiliser Use Manual 2001, p. 121; IRACC: conclusions from the Farm Survey
2004
1)
Doublerateswill bringalmost doubleincreaseif climateissuitableandtherearenopestsanddiseases. Double rates will bring almost double increase if climate is suitable and there are no pests and diseases.
2)
Exp. yieldnear Oljororok, transitional placeto Exp. yield near Oljororok, transitional place to LH 3, very good soils.
3)
Farmers felds are partly exhausted, P and manure are most necessary. Farmers felds are partly exhausted, P and manure are most necessary.
* No data available
71
148 148
149
KIAMBU & THIKA
3.3 KIAMBU AND THIKA DISTRICTS GROUP
TABLE OF CONTENTS District Page
3.3.1 Natural Potential 3
Introduction 3
Annual Rainfall Map 4
Table 1: Annual Rainfall 5
Seasonal Rainfall Maps 7
Table 2: Temperature 9
Table 3: Potential Evapotranspiration 9
Table 4: Climate in the Agro-Ecological Zonesand Subzones 10
Agro-Ecological Zones Map 11
Agro-Ecological Zones and Subzones (=Legend to the AEZ Map), with Land Use
Potentials and Water Availability &Requirement Diagrams 12
Soil Map 20
Soil Distribution, Fertility and Major Characteristics with Legend to the Soil Map 21
3.3.2 Population and Land 24
Kiambu District
Table 5: Population in Kiambu District 24
Table 6: Composition of Households in Kiambu District 6: Composition of Households in Kiambu District 6: Composition of Households in Kiambu District 28
Table 7: Available Land Area in Kiambu District per AEZ and Household 32
Tika District
Table 8 Population in Tika District 33
Table 9: Composition of Households in Tika District 36
Table 10: Available Land Area in Tika District per AEZ and Household 39
3.3.3 Agricultural Statistics 40
Development and Trends of Major Cash Crops in Kiambu District 40
Table 11: Coee 40
Table 12: Tea 41
Table 13: Pyrethrum 41
Development and Trends of Major Cash Crops in Tika District 42
Table 14: Coee 42
Table 15: Tea 43
Distribution of Farming Activities During the Year 44
Tables 16 a-s: Farming Activities in the Agro-Ecological Zones 44
3.3.4 Farm Survey 54
Table 17: Farm Survey Sites Representative of the Dominating Agro-Ecological
Subzones and Units 54
Farm Survey Areas and Fertiliser Recommendations Map 55
1
150
KIAMBU & THIKA
Tables 18 a-g: Assets, Land Use, Farming Intensity and Inputs 56
Tables 19 a-g: Cropping Pattern 63
3.3.5 Introduction to the Actual Land Use Systems and to the Potential Intensication
by Better Farm Management in Dominating Agro-Ecological Subzones 74
Tables 20 a-g: Increase of Yields by Better Farm Management 75-87
Kiambu District
LH1 i m of the Tea and Dairy Zone 74
UM2 m + s/m of the Main Coee Zone 76
LH3 s/m + (s/vs) of the Wheat/Maize-Barley Zone 78
Tika District
LH1 p or l/vl^m of the Tea and Dairy Zone 80
UM1 i m of the Tea and Coee Zone 82
UM2 m/l i m/s of the Main Coee Zone 84
LM4 s/vs + s/vs of the Marginal Cotton Zone 86
3.3.6 Fertiliser and Manure Recommendations for Important Agro-Ecological Units 89
Map of Important Agro-Ecological Units 90
Tables 21 a-h: Fertiliser and Manure Recommendations: 91-97
LH1 p or l/vl^m, RB 1 of the Tea and Dairy Zone 91
LH1 i m, RB 2 of the Tea and Dairy Zone 92
UM1 i m, RB 2 of the Tea-Coee Zone 92
UM2 m + s/m, RB 2 of the Main Coee Zone 92
UM2 m/l i m/s, RB 2 of the Main Coee Zone 92
UM3 m/s + s, RB 3 of the Marginal Coee Zone 94
LH3 s/m + (s/vs) & s/m + (vs/s), RB 3 of the Wheat/Maize-Barley Zone 94
UM4 s/m + s, s + s & s + s/vs, LBC and LB 1 of the Sunower-Maize Zone 96
2
151
KIAMBU & THIKA 3
3.3.1 NATURAL POTENTIAL
INTRODUCTION
Te Agro-Ecological Zones of the Kiambu and Tika district group extend in a typical pattern along the
eastern slopes of the Nyandarua (Aberdare) Range parallel to the isohypses. Te Marginal Cotton Zone
(LM4) ends at about 1350 m. Te Sunower-Maize Zone (UM 4) starts immediately above it, except for
the areas in the rain shadow of the Kamba Hills, where maize growing is feasible only above 1450 m in the
northeast and above 1550 m in the southeast. Tis omits the Athi Plains, which are Livestock-Sorghum Zone
(UM5). Te same tendency towards increasing dryness is oberserved on the lower coee margin, which rises
from 1530 m near Tika to about 1630 m near Nairobi. Te Marginal Coee Zone (UM 3) obtains good
yields with additional irrigation. Tis is not necessary in the Main Coee Zone (UM 2) because normally
there is enough rainfall above 1570 m in the northeast and above 1740 m in the southwest.
Te potential for tea also exists in the present coee area at about 1800 m near Muranga District. Due to
the southeastward - but also southwestward - decreasing rainfall, tea growing is possible around Githunguri
only above 1900 m, and at the southwestern end of the Tea-Dairy Zone (LH 1) near Limuru at 2200 m,
therefore leaving a gap between coee and tea which is mainly lled by maize cultivation although there is
potential for pyrethrum and for vegetables in valleys (Maize/WheatPyrethrumZone LH2). Te word wheat
in that zone refers to the general zonation, but here, topography and farm scale are not suitable for it. A
similar problem regarding terminology occurs in the Sheep-Dairy Zone above the upper tea limit (2300 m),
which got its name from the Molo area. Here it is forest reserve or cultivated with vegetables which are the
mainstay of farming here, due to the smallness of the farms and their favourable situation to Nairobi mar-
kets. In the rain shadow of the Nyandarua Range and the Rift Valley escarpment, the potential decreases
gradually down to the Ranching Zones (UM and LM6).
152
4 KIAMBU & THIKA
153
KIAMBU & THIKA 5
TABLE 1: RAINFALL FIGURES FROM SELECTED TYPICAL STATIONS HAVING AT LEAST
15 YEARS OF RECORD
No. and
altitude
Name of Station
Agro Ecol.
Zone &
Subzone
Kind of
records
Annual
rainfall
mm
Monthly rainfall in mm
J F M A M J J A S O N D
9036061 Kirita UH 1 Average 1370 67 71 128 308 234 71 42 41 46 105 157 100
2438 m Forest Station l/vl^m 66% rel.
1
1230 33 34 92 250 165 36 30 22 23 60 105 59
9036162 Kijabe LH 3 Av. 831 55 50 64 201 168 49 27 25 25 34 67 66
2196 m Railway Stn. s/m +(vs/s) 66%
3
9036191 Kerita UH 1 Av. 1276 58 66 113 288 222 63 47 38 40 104 154 83
2591 m Kinale p or l/vl^m 66%
1
1150 40 45 89 243 168 50 24 30 28 80 118 60
9036220 Thika Karuga UM 1-2 Av. 1526 55 53 140 351 247 67 42 45 43 149 229 105
1520 m Farm f i m 66%
1
1385 25 30 80 275 180 45 23 30 24 95 162 50
9036286 Chania LH 1 Av. 2015 78 154 227 390 342 105 60 50 59 207 229 114
2190 m Dam p or l/vl^m 66%
3
9037005 Thika, UM 2-3 Av. 1052 37 48 115 257 151 34 20 20 26 87 171 86
1520 m Githumbwini Est. m +s/m 66%
1
960 13 14 60 218 108 17 9 13 8 50 125 51
9037010 Nyakio UM 3-2 Av. 1010 39 42 112 248 150 32 19 24 27 84 154 79
1551 m Estate m/s +s 66%
2
940 17 11 62 202 98 16 10 15 13 55 130 40
9037016 Mitubiri, Kitito UM 3-4 Av. 1014 45 41 117 255 111 17 7 7 13 83 216 102
1460 m Coffee Estate m/s +s 66%
2
953 25 16 90 175 38 7 1 0 3 45 148 67
9037028 Mwitumberia UM 3-4 Av. 1038 41 38 114 263 127 19 7 9 12 93 214 101
1490 m Estate m/s +s 66%
2
865 13 8 68 220 85 7 3 3 4 50 172 40
9037130 Thika Horticult. UM 3-2 Av. 1074 50 48 130 265 185 25 20 27 10 75 165 74
1600 m Res. Stn. OIfce m/s +s 66%
3
9136007 Ruiru Sukari UM 4 Av. 780 39 39 81 169 125 30 15 15 18 47 135 67
1570 m Ranch s +(vs/s) 66%
1
648 8 11 52 146 75 13 4 5 4 30 90 38
9136014 Kamundu Estate, UM 2 Av. 1246 50 56 127 288 209 57 32 33 38 87 174 95
1825 m Kiambu m +s/m 66%
3
9136015 Kiambu Riara UM 2-3 Av. 1038 44 46 106 235 174 47 24 27 29 69 150 87
1703 m Coffee Estate m +s/m 66%
3
9136016 Kikuyu LH 3 Av. 893 30 46 93 222 174 36 18 18 24 51 108 73
2073 m Railway Station s/m +(s/vs) 66%
3
9136018 Kiambu UM 2-3 Av. 968 43 43 107 241 102 44 28 26 28 75 148 83
1651 m Doondu Estate m +s/m 66%
3
9136022 Uplands Lari UH 1 Av. 1414 56 68 139 329 264 67 37 37 41 105 171 100
2415 m Forest Station p or l/vl^m 66%
2
1210 32 23 80 255 221 46 24 25 26 67 130 51
9136028 Kiambu District UM 2-3 Av. 1025 44 50 106 231 164 50 25 25 31 69 148 82
1767 m OIfce m/s +s 66%
2
905 15 15 69 192 119 31 11 18 15 45 110 52
9136029 Thika, Karamaini UM 3 Av. 932 33 41 103 226 135 36 19 22 24 72 153 68
1555 m Estate m/s +s 66%
3
9136031 Ruiru Iganjo UM 3 Av. 843 32 34 87 197 126 30 17 20 22 67 138 73
1615 m Farm m/s +s/vs 66%
3
9136032 Kiambu, UM 2 Av. 1325 48 54 125 307 233 61 32 39 43 93 194 96
1890 m KacharobaLtd. Ltd. m +s/m 66%
3
9136034 Limuru, Tigoni LH 1-2 Av. 1067 50 46 99 251 182 47 29 29 34 69 156 75
2192 m Police Station f i m 66%
3
9136035 Limuru, LH 1 Av. 1231 43 55 115 246 244 65 33 36 45 94 163 92
2342 m Mabroukie Fact. f i m 66%
3
9136037 Kiambu, UM 3 Av. 950 45 48 91 215 153 44 20 23 28 63 141 79
1635 m Kigwa Estate m/s +s/vs 66%
3
9136043 Muguga LH2 Av. 1000 51 47 84 249 179 45 20 25 27 68 120 85
2067 m Forest Station m/s +(s) 66%
3
9136047 Guabi Ltd., UM 3 Av. 970 49 48 94 215 163 45 21 23 27 64 143 78
1727 m Kiambu m/s +s/vs 66%
3
9136049 Ruiru Water LH 1 Av. 1451 51 52 123 345 258 68 44 46 44 117 200 103
1945 m Scheme f i m 66%
3
9136054 Kiambu, UM 3-2 Av. 961 40 46 109 247 73 47 32 28 30 75 152 82
154
KIAMBU & THIKA 6
No. and
altitude
Name of Station
Agro Ecol.
Zone &
Subzone
Kind of
records
Annual
rainfall
mm
Monthly rainfall in mm
J F M A M J J A S O N D
1707 m Kianjibbi Estate m/s +s 66%
3
9136060 Kiambu, UM 2 Av. 1083 41 45 102 253 180 46 30 30 33 74 161 88
1707 m Anmer Estate s/m +s 66%
3
9136063 Ruiru Gatundu UM 2 Av. 1109 42 46 88 273 195 45 24 30 31 82 172 81
1707 m Agric.OIfce m/l i m/s 66%
2
1027 34 20 60 220 165 32 15 12 20 67 150 52
9136064 Githunguri LH 1 Av. 1428 47 47 143 342 264 67 43 42 45 99 198 91
1999 m Agri. Station f i m 66%
2
1231 40 26 80 282 170 46 30 35 25 66 90 51
9136084 Ruiru J acaranda UM 2-3 Av. 1039 44 44 97 245 175 43 27 27 31 75 153 78
1603 m Coffee Res. Stn. m +s/m 66%
3
9136110 Newlands LH 1 Av. 1438 62 58 119 346 264 66 37 38 44 108 196 100
2150 m Farm f i m 66%
3
9136112 Yala LH 1 Av. 1218 51 55 116 295 146 61 30 38 40 96 188 102
1978 m Estate f i m 66%
3
9136121 Muguga LH 3 Av. 954 53 47 71 238 166 42 25 22 26 57 127 80
2095 m E.A.A.F.R.O. s/m +(s/vs) 66%
2
803 15 34 42 148 92 30 10 14 16 32 82 48
9136161 Limuru District LH 1-UH 1 Av. 1388 68 71 118 298 238 70 33 31 27 101 214 119
2279 m OIfce f i m 66%
3
9136165 Kikuyu LH2-3 Av. 985 47 47 83 234 164 31 23 23 32 64 137 100
2130 m Agric. OIfce m/s +s 66%
3
9136192 Kikuyu Steel LH2 Av. 952 53 36 89 213 251 28 2 27 13 48 126 66
2036 m Rolling Mills Co. m/s +(s) 66%
3
9136218 Kirirana LH 1 Av. 1522 65 67 133 358 269 66 42 36 44 128 212 102
2102 m Estate Ltd. f i m 66%
3
9036220 Thika, UM 1-2 Av. 1385 25 30 80 275 180 45 23 30 24 95 162 50
1520 m Karuga Farm f i m 66%
3
9136228 Tigoni Agric. LH 1-2 Av. 1096 25 45 89 288 217 52 40 16 5 100 151 68
2131 m Station f i m 66%
3
9137002 Sassa Coffee, UM 4 Av. 808 33 31 105 202 93 20 9 9 11 69 153 73
1470 m Kenya Canners s +s/vs 66%
2
690 13 6 65 165 58 11 4 3 2 35 130 40
9137006 Mitubiri, UM 4 Av. 876 40 37 114 215 89 22 7 9 13 73 175 82
1520 m Nanga Estate s +s/vs 66%
2
815 12 8 65 185 50 6 2 4 3 35 143 55
9137013 Thika, Chania UM 3 Av. 860 33 40 100 200 124 32 19 18 21 65 141 67
1524 m Estate m/s +s 66%
3
9137018 Thika UM 4 Av. 786 36 40 90 187 101 26 13 15 5 60 146 67
1494 m District OIfce s/m +s 66%
2
710 14 11 60 145 65 13 4 6 2 33 130 42
9137019 Ruiru J uja UM 5 Av. 710 27 37 94 159 95 18 10 7 13 47 138 65
1463 m Sisal Farm vs/s +vs 66%
2
540 8 10 35 114 46 4 2 1 0 18 100 27
9137048 National Hort. UM 4 Av. 879 33 35 111 214 121 24 17 14 19 70 152 69
1460 m Res. Stn. Thika s/m +s 66%
2
810 9 8 65 185 56 7 3 4 4 32 133 45
9137053 Mitubiri UM 4 Av. 884 36 34 108 221 95 11 6 7 9 66 211 80
1471 m Chui Estate s +s 66%
3
9137083 Ruiru, J uja Farm UM 5 Av. 706 31 44 73 146 103 10 16 4 17 45 159 58
1465 m Managers Hse. vs/s +vs 66%
3
9037130 Thika Horticult. UM 3-(2) Av. 1074 50 48 130 265 185 25 20 27 10 75 165 74
1600m Res. Stn. OIfce m/s +s 66%
3
1
These fgures oI rainIall reliability should be exceeded normally in 10 out oI 15 years.
2
Estimate of this reliability by correlation, no detailed data available to GTZ for enough years.
3
Not calculated because not enough years available to GTZ.
TABLE 1: Continued
153
KIAMBU & THIKA 7
156
KIAMBU & THIKA 8
157
KIAMBU & THIKA 9
TABLE 3: AVERAGE POTENTIAL EVAPOTRANSPIRATION
No. and
altitude
Name of Station
Type
1)
AEZ
Average Potential Evapotranspiration PET in mm
Av. Rainfall
J F M A M J J A S O N D Year
Year
in mm
%
of PET
9037130 Thika Horticult.
UM
3-2
149 145 152 122 111 93 90 98 93 135 121 136 1445 1074 74%
1600m Res. Stn., OIfce
9136084 RuiruJ acaranda J acaranda
UM
2-3
146 145 154 125 111 92 90 100 95 139 122 131 1450 1060 73%
1608m Coffee Res. Stn.
9136121 Muguga
LH 3 176 169 182 140 113 99 92 103 101 161 141 154 1631 954 58%
2096m KARI
9136208 Kabete Univ.
LH
2-3
151 142 157 125 106 89 88 97 96 141 125 135 1451 993 68%
2089m Field (Agromet.)
9137048 Nat. Horticult.
UM 4 176 167 178 145 129 116 134 126 106 176 155 162 1770 879 50%
1477m Res. Stn. Thika
1)
Type of equation: calculated by formula of PENMAN & MCCULLOCH with albedo for green grass 0.2; see
MCCULLOCH (1965): Tables for the Rapid Computation of the PENMAN Estimate of Evaporation.- East African
Agricultural & Forestry J ournal, Vol. 30, No.3, p. 286-295.
AEZ=Agro-Ecol. Zone, explainingtableseegeneral part. Zone, explaining table see general part.
TABLE 2: TEMPERATURE DATA
No. and
altitude
Name of
Station
AEZ
1
Kind of
records
Temperature inC
Belt
limits
J F M A M J J A S O N D Yr.
9036233
2439m
Kimakia
Forest Station
UH0
3000m
UH
2240m
LH
Mean max. 20,3 21,0 20,5 19,2 17,9 16,5 14,9 15,1 17,7 18,7 18,2 19,3 18,3
Mean temp. 13,4 14,1 14,4 14,2 13,3 11,9 11,0 10,9 12,1 13,3 13,3 13,2 12,9
Mean min. 6,4 7,1 8,2 9,2 8,7 7,3 7,0 6,7 6,4 7,9 8,3 7,0 7,5
Abs. min. 0,0 0,5 0,3 4,0 3,5 1,4 0,1 0,2 0,3 1,5 1,6 0,3 1,1
9136121
2096m
Muguga
KARI
LH3
2250m
LH
1720m
Mean max. 22,4 23,2 23,2 21,6 19,9 18,9 18,2 18,8 21,0 22,1 20,7 21,3 20,9
Mean temp. 16,8 17,4 17,7 17,1 15,8 14,4 13,6 13,9 15,2 16,6 16,2 16,3 15,9
Mean min. 11,1 11,5 12,2 12,5 11,6 9,8 8,9 9,0 9,4 11,0 11,7 11,3 10,8
Abs. min. 5,6 6,4 7,3 9,5 5,6 3,9 1,9 2,8 3,0 5,8 6,8 4,5 5,3
9136084
1608m
Ruiru
J acaranda
Coffee R.S.
UM 2
1790m
UM
1250m
Mean max. 26,3 27,7 27,4 25,7 24,5 23,3 22,4 22,7 25,2 26,3 24,5 24,8 25,1
Mean temp. 19,3 20,2 20,5 20,3 19,4 17,8 16,9 17,2 18,6 19,9 19,3 19,0 19,0
Mean min. 12,3 12,6 13,6 14,9 14,2 12,3 11,4 11,7 11,9 13,4 14,0 13,1 13,0
Abs. min. 7,2 6,3 8,0 10,0 7,5 5,7 4,7 4,0 5,6 7,2 8,1 6,1 6,7
9137048
1477m
Nat. Hort.
& Agromet.
Res. Station
Thika
UM 4
Mean max. 26,2 27,2 27,6 25,8 25,0 23,9 22,6 23,6 26,5 27,2 25,2 25,0 25,5
1710m
UM
1180m
Mean temp. 19,8 20,4 20,7 20,5 19,8 18,1 16,9 17,3 19,6 20,3 19,5 19,1 19,3
Mean min. 13,3 13,6 13,7 15,1 14,5 12,3 11,2 10,9 12,6 13,4 13,7 13,1 13,1
Abs. min. 7,5 8,0 7,5 10,1 10,0 8,0 6,8 6,8 8,5 9,0 10,4 9,0 8,5
1
AEZ=Agro-ecological zone
158
KIAMBU & THIKA 10
TABLE 4: CLIMATE IN THE AGRO-ECOLOGICAL ZONES
Agro-
Ecological
Zone
Subzone
Altitude
in m
Ann. mean
temperature
inC
Ann. av.
rainfall
in mm
66% reliability
of rainfall
1)
60% reliability of cereal and
legumes growing period
1
st
rainy s.
in mm
2
nd
rainy s.
in mm
1
st
rainy s.
2)
in days
2
nd
rainy s.
in days
Total
3)
in days
UH 0
Forest Zone
Forest Reserve
UH 1
Sheep and
Dairy Zone
p or l/vl^m
2280-2550 15.2-13.5
1200-2000 900-1100 400-620 220 or more 135-145 355-365
l/vl^m 1200-1600 700-900 250-450 220 or more 130-140 350-360
UH2
Pyrethrum-
Wheat Zone
l i m/s Very small, see Nyandarua District
LH 1
Tea-Dairy
Zone
p or l/vl^m
1820-2280 18.0-15.2
1500-2000 850-1100 470-600 220 or more 135-145 355-365
f i m 1300-1500 700-850 250-470 210 or more 130-140 340-350
LH2
Wheat/Maize-
Pyrethrum
Zone
m+(s/m)
1980-2280 17.6-15.2
1100-1300 500-700 170-280 140-150 105-120
m/s+(s) 900-1200 400-500 150-220 115-135 85-100
LH 3
Wheat/
(Maize)-Barley
s/m+(s/vs)
1950-2070 17.4-16.4
900-1200 350-450 150-200 105-115 75-80
s/m+(vs/s) 800-1000 280-360 150-180 105-115 65-70
LH4
Cattle-Sheep
Barley Zone
s+(vs) Small transitional strips
LH5
Lower High-
land Ranching
Zone
b r Small, not suitable for rain-fed agriculture
UM 1
Coffee-Tea
Zone
f i m 1700-1820 18.7-18.0 1300-1600 700-850 400-480 180 or more 130-140 310-330
UM 2
Main Coffee
Zone
m/l i m/s
1580-1760 19.5-18.4
1100-1400 520-700 300-400 160 or more 115-135 275-300
m+s/m 1000-1300 480-680 250-380 135-155 105-115
UM 3
Marginal
Coffee Zone
m/s+s
1520-1580 19.9-19.5
900-1100 300-480 210-280 115-135 85-105
m/s+s/vs 800-1100 300-470 190-250 115-135 75-85
UM 4
Sunfower
Maize Zone
s/m+s
1360-1520 20.7-19.9
800-900 350-400 250-300 105-115 85-105
s/m+(s/vs) 780-880 300-350 180-200 105-115 75-80
s+s 770-870 260-300 190-220 90-105 85-100
s+s/vs 760-850 250-290 180-210 85-105 75-85
s+(vs/s) 750-800 240-280 150-180 85-100 65-70
s/vs+(vs/s) 730-780 200-250 150-170 75-85 65-70
UM 5
Livestock-
Sorghum Zone
vs/s+vs 1360-1520 20.9-19.9 600-730 170-200 150-160 65-75 50-65
LM 4
Marginal
Cotton Zone
s/vs+s/vs 1200-1360 21.9-20.9 800-900 250-320 200-250 75-85 75-85
1)
Amounts surpassed normally in 10 of 15 years, falling during the agro-humid period which allows growing of most
cultivated plants.
2)
More if growing cycle of cultivated plants continues into the period of second rainy season.
3)
Only added if rainfall continues at least for survival (>0.25 PET) of certain long term crops, and this time is included.
159
KIAMBU & THIKA 11
160
KIAMBU & THIKA 12
AGRO-ECOLOGICAL ZONES AND SUBZONES
UH = UPPER HIGHLAND ZONES
UH 0 = Forest Zone
UH 1 = Sheep and Dai ry Zone
UH 1
p or
l/vl^m
= Sheep and Dairy Zone or Vegetable Zone
with permanent cropping possibilities, dividable in a long to very long cropping season
followed by a medium one
Upper places very wet, steep and too important as a catchment area, therefore Forest Reserve.
Small strips in lower places cleared, there.
Good yi el d potenti al (av. 60- 80% of the opti mum)
1
st
rainy season, start norm. mid March: Oats (April- Sep.); horse beans, peas, tarwi, potatoes
1)
;
late mat. rapeseed; cabbage, kales, carrots, kohlrabi, celery, radish, endive, rampion, leek
2
nd
rainy season, start norm. mid Oct.: Oats (Oct-F.); peas, potatoes
1)
; med. mat. rapeseed,
vegetables as in 1
st
rainy season
Fai r yi el d potenti al (av. 40- 60% of the opti mum)
1
st
rainy season: Very late mat. maize (lower places), late mat. triticale
2
nd
rainy season: Med. mat. triticale
Whole year: Pyrethrum; pears, plums
Pasture and f orage
About 0.5 ha/LU on secondary pasture of Kikuyu grass; very suitable for grade dairy cows; rye
grass (Lolium perenne) and Kenya white clover to improve pasture
UH 1
l/v/^m
= Sheep and Dairy Zone
with a long to very long cropping season followed by a medium one
Potential almost the same as above but oats in 2
nd
rainy season fair
UH 2 = Pyret hrum- Wheat Zone
UH 2
l i m/s
= Pyrethrum-Wheat Zone
with a long cropping season, intermediate rains, and a medium to short one
Very small, potential see Nyandarua District UH 2 vl i (almost the same because mists are
bridging the two rainy seasons)
LH = LOWER HIGHLAND ZONES
LH 1 = Tea- Dai ry Zone
LH 1
p or
l/vl^m
= Tea-Dairy Zone
with permanent cropping possibilities, dividable in a long to very long cropping season
followed by a medium one
Very good yi el d potenti al (av. > 80% of the opti mum)
1
st
rainy season, start norm. mid March: Peas, cabbages, lettuce
2
nd
rainy season, start norm. mid Oct.: Peas
Good yi el d potenti al (av. 60- 80% of the opti mum)
1
st
rainy season: Lima beans, carrots, leek, kales, endive
2
nd
rainy season: Potatoes (Sep.- J an.); cabbages, carrots, kales, lettuce
Whole year, best pl. time mid March: Tea (high quality), loquats, passion fruits (lower places)
Fai r yi el d potenti al (av. 40 - 60% of the opti mum)
1
st
rainy season (to 2
nd
rainy season): Late mat. maize (May-Dec.); m.mat. beans (2 times, 2
nd
end
of J uly-N.)
2)
, potatoes (March-J uly/Aug.)
1)
2
nd
rainy season: M. mat. beans, leek
Whole year: Pyrethrum (higher places), plums
Pasture and f orage
About 0.4 ha/LU on secondary pasture of Kikuyu grass, suitable for grade dairy cows; clover
and other fodder crops (see Table X) for higher productivity
161
KIAMBU & THIKA 13
LH 1
f l i m
= Tea- Dairy Zone
with a fully long cropping season, intermediate rains, and a medium one
Potential almost the same as LH 1 p because of predominantly heavy soils with good water
storage capacity
LH 2 = Wheat / Mai ze
3)
- Pyret hrum Zone
LH 2
m+(s/m)
= Wheat/Maize-Pyrethrum Zone
with a medium cropping season and a (weak) short to medium one
Good yi el d potenti al
1
st
rainy season, start norm. end of March: M. mat. wheat, m. mat. Durum wheat, m. mat. triticale,
m. mat. barley; peas, potatoes; m. mat. Sunfower, linseed; nearly all vegetables
2
nd
rainy season, start norm. end of Oct.: V.e. mat. barley
Whole year: Pyrethrum (lower places); apples, pears and plums (all higher places),
strawberries
Pasture and f orage
0.6- 1.0 ha/LU on secondary pasture of Kikuyu grass; higher stocking capacity with Napier grass
up to 2000 m, Nandi Setaria above that, green maize (silage for 2
nd
dry season), fodder beets,
Louisiana white clover a. o. (see Table X)
LH 2
m/s+(s)
= Wheat/Maize-Pyrethrum Zone season
with a medium to short and a (weak) short cropping season
Potential almost the same as above but e. mat. wheat better, pyrethrum higher places also fair;
stocking rates about 10% less
162
KIAMBU & THIKA 14
LH 3 = Wheat / ( Mai ze) - Barl ey Zone
LH 3
s/m +
(s/vs)
= Wheat/(Maize) - Barley Zone
with a short to medium and a (weak) short to very short cropping season
Transitional strip, potential between LH 2 m/s +(s) and the next subzone
LH 3
s/m +
(vs/s)
= Wheat (Maize) - Barley Zone
with a short to medium and a (weak) very short to short cropping season
Good yi el d potenti al
1
st
rainy season: E. mat. wheat, e. mat. barley, e. mat. maize; e. mat. peas and beans, e. mat.
potatoes; m. mat. sunfower (lower pl.)
2
nd
rainy season, start norm. end of Oct.: V. e. mat. barley
Whole year: Black wattle
Pasture and f orage
0.8 - 1.6 ha/LU on secondary grassland, higher capacity on artifcial pasture oI Nandi Setaria.
Barley Amani and subterr. clover a. o. (Table X) for add. forage
LH 4 = Cat t l e- Sheep- Barl ey Zone
Small transitional strip, potential about 20% less than LH 3 s/m +(vs/s)
LH 5 = Lower Hi ghl and Ranchi ng Zone
LH 5
br
= Lower Highland Ranching Zone
with bimodal rainfall
Small, not suitable for rain-fed agriculture (except for v. e. mat. barley, 1
st
rainy season fair)
Pasture and f orage
Normally2 5 ha/LU on natural short grass savanna; no proper forage; severe erosion danger
if overgrazed; on eroded places and rocky soils stocking rate much less
UM = UPPER MIDLAND ZONES
UM 1 = Coff ee- Tea Zone
UM 1
f l i m
= Coffee - Tea Zone
with a fully long cropping season, intermediate rains, and a medium one
Very good yi el d potenti al
1
st
rainy season, start norm. mid March: Lima beans, cabbages, kales
2
nd
rainy season, start norm. mid Oct.: M. mat. beans like Cuarentino (Aug.-Dec./J an.)
Whole year, best pl. time mid March: Passion fruits, black wattle
Good yi el d potenti al
1
st
rainy season: Late mat. maize, fnger millet; sweet potatoes; late mat. sunfower; onions,
lettuce
2
nd
rainy season: Sweet potatoes; e. mat. sunfower (lower places), m. mat. (higher pl.); cabbages
(Aug.- Dec.), kales, onions, tomatoes
Whole year: Tea (higher places), Arabica coffee (lower places); bananas, mountain paw paws,
yams, loquats, avocados
Fai r yi el d potenti al
1
st
rainy season: Cold tolerant sorghum, Meru foxtail millet (J uly-Oct.); sweet potatoes, beans;
tomatoes, lettuce
2
nd
rainy season: M. mat. maize (Sep.-J an.), late mat. (J uly-J an.), cold tol. sorghum (Aug.Feb.),
fnger millet; potatoes (Aug.Dec.)
Whole year: Arabica coffee (higher places, above 1900 m even marginal), tea (lower places),
pineapples, citrus, taro
7)
Pasture and f orage
Around 0.5 ha/LU on secondary pasture of Kikuyu grass; much higher capacity feeding Napier
grass, bananas stems and leaves, sweet potato vines, maize stalks a. o. (see Table X)
163
KIAMBU & THIKA
UM 2 = Mai n Coff ee Zone
UM 2
m/l i m/s
= Main Coffee Zone
with a medium to long cropping season, intermediate rains, and a medium to short
one
4)
Very good yi el d potenti al
1
st
rainy season, start norm. mid March: M. mat. sunfower like Hybrid S 301 A
2
nd
rainy season, start norm. mid Oct.: Beans (Sep./Oct.- J an./Feb.)
Whole year, best pl. time mid March: Arabica coffee (~80%), loquats, mountain paw paws
Good yi el d potenti al
1
st
rainy season: M. mat. maize, ratoon of sorghum (lower places); m. mat. beans, potatoes
1)
,
sweet potatoes; cabbages, kales, tomatoes
7)
, onions
2
nd
rainy season: E. mat. Maize, mat. foxtail millet, e. mat. sorghum like 2 KX 17; sweet potatoes
(Aug./Sep.- Jan.); e. mat. sunfower; kales, cabbages
7)
, onions, tomatoes
7)
Whole year: Bananas, citrus, avocados, passion fruits, pineapples, taro in valleys
Fai r yi el d potenti al
2
nd
rainy season: M. mat. local maize (Aug./Sep.- Jan./Feb.), fnger millet; e. mat. potatoes
Whole year: Cassava (lower places), sugar cane (lower and wet places)
7)
, tea fair to marginal
Pasture and f orage
0.5 - 1.0 ha/LU on secondary pasture, but land too valuable for grazing; much higher capacity,
feeding Napier or Bana grass, banana leaves a.o. forage (see T.X)
UM 2
m+s/m
= Main Coffee Zone
with a medium cropping season and a short to medium one
Potential and stocking rates almost the same as UM 2 m/l i m/s less about 10% because of more
intensive drought; all vegetables better in valleys, coffee yields good, tea marginal
UM 3 = Margi nal Coff ee Zone
UM 3
m/s + s
= Marginal Coffee Zone
with a medium to short and short cropping season
5)
Good yi el d potenti al
1
st
rainy season, start norm. mid to end of March: E. mat maize like Katumani Comp. B
6)
, ratoon
of e. mat. sorghum; e. mat. sunfower; v. e. mat. beans; onions, cabbages
2
nd
rainy season, start norm. mid Oct.: E. mat. foxtail millet; v. e. mat. sorghum like IS 8595
Whole year: Pineapples (best pl. time end of March), Macadamia nuts, perennial castor
Fai r yi el d potenti al
1
st
rainy season: Med. mat. maize (50 - 60%)
6)
, m. mat. fnger millet; e. & m. mat. beans, sweet
potatoes; kales, tomatoes
2
nd
rainy season: E. mat. maize, e. mat. sorghum (almost 60); v. e. mat. beans; e. mat. sunfower,
cabbages
7)
, kales
7)
, tomatoes
7)
Whole year: Arabica coIIee (lower places poor, add. irrigation proftable), bananas (lower places
marginal)
7)
, citrus
7)
, paw paws, cassava
Pasture and f orage
0.6-1.1 ha/LU on secondary high grass savanna with zebra grass (Hyparrhennia rufa) predominant:
much higher capacity feeding Napie or better Bana grass, glycine a.o. forage (see Table X)
15
164
KIAMBU & THIKA 16
UM 3
m/s +
s/vs
= Marginal Coffee Zone
with a medium to short and a short to very short cropping season
8)
Good yi el d potenti al
1
st
rainy season, start norm. mid to end of March: E. mat. maize like Katumani Comp. B, e. mat.
sorghum; v. e. mat. beans; e. mat. sunfower; onions, cabbages
7)
2
nd
rainy season, start norm. end of Oct.: E. mat. foxtail millet
Whole year: Pineapples, Macadamia nuts
Fai r yi el d potenti al
1
st
rainy season: Almost the same as UM 3 m/s +s, m. mat maize ca. 10% less
2
nd
rainy season: Dryland comp. maize, e. mat. sorghum like 2 KX 17, v. e. mat. sorghum like IS
8595 (50 60%); v. e. mat. beans; e. mat. cabbages
Whole year: Almost the same as UM 3 m/s +s but a bit more marginal
Pasture and f orage
Almost the same as UM 3 m/s +s but stocking rates are about 10% lower
UM 4 = Sunf l ower- Mai ze Zone or Upper Si sal Zone
10)
UM 4
s/m + s
= Sunower-Mai:e Zon
with a short to medium and a short cropping season
Very small, potential see Maragua District
165
KIAMBU & THIKA 17
UM 4
s/m +
s/vs
= Sunower-Mai:e Zone
with a short to medium and a (weak) short to very short cropping season
9)
Good yi el d potenti al
1
st
rainy season, start norm. mid to end of March: E. mat. maize like Katumani C. B (~60%), e.
mat. sorghum like 2 KX 17; e. mat. beans; e. mat. sunfower
Whole year: Sisal, pineapples
Fai r yi el d potenti al
1
st
rainy season: M. mat. maize (~40%)
6)
, fnger millet; dolichos beans, sweet potatoes; Virginia
tobacco; tomatoes, onions, cabbages
2
nd
rainy season, start norm. end of Oct.: E. mat. foxtail millet; v. e. mat. beans, late mat. pigeon
peas (to 1
st
rainy season), e. mat. sunfower
Whole year: Cassava, castor
Pasture and f orage
0.8 1.5 ha/LU on natural savanna with Zebra grass (Hyparrhenia rufa) predominant; much
higher capacity feeding Bana grass, Siratro (Macroptilium atropurpureum), horse tamarind
(Leucaena tricandria), silage (of green maize or green fodder sorghum) a. o. (Table X)
UM 4
s + s
= Sunower-Mai:e Zone
with two short cropping seasons
Small, potential see Maragua District
UM 4
s + s/vs
= Sunower-Mai:e Zone
with a short and a short to very short cropping season
Small, potential in 1
st
rainy season almost as UM 4 s +(vs/s), in 2
nd
one as in UM 4 s/m +s/vs
UM 4
s + (vs/s)
= Sunower-Mai:e Zone
with a short cropping season and a (weak) very short to short one
11)
Good yi el d potenti al
1
st
rainy season, start norm. mid to end of March: E. mat. sorghum like Serena, e. mat. beans (~
60); e. mat. sunfower
Whole year: Sisal
Fai r yi el d potenti al
1
st
rainy season: E. mat maize like Katumani comp. B, e. mat. fnger millet, e. mat. Ioxtail and
proso millet (lower places); dolichos beans, chick peas (late planted on heavy black soils),
cowpeas; sweet potatoes (40-50%); tomatoes, onions, e. mat. cabbage like sugar loaf
2
nd
rainy season, start norm. end of Oct.: E. mat. foxtail millet; late mat. pigeon peas (~40 %,
from2
nd
to 1
st
rainy season); sunfower
Whole year: Cassava (almost poor yields), castor
Pasture and f orage
1.5 2 ha/LU on mixed savanna; much higher capacity feeding Bana grass, horse tamarind,
saltbush (Atriplex nummularia) a. o. (see Table X)
UM 4
s/vs +
(vs/s)
= Sunower Mai:e Zone
with a short to very short and a (weak) very short to short one
Transitional strip. Potential almost the same as UM 4 s +(vs/s) but good yield expectations
there are here only fair, some crops with fair yield expectations there have here only poor ones;
stocking rates about 10% less
UM 5 = Li vest ock- Sorghum Zone
UM 5
vs/s + vs
= Livestock-Sorghum Zone
with a very short to short and a very short cropping season
Fai r yi el d potenti al
1
st
rainy season, start norm. end of March: V. e. mat. sorghum like IS 8595, v. e. mat. barley
(higher places), e. mat. Ioxtail and proso millet (lower places); dwarI sunfower, rai (oilseed
Brassica juncea)
2
nd
rainy season, start norm. b. of Nov.: V. e. mat. foxtail millet (lower places), v. e. mat. barley
(higher places)
166
KIAMBU & THIKA 18
Poor yi el d potenti al
1
st
rainy season: V. e. mat. maize; v. e. mat. beans
Pasture and f orage
1.5 3 ha/LU on short grass savanna with red oats grass (Themeda triandra) predominant.
Much higher capacities with saltbush (Atriplex nummularia), Mesquite or Algarrobo (Prosopis
julifora or chilensis), Gao tree (Acacia albida) Ior browsing and pods, Opuntia var. without
prickles (also vegetable and fruit) and others (see Table X)
LM = LOWER MIDLAND ZONES
LM 4 = Margi nal Cot t on Zone
LM 4
s/vs +
s/vs
= Marginal Cotton Zone
with two short to very short cropping seasons
Good yi el d potenti al
1
st
rainy season, start norm. end of March: V. e. mat. maize like Dryland comp. (on contour
ridges), e. mat. sorghum like Serena, v. e. mat. like IS 8595, ratoon of e. mat. sorghum, e.
mat. bulrush millet (awned var. preferred), e. mat. foxtail or proso millet (70 - 80%); e. mat.
sunfower, v. e. mat. beans (~60), e. mat. cowpeas, black and green grams, chick peas (late
planted on heavy black soils); v. e. mat. pumpkins
2
nd
rainy season, start norm. end of Oct.: The same and e. mat. sorghum like 2 KX 17 for ratoon
(2
nd
to 1
st
rainy seasons)
Whole year, best pl. time end of Oct.: Sisal, buffalo gourds (on sandy soils)
12)
, Marama beans
12)
,
Vigna
12)
, perennial castor like C-15
167
KIAMBU & THIKA
Fai r yi el d potenti al
1
st
rainy season: E. mat. maize like Katumani comp. B (on contour ridges), e. mat. beans, e. mat.
soya beans, dolichos beans, e. mat. bambarra ground nuts (light soils); sweet potatoes; e.
mat. sunfower; onions, tomatoes
2
nd
rainy season: The same and cotton bimodal var. (Oct. Aug., on good soils, otherwise poor),
late mat. pigeon peas (Oct.- Sep.)
Whole year: Macadamia nuts, cassava
Pasture and f orage
1.5 3.5 ha/LU on mixed medium grass savanna with red oats grass (Themeda triandra)
predominant; if degraded and for higher stocking rates reseeding with Maasai love grass
(Eragrostis superba), buffel grass (Cenchrus ciliaris), Makueni guinea plus planting saltbushes
(Atriplex nummularia), horse tamarind (Leucaena tricandria) and Mesquite (Prosopis julifora)
as palatable shrubs; add. forage: vines of fast growing legumes like moth beans, pods of Gao
trees (applering acacias, Ac. albida), silage of green fodder sorghum
LM 5 = Li vest ock- Mi l l et Zone
LM 5
vs/s +
vs/s
= Livestock- Millet Zone
with two very short to short cropping seasons
Very small, potential see Machakos District
1)
Spraying against fungus diseases important, esp. in the 1
st
rainy season. In UH microclimatic risk of frosts
2)
Sometimes (esp. in 1
st
rainy season) rotting because of too wet conditions, lower places better
3)
Wheat or maize depending on farm scale and topography. Here maize more advisable
4)
On medium soils; on heavy soils there is a long to medium and a medium to short cropping season. Given potential refers
t to predominant heavy red loams
5)
On medium soils; on heavy soils frst cropping season has a medium length, second a short to medium. Potential reIers to
predominant heavy red loams
6)
Although Katumani has climatically a good potential, it may be on deep soils more advisable to plant med. mat. maize
because of its higher productivity
7)
Better in valleys
8)
On medium soils; on heavy soils frst cropping season has a medium length, second a short one. Potential reIers to
predominant heavy red loams
9)
On medium soils; on heavy soils frst season has a m/s, second season a short length. Potential reIers to heavy soils in
valleys (if not water-logged); there are shallow soils on ridges which have only grazing potential
10)
Sisal recommended for large scale plantations only
11)
On heavy soils frst season has one decade more length. Potential reIers to heavy soils in valleys and on plains. There are
strips of shallow soils and waterlogged places which have only grazing potential (if not ameliorated)
12)
Still experimental, such crops are written in italics.
19
168
KIAMBU & THIKA 20
169
KIAMBU & THIKA 21
SOIL DISTRIBUTION, FERTILITY AND MAJOR CHARACTERISTICS OF KIAMBU
AND THIKA DISTRICTS
Te Nyandarua Range inuences the physiography of the Greater Kiambu district. Te central landscape is
dominated by undulating to rolling topography as well as high elevations (volcanic foothill ridges). Te soils
of this area (units RB2 and RB3) are moderately to highly fertile. On the mountains, soils developed on
olivine basalts and ashes of major older volcanoes are found. Tey may be shallow or leached and very acidic
(ph 3.5 4.5). Soils of the hills are generally variably fertile and can only be found in the western part of the
district. Fertile upland soils occur in the western part, others of moderate to low fertility in the very eastern
part of Kiambu district. East of Ruiru, the plateaus have soils of variable fertility. On the lower topographical
sites, soils, which have developed on alluvium, are found. Tey are moderately to highly fertile. Dominant
soil types in the districts of Kiambu and Tika are humic Andosols and Nitosols; which were developed
from pyroclastic rocks during the Tertiary period.
LEGEND TO THE SOIL MAP OF KIAMBU AND THIKA DISTRICTS
1. Explanation of the rst character (physiography)
M Mountains and Major Scarps
H Hills and Minor Scarps
L Plateaus and High-Level Structural Plains
Ls Step-Faulted Floor of the Rift Valley
R Volcanic Footridges
U Uplands, Upper, Middle and Lower Levels
Pd Dissected Erosional Plains
Pv Volcanic Plains
A Flood plains
B Bottomlands
V Minor Valleys
2 Explanation of second character (lithology)
A Alluvial Sediments from Various Sources
B Basic and Ultra-Basic Igneous Rocks (basalts, nepheline phonolites; older basic tus included)
P Pyroclastic Rocks
U Undierentiated Basement System Rocks (predominantly Gneisses)
V Undierentiated or Various Igneous Rocks
3 Soil descriptions
MB1 Well drained, very shallow to moderately deep, dark reddish brown, friable and slightly smeary, gravely
clay; in places with humic topsoil, deep and/or rocky:
ando-eutric CAMBISOLS, with ando-haplic PHAEOZEMS, predominantly lithic phases, and with
LITHOSOLS, and Rock Outcrops
MU2 Well drained, very shallow to shallow, brown to reddish brown, stony and rocky, gravely to very
gravely sandy loam to sandy clay loam:
LITHOSOLS and dystric REGOSOLS, rocky and stony phases.
MV1 Imperfectly drained, shallow to moderately deep, greyish brown, friable loam to clay loam, with an
acid humic to peaty topsoil; in places very shallow or rocky:
dystric HISTOSOLS, predominantly lithic phase; with LITHOSOLS and Rock Outcrops
MV2 Well drained, shallow to moderately deep, dark reddish brown, friable, stony clay loam, with an acid
humic top soil; in places very shallow and rocky:
humic CAMBISOLS, stony and partly lithic phase; with LITHOSOLS and Rock Outcrops
170
KIAMBU & THIKA 22
HGC Complex of:
Somewhat excessively drained, shallow, stony and rocky soils of varying colour, consistency and
texture:
dystric REGOSOLS and RANKERS, with ferralic and humic CAMBISOLS, lithic, rocky and stony
phases, LITHOSOLS and Rock Outcrops
RB1 Well drained, deep to extremely deep, dark reddish brown to dark brown, friable and slightly smeary
clay, with an acid humic topsoil; in places shallow and rocky:
ando-humic NITISOLS and humic ANDOSOLS, partly lithic phases; with Rock Outcrops
RB2 Well drained, extremely deep, dusky red to dark reddish brown, very friable clay, with an acid humic
topsoil: humic NITISOLS
FB1 Well drained, deep to very deep, dark reddish brown, friable clay, with humic topsoil; in places shallow
to moderately deep and rocky:
chromo-luvic PHAEOZEMS, partly lithic and rocky phase, with mollic NITISOLS
FG1 Well drained, shallow to moderately deep, dark yellowish brown to reddish brown, friable, stony, sandy
clay loam to gravely sandy clay; in places with an acid humic topsoil or very shallow and rocky:
ferralic, dystric and humic CAMBISOLS and orthic ACRISOLS, stony and partly lithic and rocky
phases; with LITHOSOLS and Rock Outcrops
FUC Complex of:
Well drained, deep, dark reddish brown to dark yellowish brown soils of varying consistency and
texture; in places moderately deep, gravely and/or stony:
orthic FERRALSOLS, orthic ACRISOLS and ferralic ARENOSOLS partly stony phases
UhB1 Well drained, very deep to extremely deep, dark red to dark reddish brown, friable clay, with a humic
topsoil:
mollic NITISOLS
UhN1 Well drained, very deep, reddish brown, friable, gravely sandy clay to clay, with an acidic humic topsoil
humic ACRISOLS, with humic CAMBISOLS
UmG2 Well drained, deep, dark yellowish brown to dark brown, friable sandy clay loam to sandy clay; in
places gravely in the deeper subsoil:
ferralo-orthic ACRISOLS
UmG3 Well drained, deep to very deep, red to dark brown, friable sandy clay to clay:
ferralo-orthic/chromic ACRISOLS
UmG6 Well drained, shallow to moderately deep, dark yellowish brown, friable sandy clay:
orthic ACRISOLS
UIG3 Well drained, shallow to moderately deep, dark yellowish brown to strong brown, friable sandy clay;
over petroplinthite; in places very shallow, stony or rocky:
orthic and ferralo-orthic ACRISOLS, petroferric and partly stony phase, with LITHOSOLS and Rock
Outcrops
UIG4 Well drained, deep,strong brown to yellowish brown, friable sandy clay loam to sandy clay; in places
shallow to moderately deep over petroplinthite:
orthic FERRALSOLS, partly petroferric phase
UIGA1 Association of:
Well drained, deep to very deep, dark yellowish brown, friable clay loam to clay; in places with an
acidic humic topsoil; in places stony; on straight side slopes 50%):
orthic ACRISOLS, with humic ACRISOLS, partly stony phases
and:
well drained, shallow to moderately deep, dark yellowish brown to brown, friable sandy clay loam;
over petroplinthite; in places excessively drained and sandy; on interfuves, convex slopes and near
fringes to bottomlands (50%):
(ferralo-)orthic ACRISOLS, petroferric phase, with ferralic ARENOSOLS
171
KIAMBU & THIKA 23
UIN1 Well drained, deep to very deep, dark red to dark reddish brown, very friable sandy clay loam to clay;
in places moderately deep over petroplinthite:
rhodic and orthic FERRALSOLS, partly petroferric phase
UIN3 Well drained, deep to very deep, dark red to dark reddish brown, very friable sandy clay loam to clay:
rhodic FERRALSOLS
UIRA Association of:
Well drained, deep, strong brown to yellowish red and dark red, friable sandy clay loam to sandy clay;
in places shallow to moderately deep over petroplinthite; on interfuves (70):
orthic FERRALSOLS with rhodic FERRALSOLS, partly petroferric phases
and:
well drained, moderately deep to deep, dark yellowish brown to brown, friable sandy clay loam to clay,
with an acid humic topsoil; in places shallow; on steeper valley sides (30%):
humic CAMBISOLS; partly lithic phase
UIX1 Well drained, deep to very deep, dark red strong brown, friable clay; in many places shallow or
moderately shallow or moderately deep petroplinthite:
orthic to rhodic FERRALSOLS, partly petroferric phase
UIX2 Well drained, shallow to moderately deep, dark reddish brown to strong brown, friable clay; over
petroplinthite; in places deep:
orthic FERRALSOLS, petroferric phase
AA1 Well to moderately well drained, deep, dark greyish brown to yellowish brown, Iriable, stratifed, sandy
clay loam to clay; in places mottled, frm clay; in places slightly saline or sodic; on river levees:
eutric FLUVISOLS, with vertic FLUVISOLS and vertic and eutric GLEYSOLS, partly saline-sodic
phases
BXC1 Complex of:
imperIectly to poorly drained, deep to deep, very dark grey to brown, mottled, frm to very frm, sandy
clay to cracking clay, in many places abruptly underlying a topsoil of friable sandy loam; in places
saline and sodic:
dystric PLANOSOLS, dystric and vertic GLEYSOLS and pellic VERTISOLS; partly saline-sodic
phases
BXC2 Complex of:
ImperIectly to poorly drained, deep to deep, very dark grey to dark greyish brown, mottled, frm clay;
in many places abruptly underlying a topsoil oI Iriable to frm sandy loam to sandy clay loam; in many
places peaty or with an acid humic or histic topsoil:
dystric and humic GLEYSOLS, dystric PLANOSOLS and dystric HISTOSOLS
XC Complex of:
Well drained, shallow to deep soils of varying colour, consistency and texture (on valley sides):
CAMBISOLS, ACRISOLS and FERRALSOLS, partly lithic phases, with Rock Outcrops
and:
imperIectly to poorly drained, deep, mottled soils with predominantly greyish colours, frm consistency
and fne textures (in valley bottoms):
GLEYSOLS, with VERTISOLS and HISTOSOLS
NOTES for denitions (of underlined words):
1. mollic Nitisols and chromo-luvic Phaeozems: soils are equally important
2. mollic Nitisols, with chromic-luvic Phaeozems: Nitisols are prevalent
3. in places: in < 30% of the area
4. in many places: in 30-50% of the area
5. predominantly: in > 50% of the area
6. deeper subsoil: below 80 cm
172
KIAMBU & THIKA 24
3.3.2 POPULATION AND LAND
KIAMBU DISTRICT
According to the Housing and Population Census (1999), Kiambu district is the most densely populated in
Central Province. Te total population stood at 744,010 people with a density of 562 persons/km
2
, com-
pared to 280 persons/km
2
in 1979. However, it occupied 1323.9 km
2
in 1999 as compared to 2448 km2 in
1979. With seven administrative divisions namely: Kiambaa, Githunguri, Limuru, Ndeiya, Municipality,
Lari and Kikuyu, Kiambu district portrays a more urbanite population than any other district of Kenya. Tis
could be attributed to its proximity to Nairobi, the capital city of Kenya.
Te population growth rate is quite high. For example, between 1979 and 1999, it grew by 8.4 %. Te
distribution of population by Division, Location and Sub-location is shown in Table 5, while the composi-
tion of households is depicted in Table 6. Agricultural land available per person and household per division
is shown in Table 7. Overall, the acreage of agricultural land available to the household and per person has
declined since 1979 from 1.13 ha and 0.23 ha, respectively to the current 0.75 ha and 0.19 ha, respectively.
Tis decline has serious negative implications for agricultural productivity in the district.
TABLE 5: POPULATION IN KIAMBU DISTRICT PER DIVISION, LOCATION AND
SUB-LOCATION (Source: Census 1999)
DIVISION/LOCATION/
SUB-LOCATION
Male Female Total Households Area in km
2
Density
KIAMBAA 94,630 93,425 188,055 50,965 190.5 987
NDUMBERI 8,807 9,174 17,981 4,626 8.1 2,220
Ndumberi 5,766 6,028 11,794 2,893 4.9 2,407
Karunga 3,041 3,146 6,187 1,733 3.2 1,933
RUAKA 6,858 6,673 13,531 3,785 7.5 1,804
Ndenderu 3,673 3,683 7,356 2,001 3.3 2,229
Ruaka 3,185 2,990 6,175 1,784 4.2 1,470
KIAMBAA S/AREA 8,375 7,791 16,166 4,957 34.2 473
Kiamumbi 1,931 1,662 3,593 1,024 10.9 330
Township 2,671 2,827 5,498 1,651 2.3 2,390
Thindigwa 3,773 3,302 7,075 2,282 21 337
TINGANGA 6,178 6,420 12,598 2,893 9.1 1,384
Kagongo 2,643 2,783 5,426 1,177 4.4 1,233
Tinganga 3,535 3,637 7,172 1,716 4.7 1,526
KIAMBAA 19,563 19,985 39,548 10,235 20.2 1,958
Njoro 1,503 1,415 2,918 701 3 973
Kiambaa 3,814 4,059 7,873 1,900 4.2 1,875
Muchatha 4,728 4,874 9,602 2,556 3.2 3,001
Njiku 4,575 4,694 9,269 2,403 5.9 1,571
Karuri 4,943 4,943 9,886 2,675 3.9 2,535
RIABAI 8,981 9,593 18,574 5,059 8.4 2,211
Kihingo 4,092 4,152 8,244 2,289 5.1 1,616
Riabai 4,889 5,441 10,330 2,770 3.3 3,130
KAMITI 3,571 3,038 6,609 2,137 39.6 167
Anmer 1,453 1,228 2,681 849 16.8 160
Kamiti 2,116 1,810 3,926 1,288 22.8 172
WAGUTHU 9,459 9,375 18,834 4,602 13.3 1,416
173
KIAMBU & THIKA 25
TABLE 5: Continued
DIVISION/LOCATION/
SUB-LOCATION
Male Female Total Households Area in km
2
Density
Gathanga 3,592 3,451 7,043 1,692 5.6 1,258
Kanunga 2,970 2,854 5,824 1,354 5.2 1,120
Ndegu 2,897 3,070 5,967 1,556 2.5 2,387
KIHARA 16,605 15,759 32,364 9,124 13.1 2,471
Karura 1,836 1,882 3,718 863 2.7 1,377
Mahindi 1,468 1,502 2,970 713 2.6 1,142
Kihara 5,148 5,387 10,535 2,886 2.8 3,763
Gachie 6,639 5,430 12,069 3,979 2.6 4,642
Wangunyu 1,514 1,558 3,072 683 2.4 1,280
CIANDA 6,233 5,617 11,850 3,547 37 320
Cianda 2,189 1,738 3,927 1,308 21 187
Kawaida 4,044 3,879 7,923 2,239 16 495
GITHUNGURI 66,775 69,779 136,554 32,237 175.2 779
GITHUNGURI 15,283 15,895 31,178 7,360 36.7 850
Githunguri 6,863 7,052 13,915 3,578 14.9 934
Kanjai 3,569 3,757 7,326 1,581 9.1 805
Kiairia 4,851 5,086 9,937 2,201 12.7 782
IKINU 10,533 11,070 21,603 5,050 22.2 973
Ikinu 2,654 2,792 5,446 1,271 5.2 1,047
Riuki 2,995 3,162 6,157 1,466 6.9 892
Ngemwa 1,789 1,873 3,662 855 4.6 796
Kiaibabu 3,095 3,243 6,338 1,458 5.5 1,152
GITHIGA 13,252 14,006 27,258 6,432 41.2 662
Matuguta 1,320 1,371 2,691 616 5.5 489
Gathangari 2,825 3,108 5,933 1,451 12.8 464
Gitiha 2,707 2,852 5,559 1,310 9.3 598
Githiga 6,400 6,675 13,075 3,055 13.6 961
KOMOTHAI 17,234 18,095 35,329 8,298 50.1 705
Gathugu 3,622 3,841 7,463 1,645 13.7 545
Thuita 1,147 1,262 2,409 565 2.6 927
Mbari yaigi 1,954 2,039 3,993 968 7.5 532
Kibichoi 4,182 4,345 8,527 2,013 8.6 992
Kiratina 4,410 4,707 9,117 2,200 11.6 786
Kiambururu 1,919 1,901 3,820 907 6.1 626
NGEWA 10,473 10,713 21,186 5,097 25 847
Giathieko 2,129 2,220 4,349 994 5.3 821
Kimathi 3,578 3,577 7,155 1,749 10.2 701
Nyaga 4,766 4,916 9,682 2,354 9.5 1,019
LIMURU 56,651 56,927 113,578 30,146 280.7 405
LIMURU 18,582 18,520 37,102 9,492 40 928
Limuru Town 1,587 1,573 3,160 1,097 0.6 5,267
Kamirithu 8,071 7,977 16,048 4,012 17.1 938
Bibirioni 8,924 8,970 17,894 4,383 22.3 802
RIRONI 3,733 3,839 7,572 7,572 182.9 4
Rironi 2,313 2,480 4,793 1,225 3.8 1,261
174
KIAMBU & THIKA 26
DIVISION/LOCATION/
SUB-LOCATION
Male Female Total Households Area in km
2
Density
Gatimu 1,420 1,359 2,779 604 3.7 751
NGECHA 5,325 5,535 10,860 2,626 10.5 1,034
Ngecha 4,046 4,125 8,171 1,956 8.7 939
Kabuku 1,279 1,410 2,689 670 1.8 1,494
TIGONI 5,442 4,765 10,207 3,484 40.2 254
Ithanji 3,692 3,403 7,095 2,292 19.1 371
Red Hill 1,750 1,362 3,112 1,192 21.1 147
NDEIYA 11,174 12,534 23,708 5,374 125.2 189
Ndiuni 1,134 1,230 2,364 504 10.6 223
Nderu 3,602 4,206 7,808 1,759 39.4 198
Thigio 4,693 5,228 9,921 2,321 53 187
Tiekunu 1,745 1,870 3,615 790 22.2 163
KARAMBAINI 12,395 11,734 24,129 7,341 57.3 421
Mabrouke 5,820 5,440 11,260 3,396 15.9 708
Karambaini 3,235 3,161 6,396 2,059 22.9 279
Kiawaroga 3,340 3,133 6,473 1,886 18.5 350
LARI 54,628 56,674 111,302 25,438 441.1 252
LARI 4,157 4,152 8,309 2,037 42.6 195
Githirioni 1,568 1,603 3,171 726 22.6 140
Lari Scheme 2,589 2,549 5,138 1,311 20 257
KIJ ABE 8,964 9,550 18,514 4,495 27.1 683
Magina 2,443 2,679 5,122 1,292 3.4 1,506
Mbau-ini 1,242 1,296 2,538 517 6.1 416
Bathi 3,072 3,193 6,265 1,540 6.2 1,010
Kijabe 2,207 2,382 4,589 1,146 11.4 403
GATAMAIYU 6,220 6,592 12,812 2,994 25.4 504
Kagwe 3,529 3,791 7,320 1,826 15.1 485
Kamuchege 2,691 2,801 5,492 1,168 10.3 533
NYANDUMA 6,912 7,188 14,100 3,145 34.8 405
Nyanduma 3,913 4,163 8,076 1,719 18.8 430
Gachoire 2,999 3,025 6,024 1,426 16 377
GITITHIA 3,569 3,752 7,321 1,616 16 458
Gitithia 2,339 2,459 4,798 1,016 13.4 358
Nyambari 1,230 1,293 2,523 600 2.6 970
KIRENGA 7,844 8,017 15,861 3,530 72.9 218
Escarpment 1,650 1,757 3,407 752 16.1 212
Gituamba 1,226 1,008 2,234 468 3.4 657
Kirenga 1,900 1,994 3,894 946 4.8 811
Kambaa 3,068 3,258 6,326 1,364 48.6 130
Kamburu 6,020 6,296 12,316 2,855 31.5 391
Matimbei 1,248 1,361 2,609 617 7.7 339
Kamburu 2,451 2,635 5,086 1,143 9.9 514
Kagaa 2,321 2,300 4,621 1,095 13.9 332
KINALE 5,769 5,804 11,573 2,411 116.8 99
Kinale 2,614 2,731 5,345 1,088 20.2 265
TABLE 5: Continued
175
KIAMBU & THIKA
DIVISION/LOCATION/
SUB-LOCATION
Male Female Total Households Area in km
2
Density
Mukeu 3,155 3,073 6,228 1,323 96.6 64
KAMAE 5,173 5,323 10,496 2,355 74 142
Kamae 3,127 3,103 6,230 1,437 56.8 110
Kamukombi-ini 2,046 2,220 4,266 918 17.2 248
KIKUYU 96,417 98,104 194,521 50,920 236.4 823
MUGUGA 16,265 16,835 33,100 8,434 23.6 1,403
Kahuho 3,176 3,266 6,442 1,441 5.7 1,130
Muguga 4,729 4,918 9,647 2,364 6.2 1,556
Gitaru 4,696 4,903 9,599 2,771 5.3 1,811
Kanyariri 3,664 3,748 7,412 1,858 6.4 1,158
KIKUYU 16,933 16,704 33,637 8,530 52.9 636
Kikuyu Township 5,328 5,076 10,404 2,893 14.9 698
Kari 1,376 1,460 2,836 648 13.9 204
Kerwa 6,290 6,511 12,801 2,750 17.7 723
Sigona 3,939 3,657 7,596 2,239 6.4 1,187
KINOO 22,482 22,607 45,089 12,550 25.6 1,761
Kinoo 7,120 7,330 14,450 4,035 8.4 1,720
Uthiru 7,615 7,624 15,239 4,353 3.4 4,482
Thogoto 5,780 5,835 11,615 3,121 3.8 3,057
Gitiba 1,967 1,818 3,785 1,041 10 379
KARAI 13,358 14,528 27,886 6,934 99.4 281
Gikambura 5,659 5,970 11,629 2,958 11.4 1,020
Lusingetti 2,744 3,034 5,778 1,442 11.3 511
RENGUTI 2,254 2,557 4,811 1,151 10.1 476
Karai 697 727 1,424 337 5.3 269
Nachu 2,004 2,240 4,244 1,046 61.3 69
KABETE 15,410 15,408 30,818 8,467 16.3 1,891
Lower Kabete 5,601 5,981 11,582 3,076 4.8 2,413
Kibichiku 5,773 5,323 11,096 3,320 5.6 1,981
Ruku 2,688 2,784 5,472 1,415 3 1,824
Chura 1,348 1,320 2,668 656 2.9 920
NYATHUNA 11,969 12,022 23,991 6,005 18.6 1,290
Gathiga 2,887 2,877 5,764 1,420 3.1 1,859
Karura 2,098 2,178 4,276 1,062 4.8 891
Kirangari 4,081 4,055 8,136 2,102 5.3 1,535
Nyathuna 2,903 2,912 5,815 1,421 5.4 1,077
TABLE 5: Continued
27
176
KIAMBU & THIKA 28
TABLE 6: COMPOSITION OF HOUSEHOLDS IN KIAMBU DISTRICT PER DIVISION,
LOCATION AND SUB-LOCATION (Source: Census 1999)
DIVISION/LOCATION/
SUB-LOCATION
Total Number of
Households
Composition of Family
Persons per
Household
15 years and
above
Under
15 years
KIAMBAA 50,965 2.3 1.4 3.7
NDUMBERI 4,626 2.4 1.5 3.9
Ndumberi 2,893 2.5 1.5 4.1
Karunga 1,733 2.2 1.3 3.6
RUAKA 3,785 2.2 1.3 3.6
Ndenderu 2,001 2.3 1.4 3.7
RUAKA 1,784 2.2 1.3 3.5
KIAMBAA S/AREA 4,957 2.0 1.2 3.3
Kiamumbi 1,024 2.2 1.3 3.5
Township 1,651 2.1 1.3 3.3
Thindigwa 2,282 1.9 1.2 3.1
TINGANGA 2,893 2.7 1.6 4.4
Kagongo 1,177 2.9 1.7 4.6
Tinganga 1,716 2.6 1.6 4.2
KIAMBAA 10,235 2.4 1.5 3.9
Njoro 701 2.6 1.6 4.2
Kiambaa 1,900 2.6 1.6 4.1
Muchatha 2,556 2.3 1.4 3.8
Njiku 2,403 2.4 1.5 3.9
Karuri 2,675 2.3 1.4 3.7
RIABAI 5,059 2.3 1.4 3.7
Kihingo 2,289 2.2 1.4 3.6
Riabai 2,770 2.3 1.4 3.7
KAMITI 2,137 1.9 1.2 3.1
Anmer 849 2.0 1.2 3.2
Kamiti 1,288 1.9 1.1 3.0
WAGUTHU 4,602 2.5 1.5 4.1
Gathanga 1,692 2.6 1.6 4.2
Kanunga 1,354 2.7 1.6 4.3
Ndegu 1,556 2.4 1.4 3.8
KIHARA 9,124 2.2 1.3 3.5
Karura 863 2.7 1.6 4.3
Mahindi 713 2.6 1.6 4.2
Kihara 2,886 2.3 1.4 3.7
Gachie 3,979 1.9 1.1 3.0
Wangunyu 683 2.8 1.7 4.5
CIANDA 3,547 2.1 1.3 3.3
Cianda 1,308 1.9 1.1 3.0
Kawaida 2,239 2.2 1.3 3.5
GITHUNGURI 32,237 2.6 1.6 4.2
GITHUNGURI 7,360 2.6 1.6 4.2
177
KIAMBU & THIKA 29
TABLE 6: Continued
DIVISION/LOCATION/
SUB-LOCATION
Total Number of
Households
Composition of Family
Persons per
Household
15 years and
above
Under
15 years
Githunguri 3,578 2.4 1.5 3.9
Kanjai 1,581 2.9 1.7 4.6
Kiairia 2,201 2.8 1.7 4.5
IKINU 5,050 2.7 1.6 4.3
Ikinu 1,271 2.7 1.6 4.3
Riuki 1,466 2.6 1.6 4.2
Ngemwa 855 2.7 1.6 4.3
Kiaibabu 1,458 2.7 1.6 4.3
GITHIGA 6,432 2.6 1.6 4.2
Matuguta 616 2.7 1.6 4.4
Gathangari 1,451 2.5 1.5 4.1
Gitiha 1,310 2.6 1.6 4.2
Githiga 3,055 2.7 1.6 4.3
KOMOTHAI 8,298 2.7 1.6 4.3
Gathugu 1,645 2.8 1.7 4.5
Thuita 565 2.7 1.6 4.3
Mbari ya igi 968 2.6 1.6 4.1
Kibichoi 2,013 2.6 1.6 4.2
Kiratina 2,200 2.6 1.6 4.1
Kiambururu 907 2.6 1.6 4.2
NGEWA 5,097 2.6 1.6 4.2
Giathieko 994 2.7 1.7 4.4
Kimathi 1,749 2.5 1.5 4.1
Nyaga 2,354 2.6 1.6 4.1
LIMURU 30,146 2.3 1.4 3.8
Limuru 9,492 2.4 1.5 3.9
Limuru Town 1,097 1.8 1.1 2.9
Kamirithu 4,012 2.5 1.5 4.0
Bibirioni 4,383 2.5 1.5 4.1
RIRONI 7,572 0.6 0.4 1.0
Rironi 1,225 2.4 1.5 3.9
Gatimu 604 2.9 1.7 4.6
NGECHA 2,626 2.6 1.6 4.1
Ngecha 1,956 2.6 1.6 4.2
Kabuku 670 2.5 1.5 4.0
TIGONI 3,484 1.8 1.1 2.9
Ithanji 2,292 1.9 1.2 3.1
Red Hill 1,192 1.6 1.0 2.6
NDEIYA 5,374 2.7 1.7 4.4
Ndiuni 504 2.9 1.8 4.7
Nderu 1,759 2.8 1.7 4.4
Thigio 2,321 2.7 1.6 4.3
178
KIAMBU & THIKA
TABLE 6: Continued
DIVISION/LOCATION/
SUB-LOCATION
Total Number of
Households
Composition of Family
Persons per
Household
15 years and
above
Under
15 years
Tiekunu 790 2.8 1.7 4.6
KARAMBAINI 7,341 2.0 1.2 3.3
Mabrouke 3,396 2.1 1.3 3.3
Karambaini 2,059 1.9 1.2 3.1
Kiawaroga 1,886 2.1 1.3 3.4
LARI 25,438 2.7 1.7 4.4
LARI 2,037 2.5 1.5 4.1
Githirioni 726 2.7 1.6 4.4
Lari Scheme 1,311 2.4 1.5 3.9
KIJ ABE 4,495 2.6 1.6 4.1
Magina 1,292 2.5 1.5 4.0
Mbau-ini 517 3.1 1.9 4.9
Bathi 1,540 2.5 1.5 4.1
Kijabe 1,146 2.5 1.5 4.0
GATAMAIYU 2,994 2.7 1.6 4.3
Kagwe 1,826 2.5 1.5 4.0
Kamuchege 1,168 2.9 1.8 4.7
NYANDUMA 3,145 2.8 1.7 4.5
Nyanduma 1,719 2.9 1.8 4.7
Gachoire 1,426 2.6 1.6 4.2
GITITHIA 1,616 2.8 1.7 4.5
Gitithia 1,016 2.9 1.8 4.7
Nyambari 600 2.6 1.6 4.2
KIRENGA 3,530 2.8 1.7 4.5
Escarpment 752 2.8 1.7 4.5
Gituamba 468 3.0 1.8 4.8
Kirenga 946 2.6 1.6 4.1
Kambaa 1,364 2.9 1.7 4.6
KAMBURU 2,855 2.7 1.6 4.3
Matimbei 617 2.6 1.6 4.2
Kamburu 1,143 2.8 1.7 4.4
Kagaa 1,095 2.6 1.6 4.2
KINALE 2,411 3.0 1.8 4.8
Kinale 1,088 3.1 1.9 4.9
Mukeu 1,323 2.9 1.8 4.7
KAMAE 2,355 2.8 1.7 4.5
Kamae 1,437 2.7 1.6 4.3
Kamukombi-ini 918 2.9 1.8 4.6
KIKUYU 50,920 2.4 1.4 3.8
MUGUGA 8,434 2.4 1.5 3.9
Kahuho 1,441 2.8 1.7 4.5
Muguga 2,364 2.5 1.5 4.1
30
179
KIAMBU & THIKA
TABLE 6: Continued
DIVISION/LOCATION/
SUB-LOCATION
Total Number of
Households
Composition of Family
Persons per
Household
15 years and
above
Under
15 years
Gitaru 2,771 2.2 1.3 3.5
Kanyariri 1,858 2.5 1.5 4.0
KIKUYU 8,530 2.5 1.5 3.9
Kikuyu Township 2,893 2.2 1.4 3.6
Kari 648 2.7 1.7 4.4
Kerwa 2,750 2.9 1.8 4.7
Sigona 2,239 2.1 1.3 3.4
KINOO 12,550 2.2 1.4 3.6
Kinoo 4,035 2.2 1.4 3.6
Uthiru 4,353 2.2 1.3 3.5
Thogoto 3,121 2.3 1.4 3.7
Gitiba 1,041 2.3 1.4 3.6
KARAI 6,934 2.5 1.5 4.0
Gikambura 2,958 2.4 1.5 3.9
Lusingetti 1,442 2.5 1.5 4.0
RENGUTI 1,151 2.6 1.6 4.2
Karai 337 2.6 1.6 4.2
Nachu 1,046 2.5 1.5 4.1
KABETE 8,467 2.3 1.4 3.6
Lower Kabete 3,076 2.3 1.4 3.8
Kibichiku 3,320 2.1 1.3 3.3
Ruku 1,415 2.4 1.5 3.9
Chura 656 2.5 1.5 4.1
NYATHUNA 6,005 2.5 1.5 4.0
Gathiga 1,420 2.5 1.5 4.1
Karura 1,062 2.5 1.5 4.0
Kirangari 2,102 2.4 1.5 3.9
Nyathuna 1,421 2.5 1.5 4.1
31
180
KIAMBU & THIKA
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KIAMBU & THIKA
THIKA DISTRICT
In the last Population and Housing Census (1999), Tika district had 645,713 residents occupying an area
of 1960.2 km
2
, with a population density of 329 persons/km
2
. Tika district is administratively divided into
six divisions namely: Gatanga, Gatundu, Kamwangi, Ruiru, Kakuzi and Tika Municipality. Te popula-
tion distribution in the Divisions, Locations and Sub-locations is shown in Table 8, while Table 9 depicts the
composition of households. Most of the land in the district is agriculturally viable and productive.
TABLE 8: POPULATION IN THIKA DISTRICT PER DIVISION, LOCATION AND
SUB -LOCATION (Source: Census 1999)
DIVISION/LOCATION
SUB-LOCATION
Male Female Total Households
Area in
km
2
Density
GATANGA 50,109 52,939 103,048 23,227 251.1 410
GATANGA 14,876 15,724 30,600 6,846 38 805
Ithangarari 1,865 2,016 3,881 838 4.4 882
Kigio 3,574 3,840 7,414 1,649 8.5 872
Kirwara/Chomo 5,152 5,199 10,351 2,255 16.3 635
Mugumoini 4,285 4,669 8,954 2,104 8.8 1,018
KARIARA 8,511 8,766 17,277 4,014 116.6 148
Gatura 2,770 2,954 5,724 1,338 11.6 493
Kiarutara 3,154 3,375 6,529 1,414 16.2 403
Kimakia 123 69 192 89 71.7 3
Mbugiti 2,464 2,368 4,832 1,173 17.1 283
KIGORO 9,293 9,572 18,865 4,523 45.6 414
Gitiri 1,662 1,800 3,462 747 7.1 488
Kigoro 2,955 2,989 5,944 1,437 13.5 440
Ndakaini 2,602 2,572 5,174 1,400 18.4 281
Ndunyu Chege 2,074 2,211 4,285 939 6.6 649
KIHUMBUINI 17,429 18,877 36,306 7,844 50.9 713
Gituamba/Kiunyu 4,189 4,524 8,713 1,952 9.4 927
Kihumbuini 2,120 2,282 4,402 1,015 6 734
Kiriani 3,810 4,322 8,132 1,632 14.4 565
Mukarara 2,175 2,331 4,506 945 6.3 715
Mukurwe/Thuita 5,135 5,418 10,553 2,300 14.8 713
GATUNDU 54,277 59,422 113,699 25,947 192.1 592
KIAMWANGI 10,615 11,728 22,343 5,289 27.8 804
Gathage 2,527 2,801 5,328 1,322 6.7 795
Kiamwangi 2,866 3,074 5,940 1,423 7.8 762
Nembu 5,222 5,853 11,075 2,544 13.3 833
KIGANJ O 12,908 14,042 26,950 5,956 56.6 476
Gachika 1,886 1,970 3,856 867 10 386
Gatitu 1,262 1,383 2,645 563 5.6 472
Kiamuoria 2,618 2,751 5,369 1,115 8.7 617
Kiganjo 3,513 3,971 7,484 1,694 13.8 542
Mundoro 2,044 2,193 4,237 976 9.9 428
Ndundu 1,585 1,774 3,359 741 816 391
NDARUGO 9,688 10,692 20,380 4,322 49.6 411
33
182
KIAMBU & THIKA
DIVISION/LOCATION
SUB-LOCATION
Male Female Total Households
Area in
km
2
Density
Gacharage 769 846 1,615 326 4.8 336
Gitwe 2,020 2,313 4,333 863 8.2 528
Karatu 1,119 1,244 2,363 566 7 338
Karinga 2,457 2,641 5,098 1,091 9.1 560
Kirangi 1,551 1,720 3,271 733 10.7 306
Munyuini 1,772 1,928 3,700 743 9.8 378
NGENDA 21,066 22,960 44,026 10,380 58.1 758
Githunguchu 3,524 3,900 7,424 1,703 7.3 1,017
Handege 1,603 1,679 3,282 739 5.9 556
Ituru 2,198 2,276 4,474 982 6.9 648
Kahuguini 2,972 3,249 6,221 1,400 8.7 715
Kiminyu 3,925 4,329 8,254 1,973 10.7 771
Kirangari 1,938 2,366 4,304 1,328 2.7 1,594
Ritho 2,649 2,752 5,401 1,198 8.8 614
Wamwangi 2,257 2,409 4,666 1,057 7.1 657
KAKUZI 36,321 35,301 71,622 18,741 481.2 149
ITHANGA 8,807 9,410 18,217 3,890 71.5 255
Kaguku 4,144 4,289 8,433 1,732 29.9 282
Giathanini 1,516 1,690 3,206 725 15.3 210
Ngelelya 3,147 3,431 6,578 1,433 26.3 250
KAKUZI 13,088 12,951 26,039 6,012 204.9 127
Gituamba 4,627 4,610 9,237 1,971 57.3 161
Kinyangi 2,825 2,604 5,429 1,443 71.2 76
Kirimiri 5,636 5,737 11,373 25,373 76.4 149
MITUMBIRI 9,877 9,100 18,977 5,440 143.2 133
Nanga 2,646 2,534 5,180 1,552 35.7 145
Thuthua 3,501 2,706 6,207 2,081 54.3 114
Wemba 3,730 3,860 7,590 1,807 53.2 143
SAMURU 4,549 3,840 8,389 3,399 61.6 136
Gathambara 3,405 2,866 6,271 2,614 36.6 171
Mwitingiri 1,144 974 2,118 785 25 85
KAMWANGI 47,941 51,519 99,460 22,607 289 344
CHANIA 13,079 14,153 27,232 6,258 36.8 740
Kairi 1,618 1,648 3,266 753 4.6 710
Kiamwangi 3,129 3,271 6,400 1,485 8.5 753
Makwa 2,001 2,250 4,251 929 5.5 773
Muirigo 1,470 1,693 3,163 732 3.3 958
Ngorongo 2,544 2,820 5,364 1,280 9.3 577
Nguna 2,317 2,471 4,788 1,079 5.6 855
GITHOBOKONI 12,082 12,793 24,875 5,633 178.4 139
Gachege 1,360 1,470 2,830 570 6.9 410
Gakoe 2,891 3,058 5,949 1,312 14 425
Gatei 2,560 2,806 5,366 1,171 9.2 583
TABLE 8: Continued
34
183
KIAMBU & THIKA
DIVISION/LOCATION
SUB-LOCATION
Male Female Total Households
Area in
km
2
Density
Gathaite 1,842 2,034 3,876 794 9.6 404
Kamunyaka 893 937 1,830 393 5.7 321
Kieni 1,310 1,152 2,462 825 125.9 20
Njahi 1,226 1,336 2,562 548 7.1 361
GITUAMBA 9,070 9,449 18,519 4,209 42.8 433
Gituamba 1,932 2,092 4,024 966 8.2 491
Kanyoni 2,230 2,196 4,426 975 9.2 481
Kiriko 2,040 2,289 4,329 891 8.8 492
Mataara 2,868 2,872 5,740 1,377 16.6 346
MANGU 13,710 15,124 28,834 6,507 31 930
Gatukuyu 3,050 3,270 6,320 1,472 4.5 1,404
Karuri 2,961 3,326 6,287 1,422 6.6 953
Mangu 2,933 3,235 6,168 1,397 6.4 964
Miteero 1,392 1,655 3,047 665 3.8 802
Mukurwe 1,573 1,723 3,296 728 4.8 687
Nyamangara 1,801 1,915 3,716 823 4.9 758
MUNICIPALITY 56,236 50,938 107,174 34,353 220.2 487
GATUANYAGA 9,145 8,797 17,942 5,083 126.7 142
Gatuanyaga 3,183 3,064 6,247 1,642 49.6 126
Munyu 2,517 2,693 5,210 1,221 32.9 158
Ngoliba 3,445 3,040 6,485 2,220 44.2 147
THIKA MUNICIPALITY 47,091 42,141 89,232 29,270 93.5 954
Biashara 5,537 5,309 10,846 3,161 3.2 3,389
Karimeni 2,096 2,482 4,578 1,265 28.1 163
Komu 30,274 25,871 56,145 19,209 29.1 1,929
Majengo 9,184 8,479 17,663 5,635 33.1 534
RUIRU 78,595 72,115 150,710 46,694 526.6 286
J UJ A 21,613 19,523 4,1136 12,420 235.8 174
Kalimoni 9,234 8,529 1,7763 5,231 150.8 118
Kiaora 9,962 9,155 1,9117 5,779 46.1 415
Komo 2,417 1,839 4256 1,410 38.9 109
RUIRU 56,982 52,592 10,9574 34,274 290.8 377
Kiuu 2,8502 27,887 5,6389 16,780 149 378
Mugutha 6,868 6,330 1,3198 3,656 66.4 199
Ruiru 20,138 17,246 3,7384 12,861 50.2 745
Theta 1,474 1,129 2,603 977 25.2 103
TABLE 8: Continued
35
184
KIAMBU & THIKA
TABLE 9: COMPOSITION OF HOUSEHOLDS IN THIKA DISTRICT PER DIVISION,
LOCATION AND SUB-LOCATION (Source: Census 1999)
DIVISION/LOCATION
SUB-LOCATION
Number of
Households
Composition of Family
15 years and
above
Under 15 years
Persons per
Household
GATANGA 23,227 2.7 1.7 4.4
GATANGA 6,846 2.7 1.7 4.5
Ithangarari 838 2.8 1.8 4.6
Kigio 1,649 2.8 1.7 4.5
Kirwara/Chomo 2,255 2.8 1.8 4.6
Mugumoini 2,104 2.6 1.7 4.3
KARIARA 4,014 2.6 1.7 4.3
Gatura 1,338 2.6 1.7 4.3
Kiarutara 1,414 2.8 1.8 4.6
Kimakia 89 1.3 0.8 2.2
Mbugiti 1,173 2.5 1.6 4.1
KIGORO 4,523 2.6 1.6 4.2
Gitiri 747 2.8 1.8 4.6
Kigoro 1,437 2.5 1.6 4.1
Ndakaini 1,400 2.3 1.4 3.7
Ndunyu Chege 939 2.8 1.8 4.6
KIHUMBUINI 7,844 2.8 1.8 4.6
Gituamba/Kiunyu 1,952 2.7 1.7 4.5
Kihumbuini 1,015 2.7 1.7 4.3
Kiriaini 1,632 3.1 1.9 5.0
Mukarara 945 2.9 1.8 4.8
Mukurwe/Thuita 2,300 2.8 1.8 4.6
GATUNDU 25,947 2.7 1.7 4.4
KIAMWANGI 5,289 2.6 1.6 4.2
Gathage 1,322 2.5 1.6 4.0
Kiamwangi 1,423 2.6 1.6 4.2
Nembu 2,544 2.7 1.7 4.4
KIGANJ O 5,956 2.8 1.8 4.5
Gachika 867 2.7 1.7 4.4
Gatitu 563 2.9 1.8 4.7
Kiamuoria 1,115 2.9 1.9 4.8
Kiganjo 1,694 2.7 1.7 4.4
Mundoro 976 2.7 1.7 4.3
NDARAGU 4,322 2.9 1.8 4.7
Gacharage 326 3.0 1.9 5.0
Gitwe 863 3.1 1.9 5.0
Karatu 566 2.6 1.6 4.2
Karinga 1,091 2.9 1.8 4.7
Kirangi 733 2.7 1.7 4.5
Munyuini 743 3.0 1.9 5.0
NGENDA 10,380 2.6 1.6 4.2
36
185
KIAMBU & THIKA
TABLE 9: Continued
DIVISION/LOCATION
SUB-LOCATION
Number of
Households
Composition of Family
15 years and
above
Under 15 years
Persons per
Household
Githunguchu 1,703 2.7 1.7 4.4
Handege 739 2.7 1.7 4.4
Ituru 982 2.8 1.8 4.6
Kahuguini 1,400 2.7 1.7 4.4
Kiminyu 1,973 2.6 1.6 4.2
Kirangari 1,328 2.0 1.3 3.2
Ritho 1,198 2.8 1.7 4.5
Wamwangi 1057 2.7 1.7 4.4
KAKUZI 18,741 2.3 1.5 3.8
ITHANGA 3,890 2.9 1.8 4.7
Kaguku 1,732 3.0 1.9 4.9
Giathanini 725 2.7 1.7 4.4
Ngelelya 1,433 2.8 1.8 4.6
KAKUZI 6,012 2.7 1.7 4.3
Gituamba 1,971 2.9 1.8 4.7
Kinyangi 1,443 2.3 1.5 3.8
Kirimiri 25,373 0.3 0.2 0.4
MITUMBIRI 5,440 2.1 1.4 3.5
Nanga 1,552 2.0 1.3 3.3
Thuthua 2,081 1.8 1.2 3.0
Wemba 1,807 2.6 1.6 4.2
SAMURU 3,399 1.5 1.0 2.5
Gathambara 2,614 1.5 0.9 2.4
Mwitingiri 785 1.7 1.0 2.7
KAMWANGI 22,607 2.7 1.7 4.4
CHANIA 6,258 2.7 1.7 4.4
Kairi 753 2.7 1.7 4.3
Kiamwangi 1,485 2.6 1.7 4.3
Makwa 929 2.8 1.8 4.6
Muirigo 732 2.6 1.7 4.3
Ngorongo 1,280 2.6 1.6 4.2
Nguna 1,079 2.7 1.7 4.4
GITHOBOKONI 5,633 2.7 1.7 4.4
Gachege 570 3.0 1.9 5.0
Gakoe 1,312 2.8 1.8 4.5
Gatei 1,171 2.8 1.8 4.6
Gathaite 794 3.0 1.9 4.9
Kamunyaka 393 2.9 1.8 4.7
Kieni 825 1.8 1.2 3.0
Njahi 548 2.9 1.8 4.7
GITUAMBA 4,209 2.7 1.7 4.4
Gituamba 966 2.6 1.6 4.2
37
186
KIAMBU & THIKA
DIVISION/LOCATION
SUB-LOCATION
Number of
Households
Composition of Family
15 years and
above
Under 15 years
Persons per
Household
Kanyoni 975 2.8 1.8 4.5
Kiriko 891 3.0 1.9 4.9
Mataara 1,377 2.6 1.6 4.2
MANGU 6,507 2.7 1.7 4.4
Gatukuyu 1,472 2.6 1.7 4.3
Karuri 1,422 2.7 1.7 4.4
Mangu 1,397 2.7 1.7 4.4
Miteero 665 2.8 1.8 4.6
Mukurwe 728 2.8 1.8 4.5
Nyamangara 823 2.8 1.8 4.5
MUNICIPALITY 34,353 1.9 1.2 3.1
GATUANYAGA 5,083 2.2 1.4 3.5
Gatuanyaga 1,642 2.3 1.5 3.8
Munyu 1,221 2.6 1.7 4.3
Ngoliba 2,220 1.8 1.1 2.9
THIKA MUNICIPALITY 29,270 1.9 1.2 3.0
Biashara 3,161 2.1 1.3 3.4
Karimeni 1,265 2.2 1.4 3.6
Komu 19,209 1.8 1.1 2.9
Majengo 5,635 1.9 1.2 3.1
RUIRU 46,694 2.0 1.3 3.2
J UJ A 12,420 2.0 1.3 3.3
Kalimoni 5,231 2.1 1.3 3.4
Kiaora 5,779 2.0 1.3 3.3
Komo 1,410 1.8 1.2 3.0
RUIRU 34,274 2.0 1.2 3.2
Kiuu 16,780 2.1 1.3 3.4
Mugutha 3,656 2.2 1.4 3.6
Ruiru 12,861 1.8 1.1 2.9
Theta 977 1.6 1.0 2.7
TABLE 9: Continued
38
187
KIAMBU & THIKA
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KIAMBU & THIKA
3.3.3 AGRICULTURAL STATISTICS:
Development and Trends of Major Cash Crops
KIAMBU
Te combination of good soils, suitable climate, well developed infrastructure and proximity to the countrys
main market, Nairobi, makes Kiambu the most economic farming region in the country. Approximately
over 14,700 hectares of coee are cultivated by smallholder farmers and yields more than 1,200 kg/ha per
annum, with a downward trend since 1995/96 due to less inputs because o the low coee prices. Tea is
grown on 3,500 ha and yields at least 9,000 kg of green leaves per ha per annum. Pyrethrum is also culti-
vated in small units. About 200 ha are grown with pyrethrum yielding an average of 890 kg/ha per annum
of dried owers. Tere are no signicant trends at present.
TABLE 11: KIAMBU DISTRICT, COFFEE AREA, PRODUCTION AND YIELD TRENDS
(Source: Ministry of Agriculture, DAOs Annual Reports and CBS)
Year
Area
(ha)
Production
(tons)
Yields
(kg/ha)
1980/81 10,996 6,744 613
1981/82 10,996 5,480 498
1982/83 11,573 5,180 448
1983/84 11,661 11,651 999
1984/85 13,057 5,772 442
1985/86 13,087 5,600 428
1986/87 13,051 7,187 551
1987/88 23,632 33,492 1,417
1988/89 36,942 33,492 907
1989/90 36,956 22,765 616
1990/91 36,956 18,167 492
1991/92 28,475 14,592 512
1992/93 24,500 13,971 570
1993/94 16,474 2,010 122
1994/95 15,265 18,118 1,187
1995/96 11,392 19,955 1,752
1996/97 12,870 18,460 1,434
1997/98 10,598 17,422 1,644
1998/99 11,200 17,702 1,581
1999/00 12,960 16,760 1,293
2000/01 13,280 17,400 1,310
2001/02 14,710 17,380 1,182
2002/03 14,700 18,030 1,227
40
189
KIAMBU & THIKA
TABLE 12: KIAMBU DISTRICT, TEA AREA, PRODUCTION AND YIELD TRENDS
(Source: Ministry of Agriculture, DAOs Reports and CBS)
Year Area (ha) Production (tons) Yields (kg/ha)
1980/81 4,944 16,410 3,319
1981/82 4,995 20,245 4,053
1982/83 4,995 17,615 3,527
1983/84 5,185 28,863 5,567
1984/85 5,267 27,377 5,198
1985/86 5,340 28,440 5,326
1986/87 5,410 32,860 6,074
1987/88 5,425 36,263 6,684
1988/89 5,275 42,729 8,100
1989/90 5,690 46,477 8,168
1990/91 6,043 48,591 8,041
1991/92 6,148 50,370 8,193
1992/93 6,256 51,800 8,280
1993/94 6,378 40,062 6,281
1994/95 6,868 60,790 8,851
1995/96 6,863 50,401 7,344
1996/97 5,780 47,278 8,180
1997/98 3,195 34,688 10,857
1998/99 3,195 27,425 8,584
1999/00 3,195 26,743 8,370
2000/01 3,190 25,800 8,088
2001/02 3,280 26,770 8,162
2002/03 3,450 31,640 9,171
2003/04 3,859 29,759 7,711
2004/05 3,859 29,864 7,739
TABLE 13: KIAMBU DISTRICT, PYRETHRUM AREA, PRODUCTION AND YIELD
TRENDS (Source: Ministry of Agriculture, DAOs Reports and CBS)
Year
Area
(ha)
Production
(metric tons of dried
owers)
Yields
(kg/ha)
1980/81 1,560 643 412
1981/82 1,560 546 350
1982/83 1,235 432 350
1983/84 433 195 450
1984/85 354 98 277
1985/86 179 107 598
1986/87 228 180 789
1987/88 303 260 858
1988/89 319 211 661
1989/90 580 174 300
1990/91 365 146 400
1991/92 340 280 824
1992/93 300 300 1,000
41
190
KIAMBU & THIKA 42
Year
Area
(ha)
Production
(metric tons of dried
owers)
Yields
(kg/ha)
1993/94 200 90 450
1994/95 147 123 837
1995/96 120 158 1,317
1996/97 110 98 891
1997/98 30 27 900
1998/99 70 129 1,843
1999/00 239 318.3 1,332
2000/01 170 147 865
2001/02 245 208 849
2002/03 202 180 891
THIKA
Tika district has potentially arable land equivalent to 146,450 ha. Curved o from the Greater Kiambu
district and portraying a well developed infrastructure as well as vibrant markets; the main cash crops are
tea and coee. Coee is cultivated on 10,548 ha, as at 2004, yielding 230 kg/ha per year only because it is
neglected due to the low coee prices. On the other hand, tea is grown on smallholders of roughly 7,334 ha
producing of 9,018 kg/ha of green leaves per annum.
TABLE 14: THIKA DISTRICT, COFFEE AREA, PRODUCTION AND YIELD TRENDS
(Source: Ministry of Agriculture, DAOs Reports and CBS)
Year
Area
(ha)
Production
(tons)
Yields
(kg/ha)
1993/94 5,900 6,544 1,109
1994/95 5,910 6,553 1,109
1995/96 9,570 16,117 1,684
1996/97 12,079 15,650 1,296
1997/98 12,079 5,706 472
1998/99 12,079 2,100 174
1999/00 11,056 2,620 237
2000/01 11,000 2,600 236
2001/02 11,004 2,596 236
2002/03 11,119 2,562 230
2003/04 10,548 6,553 621
2004/05 10,548 10,813 1,025
TABLE 13: Continued
191
KIAMBU & THIKA 43
TABLE 15: THIKA DISTRICT, TEA AREA, PRODUCTION AND YIELD TRENDS (Source:
Ministry of Agriculture, DAOs Reports and CBS)
Year
Area
(ha)
Production
(tons)
Yields
kg/ha)
1993/94 5,512 49,057 8,900
1994/95 6,500 50,967 7,841
1995/96 7,051 70,012 9,929
1996/97 5,786 50,367 8,705
1997/98 6,540 62,541 9,563
1998/99 7,051 8,156 1,157
1999/00 7,000 80,557 11,508
2000/01 6,950 64,437 9,272
2001/02 6,900 75,090 10,883
2002/03 6,800 58,999 8,676
2003/04 7,334 72,595 9,898
2004/05 7,334 66,143 9,018
192
KIAMBU & THIKA 44
DISTRIBUTION OF FARMING ACTIVITIES DURING THE YEAR PER WEEKS AND
AGRO-ECOLOGICAL ZONES
193
KIAMBU & THIKA 45
194
KIAMBU & THIKA 46
195
KIAMBU & THIKA 47
196
KIAMBU & THIKA 48
197
KIAMBU & THIKA 49
198
KIAMBU & THIKA 50
199
KIAMBU & THIKA 51
200
KIAMBU & THIKA 52
201
KIAMBU & THIKA 53
202
KIAMBU & THIKA 54
3.3.4 FARM SURVEY
Te Farm Survey was carried out in seven main agroecological zones and the respective dominant subzones
in Kiambu and Tika districts as shown in Table 17. Te sample farm sizes were: 1.1 & 1.53 ha resp. (LH
1), 1.66 (LH 3), 1.37 ha (UM1), 0.67 &, 1.05 ha resp. (UM2) and 2.22 ha (LM4) (Table 18). Compared
to the Farm Survey of 1978, there is evidence of a tremendous decrease in farm sizes over the years. For
example, during the 1978 farm survey, farm holding sizes in agroecological zones LH1 (-UM1), UM1 (1-)
2 and UM4-5, averaged 2.9 ha, 2.6 ha and 3.2 ha, respectively. Compared to the 2004 farm survey, there is
evidence that these farm sizes have decreased tremendously. Tis decrease has serious implications for food
production and hence food security in these districts. On average, roughly one-third of the land is used
for annual crops, one-third planted with perennials, and one-third used for grazing and forage production
(Table 18). Te arable land is cropped intensively, i.e. over ve crops per year. Tere are however excep-
tions, for example, Ngoliba in Tika District, where we have 30 crop combinations grown during the rst
rains, 25 in the second rains and 11 permanent crops (Table 19g). Te stocking rate, with over 6 TLU/ha,
is extremely high, but it should be noted that zero grazing and purchasing of animal feed is very common
in these districts. Over 80 % of all cattle kept by farmers are dairy stock.
Te use of farm inputs is widespread, indicating that farmers are well informed on crop husbandry and that
its use is economical. Maize and beans still remain the most important and dominant annual crops in all
the surveyed seven agroecological zones (Table 19). Te yields of the basic food crop maize have improved
by extensive use of fertilisers and manures. Tis clearly demonstrates that the returns from fertilizer and
manure applications to maintain soil fertility increases food output per unit area. But in the most favour-
able zone UM2 on the well drained extremely deep ando-humic Nitosols signs of exhaustion are alarming
(Table 20b).
Te farmers in Kiambu and Tika districts enjoy a greater comparative advantage over most other farming
regions of Kenya because of their close proximity to Nairobi, the capital city of Kenya. As shown above, it
is important to arrest the soil fertility decline by use of fertilizers, organic manure and compost, with very
encouraging returns. Intensive mixed farming, practicing zero grazing and expanding horticultural area will
continue to generate good income for the farmers in these two districts in future. As the farming enterprises
become more complex, there will be need for more specialized extension advice, particularly in horticulture
and plant protection.
TABLE 17: FARM SURVEY SITES IN KIAMBU AND THIKA DISTRICTS
District
No. in
Kenya
Agro-Ecological Unit
Farm Survey Sites
AEZone Subzone Soil Unit
KIAMBU
116 LH2-3 m/s +(s)
to s/m +(s/vs)
RB 2 Kikuyu Division, Kikuyu Location,
Kikuyu Sub-location
117 LH 1
(- UM 2)
1)
f l i m
(to m +s/m)
RB 2 Githunguri Division, Githiga
Location, Githiga Sub-location
118 UM 2 m +s/m RB 3
Municipality Division, Ndumberi
Location
THIKA
119 LH 1 p or l/vl^m RB 1 Gatundu Division, Ndarugu
Location, Karatu Sub-location
120 UM 1 f l i m RB 1 Gatundu Division, Ndarugu
Location, Karinga Sub-location
121 UM 2 m /l i m/s RB 2 Gatundu Division, Ritho/Ngenda
Location, Ritho Sub-location
122 UM-LM 4 s/vs +s/vs UU 1 Thika Municipality, Gatuanyaga
Location, Ngoliba Sub-location
1)
UM 1 and 2 are bordered only by this sub-location, therefore the brackets.
203
KIAMBU & THIKA 55
204
KIAMBU & THIKA 56
TABLE 18a: ASSETS, LAND USE, FARMING INTENSITY AND INPUTS IN AEZ LH 2 - 3 OF
KIAMBU DISTRICT
Subzone: m/s + (s) to s/m + (s/vs), Soil unit: RB 2 Survey Area 116 (Kikuyu)
Range
Assets People on farm
Land
ha
Livestock Numbers
Family
Adults
Casual
Labourers
Permanent
Labourers
Number of
children
under 14
years
Dairy Zebu
Sheep &
Goats
Donkey
Poultry
(Exotic)
Avg.0 1.66 3.47 0.47 3.23 0.3 10 1.6 1.13 0.2 0.5
Avg.1 1.66 3.71 1.56 5.71 1 300 1.6 1.89 1 1.88
Up. Qu. 2.49 6 1 5 1 0 2 2 0 1
Lo. Qu. 0.8 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0
Land Use
Range
Ann. Crops
ha
Perm. Crops
ha
Permanent pasture & Fodder Crops
ha
Fallow
ha
Other Use
ha
Avg.0 0.73 0.06 0.33 - 0.54
Avg.1 0.73 0.10 0.37 - 0.60
Up. Qu. 1 0.1 0.4 - 0.99
Lo. Qu. 0.3 0 0.09 - 0.41
Farming Intensity
Range
Cropping
Diversity
Crops/year
Stocking Rate
Improved
Cattle %
of total
Farm Land
TLU/ha
Permanent pasture & Fodder Crops
TLU/ha
Dairy Zebu
Sheep &
Goats
Dairy Zebu
Sheep &
Goats
Avg.0 5.6 2.4 0.3 0.4 11.4 1.4 1.9 84.4
Avg.1 5.6 2.5 1.0 0.7 11.0 4.2 3.1 90.4
Up. Qu. 7 3.9 0.5 0.5 16.5 2.5 2.5 100
Lo. Qu. 4 1.9 0 0 11.7 0 0 75
TLU: Tropical Livestock Unit is a KARI derived factor loading for animals stock in the tropics e.g. dairy =1.1, local
breeds=1.0, cross breeds=1.05, sheep=0.11 and goats=0.09.
Inputs Applied
Range
Improved
seeds used
% of area
Fertilizer applied as pure nutrient
kg/ha
Manure
applied
t/ha
Plant protection
N P
2
O
5
K
2
O
Insecticide
kg/ha
Fungicide
kg/ha
AC AC PC AC PC AC PC AC PC AC PC AC PC
Avg.0 29.1 1.7 - 2.7 - - - 0.8 - 0.01 0.05 0 0
Avg.1 39.7 2.5 - 3.9 - - - 3.5 - 0.13 1.0 0 0
Up. Qu. 48.3 0.9 9.4 2.0 - - - 0.1 0.6 0 0 0 0
Lo. Qu. 0 0 - 0 - - - 0 - 0 - 0 0
NOTES:
Avg.0 =average of all sample farms
Avg.1 =average of farms, excluding zero entries
Up. Qu./Lo. Qu. =Upper/Lower Quartile, referstoindividual farms, 50%of all samplecasesliebetweenthese =Upper/Lower Quartile, refers to individual farms, 50% of all sample cases lie between these
AC =Annual crops
PC =Perennial crops
205
KIAMBU & THIKA 57
TABLE 18b: ASSETS, LAND USE, FARMING INTENSITY AND INPUTS IN
AEZ LH 1 ( - UM 2) OF KIAMBU DISTRICT
Subzone: h i m (to m + m/s), Soil unit: RB 2 Survey Area 117 (Githiga)
Range
Assets People on farm
Land
ha
Livestock Numbers
Family
Adults
Casual
Labourers
Permanent
Labourers
Number of
children under
14 years
Dairy Zebu
Sheep
& Goats
Donkey Poultry
B/
hives
Rabbits
Avg.0 1.1 3.23 0 1.33 0.13 2.57 0.07 0.17 3.4 1.1 0.37 1.93
Avg.1 1.1 3.23 4.44 1.33 8.56 2 5 3.4 2.36 2.2 3.05
Up. Qu. 1.45 4.25 0 2.25 0 5.25 0 0 5 2 0 3
Lo. Qu. 0.28 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0
Land Use
Range
Ann. Crops
ha
Perm. Crops
ha
Permanent pasture &
Fodder Crops
ha
Fallow
ha
Forage
ha
Other
Use
ha
Avg.0 0.29 0.49 0.17 - 0.08 0.07
Avg.1 0.29 0.51 0.32 - 0.32 0.14
Up. Qu. 0.4 0.61 0.14 0.19 0.01 0.10
Lo. Qu. 0.1 0.01 0 0.17 0 0
Farming Intensity
Range
Cropping
Diversity
Crops/year
Stocking Rate
Improved
Cattle % of
total
Farm Land
TLU/ha
Permanent pasture & Fodder
Crops
TLU/ha
Dairy Zebu
Sheep &
Goats
Dairy Zebu
Sheep &
Goats
Avg.0 7.4 3.5 0 0.3 20.6 0 1.5 86.7
Avg.1 7.4 4.1 0 0.9 12.7 0 2.7 100
Up. Qu. 10 3.2 0 0.3 33.4 0 3.2 100
Lo. Qu. 4.5 4.0 0 0 - - - 100
TLU: Tropical Livestock Unit is a KARI derived factor loading for animals stock in the tropics e.g. dairy =1.1, local
breeds=1.0, cross breeds=1.05, sheep=0.11 and goats=0.09.
Inputs Applied
Range
Improved
seeds used
% of area
Fertilizer applied as pure nutrient
kg/ha
Manure
applied
t/ha
Plant protection
N P
2
O
5
K
2
O
Insecticide
kg/ha
Fungicide
kg/ha
AC AC PC AC PC AC PC AC PC AC PC AC PC
Avg.0 27.0 13.4 9.5 22.7 16.1 10.7 7.6 2.2 1.5 0.1 0.1 0.2 0.2
Avg.1 50.5 22.1 13.5 28.9 17.6 33.2 20.2 6.0 3.7 1.8 1.1 1.2 0.7
Up. Qu. 45.6 5.3 3.5 7.3 4.8 1.8 1.2 0.8 0.5 0 0 0 0
Lo. Qu. 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
NOTES:
Avg.0 =average of all sample farms
Avg.1 =average of farms, excluding zero entries
Up. Qu./Lo. Qu. =Upper/Lower Quartile, referstoindividual farms, 50%of all samplecasesliebetweenthese =Upper/Lower Quartile, refers to individual farms, 50% of all sample cases lie between these
AC =Annual crops
PC =Perennial crops
206
KIAMBU & THIKA 58
TABLE 18c: ASSETS, LAND USE, FARMING INTENSITY AND INPUTS IN AEZ UM 2 OF
KIAMBU DISTRICT
Subzone: m + s/m, Soil unit: RB 3 Survey Area 118 (Ndumberi)
Range
Assets People on farm
Land
ha
Livestock Numbers
Family
Adults
Casual
Labourers
Permanent
Labourers
Number of
children under
14 years
Dairy Zebu
Sheep &
Goats
Pigs
Poultry
(Local)
Poultry
(Broilers)
Avg.0 0.67 3.71 0 1.42 3.03 2.94 5.48 2.35 1.26 0.10 0.87
Avg.1 0.67 4.42 - 4.4 5.53 18.2 170 2.35 2.44 1.5 2.25
Up. Qu. 0.96 4 0 2 4 0 0 3 2 0 2
Lo. Qu. 0.25 1 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0
Land Use
Range
Ann. Crops
ha
Perm. Crops
ha
Permanent pasture & Fodder Crops
ha
Fallow
ha
Forage
ha
Other Use
ha
Avg.0 0.16 0.32 0.09 - 0.03 0.07
Avg.1 0.16 0.34 0.23 - 0.10 0.12
Up. Qu. 0.2 0.4 0.12 0.1 0.04 0.1
Lo. Qu. 0.08 0.03 0 0.04 0 0.1
Farming Intensity
Range
Cropping
Diversity
Crops/year
Stocking Rate
Improved
Cattle %
of total
Farm Land
TLU/ha
Permanent pasture &
Fodder Crops
TLU/ha
Dairy Zebu
Sheep &
Goats
Dairy Zebu
Sheep &
Goats
Avg.0 4 6.6 0 0.46 46.0 0 3.2 83.9
Avg.1 4 7.9 0 1.42 21.2 0 3.8 100
Up. Qu. 5 4.6 0 0.42 36.7 0 3.3 100
Lo. Qu. 3 4.4 0 0 - - - 100
TLU: Tropical Livestock Unit is a KARI derived factor loading for animals stock in the tropics e.g. dairy =1.1, local
breeds=1.0, cross breeds=1.05, sheep=0.11 and goats=0.09.
Inputs Applied
Range
Improved
seeds used
% of area
Fertilizer applied as pure nutrient
kg/ha
Manure
applied
t/ha
Plant protection
N P
2
O
5
K
2
O
Insecticide
kg/ha
Fungicide
kg/ha
AC AC PC AC PC AC PC AC PC AC PC AC PC
Avg.0 57.7 7.5 3.7 10.0 5.0 0.7 0.3 - - 0 0 0.3 0.2
Avg.1 68.8 7.5 3.8 9.7 5.0 19.4 10.0 - 18.5 0 0 2.9 1.5
Up. Qu. 81.3 9 5 10 5 0 0 - 17.5 0 0 0 0
Lo. Qu. 40.7 1.5 3.7 3.5 - 0 0 - - 0 0 0 0
NOTES:
Avg.0 =average of all sample farms
Avg.1 =average of farms, excluding zero entries
Up. Qu./Lo. Qu. =Upper/Lower Quartile, referstoindividual farms, 50%of all samplecasesliebetweenthese =Upper/Lower Quartile, refers to individual farms, 50% of all sample cases lie between these
AC =Annual crops
PC =Perennial crops
207
KIAMBU & THIKA 59
TABLE 18d: ASSETS, LAND USE, FARMING INTENSITY AND INPUTS IN AEZ LH 1 OF
THIKA DISTRICT
Subzone: p or l/vl^m, Soil unit: RB 1 Survey Area 119 (Karatu)
Range
Assets People on farm
Land
ha
Livestock Numbers
Family
Adults
Casual
Labourers
Permanent
Labourers
Number of
children
under
14 years
Dairy Zebu
Sheep &
Goats
Poultry
(Exotic
Poultry
(Local)
Rabbits
Avg.0 1.53 2.1 0 2.3 3.33 2.9 0.03 3.57 1.63 0.03 1.33
Avg.1 1.53 2.63 3.29 100 6.21 1 3.57 2.23 1 2.86
Up. Qu. 2.15 3 0 3.25 0 4 0 5 3 0 3
Lo. Qu. 0.46 1 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0
Land Use
Range
Ann. Crops
ha
Perm. Crops
ha
Permanent pasture & Fodder Crops
ha
Fallow
ha
Forage
ha
Other Use
ha
Avg.0 0.30 0.89 0.21 - 0.01 0.12
Avg.1 0.30 0.89 0.22 - 0.15 0.21
Up. Qu. 0.41 1.11 0.3 0.24 0 0.09
Lo. Qu. 0.14 0.20 0.09 0.03 0 0
Farming Intensity
Range
Cropping
Diversity
Crops/year
Stocking Rate
Improved
Cattle %
of total
Farm Land
TLU/ha
Permanent pasture &
Fodder Crops
TLU/ha
Dairy Zebu
Sheep &
Goats
Dairy Zebu
Sheep &
Goats
Avg.0 7.03 1.52 0 0.30 11.16 0 2.22 80
Avg.1 7.03 1.90 0 0.43 13.02 0 2.96 100
Up. Qu. 8 1.53 0 0.30 11.0 0 2.17 100
Lo. Qu. 6 2.39 0 0 - 0 0 100
TLU: Tropical Livestock Unit is a KARI derived factor loading for animals stock in the tropics e.g. dairy =1.1,
local breeds=1.0, cross breeds=1.05, sheep=0.11 and goats=0.09.
Inputs Applied
Range
Improved
seeds used
% of area
Fertilizer applied as pure nutrient
kg/ha
Manure
applied
t/ha
Plant protection
N P
2
O
5
K
2
O
Insecticide
kg/ha
Fungicide
kg/ha
AC AC PC AC PC AC PC AC PC AC PC AC PC
Avg.0 32.2 4.2 1.4 27.3 9.1 - 19.8 18.0 6.0 0 0 1.7 0.6
Avg.1 37.2 41.5 13.8 30.3 10.1 - 33.0 20.0 6.6 0 0 8.4 2.8
Up. Qu. 43.7 0 0 27.9 10.4 - 24.2 17.0 6.3 0 0 0 0
Lo. Qu. 19.1 0 0 14.6 - - 0 14.4 10.2 0 0 0 0
NOTES:
Avg.0 =average of all sample farms
Avg.1 =average of farms, excluding zero entries
Up. Qu./Lo. Qu. =Upper/Lower Quartile, referstoindividual farms, 50%of all samplecasesliebetweenthese =Upper/Lower Quartile, refers to individual farms, 50% of all sample cases lie between these
AC =Annual crops
PC =Perennial crops
208
KIAMBU & THIKA 60
TABLE 18e: ASSETS, LAND USE, FARMING INTENSITY AND INPUTS IN AEZ UM 1 OF
THIKA DISTRICT
Subzone: h i m, Soil unit: RB 1 Survey Area 120 (Karinga)
Range
Assets People on farm
Land
ha
Livestock Numbers
Family
Adults
Casual
Labourers
Number of
children under
14 years
Dairy Zebu
Sheep &
Goats
Poultry
Avg.0 1.37 2.3 0 1.4 2.8 3.9 1.83 1.47
Avg.1 1.37 3 - 2.63 8.4 3.9 2.5 2.75
Up. Qu. 1.86 4 0 2 5 7 2.25 2
Lo. Qu. 0.77 0.75 0 0 0 2 0 0
Land Use
Range
Ann. Crops
ha
Perm. Crops
ha
Permanent pasture & Fodder Crops
ha
Fallow
ha
Other Use
ha
Avg.0 0.32 0.80 0.18 0.01 0.06
Avg.1 0.32 0.80 0.19 - 0.19
Up. Qu. 0.44 0.96 0.26 0.03 0.17
Lo. Qu. 0.2 0.34 0.13 0 0.1
Farming Intensity
Range
Cropping
Diversity
Crops/year
Stocking Rate
Improved
Cattle
% of total
Farm Land
LU/ha
Permanent pasture &
Fodder Crops
TLU/ha
Dairy Zebu
Sheep &
Goats
Dairy Zebu
Sheep &
Goats
Avg.0 7.5 1.84 0 0.20 13.92 0 1.54 76.7
Avg.1 7.5 2.41 0 0.38 16.95 0 2.70 100
Up. Qu. 9 2.37 0 0.22 17.25 0 1.57 100
Lo. Qu. 6 1.06 0 0 8.25 0 0 75
TLU: Tropical Livestock Unit is a KARI derived factor loading for animals stock in the tropics e.g. dairy =1.1,
local breeds=1.0, cross breeds=1.05, sheep=0.11 and goats=0.09.
Inputs Applied
Range
Improved
seeds used
% of area
Fertilizer applied as pure nutrient
kg/ha
Manure
applied
t/ha
Plant protection
N P
2
O
5
K
2
O
Insecticide
kg/ha
Fungicide
kg/ha
AC AC PC AC PC AC PC AC PC AC PC AC PC
Avg.0 37.6 10.0 4.1 52.9 21.4 11.0 4.5 16.2 6.6 0.01 0.00 7.1 2.9
Avg.1 43.4 25.1 10.2 56.7 22.9 66.2 26.8 17.3 7.0 0.31 0.12 42.5 17.2
Up. Qu. 53.8 13.7 6.3 52.3 23.9 0 0 16.0 7.3 0 0 0 0
Lo. Qu. 10.3 0 0 27.3 16.1 0 0 10.0 5.9 0 0 0 0
NOTES:
Avg.0 =average of all sample farms
Avg.1 =average of farms, excluding zero entries
Up. Qu./Lo. Qu. =Upper/Lower Quartile, referstoindividual farms, 50%of all samplecasesliebetweenthese =Upper/Lower Quartile, refers to individual farms, 50% of all sample cases lie between these
AC =Annual crops
PC =Perennial crops
209
KIAMBU & THIKA 61
TABLE 18f: ASSETS, LAND USE, FARMING INTENSITY AND INPUTS IN AEZ UM 2 OF
THIKA DISTRICT
Subzone: m/l i m/s, Soil unit: RB 2 Survey Area 121 (Ritho)
Range
Assets People on farm
Land
ha
Livestock Numbers
Family
Adults
Casual
Labourers
Permanent
Labourers
Number of
children
under
14 years
Dairy Zebu
Sheep
&
Goats
Poultry
(Exotic)
Poultry
(Local)
Rabbits
Avg.0 1.05 2.47 0 1.4 30.7 7 0.23 2.97 1.53 0.1 1.77
Avg.1 1.05 2.64 - 3.82 460 15 7 2.97 2.3 1.5 2.65
Up. Qu. 1.30 3 0 3 0 10 0 3.25 2 0 3
Lo. Qu. 0.6 1.75 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0
Land Use
Range
Ann. Crops
ha
Perm. Crops
ha
Permanent pasture & Fodder Crops
ha
Fallow
ha
Other Use
ha
Avg.0 0.34 0.51 0.16 - 0.04
Avg.1 0.34 0.51 0.16 - 0.13
Up. Qu. 0.43 0.61 0.2 - 0.06
Lo. Qu. 0.15 0.20 0.2 - 0.05
Farming Intensity
Range
Cropping
Diversity
Crops/year
Stocking Rate
Improved
Cattle
% of total
Farm Land
TLU/ha
Permanent pasture &
Fodder Crops
TLU/ha
Dairy Zebu
Sheep &
Goats
Dairy Zebu
Sheep &
Goats
Avg.0 7.3 2.6 0 0.3 17.5 0 1.8 93.3
Avg.1 7.3 2.8 0 0.7 18.7 0 4.9 100
Up. Qu. 8 2.75 0 0.5 16.5 0 3 100
Lo. Qu. 6 3.2 0 0 - 0 0 100
TLU: Tropical Livestock Unit is a KARI derived factor loading for animals stock in the tropics e.g. dairy =1.1, local
breeds=1.0, cross breeds=1.05, sheep=0.11 and goats=0.09.
Inputs Applied
Range
Improved
seeds used
% of area
Fertilizer applied as pure nutrient
kg/ha
Manure
applied
t/ha
Plant protection
N P
2
O
5
K
2
O
Insecticide
kg/ha
Fungicide
kg/ha
AC AC PC AC PC AC PC AC PC AC PC AC PC
Avg.0 41.7 6.2 4.2 42.9 29.0 11.7 7.9 13.5 9.1 0.4 0.3 6.2 4.2
Avg.1 50.1 19.9 13.9 47.9 33.5 24.3 17.0 13.5 9.5 5.7 4.0 12.9 9.0
Up. Qu. 63.3 4.7 3.3 54.1 38.0 10.3 7.2 14.1 9.9 0 0 1.2 0.9
Lo. Qu. 9.7 0 0 15.3 11.5 0 0 - - 0 0 0 0
NOTES:
Avg.0 =average of all sample farms
Avg.1 =average of farms, excluding zero entries
Up. Qu./Lo. Qu. =Upper/Lower Quartile, referstoindividual farms, 50%of all samplecasesliebetweenthese =Upper/Lower Quartile, refers to individual farms, 50% of all sample cases lie between these
AC =Annual crops
PC =Perennial crops
210
KIAMBU & THIKA 62
TABLE 18g: ASSETS, LAND USE, FARMING INTENSITY AND INPUTS IN AEZ UM - LM 4
OF THIKA DISTRICT
Subzone: s/vs + s/vs, Soil unit: UU1 Survey Area 122 (Ngoliba)
Range
Assets People on farm
Land
ha
Livestock Numbers
Family
Adults
Casual
Labourers
Permanent
Labourers
Number of
children
under
14 years
Dairy Zebu
Sheep
&
Goats
Poultry
(Local)
Poultry
(exotic)
Pigs Donkeys
Rab-
bits
B/
hives
Avg.0 2.22 0.5 4.0 8 12.5 106.7 2.2 0.03 0.5 0.13 2.9 3.0 0.5 1.0
Avg.1 2.22 7 7.6 11.4 17 106.7 33 1 4.7 4 2.9 4.2 1.8 2.4
Up. Qu. 2 0 6.3 10.5 10 0 0 0 0 0 4 4 1 2
Lo. Qu. 0.4 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0
Land Use
Range
Ann. Crops
ha
Perm. Crops
ha
Permanent pasture & Fodder Crops
ha
Fallow
ha
Forage
ha
Other
Use
ha
Avg.0 0.78 0.08 0.14 - 0.09 1.13
Avg.1 0.78 0.09 0.81 - 0.26 1.54
Up. Qu. 1.15 0.1 0 0.34 0.11 0.30
Lo. Qu. 0.34 0.01 0 0.05 0 0
Farming Intensity
Range
Cropping
Diversity
Crops/year
Stocking Rate
Improved
Cattle
% of total
Farm Land
TLU/ha
Permanent pasture &
Fodder Crops
TLU/ha
Dairy Zebu
Sheep &
Goats
Dairy Zebu
Sheep &
Goats
Avg.0 10 0.2 1.8 0.7 3.8 29.8 11.8 4.4
Avg.1 10 3.5 3.4 1.0 9.5 9.3 2.8 66.7
Up. Qu. 12 0 3.1 1.1 - - - 0
Lo. Qu. 8 0 0 0 - - - 0
TLU: Tropical Livestock Unit is a KARI derived factor loading for animals stock in the tropics e.g. dairy =1.1,
local breeds=1.0, cross breeds=1.05, sheep=0.11 and goats=0.09.
Inputs Applied
Range
Improved
seeds used
% of area
Fertilizer applied as pure nutrient
kg/ha
Manure
applied
t/ha
Plant protection
N P
2
O
5
K
2
O
Insecticide
kg/ha
Fungicide
kg/ha
AC AC PC AC PC AC PC AC PC AC PC AC PC
Avg.0 35.0 10.4 - 44.6 - - - 12.9 - 0.1 0.8 0.9 -
Avg.1 58.4 31.1 - - - - - 16.1 - 1.3 - 3.5 -
Up. Qu. 51.0 10.0 - 43.4 - - - 9.5 - 0 0 0.1 1.3
Lo. Qu. 0 0 - 0 - - - 0.4 - 0 0 0 0
NOTES:
Avg.0 =average of all sample farms
Avg.1 =average of farms, excluding zero entries
Up. Qu./Lo. Qu. =Upper/Lower Quartile, referstoindividual farms, 50%of all samplecasesliebetweenthese =Upper/Lower Quartile, refers to individual farms, 50% of all sample cases lie between these
AC =Annual crops; PC =Perennial crops
211
KIAMBU & THIKA
TABLE 19a: CROPPING PATTERN IN AEZ LH 2 - 3 OF KIAMBU DISTRICT
Subzone: m/s + (s) to s/m + (s/vs), Soil unit: RB 2 Survey Area 116 (Kikuyu)
First Rainy Season
Annual & Bi-annual Crops
Crops
Average
0
ha
Average
1
ha
Upper
Quartile
ha
Lower
Quartile
ha
Total Sample Area of 30 Farms
ha %
Beans 0.01 0.12 0 0 0.35 1.70
Cabbages 0.01 0.18 0 0 0.35 1.70
Irish potatoes 0.10 0.12 0.2 0.05 2.95 14.29
Kales 0.02 0.09 0.03 0 0.73 3.54
Maize 0.13 0.63 0 0 3.8 18.41
Maize & Beans 0.40 0.45 0.53 0.2 12.06 58.43
Spinach 0.01 0.06 0 0 0.25 1.21
Vegetables 0.01 0.08 0 0 0.15 0.73
Total Sample Area 0.69 20.64 100
Second Rainy Season
Annual & Bi-annual Crops
Crop
Average
0
ha
Average
1
ha
Upper
Quartile
ha
Lower
Quartile
ha
Total Sample Area of 30 Farms
ha %
Beans 0.02 0.15 0 0 0.45 2.38
Cabbages 0.01 0.18 0 0 0.35 1.85
Irish potatoes 0.09 0.11 0.13 0.05 2.75 14.52
Kales 0.02 0.08 0.03 0 0.63 3.33
Maize 0.05 0.7 0 0 1.4 7.39
Maize & Beans 0.43 0.46 0.6 0.2 12.96 68.43
Spinach 0.01 0.06 0 0 0.25 1.32
Vegetables 0.01 0.08 0 0 0.15 0.79
Total Sample Area 0.64 18.94 100
Perennial Crops
Crops
Average
0
ha
Average
1
ha
Upper
Quartile
ha
Lower
Quartile
ha
Total Sample Area of 30 Farms
ha %
Avocado 0.01 0.2 0 0 0.2 10.64
Bananas 0.05 0.10 0.1 0 1.53 81.38
Fruit trees 0.00 0.1 0 0 0.1 5.32
Oranges 0.00 0.05 0 0 0.05 2.66
Total Sample Area 0.06 1.88 100
NOTES:
Avg.0 =average of all sample farms
Avg.1 =average of farms, excluding zero entries
Up. Qu./Lo. =Upper/Lower Quartile, refers to individual farms, 50% of all sample cases lie between these
63
212
KIAMBU & THIKA 64
TABLE 19b: CROPPING PATTERN IN AEZ LH 1 ( - UM 2) OF KIAMBU DISTRICT
Subzone: h i m (to m + s/m), Soil unit: RB 2 Survey Area 117 (Githiga)
First Rainy Season
Annual & Bi-annual Crops
Crops
Average
0
ha
Average
1
ha
Upper
Quartile
ha
Lower
Quartile
ha
Total Sample Area of 30 Farms
ha %
Arabicum 0.03 0.13 0 0 0.75 8.37
Arrow roots 0.01 0.07 0 0 0.2 2.23
Beans 0.02 0.10 0.01 0 0.73 8.15
Courgette 0.00 0.05 0 0 0.1 1.12
Cabbages 0.02 0.18 0 0 0.55 6.14
Carrots 0.01 0.07 0 0 0.2 2.23
Coriander (Dhania) 0.00 0.1 0 0 0.1 1.12
Irish potatoes 0.04 0.08 0.06 0 1.19 13.28
Kales 0.02 0.06 0.05 0 0.68 7.59
Kales & Cabbages 0.00 0.04 0 0 0.04 0.45
Kales & Spinach 0.01 0.07 0 0 0.29 3.24
Kales, Cabbages &
horticultural crops
0.01 0.08 0 0 0.25 2.79
Maize 0.05 0.15 0.06 0 1.45 16.18
Maize & Beans 0.04 0.10 0.05 0 1.08 12.05
Onions 0.00 0.05 0 0 0.05 0.56
Ornis 0.00 0.05 0 0 0.05 0.56
Spinach 0.02 0.2 0 0 0.6 6.70
Sweet potatoes 0.00 0.05 0 0 0.05 0.56
Tomatoes 0.02 0.08 0.03 0 0.55 6.14
Vegetables 0.00 0.05 0 0 0.05 0.56
Total Sample Area 0.3 8.96 100
213
KIAMBU & THIKA
TABLE 19b Contin.: CROPPING PATTERN IN AEZ LH 1 (- UM 2) OF KIAMBU DISTRICT
Subzone: h i m (to m + s/m), Soil unit: RB 2 Survey Area 117 (Githiga)
Second Rainy Season
Annual & Bi-annual Crops
Crops
Average
0
ha
Average
1
ha
Upper
Quartile
ha
Lower
Quartile
ha
Total Sample Area of 30 Farms
ha %
Arabicum 0.02 0.14 0 0 0.7 8.58
Arrow roots 0.00 0.05 0 0 0.2 2.45
Beans 0.02 0.11 0 0 0.63 7.72
Courgette 0.00 0.05 0 0 0.05 0.61
Cabbages 0.02 0.25 0 0 0.5 6.13
Carrots 0.01 0.13 0 0 0.25 3.06
Coriander (Dhania) 0.00 0.1 0 0 0.1 1.23
Irish potatoes 0.04 0.08 0.06 0 1.14 13.97
Kales 0.02 0.06 0.05 0 0.53 6.50
Kales & Cabbages 0.00 0.04 0 0 0.04 0.49
Kales & Spinach 0.01 0.07 0 0 0.29 3.55
Kales, Cabbages &
horticultural crops
0.01 0.08 0 0 0.25 3.06
Maize 0.05 0.15 0.06 0 1.45 17.77
Maize & Beans 0.04 0.11 0.05 0 1.28 15.69
Spinach 0.01 0.05 0 0 0.1 1.23
Sweet potatoes 0.00 0.05 0 0 0.05 0.61
Tomatoes 0.02 0.08 0.01 0 0.55 6.74
Vegetables 0.00 0.05 0 0 0.05 0.61
Total Sample Area 0.27 8.16 100
Perennial Crops
Crops
Average
0
ha
Average
1
ha
Upper
Quartile
ha
Lower
Quartile
ha
Total Sample Area of 30 Farms
ha %
Avocado 0.01 0.11 0 0 0.22 1.50
Bananas 0.06 0.09 0.06 0 1.75 11.90
Tea 0.29 0.61 0.4 0 8.57 58.30
Apples 0.00 0.01 0 0 0.01 0.07
Wattle/Blue gum trees 0.13 1.27 0 0 4.15 28.23
Total Sample Area 0.49 14.7 100
NOTES:
Avg.0 =average of all sample farms
Avg.1 =average of farms, excluding zero entries
Up. Qu./Lo. =Upper/Lower Quartile, refers to individual farms, 50% of all sample cases lie between these
65
214
KIAMBU & THIKA 66
TABLE 19c: CROPPING PATTERN IN AEZ UM 2 OF KIAMBU DISTRICT
Subzone: m + (s/m), Soil unit: RB 3 Survey Area 118 (Ndumberi)
First Rainy Season
Annual & Bi-annual Crops
Crops
Average
0
ha
Average
1
ha
Upper
Quartile
ha
Lower
Quartile
ha
Total Sample Area of 30 Farms
ha %
Arrow roots 0.00 0.1 0 0 0.1 2.08
Beans 0.01 0.16 0 0 0.16 3.33
Irish potatoes 0.01 0.04 0.01 0 0.35 7.28
Kales 0.00 0.05 0 0 0.05 1.04
Maize 0.00 0.04 0 0 0.04 0.83
Maize & Beans 0.09 0.12 0.14 0 2.75 57.17
Maize & Irish potatoes 0.01 0.04 0 0 0.04 0.83
Maize, Beans &
Irish potatoes
0.04 0.30 0 0 1.20 24.95
Sweet potatoes 0.00 0.04 0 0 0.04 0.83
Tomatoes 0.00 0.08 0 0 0.08 1.66
Total Sample Area 0.16 4.81 100
Second Rainy Season
Annual & Bi-annual Crops
Crops
Average
0
ha
Average
1
ha
Upper
Quartile
ha
Lower
Quartile
ha
Total Sample Area of 30 Farms
ha %
Arrow roots 0.00 0.1 0 0 0.1 2.06
Beans 0.00 0.04 0 0 0.04 0.82
Irish potatoes 0.02 0.06 0.04 0 0.5 10.31
Maize 0.00 0.04 0 0 0.04 0.82
Maize & Beans 0.09 0.12 0.14 0 2.69 55.46
Maize & Irish potatoes 0.01 0.08 0 0 0.16 3.30
Maize, Beans &
Irish potatoes
0.04 0.30 0 0 1.20 24.74
Sweet potatoes 0.00 0.04 0 0 0.04 0.82
Tomatoes 0.00 0.08 0 0 0.08 1.65
Total Sample Area 0.16 4.85 100
Perennial Crops
Crops
Average
0
ha
Average
1
ha
Upper
Quartile
ha
Lower
Quartile
ha
Total Sample Area of 30 Farms
ha %
Bananas 0.08 0.11 0.08 0 2.45 25.26
Coffee 0.17 0.31 0.24 0 5.35 55.15
Woodlot 0.07 0.95 0 0 1.9 19.59
Total Sample Area 0.32 9.7 100
NOTES:
Avg.0 =average of all sample farms
Avg.1 =average of farms, excluding zero entries
Up. Qu./Lo. =Upper/Lower Quartile, refers to individual farms, 50% of all sample cases lie between these
215
KIAMBU & THIKA
TABLE 19d: CROPPING PATTERN IN AEZ LH 1 OF THIKA DISTRICT
Subzone: p or l/vl^m, Soil unit: RB 1 Survey Area 119 (Karatu)
First Rainy Season
Annual & Bi-annual Crops
Crops
Average
0
ha
Average
1
ha
Upper
Quartile
ha
Lower
Quartile
ha
Total Sample Area of 30 Farms
ha %
Arrow roots 0.01 0.05 0.30 3.48
Beans 0.00 0.04 0 0 0.08 0.93
Horticulture 0.01 0.16 0 0 0.32 3.72
Irish potatoes 0.05 0.07 0.1 0 1.57 18.23
Maize 0.03 0.14 0.01 0 0.98 11.38
Maize & Beans 0.16 0.23 0.2 0 4.87 56.56
Sweet potatoes 0.01 0.04 0.03 0 0.34 3.95
Vegetables 0.01 0.08 0 0 0.15 1.74
Total Sample Area 0.28 8.61 100
Second Rainy Season
Annual & Bi-annual Crops
Crops
Average
0
ha
Average
1
ha
Upper
Quartile
ha
Lower
Quartile
ha
Total Sample Area of 30 Farms
ha %
Arrow roots 0.01 0.05 0 0 0.20 2.44
Beans 0.00 0.04 0 0 0.08 0.97
Horticulture 0.01 0.16 0 0 0.32 3.90
Irish potatoes 0.06 0.09 0.1 0.03 2.07 25.21
Maize 0.02 0.14 0 0 0.68 8.28
Maize & Beans 0.15 0.21 0.2 0 4.37 53.23
Sweet potatoes 0.01 0.04 0.03 0 0.34 4.14
Vegetables 0.01 0.08 0 0 0.15 1.83
Total Sample Area 0.27 8.21 100
Perennial Crops
Crops
Average
0
ha
Average
1
ha
Upper
Quartile
ha
Lower
Quartile
ha
Total Sample Area of 30 Farms
ha %
Avocado 0.08 0.19 0.1 0 2.29 8.85
Bananas 0.10 0.15 0.08 0 2.86 11.05
Coffee 0.13 0.31 0.2 0 3.99 15.41
Macadamia 0.01 0.10 0 0 0.21 0.81
Pineapples 0.04 0.33 0 0 1.3 5.02
Tea 0.51 0.61 0.8 0.15 15.24 58.86
Total Sample Area 0.87 25.89 100
NOTES:
Avg.0 =average of all sample farms
Avg.1 =average of farms, excluding zero entries
Up. Qu./Lo. =Upper/Lower Quartile, refers to individual farms, 50% of all sample cases lie between these
67
216
KIAMBU & THIKA 68
TABLE 19e: CROPPING PATTERN IN AEZ UM 1 OF THIKA DISTRICT
Subzone: h i m, Soil unit: RB 1 Survey Area 120 (Karinga)
First Rainy Season
Annual & Bi-annual Crops
Crops
Average
0
ha
Average
1
ha
Upper
Quartile
ha
Lower
Quartile
ha
Total Sample Area of 30 Farms
ha %
Arrow roots 0.01 0.07 0 0 0.41 4.23
Beans 0.02 0.11 0 0 0.68 7.01
Chewing cane 0.00 0.01 0 0 0.03 0.31
Irish potatoes 0.05 0.06 0.05 0 1.15 11.85
Kales 0.00 0.05 0 0 0.1 1.03
Maize 0.07 0.25 0.12 0 1.96 20.20
Maize & Beans 0.17 0.23 0.23 0.03 5.2 53.59
Capsicum (Pepper) 0.00 0.04 0 0 0.04 0.41
Sweet potatoes 0.00 0.03 0 0 0.13 1.34
Yams 0.0001 0.0002 0 0 0.003 0.03
Total Sample Area 0.32 9.703 100
Second Rainy Season
Annual & Bi-annual Crops
Crops
Average
0
ha
Average
1
ha
Upper
Quartile
ha
Lower
Quartile
ha
Total Sample Area of 30 Farms
ha %
Arrow roots 0.01 0.07 0 0 0.41 4.41
Beans 0.02 0.11 0 0 0.68 7.31
Chewing cane 0.00 0.01 0 0 0.03 0.32
Irish potatoes 0.04 0.06 0.04 0 0.95 10.21
Kales 0.00 0.05 0 0 0.1 1.08
Maize 0.07 0.25 0.12 0 1.96 21.07
Maize & Beans 0.17 0.22 0.2 0.03 5 53.76
Capsicum (Pepper) 0.00 0.04 0 0 0.04 0.43
Sweet potatoes 0.00 0.03 0 0 0.13 1.40
Yams 0.00002 0.0005 0 0 0.001 0.01
Total Sample Area 0.31 9.301 100
217
KIAMBU & THIKA
TABLE 19e Contin.: CROPPING PATTERN IN AEZ UM 1 OF THIKA DISTRICT
Subzone: h i m, Soil unit: RB 1 Survey Area 120 (Karinga)
Perennial Crops
Crops
Average
0
ha
Average
1
ha
Upper
Quartile
ha
Lower
Quartile
ha
Total Sample Area of 30 Farms
ha %
Avocado 0.03 0.09 0.07 0 1.02 4.22
Bananas 0.08 0.09 0.10 0.02 2.44 10.09
Coffee 0.62 0.64 0.66 0.2 18.68 77.22
Macadamia 0.00 0.04 0 0 0.07 0.29
Mangoes 0.00 0.06 0 0 0.06 0.25
Passion fruits 0.00 0.01 0 0 0.01 0.04
Pineapples 0.01 0.07 0 0 0.26 1.07
Tea 0.01 0.3 0 0 0.3 1.24
Woodlots (Wattle) 0.05 0.45 0 0 1.35 5.58
Total Sample Area 0.8 24.19 100
NOTES:
Avg.0 =average of all sample farms
Avg.1 =average of farms, excluding zero entries
Up. Qu./Lo. =Upper/Lower Quartile, refers to individual farms, 50% of all sample cases lie between these
69
218
KIAMBU & THIKA 70
TABLE 19f: CROPPING PATTERN IN AEZ UM 2 OF THIKA DISTRICT
Subzone: m/l i m/s, Soil unit: UIRA Survey Area 121 (Ritho)
First Rainy Season
Annual & Bi-annual Crops
Crops
Average
0
ha
Average
1
ha
Upper
Quartile
ha
Lower
Quartile
ha
Total Sample Area of 30 Farms
ha %
Arrow roots 0.02 0.10 0.01 0 0.71 6.92
Beans 0.02 0.10 0.01 0 0.73 7.12
Cabbages 0.00 0.1 0 0 0.1 0.97
Capsicum 0.00 0.05 0 0 0.05 0.49
Irish potatoes 0.09 0.09 0.1 0.05 2.32 22.61
Maize 0.05 0.19 0.06 0 1.55 15.11
Maize & Beans 0.14 0.19 0.2 0 4.27 41.62
Sweet potatoes 0.02 0.08 0 0 0.48 4.68
Tomatoes 0.00 0.05 0 0 0.05 0.49
Total Sample Area 0.34 10.26 100
Second Rainy Season
Annual & Bi-annual Crops
Crops
Average
0
ha
Average
1
ha
Upper
Quartile
ha
Lower
Quartile
ha
Total Sample Area of 30 Farms
ha %
Arrow roots 0.02 0.08 0 0 0.51 5.15
Beans 0.03 0.11 0.01 0 0.75 7.57
Cabbages 0.00 0.1 0 0 0.1 1.01
Irish potatoes 0.08 0.09 0.1 0.05 2.42 24.42
Maize 0.05 0.21 0.01 0 1.45 14.63
Maize & Beans 0.14 0.19 0.2 0 4.2 42.38
Sweet potatoes 0.01 0.09 0 0 0.43 4.34
Tomatoes 0.00 0.05 0 0 0.05 0.50
Total Sample Area 0.33 9.91 100
Perennial Crops
Crops
Average
0
ha
Average
1
ha
Upper
Quartile
ha
Lower
Quartile
ha
Total Sample Area of 30 Farms
ha %
Avocado 0.01 0.05 0 0 0.16 1.05
Bananas 0.08 0.08 0.08 0.03 2.44 15.94
Coffee 0.39 0.42 0.5 0.15 11.83 77.27
Macadamia 0.01 0.16 0 0 0.16 1.05
Passion Fruits 0.02 0.21 0 0 0.62 4.05
Wattle trees 0.00 0.1 0 0 0.1 0.65
Total Sample Area 0.51 15.31 100
NOTES:
Avg.0 =average of all sample farms
Avg.1 =average of farms, excluding zero entries
Up. Qu./Lo. =Upper/Lower Quartile, refers to individual farms, 50% of all sample cases lie between these
219
KIAMBU & THIKA
TABLE 19g: CROPPING PATTERN IN AEZ UM - LM 4 OF THIKA DISTRICT
Subzone: s/vs + s/vs, Soil unit: UU 1 Survey Area 122 (Ngoliba)
First Rainy Season
Annual & Bi-annual Crops
Crops
Average
0
ha
Average
1
ha
Upper
Quartile
ha
Lower
Quartile
ha
Total Sample Area of 30 Farms
ha %
Asian Vegetables 0.00 0.01 0 0 0.01 0.04
Beans 0.03 0.4 0 0 0.8 3.47
Brinjals 0.00 0.01 0 0 0.01 0.04
Buret 0.00 0.1 0 0 0.1 0.43
Cabbages 0.00 0.1 0 0 0.1 0.43
Capsicum (Pepper) 0.01 0.07 0 0 0.21 0.91
Courgette 0.00 0.05 0 0 0.05 0.22
Cassava 0.01 0.05 0 0 0.18 0.78
Cow peas 0.02 0.05 0.01 0 0.48 2.08
French beans 0.03 0.15 0 0 0.91 3.95
Green peas 0.01 0.10 0 0 0.20 0.87
Irish potatoes 0.01 0.03 0.00 0 0.19 0.82
Kales 0.02 0.09 0.00 0 0.72 3.12
Maize 0.04 0.6 0 0 1.2 5.21
Maize & Beans 0.48 0.48 0.76 0.23 14.52 62.99
Maize & Cow peas 0.01 0.04 0 0 0.22 0.95
Maize & Irish potatoes 0.00 0.01 0 0 0.02 0.09
Maize & Pigeon peas 0.00 0.03 0 0 0.06 0.26
Maize & Pumpkins 0.01 0.06 0 0 0.28 1.21
Maize & Sweet potatoes 0.00 0.01 0 0 0.04 0.17
Njahi 0.00 0.1 0 0 0.1 0.43
Onions 0.00 0.01 0 0 0.01 0.04
Capsicum (Pepper) 0.01 0.2 0 0 0.2 0.87
Pigeon peas 0.02 0.06 0.01 0 0.57 2.47
Pumpkins 0.02 0.10 0 0.52 2.26
Sorghum 0.00 0.03 0 0 0.03 0.13
Sweet potatoes 0.01 0.05 0 0 0.21 0.91
Tobacco 0.01 0.4 0 0 0.4 1.74
Tomatoes 0.02 0.09 0.00 0.71 3.08
Yams 0.00 0.00 0 0 0.003 0.01
Total Sample Area 0.77 23.05 100
71
220
KIAMBU & THIKA 72
TABLE 19g Contin.: CROPPING PATTERN IN AEZ UM - LM 4 OF THIKA DISTRICT
Subzone: s/vs + s/vs, Soil unit: UU 1 Survey Area 122 (Ngoliba)
Second Rainy Season
Annual & Bi-annual Crops
Crops
Average
0
ha
Average
1
ha
Upper
Quartile
ha
Lower
Quartile
ha
Total Sample Area of 30 Farms
ha %
Beans 0.01 0.4 0 0 0.4 1.92
Buret 0.00 0.1 0 0 0.1 0.48
Cabbages 0.00 0.1 0 0 0.1 0.48
Capsicum 0.00 0.06 0 0 0.11 0.53
Cassava 0.00 0.05 0 0 0.10 0.48
Cow peas 0.02 0.06 0.00 0 0.47 2.25
Green peas 0.00 0.00 0 0 0.003 0.01
Irish potatoes 0.01 0.03 0 0 0.18 0.86
Kales 0.02 0.09 0.00 0 0.62 2.97
Maize 0.03 0.4 0 0 0.8 3.84
Maize & Beans 0.48 0.48 0.76 0.23 14.55 69.80
Maize & Cow peas 0.01 0.04 0 0 0.22 1.06
Maize & Irish potatoes 0.00 0.01 0 0 0.02 0.10
Maize & Pigeon peas 0.00 0.03 0 0 0.06 0.29
Maize & Pumpkins 0.01 0.06 0 0 0.22 1.06
Maize & Sorghum 0.00 0.08 0 0 0.08 0.38
Maize & Sweet potatoes 0.00 0.03 0 0 0.12 0.58
Onions 0.00 0.01 0 0 0.01 0.05
Capsicum (Pepper) 0.01 0.2 0 0 0.2 0.96
Pigeon peas 0.03 0.11 0.00 0 0.74 3.55
Pumpkins 0.02 0.13 0 0 0.5 2.40
Sorghum 0.00 0.03 0 0 0.03 0.14
Sweet potatoes 0.01 0.07 0 0 0.20 0.96
Tomatoes 0.03 0.13 0.00 0 1.01 4.85
Yams 0.00 0.00 0 0 0.003 0.01
Total Sample Area 0.69 20.85 100
NOTES:
Avg.0 =average of all sample farms
Avg.1 =average of farms, excluding zero entries
Up. Qu./Lo. =Upper/Lower Quartile, refers to individual farms, 50% of all sample cases lie between these
221
KIAMBU & THIKA
TABLE 19g Contin.: CROPPING PATTERN IN AEZ UM - LM 4 OF THIKA DISTRICT
Subzone: s/vs + s/vs, Soil unit: UU 1 Survey Area 122 (Ngoliba)
Perennial Crops
Crops
Average
0
ha
Average
1
ha
Upper
Quartile
ha
Lower
Quartile
ha
Total Sample Area of 30 Farms
ha %
Avocado 0.00 0.01 0 0 0.04 1.58
Bananas 0.04 0.05 0.04 0 1.18 46.62
Citrus 0.00 0.004 0 0 0.008 0.32
Karella 0.01 0.2 0 0 0.2 7.90
Lemons 0.00 0.002 0 0 0.003 0.12
Mangoes 0.01 0.03 0.01 0 0.46 18.17
Oranges 0.00 0.01 0.00 0 0.10 3.95
Passion fruits 0.00 0.1 0 0 0.1 3.95
Paw paws 0.00 0.004 0.001 0 0.04 1.58
Tindori 0.01 0.2 0 0 0.2 7.90
Warori 0.01 0.2 0 0 0.2 7.90
Total Sample Area 0.08 2.5 100
NOTES:
Avg.0 =average of all sample farms
Avg.1 =average of farms, excluding zero entries
Up. Qu./Lo. =Upper/Lower Quartile, refers to individual farms, 50% of all sample cases lie between these
73
222
KIAMBU & THIKA 74
3.3.5 INTRODUCTION TO THE ACTUAL LAND USE SYSTEMS AND POTENTIAL
INTENSIFICATION BY BETTER FARM MANAGEMENT
More detailed information can be found together with calculations of protability in the Farm Manage-
ment Guidelines of each district and in the KARI Fertiliser Use Manual (Muriuki and Qureshi, 2001). An
additional importance reference material is Small Holder Farming Handbook for Self Employment. First
published in 1997 by Information Research and Communication Centre (IRACC) & Marketing Support
Services Ltd, Nairobi. Te main Agroecological Zones in which farm surveys were conducted are: LH 1,
LH 2, LH 3, UM1, UM2 and LM4.
KIAMBU DISTRICT
Subzone LH 1, f l i m of the Tea Dairy Zone
Tis is the Tea Dairy Zone with a fully long cropping season, intermediate rains and a medium one as ana-
lyzed in Githiga sub-location of Githunguri division, Kiambu district. Te lengths of the growing period for
the long and medium cropping season exceeded in 6 out of 10 years are 210 or more and 130 140 days,
respectively. Average annual rainfall is between 1300 - 1500 mm. Te 66 % reliability of rainfall during the
rst rainy season (March May) and the second rainy season (October December) is between 700 - 850
mm and 250 - 470 mm, respectively. Te dominant soils are well drained, extremely deep, dark reddish
brown to dark brown humic Nitosols.
Te current actual land use activities in this Subzone involve mainly the growing of tea, food crops, vegeta-
bles and fruits. Te most important food crops are maize and beans as well as irish potatoes. Te important
vegetables grown are kales, cabbages and spinach (Table 19b). Tea is the dominant cash corp. Te important
fruits in order of importance are bananas, avocados and apples. Most of the fruits are transported and sold
in Nairobi city.
Pure and improved crosses of dairy cattle, mainly put under zero grazing, dominate livestock keeping en-
terprises. Some farmers do keep crossed bulls for serving their cows. Majority of farmers in this zone apply
organic manure to their food crops, particularly maize. Tis could explain the improvement in the yield of
maize since the survey of 1978. Te maize varieties recommended for this Subzone are: the Kenya Hybrids
and other emerging suitable varieties. Te soil and water conservation measures that were observed in this
Subzone included: Fanya juu terraces (fortied with Napier grass, agroforestry trees planted within farms,
especially Calliandra calothyrsus, (a multipurpose tree that provides fodder, improves soil fertility and pro-
tects soil against erosion), cut-o drains and grass strips.
223
KIAMBU & THIKA
TABLE 20a: INCREASE OF YIELDS BY BETTER FARM MANAGEMENT IN
AGRO-ECOLOGICAL UNIT
1)
OF ZONE LH 1. h i m. RB 2
Survey Area 117 (Githiga)
Crop, Yields
3)
and Inputs
AEZ: LH 1 TEA DAIRY ZONE
Subzone: f l i m (Periods in days
2)
: 1
st
rainy season: 210 or more; 2
nd
rainy season: 130 - 140)
Unit with predom. Soil RB 2 =ando-humic NITOSOL
Reliable rainfall: 1
st
rainy season
700 850 mm
2
nd
rainy season: 250 470 mm in
at least 10 out 15 years
Maize local
pure stand
Yields
3)
kg/ha
Fertilizer:
N kg/ha
P
2
O
5
kg/ha
K
2
O kg/ha
Manure t/ha
Farmers in Prod. Level Farmers in Prod. Level
I=low II=med.
4)
III=high
5)
AEU Pot.
6)
I=low II=med.
4)
III=high
5)
AEU Pot.
6)
- - - - - - - -
Hybrid maize
Yields
3)
kg/ha
Fertilizer:
N kg/ha
P
2
O
5
kg/ha
K
2
O kg/ha
Manure t/ha
- 4382
*
*
5220
34
9
-
5.3
6000 - 4050
35
8
-
6
4500
35
9
-
8,3
5000
Maize local
intercropped
with
beans
Yields
3)
kg/ha
Fertilizer:
N kg/ha
P
2
O
5
kg/ha
K
2
O kg/ha
Manure t/ha
- - - - - -
Hybrid maize
intercropped
with
beans
Yields
3)
kg/ha
Fertilizer:
N kg/ha
P
2
O
5
kg/ha
K
2
O kg/ha
Manure t/ha
Notes
1)
Source: Small Farm Survey (2004)
2)
Figures of these cereals growing periods should be reached or surpassed in 6 out of 10 years; growing periods may be
considered longer due to immediately following second rainy season by middle rains. Then the second growing period is
shorter than the given fgures
3)
Achieved average yields with average rainfall
4)
Farmers with medium inputs
5)
Farmers with high inputs of fertilizer, insecticides, soil and water conservation
6)
Potential yield according to crop list and local climate of this Agro-Ecological Unit if soils are optimally fertilised (see
Table 21a), plus optimal crop management
* Potential yield not known; no experimental data
75
224
KIAMBU & THIKA 76
Subzone UM 2, m + s/m of the Upper Midland Coee Zone
Tis is the Main Coee Zone with a medium cropping season and a short to medium one as typied by Ndum-
beri sub-location in Municipality division, Kiambu district. Te 60 % reliability of the length of cereal and
legume growing period during the 1
st
and 2
nd
rainy seasons is 135 155 and 105 115 days, respectively.
Te average annual rainfall is between 1000 - 1300 mm. Te 66 % reliability of rainfall during the rst
rainy season (March May) and the second rainy season (October February) is between 480 - 680 mm
and 250 - 380 mm, respectively. Te dominant soils are well drained, extremely deep, dark reddish brown
to dark brown humic Nitosols.
Te average household farm size in this Subzone is 0,67 ha (Table 18c), compared to 2.6 ha in 1978. Dur-
ing the Farm Survey conducted in February 2004, it was observed that the current actual land use activities
in this Subzone are increasingly turning from the growing of traditional food crops to vegetables and fruits.
Te most important cash crops at the moment in order of importance include: coee, bananas and Irish
potatoes. It was observed that the still existing coee trees had been pruned back to allow for the growing
of legume crops. Tis attests to the fact that farmers attach less value to coee as previously when it used to
fetch good cash income for the household. (Table 19c). Te vegetables are consumed at the household level
and any excess is sold in local neighbouring markets. Irish potatoes are very important in this Subzone both
as a food and cash crop.Te main food crops comprise maize and beans, which are normally intercropped.
During the rst rainy season, medium maturing maize hybrids like H 512, 614 D, 625, 626 and other
emerging suitable varieties are planted while the second rains planting material comprises Katumani Comp.
B. and Embu composite (EMCO). Te yields are low despite fertilizer use due to continuous cultivation,
resulting into a decline in soil fertility.
Pure and improved crosses of dairy cattle, mainly put under zero grazing, dominate livestock keeping enter-
prises. Farmers are increasingly rearing dairy goats for milk production. Te keeping of exotic chicken is an
important livestock enterprise in this Subzone, mainly for eggs and meat, which are sold in the ready market
available in the capital city of Nairobi. Other livestock ventures that farmers practise include rabbit and bee
keeping. Te soil and water conservation measures put in place in this Subzone include: fanya juu terraces
(fortied with Napier grass), a few cut-o drains and agroforestry trees planted within farms, especially Cal-
liandra calothyrsus, (a multipurpose tree that provides fodder for livestock, improves soil fertility and protects
soil against erosion), drains and grass strips.
225
KIAMBU & THIKA
TABLE 20b: INCREASE OF YIELDS BY BETTER FARM MANAGEMENT IN
AGRO-ECOLOGICAL UNIT
1)
OF ZONE UM 2, m + s/m. RB 2
Survey Area 118 (Ndumberi)
Crop, Yields
3)
and Inputs
AEZ: UM 2 COFFEE ZONE
Subzone: m + s/m (Periods in days
2)
: 1
st
rainy season: 135 - 155; 2
nd
rainy season: 105 - 115)
Unit with predom. Soil: RB 2 =humic NITOSOLS
Reliable rainfall: 1
st
rainy season
480 680 mm
2
nd
rainy season: 250 380 mm in
at least 10 out 15 years
Maize local
pure stand
Yields
3)
kg/ha
Fertilizer:
N kg/ha
P
2
O
5
kg/ha
K
2
O kg/ha
Manure t/ha
Farmers in Prod. Level Farmers in Prod. Level
I=low II=med.
4)
III=high
5)
AEU Pot.
6)
I=low II=med.
4)
III=high
5)
AEU Pot.
6)
- - - - - - -
Hybrid maize
pure stand
Yields
3)
kg/ha
Fertilizer:
N kg/ha
P
2
O
5
kg/ha
K
2
O kg/ha
Manure t/ha
- - - - -
Maize local
intercropped
with beans
Yields
3)
kg/ha
Fertilizer:
N kg/ha
P
2
O
5
kg/ha
K
2
O kg/ha
Manure t/ha
- - - - - -
Hybrid maize
intercropped
with beans
Yields
3)
kg/ha
Fertilizer:
N kg/ha
P
2
O
5
kg/ha
K
2
O kg/ha
Manure t/ha
- - 1334
12.9
14.3
-
-
4500 - - 1200
10.9
10.3
-
-
3500
Notes
1)
Source: Small Farm Survey (2004)
2)
Figures of these cereals growing periods should be reached or surpassed in 6 out of 10 years; growing periods may be
considered longer due to immediately following second rainy season by middle rains. Then the second growing period is
shorter than the given fgures
3)
Achieved average yields with average rainfall
4)
Farmers with medium inputs
5)
Farmers with high inputs of fertilizer, insecticides, soil and water conservation
6)
Potential yield according to crop list and local climate of this Agro-Ecological Unit if soils are optimally fertilized, plus
optimal crop management
77
226
KIAMBU & THIKA 78
Subzone LH 3 s/m + (s/vs) of the Lower Highland Wheat/ (Maize) Barley Zone
Tis is the Wheat (Maize) - Barley Zone with a short to medium and a (weak) short to very short cropping season
occurring in Kikuyu sub. location of Kikuyu division, Kiambu district. Te 60 % reliability of the lengths
of cereal and legume growing period during the 1
st
and 2
nd
rainy seasons are 105 115, 65 - 70 days, respec-
tively. Te average annual rainfall is between 800 - 1000 mm. Te 66 % reliability of rainfall during the rst
rainy season (March May) and the second rainy season (October February) is between 280 - 360 mm
and 180 - 220 mm, respectively. Te dominant soils are well drained, extremely deep eutric Nitosols with
nito-chromic Cambisols and chromic Acrisols and Luvisols..
Te average household farm size in this Subzone is 1.66 ha (Table 18a). Tis high acreage gure could be
attributed to the fact that the sample was a mixture of farmers with larger farms and those within the 5-
acre settlement scheme. Te most important cash crops at the moment in order of importance include are
bananas, avocados and other fruits. None of the farmers mentioned growing wheat or barley. Te absence of
these two crops in this Subzone has to do with the minimum acreage required to grow them. Te category
of vegetables according to the farmers ranking include: kales, cabbages, spinach and tomatoes. Tese veg-
etables are consumed at the household level and any excess is sold in local neighbouring markets and Nairobi
city. Te most important fruits are bananas, which are transported and sold in Nairobi city. Te main food
crops comprise maize and beans, which are normally intercropped, irish potatoes and arrow roots. During
the rst rains, hybrid maize varieties from 512, 614D, 625, 626 and other emerging varieties recommended
for planting, while during the second rains planting material should comprise the early maturing Katumani
Comp. B., DLC 1(in lower places) and Embu composite (EMCO in higher places with longer growing
period).
Pure and improved crosses of dairy cattle, mainly put under zero grazing, dominate livestock keeping enter-
prises. Te keeping of local chicken and broilers is increasingly becoming an important livestock enterprise
in this Subzone. Few farmers in this zone apply enough fertilisers and manure to their food crops, particu-
larly maize. Tis explains the low maize yields reported by the farmers (Table 20c). Tere is need for farmers
to apply more manure on their farms to replenish the depleted nutrients.
227
KIAMBU & THIKA
TABLE 20c: INCREASE OF YIELDS BY BETTER FARM MANAGEMENT IN
AGRO-ECOLOGICAL UNIT
1)
OF ZONE LH 2 - 3, m/s + (s) to s/m + (s/vs),
RB 3
Survey Area 116 (Kikuyu)
Crop, Yields
3)
and Inputs
AEZ: LH 3 WHEAT/ (MAIZE) - BARLEY ZONE
Subzone: s/m + (vs/s) (Periods in days
2)
: 1
st
rainy season: 105 - 115;
2
nd
rainy season: 65 - 70)
Unit with predom. Soil: RB 3 =eutric NITOSOLS; with nito-chromic CAMBISOLS and
chromic ACRISOLS and LUVISOLS, partly lithic, pisoferric or petroferric phase
Reliable rainfall: 1
st
rainy season
280 360 mm
2
nd
rainy season: 150 180 mm in
at least 10 out 15 years
Maize local
pure stand
Yields
3)
kg/ha
Fertilizer:
N kg/ha
P
2
O
5
kg/ha
K
2
O kg/ha
Manure t/ha
Farmers in Prod. Level Farmers in Prod. Level
I=low II=med.
4)
III=high
5)
AEU Pot.
6)
I=low II=med.
4)
III=high
5)
AEU Pot.
6)
- - - - - - - -
Hybrid maize
pure stand
Yields
3)
kg/ha
Fertilizer:
N kg/ha
P
2
O
5
kg/ha
K
2
O kg/ha
Manure t/ha
- - - - - -
Maize local
intercropped
with beans
Yields
3)
kg/ha
Fertilizer:
N kg/ha
P
2
O
5
kg/ha
K
2
O kg/ha
Manure t/ha
- - - - - -
Hybrid maize
intercropped
with beans
Yields
3)
kg/ha
Fertilizer:
N kg/ha
P
2
O
5
kg/ha
K
2
O kg/ha
Manure t/ha
2221
0
0
-
0
2308
1.8
3.7
-
0.1
2350
3.1
4.8
-
-1.5
3500 1398
0
0
-
0
1493
1.6
3.3
-
0.1
1636
2.9
4.5
-
1.4
2300
Notes
1)
Source: Small Farm Survey (2004)
2)
Figures of these cereals growing periods should be reached or surpassed in 6 out of 10 years; growing periods may be
considered longer due to immediately following second rainy season by middle rains. Then the second growing period is
shorter than the given fgures
3)
Achieved average yields with average rainfall
4)
Farmers with medium inputs
5)
Farmers with high inputs of fertilizer, insecticides, soil and water conservation
6)
Potential yield according to crop list and local climate of this Agro-Ecological Unit if soils are optimally fertilized, plus
optimal crop management
79
228
KIAMBU & THIKA 80
THIKA DISTRICT
Subzone LH 1, p or l/v l^m of the Lower Highland Tea - Dairy Zone
Tis is the Tea Dairy Zone with permanent cropping possibilities, divided into a long to very long cropping
season followed by a mediumone as in Karatu sub-location of Gatundu division, Tika district. Te lengths of
the growing period for the long and medium cropping season exceeded in 6 out of 10 years are 210 or more
and 135 145 days, respectively. Average annual rainfall is between 1500 - 2000 mm. Te 66 % reliability
of rainfall during the rst rainy season (March May) and the second rainy season (October December)
is between 850 - 1100 mm and 470 - 600 mm, respectively. Te dominant soils have developed on Tertiary
basic igneous rocks. Te soils are well drained, extremely deep, dark reddish brown to dark brown ando-
humic Nitisols; with humic Andosols.
Te average household land size in this Subzone is 1.53 ha (Table 18d). Te current actual land use activities
in this Subzone involve the growing of cash crops, vegetables, fruits and food crops. Te most important
cash crops at the moment in order of importance include: tea, coee, avocados, pineapples and macadamia
nuts. Te important fruits in order of importance are bananas, pineapples, and avocadoes. Irish potatoes
are an important food and cash crop. Te main food crops comprise maize, beans, arrow roots and sweet
potatoes (Table 19d).
Pure and improved crosses of dairy cattle, mainly put under zero grazing, dominate livestock keeping enter-
prises, i.e. over 80 %. Some farmers do keep crossed bulls for serving their cows. Keeping of local and exotic
chicken is also an important livestock enterprise in this Subzone. Majority of farmers in this zone apply
inorganic fertilizers to their cash crops, especially on tea. For other crops, especially maize, farmers do apply
farm yard and compost manure.
229
KIAMBU & THIKA
TABLE 20d: INCREASE OF YIELDS BY BETTER FARM MANAGEMENT IN AGRO-
ECOLOGICAL UNIT
1)
OF ZONE LH 1, p or l /vl^m. RB 1
SurveyArea119(Karatu) Survey Area 119 (Karatu)
Crop, Yields
3)
and
Inputs
AEZ: LH 1 TEA - DAIRY ZONE
Subzone: p or l/vl^m (Periods in days
2)
: 1
st
rainy season: 210 or more;
2
nd
rainy season: 130 - 140)
Unit with predom. Soil: RB 1 =ando-humic NITOSOLS; with humic ANDOSOLS
Reliable rainfall: 1
st
rainy season
850 1100 mm
2
nd
rainy season: 470 600 mm in
at least 10 out 15 years
Maize local pure
stand
Yields
3)
kg/ha
Fertilizer:
N kg/ha
P
2
O
5
kg/ha
K
2
O kg/ha
Manure t/ha
Farmers in Prod. Level Farmers in Prod. Level
I=low II=med.
4)
III=high
5)
AEU Pot.
6)
I=low II=med.
4)
III=high
5)
AEU Pot.
6)
- - - - - - -
Hybrid maize
pure stand
Yields
3)
kg/ha
Fertilizer:
N kg/ha
P
2
O
5
kg/ha
K
2
O kg/ha
Manure t/ha
- - - - - -
Maize local
intercropped
with beans
Yields
3)
kg/ha
Fertilizer:
N kg/ha
P
2
O
5
kg/ha
K
2
O kg/ha
Manure t/ha
- - - - - -
Maize
Var.H613/14 a.o.
intercropped
with beans
Yields
3)
kg/ha
Fertilizer:
N kg/ha
P
2
O
5
kg/ha
K
2
O kg/ha
Manure t/ha
-
-
-
-
-
1718
-
49.6
-
-
1848
7.6
57.5
-
5.0
4000 -
-
-
-
-
1481
-
55.3
-
-
1848
8.4
57.5
-
5.0
3500
Notes
1)
Source: Small Farm Survey (2004)
2)
Figures of these cereals growing periods should be reached or surpassed in 6 out of 10 years; growing periods may be
considered longer due to immediately following second rainy season by middle rains. Then the second growing period is
shorter than the given fgures
3)
Achieved average yields with average rainfall
4)
Farmers with medium inputs
5)
Farmers with high inputs of fertilizer, insecticides, soil and water conservation
6)
Potential yield according to crop list and local climate of this Agro-Ecological Unit if soils are optimally fertilized, plus
optimal crop management
81
230
KIAMBU & THIKA 82
However, the yield of maize remains low either because they apply inadequate dosage or majority simply do
not apply fertiliser or manure (Table 20). Farmers need to understand that without investing in soil in terms
of fertiliser and manure application, crop yields will continue dwindling in this Subzone, hence threatening
the food security situation.
Subzone UM 1, f l i m of the Upper Midland Coee - Tea Zone
Tis is the Coee Tea Zone with a fully long cropping season, intermediate rains, and a medium one as typied
by Karinga sub-location of Tika district. Te lengths of the growing period for the long and medium crop-
ping season exceeded in 6 out of 10 years are 180 or more and 130 140 days, respectively. Average annual
rainfall is between 1300 - 1600 mm. Te 66 % reliability of rainfall during the rst rainy season (March
May) and the second rainy season (October December) is between 700 - 850 mm and 400 - 480 mm,
respectively. Te dominant soils are ando-humic Nitisols with humic Andosols.
Te average household farm size in this Subzone is 1.37 ha. Te current annual staple food crops grown
in order of importance are: maize, beans, arrow roots, sweet potatoes and yams. Te kales are important
vegetables for both household consumption and cash income earner. Te fruits grown include: bananas,
avocado, pineapples, mangoes and passion fruits. Te non-fruit permanent crops grown in order of impor-
tance include: coee, woodlot products and macadamia, (Table 19e). Macadamia is a crop that is steadily
increasing in importance in this Subzone and farmers reported better returns from it. Over 80 per cent of
the cattle kept by farmers are of improved type and mostly under zero grazing. Tere is evidence that farmers
do apply inputs, particularly on crops in this Subzone (Table 18e). Farmers need to be encouraged to double
their eorts in restoring soil fertility so as to reap maximum returns from agriculture. Te maize yields re-
ported by farmers (Table 20e) are below the agroecological potential of this Subzone. One would expect at
least over 5000 kg/ha maize yields in this Subzone during the rst rains season.
231
KIAMBU & THIKA
TABLE 20e: INCREASE OF YIELDS BY BETTER FARM MANAGEMENT IN AGRO-
ECOLOGICAL UNIT
1)
OF ZONE UM 1, h i m, RB 1
Survey Area 120 (Karinga)
Crop, Yields
3)
and
Inputs
AEZ: UM 1 COFFEE - TEA ZONE
Sub-zone: f l i m (Periods in days
2)
: 1
st
rainy season: 180 or more;
2
nd
rainy season: 130 - 140)
Unit with predom. Soil: RB 1 =ando-humic NITOSOLS; with humic ANDOSOLS
Reliable rainfall: 1
st
rainy season:
700 900 mm
2
nd
rainy season: 400 520 mm in
at least 10 out 15 years
Maize local pure
stand
Yields
3)
kg/ha
Fertilizer:
N kg/ha
P
2
O
5
kg/ha
K
2
O kg/ha
Manure t/ha
Farmers in Prod. Level Farmers in Prod. Level
I=low II=med.
4)
III=high
5)
AEU Pot.
6)
I=low II=med.
4)
III=high
5)
AEU Pot.
6)
-
Maize
Var.H613/14 a.o.
Yields
3)
kg/ha
Fertilizer:
N kg/ha
P
2
O
5
kg/ha
K
2
O kg/ha
Manure t/ha
-
-
-
-
-
*
49.9
-
-
-
3913
52.5
-
-
-
6000 -
-
-
-
-
*
49.9
-
-
-
2348
52.5
-
-
-
5000
Maize local
intercropped
with beans
Yields
3)
kg/ha
Fertilizer:
N kg/ha
P
2
O
5
kg/ha
K
2
O kg/ha
Manure t/ha
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
Maize
Var.H613/14 a.o.
intercropped
with beans
Yields
3)
kg/ha
Fertilizer:
N kg/ha
P
2
O
5
kg/ha
K
2
O kg/ha
Manure t/ha
-
0
-
-
-
*
18.8
9.1
-
30.3
2090
26.8
10.2
-
31.3
4500 -
0
-
-
-
*
19.6
-
-
31.5
1398
30.2
-
-
35.3
3500
Notes
1)
Source: Small Farm Survey (2004)
2)
Figures of these cereals growing periods should be reached or surpassed in 6 out of 10 years; growing periods may be
considered longer due to immediately following second rainy season by middle rains. Then the second growing period is
shorter than the given fgures
3)
Achieved average yields with average rainfall
4)
Farmers with medium inputs
5)
Farmers with high inputs of fertilizer, insecticides, soil and water conservation
6)
Potential yield according to crop list and local climate of this Agro-Ecological Unit if soils are optimally fertilized, plus
optimal crop management
* Potential yield not known; no experimental data available
83
232
KIAMBU & THIKA 84
Subzone UM 2, m/l i m/s of the Upper Midland Main Coee Zone
Tis is the Main Coee Zone with a medium to long cropping season, intermediate rains, and a medium to short
one as found in Ritho sub-location, Gatundu division of Tika district. Te 60 % reliability of the length of
cereal and legume growing period during the 1
st
and 2
nd
rainy seasons is > 160 and 115 135 days, respec-
tively. Te average annual rainfall is between 1100 - 1400 mm. Te 66 % reliability of rainfall during the
rst rainy season (March May) and the second rainy season (October February) is between 520 - 700
mm and 300 - 400 mm, respectively. Te dominant soils are well drained extremely deep, dark reddish
brown to dark brown humic Nitosols.
Te current household farm size is 1.05 ha. Te food crops grown in order of importance are: maize, beans,
irish potatoes, arrow roots and sweet potatoes. Te vegetables grown are cabbages, tomatoes and capsicum.
Te permanent cash crops are coee, bananas, passion fruits, avocado, macadamia and wattle trees (sold for
posts). Macadamia, a recently introduced crop that is gaining prominence in this Subzone because of good
market prices and hence stable cash returns. Te passion fruits too have good market prices because of the
increased demand. Farmers need to invest more in repleshing the fertility of their soils if the sustainability of
food production is to be guaranteed. Te low maize yields reported in Table 20f, for example, are a reection
of inadequate soil nutrients. Over 90 % of the livestock is of improved quality (mainly dairy) under zero
grazing. One would expect farmers to apply a lot of the manure coming from their zero grazing sheds on
their farms to improve productivity.
233
KIAMBU & THIKA
TABLE 20f: INCREASE OF YIELDS BY BETTER FARM MANAGEMENT IN AGRO-
ECOLOGICAL UNIT
1)
OF ZONE UM 2, m/l i m/s, RB 2
Survey Area 121 (Ritho)
Crop, Yields
3)
and
Inputs
AEZ: UM 2 MAIN COFFEE ZONE
Subzone: m/l i m/s (Periods in days
2)
: 1
st
rainy season: 160 or more;
2
nd
rainy season: 115 - 135)
Unit with predom. Soil: RB 2 =humic NITOSOLS
Reliable rainfall: 1
st
rainy season
480 680 mm
2
nd
rainy season: 250 380 mm in
at least 10 out 15 years
Maize local pure
stand
Yields
3)
kg/ha
Fertilizer:
N kg/ha
P
2
O
5
kg/ha
K
2
O kg/ha
Manure t/ha
Farmers in Prod. Level Farmers in Prod. Level
I=low II=med.
4)
III=high
5)
AEU Pot.
6)
I=low II=med.
4)
III=high
5)
AEU Pot.
6)
-
Maize
Var.HB513 or
Pioneer
Yields
3)
kg/ha
Fertilizer:
N kg/ha
P
2
O
5
kg/ha
K
2
O kg/ha
Manure t/ha
- - - - - -
Maize local
intercropped
with beans
Yields
3)
kg/ha
Fertilizer:
N kg/ha
P
2
O
5
kg/ha
K
2
O kg/ha
Manure t/ha
- - - - - -
Maize Var.H513
intercropped
with beans
Yields
3)
kg/ha
Fertilizer:
N kg/ha
P
2
O
5
kg/ha
K
2
O kg/ha
Manure t/ha
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2445
10.1
-
21.9
30.0
4500 -
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2302
10.1
-
21.9
30.0
3500
Notes
1)
Source: Small Farm Survey (2004)
2)
Figures of these cereals growing periods should be reached or surpassed in 6 out of 10 years; growing periods may be
considered longer due to immediately following second rainy season by middle rains. Then the second growing period is
shorter than the given fgures
3)
Achieved average yields with average rainfall
4)
Farmers with medium inputs
5)
Farmers with high inputs of fertilizer, insecticides, soil and water conservation
6)
Potential yield according to crop list and local climate of this Agro-Ecological Unit if soils are optimally fertilized, plus
optimal crop management
85
234
KIAMBU & THIKA 86
Subzone LM 4, s/vs + s/vs of the Lower Midland Marginal Cotton Zone
Tis is the Marginal Cotton Zone with two short to very short cropping seasons as exemplied in Ngoliba sub-
location, Tika municipality of Tika district. Te 60 % reliability of the length of cereal and legume grow-
ing period during the 1
st
and 2
nd
rainy seasons are both 75 85 days. Te average annual rainfall is between
800 - 900 mm. Te 66 % reliability of rainfall during the rst rainy season (March May) and the second
rainy season (October February) is between 250 - 320 mm and 200 - 250 mm, respectively. Te dominant
soils are well drained rhodic and orthic Ferralsols.
Tis is the most diverse Subzone among those surveyed in both Kiambu and Tika districts in terms of the
existing cropping enterprises. Te average household farm size is 2.22 ha (Table 18g). Tis farm size is large
compared to that found in other Subzones surveyed in both Kiambu and Tika districts. From the list of
crops grown in this Subzone (Table 19g), it can be seen that over thirty crops are grown here. Farmers ap-
pear to have specialized in the growing of high value horticultural crops that bring in more cash income.
Among the horticultural crops grown include: French beans and Asian vegetables (brinjals, buret, capsicum,
courgettes, hot pepper). Maize is still the most important staple food crops with very interesting intercrops
being practised. For example, maize is intercropped with beans, pigeon peas, irish potatoes, pumpkins,
sweet potatoes and cowpeas). Te reported yields of maize are far below optimum (Table 20). Given that
farmers are growing a large number of crops on their farms, the likelihood of soil nutrient mining by these
crops is very real. Te soils are exploited all year round without adequate replenishment of the nutrients by
using both inorganic and organic fertilizers. Eorts to increase food production will be hampered in future if
farmers fail to seriously address the issue of investing in integrated soil fertility management technologies.
Te vegetables grown in this Subzone for both home consumption and cash income include: tomatoes,
cabbages, kales and onions. Food crop cultivated by the farmers are: beans, dolichos lab lab (Njahi), pigeon
peas, pumpkins, cowpeas, yams, sweet potatoes, cassava and sorghum. Te permanent cash crops grown
include: bananas, mangoes, karella tindori, warori, oranges, passion, paw paws, avocado, citrus and lemons.
Tobacco too is one of the cash crops grown in this Subzone. Te livestock composition is dominated by
poultry, which includes both local and exotic. More exotic chicken are kept for their meat and eggs, which
nd a ready market in the nearby Tika town and in Nairobi city.
235
KIAMBU & THIKA
TABLE 20g: INCREASE OF YIELDS BY BETTER FARM MANAGEMENT IN AGRO-
ECOLOGICAL UNIT
1)
OF ZONE LM 4, s/vs + s/vs, UU 1
Survey Area 122 (Ngoliba)
Crop, Yields
3)
and Inputs
AEZ: LM 4: MARGINAL COTTON ZONE
Subzone: s/vs + s/vs (Periods in days
2)
: 1
st
rainy season: 75 85, 2
nd
rainy season: 75 - 85)
Unit with predom. Soil: UU 1 =rhodic and orthic FERRALSOLS; with ferralo -chromic/
orthic/ferric ACRISOLS
Reliable rainfall: 1
st
rainy season
320 400 mm
2
nd
rainy season: 250 300 mm in
at least 10 out 15 years
Maize local pure
stand
Yields
3)
Kg/ha
Fertilizer:
N kg/ha
P
2
O
5
kg/ha
K
2
O kg/ha
Manure t/ha
Farmers in Prod. Level Farmers in Prod. Level
I=low II=med.
4)
III=high
5)
AEU Pot.
6)
I=low II=med.
4)
III=high
5)
AEU Pot.
6)
-
Improved maize
Yields
3)
kg/ha
Fertilizer:
N kg/ha
P
2
O
5
kg/ha
K
2
O kg/ha
Manure t/ha
Maize local
intercropped
with beans
Yields
3)
kg/ha
Fertilizer:
N kg/ha
P
2
O
5
kg/ha
K
2
O kg/ha
Manure t/ha
- - - - - -
Maize Var.H513/
PIONEER
intercropped
with beans
Yields
3)
kg/ha
Fertilizer:
N kg/ha
P
2
O
5
kg/ha
K
2
O kg/ha
Manure t/ha
1140
0
0
-
0.5
-
-
-
-
-
1821
16.7
15.2
-
14.5
4000 873
0
0-
-
0.5
-
-
-
-
-
1569
16.7
15.2
-
14.5
3000
Notes
1)
Source: Small Farm Survey (2004)
2)
Figures of these cereals growing periods should be reached or surpassed in 6 out of 10 years; growing periods may be
considered longer due to immediately following second rainy season by middle rains. Then the second growing period is
shorter than the given fgures
3)
Achieved average yields with average rainfall
4)
Farmers with medium inputs
5)
Farmers with high inputs of fertilizer, insecticides, soil and water conservation
6)
Potential yield according to crop list and local climate of this Agro-Ecological Unit if soils are optimally fertilized, plus
optimal crop management
87
236
KIAMBU & THIKA 88
237
KIAMBU & THIKA 89
3.3.6 FERTILISER AND MANURE RECOMMENDATIONS FOR IMPORTANT
AGRO-ECOLOGICAL UNITS
Te Fertiliser Use Recommendation Project of the GTZ (1986 - 92) had one trial site in the former Ki-
ambu district, on Nitisols at Githunguri in UM1-2 but another at the neighbouring National Agricultural
Research Laboratories in UM2 on less acid Nitisols. For the other zones, subzones and units Muiiuxi and
Quiisui showed which results from other districts could be representative (see map of Fertiliser Recom-
mendations and Farm Survey Areas) and made curves for fertiliser response
1
.
Recommended rates of an AEU increase into a wetter subzone and decrease towards the drier one if the soil
unit extends there (see dark and light grey shades in the small maps). We have tended to lower the rates due
to the low nancial basis of the smallholder farmers. Te optimum can be calculated from the curve formu-
las in Muiiuxi & Quiisui Fertiliser Use Manual, KARI, Nairobi 2001. In the long run the sustainability
amount must be given to maintain the nutrient content. Some quantities for it can be seen at the end of this
chapter and in the chapter 3.1 General Remarks.
Higher recommendations are given in the Smallholder Farming Handbook of the IRACC and MSS, Nai-
robi 1997, but the economical investment and risk is too high for the local farmers here. A rural small credit
system for the inputs could help a great deal. Where scientic sources for quantifying the rates are lacking,
some conclusions can be drawn from the dierence of inputs and yields between the low and high produc-
tion levels of the Small Farm Survey 2004. An empty column Other Nutrients Recommended does not
mean that there is nothing to be applied but it is because of lack of trial data. Plant physical signs of nutrient
deciencies and methods of alleviating it can be seen in Muiiuxi, A.W. and Quiisui, J.N. (2001), Table
1&2, p.22-23.
Finally it must be mentioned again that fertilising alone will increase the yields only in the short term. Te
micronutrients not included in the fertiliser become exhausted in due course. Manuring almost up to the
full return of the extracted nutrients is a must in order to have a stable agrobiological system with continu-
ous production
2
.
On the other hand even macronutrients like potassium (K) which is assumed to be enough in the soil, must
be given in the long run because 1 t of maize needs 23 kg K, 1 t of sorghum even 45 kg, 1 t of groundnuts
50 kg. Cassava is less demanding, only 7 kg K per t, but needs additionally 2 kg of cobalt (Co) and 1 kg of
magnesium (Mg)
3
.
1
Muiiuxi, A.W. x Quiisui, J.N.: Fertiliser Use Manual. Nairobi xaii :oo1.
2
Southern China has parts with similar soils to Kenya and stabilized productivity there for hundreds of years by returning to the
238
KIAMBU & THIKA 90
239
KIAMBU & THIKA 91
TABLE 21a: FERTILISER AND MANURE RECOMMENDATIONS FOR AGRO-
ECOLOGICAL UNIT LH1 p or l/vl^m, RB1 of the TEA and DAIRY ZONE
Crop varieties and
Season
Av. Exp. Yield
+ Response-
curve
kg/ha
Recommended
Fertiliser Rates
kg/ha
Av. Yield
Increase if
this Rate is
Applied
1)
kg/ha
Av. Yield
Increase if 5 t/ha
Manure are
Applied
kg/ha
Other Nutrients
Recommended
First Rainy Season
Hybrid maize 1500 +none ca. 500 Lime (ph ~4.5)
Hybr. maize & beans 680 +12.3 N 50 N 615 maize * Some rock
Second Rainy S.
Hybrid maize 2300 +none ca. 700 Lime (ph ~4.5)
Hybr. maize & beans 1230 +none *
Some rock
phosphate
Both seasons
Potatoes 4860 +7.5 NP 50 N +20 P 7500 ca. 1500 Lime
Cabbages 4600 +500 P 30 P 15000 ca. 5000 Lime 2t
Perennial crops
Tea
2)
300 N +70 P +
50 K
5000 Copper, Zinc
Sources: MURIUKI & QURESHI: Fertiliser Use Manual 2001, p. 124; conclusions from the Farm Survey 2004
1)
Double rates will bring almost double increase if climate is suitable and there are no pests and diseases.
2)
See also recommendations of local Tea Authority and of IRACC: Smallholder Farming Handbook for Self Employment,
Nairobi 1997, p. 174, for rates in 1
st
, 2
nd
, and 3
rd
year after planting; * No data available.
240
KIAMBU & THIKA
TABLE 21b: FERTILISER AND MANURE RECOMMENDATIONS FOR AGRO-
ECOLOGICAL UNIT LH1 i m, RB2 of the TEA and DAIRY ZONE
Crop varieties and
Season
Av. Exp. Yield
+ Response-
curve
kg/ha
Recommended
Fertiliser Rates
kg/ha
Av. Yield
Increase if
this Rate is
Applied
kg/ha
Av. Yield
Increase if 5 t/ha
Manure are
Applied
3)
kg/ha
Other Nutrients
Recommended
First Rainy Season
Hybrid maize 1130
1)
+14.2 P 75 P 1065 420 Lime
Hybr. maize & beans 1190
1)
+12.3 P 75 P 920 maize ? Lime
Second Rainy S.
Hybrid maize 1475
1)
+12.3 P 75 P 1815 ? Lime
Hybr. maize & beans 1180
1)
+15.4 P 75 P 1815 maize ?
Both seasons
Cabbages
3870 +
352 P - 2.1 P
2
-
60 P 13560 ca. 7500 Lime
Potatoes
7470 +
57.7 N - 0.8 N
2
+58 P
25 N +75 P 5200 ? Lime
Perennial crops
Tea
2)
300 N +70 P +
50 K
ca. 5000
Sources: MURIUKI & QURESHI: Fertiliser Use Manual 2001, p. 124; IRACC: Smallholder Farming Handbook for
Self Employment, Nairobi 1997, p. 174; conclusions from the Farm Survey 2004; KARI and GTZ:
Fertil. Use Recomm. of the FURP Project, Vol. 4 Kiambu District, Nairobi ca. 1995
1)
Poor experimental yields due to wrong varieties. Farmers report a threefold yield.
2)
See also recommendations of local Tea Authority and of IRACC: Smallholder Farming Handbook for Self Employment,
Nairobi 1997, p. 174, for rates in 1
st
, 2
nd
, and 3
rd
year after planting.
3)
Apply together with P Ior maximum beneft.
92
241
KIAMBU & THIKA 93
TABLE 21c: FERTILISER AND MANURE RECOMMENDATIONS FOR AGRO-
ECOLOGICAL UNIT UM1 i m, RB2 of the TEA-COFFEE ZONE
Crop varieties and
Season
Av. Exp. Yield
+ Response-
curve
kg/ha
Recommended
Fertiliser Rates
kg/ha
Av. Yield
Increase if
this Rate is
Applied
kg/ha
Av. Yield
Increase if 5 t/ha
Manure are
Applied
1)
kg/ha
Other Nutrients
Recommended
First Rainy Season
Hybrid maize
3200 +20 N +
13.5 P
75 N +50 P 2150 ca. 500 Some lime
Hybr. maize & beans 3550 +0.3 NP 50 N +50 P 730 maize *
Second Rainy S.
Hybrid maize
3120 +11.3 P +
0.2 NP
50 N +60 P 1165 *
Hybr. maize & beans
2450 +6.2 N +
17.6 P
25 N +50 P 1030 maize *
Both seasons
Cabbages
4000 +
352 P - 2.1 P
2
60 P 13560 ca. 7500
Perennial crops
Tea
2)
300 N +70 P +
50 K
ca. 5000 *
Coffee 150 N +100 P ca. 1000 *
Sources: MURIUKI & QURESHI: Fertiliser Use Manual 2001, p. 124; IRACC: Smallholder Farming Handbook for
Self Employment, Nairobi 1997, p. 147 & 174; conclusions from the Farm Survey 2004
1)
Apply together with P Ior maximum beneft. Apply together with P Ior maximum beneft.
2)
Seealsorecommendationsof local TeaAuthorityandof IRACC: Smallholder FarmingHandbookfor Self Employment, See also recommendations of local Tea Authority and of IRACC: Smallholder Farming Handbook for Self Employment,
Nairobi 1997, p. 174, for rates in 1
st
, 2
nd
, and 3
rd
year after planting; * No data available.
TABLE 21d: FERTILISER AND MANURE RECOMMENDATIONS FOR AGRO-
ECOLOGICAL UNIT UM2 m + s/m, RB2 of the MAIN COFFEE ZONE
Crop varieties and
Season
Av. Exp. Yield
+ Response-
curve
kg/ha
Recommended
Fertiliser Rates
kg/ha
Av. Yield
Increase if
this Rate is
Applied
1)
kg/ha
Av. Yield
Increase if 5 t/ha
Manure are
Applied
kg/ha
Other Nutrients
Recommended
First Rainy Season
Hybrid maize
3175 +19.9N
+13.5 P
75 N +50 P 2150 ca. 450 Some lime
Hybr. maize & beans 3545 +0.29 NP 50 N +50 P 725 maize *
Second Rainy S.
Hybrid maize
3100 +11.3 P +
0.19 NP
50 N +50 P 1040 *
Hybr. maize & beans
2450 +6.2 N +
17.6 P
25 N +50 P 1030 maize *
Perennial crops
Coffee 150 N +100 P ca. 1000 *
Napier grass 9470 +0.56 NP not econ.
2)
*
Sources: MURIUKI & QURESHI: Fertiliser Use Manual 2001, p. 124; IRACC: Smallholder Farming Handbook for
Self Employment, Nairobi 1997, p. 147; conclusions from the Farm Survey 2004
1)
Apply together with P Ior maximum beneft. Apply together with P Ior maximum beneft.
2)
Better tousemanure; * Nodataavailable Better to use manure; * No data available
242
KIAMBU & THIKA 94
TABLE 21e: FERTILISER AND MANURE RECOMMENDATIONS FOR AGRO-
ECOLOGICAL UNIT UM2 m/l i m/s, RB2
3)
of the MAIN COFFEE ZONE
Crop varieties and
Season
Av. Exp. Yield
+ Response-
curve
kg/ha
Recommended
Fertiliser Rates
kg/ha
Av. Yield
Increase if
this Rate is
Applied
1)
kg/ha
Av. Yield
Increase if 5 t/ha
Manure are
Applied
kg/ha
Other Nutrients
Recommended
First Rainy Season
Hybrid maize 1130 +14.2 P 50 P
2)
710 ca. 500
2)
Hybr. maize & beans 1190 +12.3 P 50 P
2)
615 maize *
Second Rainy S.
Hybrid maize 1470 +0.15 NP 50 N +50 P
2)
375 ca. 400
2)
Hybr. maize & beans 1180 +15.4 P 50 P
2)
770 maize *
Both seasons
Cabbages
390 +
352 P - 2.1 P
2
50 P 12350 ca. 7500
2)
Potatoes
7470 +
57.7 N - 0.8 N
2
+58 P
50 N +50 P 3785 *
Perennial crops
Coffee 150 N +100 P ca. 1000 *
Napier grass 9570 +0.56 NP not economical *
Sources: MURIUKI & QURESHI: Fertiliser Use Manual 2001, p. 124; IRACC: Smallholder Farming Handbook for
Self Employment, Nairobi 1997, p. 147; conclusions from the Farm Survey 2004
1)
Double rates will bring almost double increase if climate is suitable and there are no pests and diseases.
2)
Apply phosphate and organic manure together Ior maximum beneft.
3)
A poorer local soil quality in the macro-unit RB 2. Places with higher initial yields may tend to Table 21d which is derived
from Nat. Agr. Res. Lab., which have all conditions optimized.; * No data available
243
KIAMBU & THIKA
TABLE 21f: FERTILISER AND MANURE RECOMMENDATIONS FOR AGRO-
ECOLOGICAL UNIT UM3 m/s + s, RB3 of the MARG. COFFEE ZONE
Crop varieties and
Season
Av. Exp. Yield
+ Response-
curve
kg/ha
Recommended
Fertiliser Rates
kg/ha
Av. Yield
Increase if
this Rate is
Applied
kg/ha
Av. Yield
Increase if 5 t/ha
Manure are
Applied
kg/ha
Other Nutrients
Recommended
First Rainy Season
Hybrid maize
970 +
34.2 N - 0.27 N
2
+7.4 P
75 N +25 P 1230
170, together
with50 N & 50 P
1250
Lime
Hybr. maize & beans 1014 +0.25 NP not economical *
Second Rainy S.
KCB maize
960 +9 N
+0.2NP
25 N 225 *
KCB maize & beans 852 +0.24 NP not economical *
Perennial crops *
Coffee 130 N +80 P ca. 750 *
Sources: MURIUKI & QURESHI: Fertiliser Use Manual 2001, p. 126; IRACC: Smallholder Farming Handbook for
Self Employment, Nairobi 1997, p. 147; conclusions from the Farm Survey 2004; * No data available
95
TABLE 21g: FERTILISER AND MANURE RECOMMENDATIONS FOR AGRO-
ECOLOGICAL UNIT LH3 s/m + (s/vs) & s/m + (vs/s), RB3 of the
WHEAT/MAIZE-BARLEY ZONE
Crop varieties and
Season
Av. Exp. Yield
+ Response-
curve
kg/ha
Recommended
Fertiliser Rates
kg/ha
Av. Yield
Increase if
this Rate is
Applied
kg/ha
Av. Yield
Increase if 5 t/ha
Manure are
Applied
kg/ha
Other Nutrients
Recommended
First Rainy Season
Hybrid maize
970 +
34 N - 0.27 N
2
+
7.4 P
75 N +25 P 1220 ca. 200 *
Hybr. maize & beans 1000 +0.25 NP not economical *
Second Rainy S.
KCB maize in (s/vs)
950 +9 N +
0.2 NP
25 N 225
KCB maize & beans 850 +0.24 NP not economical *
Sources: MURIUKI & QURESHI: Fertiliser Use Manual 2001, p. 126; conclusions from the Farm Survey 2004
* No data available
244
KIAMBU & THIKA 96
245
KIAMBU & THIKA
TABLE 21h: FERTILISER AND MANURE RECOMMENDATIONS FOR AGRO-
ECOLOGICAL UNITS UM4 s/m + s, s + s & s + s/vs, LBC and LB1 of the
SUNFLOWER-MAIZE ZONE
Crop varieties and
Season
Av. Exp. Yield
+ Response-
curve
kg/ha
Recommended
Fertiliser Rates
kg/ha
Av. Yield
Increase if
this Rate is
Applied
kg/ha
Av. Yield
Increase if 5 t/ha
Manure are
Applied
kg/ha
Other Nutrients
Recommended
First Rainy Season
KCB maize 965 +0.3 NP not economical ca. 200 *
KCB maize & cowp.
420 +6.6 P +
0.1 NP
not economical
Sorghum
1455 +8.2 P +
0.4 NP
25 N +25 P 455 ca. 250 *
Second Rainy S.
KCB maize 950 +0.3 NP not economical ca. 200
KCB maize & beans *
Sources: MURIUKI & QURESHI: Fertiliser Use Manual 2001, p. 132; conclusions from the Farm Survey 2004
* No data available
97
246
247
MURANGA & MARAGUA
3.4 MURANGA AND MARAGUA DISTRICTS GROUP
TABLE OF CONTENTS District Page
3.4.1 Natural Potential 3
Introduction 3
Annual Rainfall Map 4
Table 1: Annual Rainfall 5
Table 2: Temperature 6
Table 3: Potential Evapotranspiration 6
Seasonal Rainfall Maps 7
Table 4: Climate in the Agro-Ecological Zones and Subzones 9
Agro-Ecological Zones Map 10
Agro-Ecological Zones and Subzones (=Legend to the AEZ Map), with Land Use
Potentials and Water Availability & Requirement Diagrams 11
Soil Map 18
Soil Distribution, Fertility and Major Characteristics with Legend to the Soil Map 19
3.4.2 Population and Land 21
Muranga District
Table 5: Population in Muranga District 21
Table 6: Composition of Households in Muranga District 6: Composition of Households in Muranga District 6: Composition of Households in Muranga District 23
Table 7: Available Land Area in Muranga District per AEZ and Household 26
Maragua District
Table 8 Population in Maragua District 27
Table 9: Composition of Households in Maragua District 29
Table 10: Available Land Area in Maragua District per AEZ and Household 32
3.4.3 Agricultural Statistics 33
Development and Trends of Major Cash Crops in Muranga District 33
Table 11: Coee 33
Table 12: Tea 34
Table 13: Pyrethrum 35
Development and Trends of Major Cash Crops in Maragua District 36
Table 14: Coee 36
Table 15: Tea 36
Distribution of Farming Activities During the Year 37
Tables 16 a-o: Farming Activities in the Agro-Ecological Zones 37
1
248
3.4.4 Farm Survey 45
Table 17: Farm Survey Sites Representative of the Dominating Agro-Ecological
Subzones and Units 45
Farm Survey Areas and Fertiliser Recommendations Map 47
Tables 18 a-i: Assets, Land Use, Farming Intensity and Inputs 48
Tables 19 a-i: Cropping Pattern 57
3.4.5 Introduction to the Actual Land Use Systems and to the Potential Intensication
by Better Farm Management in Dominating Agro-Ecological Subzones 68
Tables 20 a-i: Increase of Yields by Better Farm Management 69-86
Maragua District
LH1 p or l/vl^m of the Tea and Dairy Zone 68
UM2 m/l i m/s of the Main Coee Zone 71
UM3 m/s + s of the Marginal Coee Zone 74
UM4 s/m + s of the Sunower-Maize Zone 76
LM4 s + s/vs of the Marginal Cotton Zone 78
Muranga District
UH1 p or l/vl^m of the Sheep and Dairy Zone 80
UM1 p or l/vl^m of the Tea and Coee Zone 82
UM2 m/l i m/s of the Main Coee Zone 84
LM3 s + s of the Cotton Zone 85
3.4.6 Fertiliser and Manure Recommendations for Important Agro-Ecological Units 87
Map of Important Agro-Ecological Units 88
Tables 21 a-f: Fertiliser and Manure Recommendations: 89-95
LH1 p or l/vl^m, MV2 and RB1 of the Tea and Dairy Zone 89
UM1 p or ^m & i m, RB2 of the Tea and Coee Zone 90
UM2 m/l i m/s, RB2 of the Main Coee Zone 90
UM3 m/s + s, RB3 of the Marginal Coee Zone 92
UM4 s/m + s, RB3 of the Sunower-Maize Zone 92
LM3 s + s, LB2 of the Cotton Zone 94
MURANGA & MARAGUA 2
249
MURANGA & MARAGUA 3
3.4.1 NATURAL POTENTIAL
INTRODUCTION
Muranga and Maragua districts, on the eastern slopes of the Aberdare Range, show an upward increase in
rainfall and in the length of the agro-humid period which is characteristic of increasing altitudes, due to the
eect of the south-eastern trade winds. Te annual average rainfall reaches a maximum of 2 700 mm at 2
500 m. From this altitude up to the forest line and down to about 2 200 m, it is so wet, cold and steep that
the area is not recommended for agriculture (UH 0). A strip of UH 1 extends further down to the 15
0
C
isotherme, (here due to heavy cloud cover exceptionally low at about 2 050 m) and generally known as the
Sheep and Dairy Zone, though in view of the population pressure, vegetable cultivation would be more ap-
propriate.
Te next zones are found in descending order on the eastern slopes of the Aberdare Range: the Tea-Dairy
Zone LH 1, the Coee-Tea Zone UM 1, the Main Coee Zone UM 2, the Marginal Coee Zone UM 3, and
the Sunower-Maize Zone UM4 which is partly a sisal zone due to large estates. A stripe of UM3-4 occurs
towards the east near Makuyu, although on less suitable soils which are very marginal for coee. Additional
irrigation is essential here.
Down on the plains where cotton production is feasible - the upper limit is already about 1 300 m due to
reduced insolation because of extended cloudiness - the climate is so dry (annual average 800-900 mm) that
the good Cotton Zone LM3 is little more than a transitional strip to the Marginal Cotton Zone LM4.
250
MURANGA & MARAGUA 4
251
MURANGA & MARAGUA
TABLE 1: RAINFALL FIGURES FROM SELECTED TYPICAL STATIONS HAVING AT LEAST
15 YEARS
No. and
altitude
Name of Station
Agro Ecol.
Zone &
Subzone
Kind of
records
Annual
rainfall
mm
Monthly rainfall in mm
J F M A M J J A S O N D
9036052 Githumu LH 1 Average 1802 55 66 137 408 307 81 56 54 63 184 258 133
2100 m Sec. School p or l/vl^m 66% rel.
1
1370 49 9 80 112 220 25 23 6 4 15 240 75
9036104 Muranga UM 1 Av. 1707 48 47 126 418 318 65 50 56 48 172 255 104
1760 m MuriranjasHosp. Hosp. p or f`m 66%
2
1588 22 12 65 248 240 44 33 40 34 88 180 63
9036106 Muranga LH 1 Av. 2123 70 53 131 470 392 99 81 86 76 262 268 135
2051 m Kanyenyaini p or l/vl^m 66%
2
1910 45 37 104 305 355 79 60 65 53 190 200 89
9036212 Muranga LH 1 Av. 2215 82 71 153 476 393 116 77 76 82 243 280 166
2130 m Exp. Farm p or l/vl^m 66%
3
9036248 Njiris LH 1 Av. 2206 73 85 171 469 377 87 64 65 61 250 341 163
2130 m High School p or l/vl^m 66%
3
9036291 Kiriaini UM 1 Av. 1600 45 44 104 351 332 78 68 54 62 215 163 84
1905 m Chiefs Camp f i m 66%
3
9036293 Kihoya LH 1 Av. 2015 74 68 131 477 372 100 83 75 71 212 223 129
1962 m Chiefs Camp p or l/vl^m 66%
3
9036302 Githiga W. LH 1 Av. 1806 56 51 142 422 347 67 59 45 47 186 300 84
1980 m Macharia Farm p or l/vl^m 66%
3
9036314 North LH 1 Av. 2339 87 91 184 420 444 170 149 136 105 190 253 110
1978 m Mathioya Camp p or l/vl^m 66%
3
9036315 Tuso LH 1 Av. 2300 88 80 180 454 426 113 73 79 77 263 304 163
2100 m Camp p or l/vl^m 66%
3
9037001 Makuyu UM 4 Av. 959 38 36 110 241 130 21 12 11 15 80 185 80
1535 m Sisal Limited s/m +s 66%
2
850 16 8 77 200 78 8 6 6 2 45 153 42
9037005 Thika, UM 2-3 Av. 1052 37 48 115 257 151 34 20 20 26 87 171 86
1520 m Githumbwini Est. m +s/m 66%
1
960 13 14 60 218 108 17 9 13 8 50 125 51
9037007 Muranga UM 3 Av. 1198 34 41 107 316 202 43 21 23 26 125 188 72
1275 m District OIfce m/s +s 66%
2
1050 10 9 55 283 144 20 12 13 12 70 145 33
9037018 Punda Milia UM 3-4 Av. 1028 34 44 104 276 150 22 9 12 10 80 198 89
1430 m Coop Society Ltd. m/s +s 66%
2
900 30 16 50 215 90 8 3 3 2 65 140 45
9037028 Mwitumberia UM 3-4 Av. 1038 41 38 114 263 127 19 7 9 12 93 214 101
1490 m Estate m/s +s 66%
2
865 13 8 68 220 85 7 3 3 4 50 172 40
9037037 Muranga, Tana LM 4 Av. 890 32 32 87 207 148 21 8 14 13 89 175 64
1060 m River Power Stn. s/vs +vs/s 66%
2
760 17 10 62 180 90 8 2 4 3 45 155 36
9037042 Kahuhia Girls UM 1 Av. 1546 42 46 115 397 287 54 47 45 39 163 237 74
1630 m Sec. School f i m 66%
1
1490 20 35 50 285 205 50 40 15 30 89 205 32
9037063 Muranga Mugoiri UM 2-(1) Av. 1539 38 42 122 393 267 49 36 44 37 181 242 88
1520 m Girls School m/l i m/s 66%
3
9037109 Muranga UM 3 Av. 1280 39 46 98 342 219 35 24 23 23 147 214 70
1310 m Water Supply m/s +s 66%
3
9037143 Makuyu UM 4 Av. 979 29 41 110 265 124 26 10 7 11 107 200 49
1360 m District OIfce s/m +s 66%
3
9037192 Ithanga UM 3-LM 4 Av. 1009 34 41 141 290 80 23 2 3 13 88 215 79
1262 m Chiefs Centre m/s +s 66%
3
9037204 Kahuro District UM 1 Av. 1639 33 33 139 384 324 63 43 22 52 231 219 96
1512 m OIfcers OIfce f i m 66%
3
1
These fgures oI rainIall reliability should be exceeded normally in 10 out oI 15 years.
2
Estimate of this reliability by correlation, no detailed data available to GTZ for enough years.
3
Not calculated because not enough years available to GTZ.
5
252
MURANGA & MARAGUA
TABLE 2: TEMPERATURE DATA
No. and
altitude
Name of
Station
AEZ
1
Kind of
records
Temperature inC
Belt
limits
J F M A M J J A S O N D Yr.
9036233
2439m
Kimakia
Forest Station
(Thika D.)
UH0
3000m
UH
2240m
LH
Mean max. 20,3 21,0 20,5 19,2 17,9 16,5 14,9 15,1 17,7 18,7 18,2 19,3 18,3
Mean temp. 13,4 14,1 14,4 14,2 13,3 11,9 11,0 10,9 12,1 13,3 13,3 13,2 12,9
Mean min. 6,4 7,1 8,2 9,2 8,7 7,3 7,0 6,7 6,4 7,9 8,3 7,0 7,5
Abs. min. 0,0 0,5 0,3 4,0 3,5 1,4 0,1 0,2 0,3 1,5 1,6 0,3 1,1
9037037
1060m
Tana Power
Station
LM 4
Mean max. 29.8 31.8 30.8 28.9 28.0 27.3 26.5 26.6 29.4 30.4 28.5 28.5 28.9
1290m
LM
850m
IL
Mean temp. 21.9 23.5 24.0 23.4 22.4 21.7 20.7 20.9 22.6 23.9 22.8 23.1 22.4
Mean min. 13.9 15.6 17.1 17.8 16.8 15.6 14.8 15.1 15.7 17.4 17.1 15.6 16.0
Abs. min. 5.6 10.6 12.2 10.0 8.3 9.2 8.2 6.7 8.6 9.4 9.2 7.5 5.6
1
AEZ=Agro-ecological zone
TABLE 3: AVERAGE POTENTIAL EVAPOTRANSPIRATION
No. and
altitude
Name of Station
Type
1)
AEZ
Average Potential Evapotranspiration PET in mm Av. Rainfall
J F M A M J J A S O N D Year
Year
in mm
%
of PET
9037096 Sagana Fish Cul-
UM-
LM 3
148 147 160 131 126 105 100 111 100 149 127 137 1539 1180 77%
1312m ture Farm (Kir. D.)
1)
Type of equation: calculated by formula of PENMAN & MCCULLOCH with albedo for green grass 0.2; see MCCULLOCH
(1965): Tables for the Rapid Computation of the PENMAN Estimate of Evaporation.- East African Agricultural & Forestry
J ournal, Vol. 30, No.3, p. 286-295.
AEZ=Agro-Ecol. Zone, explainingtableseegeneral part. Zone, explaining table see general part.
6
253
MURANGA & MARAGUA 7
254
MURANGA & MARAGUA 8
255
MURANGA & MARAGUA
TABLE 4: CLIMATE IN THE AGRO-ECOLOGICAL ZONES
Agro-
Ecological
Zone
Subzone
Altitude
in m
Ann. mean
temperature
inC
Ann. av.
rainfall
in mm
66% reliability
of rainfall
1)
60% reliability of cereal and
legumes growing period
1
st
rainy s.
in mm
2
nd
rainy s.
in mm
1
st
rainy s.
2)
in days
2
nd
rainy s.
in days
Total
3)
in days
TA I +II
Tropical
Alpine Zone
National Park
UH 0
Forest Zone
Forest Reserve
UH 1
Sheep and
Dairy Zone
p or l/vl^m 2130-2430 14.9-13.0 2200-2500 1100-1400 650-700 210 or more 140-550 350-365
LH 1
Tea-Dairy
Zone
p or l/vl^m 1730-2130 18.0-15.0 1700-2400 850-1300 480-680 210 or more 140-155 350-365
UM 1
Coffee-Tea
Zone
p or l/vl^m
1670-1800 18.8-18.0
1700-1900 800-1100 500-580 210 or more 140-155 350-365
f i m 1500-1700 700-900 400-520 180 or more 130-140 310-340
UM 2
Main Coffee
Zone
m/l i m/s
1500-1670 19.7-18.8
1300-1620 550-820 320-480 160 or more 110-130 270-300
m+s/m 1180-1400 450-650 280-400 130-160 105-115
UM 3
Marginal
Coffee Zone
m/s+s
1340-1500 20.7-19.7
900-1350 350-650 230-380 110-130 90-100
s/m+s/m 900-950 350-410 260-310 105-115 100-110
UM 4
Sunfower
Maize Zone
s/m+s
1340-1520 20.7-19.5
900-1100 320-450 230-300 100-110 90-100
s+s 850-950 280-380 220-280 90-105 90-100
s+s/vs 800-850 200-280 200-230 85-100 75-85
LM 3
Cotton Zone
s/m+s
1160-1340 21.7-20.8
Very small, see Kirinyaga District
s+s 980-1100 390-490 270-320 85-105 85-100
LM 4
Marginal
Cotton Zone
s+s/vs
1060-1160 22.3-21.7
900-1000 350-450 250-280 85-100 75-85
s/vs+vs/s 890-950 320-400 230-250 75-85 65-75
1)
Amounts surpassed normally in 10 of 15 years, falling during the agro-humid period which allows growing of most
cultivated plants.
2)
More if growing cycle of cultivated plants continues into the period of second rainy season.
3)
Only added if rainfall continues at least for survival (>0.25 PET) of certain long term crops, and this time is included.
9
256
MURANGA & MARAGUA 10
257
MURANGA & MARAGUA 11
AGRO-ECOLOGICAL ZONES AND SUBZONES
TA = TROPICAL- ALPINE ZONES
TA I II = Tropi cal - Al pi ne Moor- and Heat hl ands
Here National Park
Limited grazing potential
UH = UPPER HIGHLAND ZONES
UH 0 = Forest Zone
UH 1 = Sheep and Dai ry Zone
UH 1
p or l/vl^m
= Sheep and Dairy Zone or Vegetable Zone
with permanent cropping possibilities, dividable in a long to very long cropping
season followed by a medium one
Upper places very steep and too important as a catchment area, therefore Forest Reserve on
National Park. Small strip of outside lower places cleared, there:
Good yi el d potenti al (av. 60- 80 % of the opti mum)
1
st
rainy season, start norm. mid March: Oats (April- Sep.); horse beans, peas, tarwi, potatoes
1)
(m. S. m. J an.); late mat. rapeseed; kales, cabbage, carrots, kohlrabi, celery, radish,
endive, rampion, leek
2
nd
rainy season, start norm. mid Oct.: Oats (Oct.-Feb.); peas, potatoes
1)
; med. mat. rapeseed,
vegetables as in 1
st
rainy season
Fai r yi el d potenti al (av. 40- 60% of the opti mum)
1
st
rainy season: Very late mat. maize (lower places), late mat. triticale
2
nd
rainy season: Med. mat. triticale
Whole year: Pyrethrum, pears, plums
Pasture and f orage
About 0.5 ha/LU on secondary pasture of Kikuyu grass; very suitable for grade dairy cows;
Kenya white clover and other forage (see Table X) to improve stocking rate
LH = LOWER HIGHLAND ZONES
LH 1 = Tea - Dai ry Zone
LH 1
p or l/vl^m
= Tea Dairy Zone
with permanent cropping possibilities dividable in a long to very long cropping season
followed by a medium one
Very good yi el d potenti al (av. over 80% of the opti mum)
1
st
rain season, norm. mid March: Peas, cabbages, lettuce
2
nd
rainy season, start norm. b. of Oct.: Peas
Good yi el d potenti al
1
st
rainy (to 2
nd
) season: Potatoes (e. of Feb. - J uly), Late mat. maize H612-14, 625 (~60%, best
pl. time J une- Dec/J an.), Lima beans, carrots, leeks, kales, endive, spinach
2
nd
rainy season: Potatoes (m. Sep.- m. J an.); cabbages, carrots, kales, lettuce, spinach
Whole year, best pl. time mid March: Tea (high quality), loquats, passion fruits (lower
places)
Fai r yi el d potenti al
1
st
rainy season: M. mat. maize, m. mat. beans
2)
(two times, 2
nd
time in Gathano rains J uly
Oct.)
6)
2
nd
rainy season: Late mat. maize like HB 624 (best pl. time J une - Dec./J an.), m. mat. beans,
leek
Whole year: Pyrethrum (too wet), plums, pears
Pasture and f orage
Around 0.4 ha/LU on secondary pasture of Kikuyu grass, very suitable for grade dairy cows;
Kenya white clover for higher productivity a. o. (see Table X)
258
MURANGA & MARAGUA 12
UM = UPPER MIDLAND ZONES
UM 1 = Coff ee- Tea Zone
UM 1
p or m
= Coffee-Tea Zone
with permanent cropping possibilities, dividable in fully long cropping season
followed by a medium one
Small, potential almost as UM 1 f i m on heavy soils but taro good, and Ior beans sometimes
too wet. Stocking rate around 0.5 ha/LU
UM 1
i m
= Coffee-Tea Zone
with a fully long cropping season, intermediate rains, and a medium one
3)
Very good yi el d potenti al
1
st
rainy season, start norm. mid March: Lima beans; cabbages, kales
2
nd
rainy season, start norm. mid Oct. M. mat. beans (Aug.- Dec./J an.)
Whole year, best pl. time mid March: Passion fruits, black wattle
Good yi el d potenti al
1
st
rainy season: Late mat. maize (to 2
nd
rainy season), fnger millet
4)
; potatoes
1)
, late mat.
sunfower like Kenya White; onions
2
nd
rainy season: Sweet potatoes; m. mat. sunfower like Hybrid S 301 A, cabbages (Aug.-
Dec.), kales, onions, tomatoes
6)
Whole year: Tea, Arabica coffee, bananas, mountain paw paws, yams, loquats, avocados,
arrowroots
6)
Fai r yi el d potenti al
1
st
rainy season: Cold tolerant sorghum, m. mat. foxtail millet (J uly Oct., seeds Meru District);,
potatoes, sweet potatoes, beans; tomatoes
6)
2
nd
rainy season: M. mat . maize (Sep.- J an.), late mat. maize (J uly- J an.), cold tol. sorghum
(Aug. Feb.), fnger millet; potatoes (Aug.-Dec.)
Whole year: Citrus, taro
6)
, pineapples (lower places)
Pasture and f orage
0.5-0.6 ha/LU on secondary pasture of Kikuyu grass; down to about 0.15 ha/LU feeding
Napier grass, banana stems and leaves, sweet potato vines, maize stalks a.o. (see Table X).
Zero grazing recommended because land is so scarce
UM 2 = Mai n Coff ee Zone
UM 2
m/l i m/s
= Main Coffee Zone
with a medium to long cropping season, intermediate rains and a medium to short
one
5)
Very good yi el d potenti al
1
st
rainy season, start norm. mid March: M. mat. sunfower like HS 301 A
2
nd
rainy season, start norm. mid Oct.: M. mat. beans like Cuarentino (Sep./Oct. J an./Feb.)
Whole year, best pl. time mid March: Arabica coffee, loquats, mountain paw paws
Good yi el d potenti al
1
st
rainy season: M. mat. maize of H5..series or EMCO 92 SR, ratoon sorghum (lower pl.); m.
mat. beans, potatoes
1)
, sweet potatoes; cabbages, kales, tomatoes
6)
, onions, French beans
2
nd
rainy season: E. mat. maize like Katumani comp. B, e. mat. foxtail millet, e. mat. sorghum
like 2 KX 17; sweet potatoes (Aug./Sep.- Jan.); e. mat. sunfower like HS 345(1500 m);
kales, cabbages, onions, tomatoes
6)
, French beans
s
Whole year: Bananas, citrus, avocados, Macadamia nuts, mangoes, passion fruits, pineapples,
taro in valleys, arrowroots
6)
Fai r yi el d potenti al
2
nd
rainy season: M. mat. maize (Aug./Sep.-Jan./Feb.), fnger millet; e. mat. potatoes
Whole year: Cassava (lower places <1500m), sugar cane (lower and wet places), tea fair to
marginal
259
MURANGA & MARAGUA 13
Pasture and f orage
0.6-0.8 ha/LU on secondary pasture of star grass (Cynodon dactylon) but land too valuable for
grazing; down to less than 0.2 /LU feeding Napier or Bana grass, banana leaves, glycine a.o.
forage (see Table X)
UM 2
m + s/m
= Main Coffee Zone
with a medium cropping season and a short to medium one
Potential almost the same as UM 2 m/l i m/s less about 10% of perennial or late maturing
crops and of stocking rates because of more intensive drought; all vegetables better in valleys,
coffee yields good
UM 3 = Margi nal Coff ee Zone
UM 3
m/s + s
= Marginal Coffee Zone
with a medium to short and a short cropping season
7)
(see Diagram Muranga)
Good yi el d potenti al
1
st
rainy season, start norm. mid to end of March: E. mat. maize like Katumani comp. B (lower
places), m. mat. maize (higher places), ratoon of e. mat. sorghum; e. mat. beans, French
beans; m. mat. sunfower like H 8998; onions, cabbages
2
nd
rainy season, start norm. mid Oct.: E. mat. foxtail millet; e. mat. sorghum like KARI
Mtama 1; e. mat. sunfower like HS 345
Whole year: Pineapples (best pl. time end of March), Macadamia nuts, perennial castor
260
MURANGA & MARAGUA
Fai r yi el d potenti al
1
st
rainy season: M. mat. maize (lower pl.), m. mat. fnger millet; m. mat. beans, French beans;
potatoes, sweet potatoes; kales, tomatoes
6)
2
nd
rainy season: Katumani maize; e. mat. beans; e. mat cabbages
6)
, kales
6)
, tomatoes
6)
Whole year: Arabica coIIee (lower places poor, additional irrigation proftable), bananas
(lower places marginal)
6)
, citrus, paw paws, cassava (<1500m), pigeon peas (lower pl.),
mangoes
Pasture and f orage
0.7-1.1 ha/LU on secondary high grass savanna with zebra grass (Hyparrhenia rufa)
predominant; down to less than 0.25 /LU feeding Napier or Bana grass, glycine, maize stalks,
sweet potato vines and other forage (see Table X)
UM 3
s/m+s/m
= Marginal Coffee Zone
with two short to medium cropping seasons
Very small and transitional to UM 4, potential see Machakos District
UM 4 = Sunf l ower- Mai ze Zone or Upper Si sal Zone
8)
UM 4
s/m + s
= Sunower- Mai:e Zone
with a short to medium and a short cropping season
9)
(see Diagram Makuyu Sisal Est.)
14
261
MURANGA & MARAGUA 15
Good yi el d potenti al
1
st
rainy season, start norm. mid to end of March: E. mat. maize like Katumani comp. B, e.
mat. sorghum like 2 KX 17; ratoon of e. mat. sorghum; e. mat. beans; m. mat. sunfower
like H 8998
2
nd
rainy season, start norm. mid oI Oct.: .E. mat. sorghum like Serena; e. mat. sunfower
Whole year, best pl. time end of Oct.: Sisal, avocados
Fai r yi el d potenti al
1
st
rainy season: Finger millet; dolichos beans; potatoes (higher places), sweet potatoes;
Virginia tobacco; tomatoes
6)
, onions, cabbages
6)
, pumpkins
2
nd
rainy season: E. mat. maize like Katumani comp. B, e. mat. sorghum like 2 KX 17; e. mat.
beans like mwezi moja (50 - 60%); potatoes, sweet potatoes, pumpkins
Whole year: Cassava (<1500m), castor, pineapples
10)
, bananas, mangoes
Pasture and f orage
0.8 1.2 ha/LU on high grass savanna with zebra grass (Hyparrhenia rufa) predominant;
down to about 0.25 ha/LU feeding Bana grass, siratro (Macroptilium atropurpureum), horse
tamarind (Leucaena), maize stalks and silage (of green maize or green fodder sorghum)
UM 4
s + s
= Sunower-Mai:e Zone
with two short cropping seasons
9)
Crop potential almost the same as UM 4 s/m +s less about 10% yield expectations, but med.
mat. maize not recommended except on very suitable soils. Stocking rates 0.9 1.3 ha/LU
UM 4
s+s/vs
= Sunower-Mai:e Zone
with two short to very short cropping seasons
Good yi el d potenti al
1
st
rainy season, start norm. m./e. of March: E. mat. maize like Katumani comp. B, e. mat.
sorghum like Serena (60 70%); e. mat. beans, e .mat. cowpeas like Kunde 1, e. mat.
sunfower like HS 345
2
nd
rainy season, start norm. end of Oct.: V. e. mat. sorghum like IS 8595, e. mat. foxtail and
proso millet (lower pl.)
Whole year: Sisal
Fai r yi el d potenti al
1
st
rainy season: Dolichos beans, e .mat. beans; sweet potatoes; Virginia tobacco with seedbed
irrigation; tomatoes, onions, e. mat. cabbages
2
nd
rainy season: V. e. mat. maize like Dryland comp.; v. e. mat. beans; e. mat. sunfower like
252
Whole year: Cassava, pineapples
10)
, castor
Pasture and f orage
1 1.5 ha/LU on medium to high grass savanna; down to less than 0.3 ha/LU feeding Bana
grass, siratro, horse tamarind saltbush (Atriplex nummularia) and other forage (see Table X)
LM = LOWER MIDLAND ZONES
LM 3 = Cot t on Zone
LM 3
s/m + s
= Cotton Zone
with a short to medium and a short cropping season
Very small, potential see Kirinyaga District
LM 3
s + s
= Cotton Zone
with two short cropping seasons
11)
Very good yi el d potenti al
2
nd
rainy season, start norm. mid Oct.: E. mat. proso millet like Serere I
262
MURANGA & MARAGUA
Good yi el d potenti al
1
st
rainy season, start norm. end of March: E. mat. maize like Katumani comp. B, ratoon of
e. mat. sorghum, e. mat. bulrush millet (awned var. recommended), e. mat. foxtail millet
(~80); e. mat. beans, cowpeas, chickpeas on h. black soils, green grams; e. mat. sunfower
like HS 345
2
nd
rainy season: E. mat. sorghum like 2 KX 17, e. mat. bulrush millet; green grams, cowpeas,
pigeon peas (Oct. Sep.); cotton bimodal var. on good, well drained heavy soils (b. of Oct.-
Aug., ~ 60), e. mat. sunfower
Fai r yi el d potenti al
1
st
rainy season: M.mat. maize, dolichos beans (50 60%), groundnuts in light solis, e. mat.
soya beans; sweet potatoes; Virginia tobacco; tomatoes, onions, capsicum
2
nd
rainy season: E. mat. maize like Katumani comp. B; dolichos beans, e. mat. beans,
groundnuts; cotton bimodal var. on med. soils: Virginia tobacco (better with seedbed
irrigation)
Whole year: Cassava, pineapples, mangoes, Macadamia nuts, paw paws, passion fruits
Poor yi el d potenti al
2
nd
rainy season: E. mat. sweet potatoes
Whole year: Citrus
Pasture and f orage
0.8- 1.5 ha/LU on high grass savanna with Zebra grass (Hyparrhenia rufa) predominant; down
to less than 0.25 ha/LU feeding Bana grass a.o. forage (see Table X)
LM 4 = Margi nal Cot t on Zone
LM 4
s + s/vs
= Marginal Cotton zone
with a short and a short to very short cropping season
Small, potential almost the same as LM 3 s +s but cotton marginal (except on very suitable
soils) and stocking rates a little bit lower
LM 4
s/vs + s/vs
= Marginal Cotton Zone
with two short to very short cropping seasons
Good yi el d potenti al
1
st
rainy season, start norm. end of March: V. e. mat. maize like Dryland comp. (on contour
ridges), ratoon of e. mat. sorghum, e. mat. bulrush millet (awned var. recommended), e.
mat. foxtail or proso millet; v. e. mat. beans like Katheka, v. e. mat. cowpeas like Katuli,
black and green grams, chick peas (late planted on heavy black soils); v. e. mat. dwarf
sunfower, rai (oilseed); v. e. mat. pumpkins
2
nd
rainy season, start norm. end of Oct.: The same but planting sorghum (for ratoon in the
next rainy season)
Whole year, best pl. time end of Oct.: Sisal, buffalo gourds (on sandy soils) and Marama
beans (both still experimental), Vigna, perennial castor like C-15
Fai r yi el d potenti al
1
st
rainy season: E. mat. maize like Katumani comp. B (on contour ridges); e. mat. beans, e.
mat. soya beans, dolichos beans, e. mat. bambarra nuts (light soils); sweet potatoes; e. mat.
sunfower like Issanka; onions, tomatoes
2
nd
rainy season: The same and cotton bimodal var. (Oct. Aug., on good soils, otherwise
poor); late. mat. pigeon peas (Oct.- Sep.)
Whole year: Macadamia nuts, cassava
Pasture and f orage
1.5 3.0 ha/LU on mixed medium grass savanna with Makueni guinea (Panicum maximum)
and red oats grass (Themeda triandra) predominant; if degraded reseeding with Maasai love
grass (Eragrostis superba), buffel grass (Cenchrus ciliaris) and Makueni guinea, and planting
saltbushes (Atriplex nummularia), horse tamarinds (Leucaena) and Mesquite (Prosopis
julifora) as palatable shrubs, and applering acacias (Gao tree, Ac. albida) Ior pods and leaves;
add. forage: Silage of green fodder sorghum, vines of moth beans, and other fodder crops (see
Table X)
LM 4
s/vs +
vs/s
= Marginal Cotton Zone
with a short to very short and a very short to short cropping season
Very small, potential see Kirinyaga District
16
263
End Notes
1)
Spraying against fungus diseases important
2)
In the 1
st
rainy season, sometimes rotting occur because of too wet conditions
3)
On medium soils; on heavy soils permanent cropping possibilities. Given potentials refers to predominantly
heavy red loams
4)
Protection against fungus diseases important
5)
On medium soils; on heavy soils there is a long to medium and a medium to short cropping season. Potential
refers to predominantly heavy red loams
6)
Better in valleys
7)
On medium soils; on heavy soils frst cropping season s a medium length, second a short to medium. Potential
refers to predominant heavy red loams
8)
Sisal recommended for large-scale plantations only
9)
On medium soils; on heavy soils, vegetation (growing) periods last about a month more in the 1
st
rainy season,
one decade in the 2
nd
rainy season. Potentials refer to predominantly heavy clays except on slopes. There, full
potential could be reached by contour ridging (matuta system)
10)
Good or very good with additional irrigation
11)
On medium soils; on heavy soils frst cropping season s a short to medium length. Given potentials reIer to
predominantly heavy soils
MURANGA & MARAGUA 17
264
MURANGA & MARAGUA 18
265
MURANGA & MARAGUA 19
SOIL DISTRIBUTION, FERTILITY AND MAJOR CHARACTERISTICS
Extending between 36
0
30 E and 37
0
30 E as well as 0
0
30S and 1
0
S the Greater Muranga district straddles
the Equator. Its physiography is profoundly inuenced by the volcanic Aberdare Ranges in the western
part of the district. Rocks of the Basement System occur in the east resulting to a prominently hilly rolling
topography in the central part of the district. Moreover, it is dissected by several permanent streams, which
in turn form the complex Tana-Athi drainage system. Some of the major TanaAthi river tributaries found
in Maragua district include Mathioya and Maragua.
At the highest elevation soils with varying fertility occur (Unit 5 M). At lower altitudes humic moderate to
highly fertile soils units occur especially on volcanic hills (Unit 77R).
In the eastern and southern parts of Maragua district poor infertile soils are prevalent. Tese are mainly non-
volcanic [resultant of ancient rock parent material] susceptible to landslides and erosion.
LEGEND TO THE SOIL MAP OF MURANGA AND MARAGUA DISTRICTS
1. Explanation of the rst character (physiography)
M Mountains and Major Scarps
H Hills and Minor Scarps
L Plateaus and High-Level Structural Plains
R Volcanic Footridges
F Footslopes
U Uplands, Upper, Middle and Lower Levels
A Floodplains
2 Explanation of second character (lithology)
A Alluvial Sediments from Various Sources
B Basic and Ultra-Basic Igneous Rocks (basalts, nepheline phonolites; older basic tus included)
U Undierentiated Basement System Rocks (predominantly gneisses)
V Undierentiated or Various Igneous Rocks
3 Soil descriptions
MV1 Imperfectly drained, shallow to moderately deep, dark greyish brown, very friable, acid humic to
peaty, loam to clay loam, with rock outcrops and ice in the highest parts:
Dystric HISTOSOLS, lithic phase, with LITHOSOLS and Rock Outcrops
MV2 Well drained, very deep, dark reddish brown to dark brown, very friable and smeary, clay loam to
clay, with thick acid humic topsoil; in places shallow to moderately deep and rocky:
Humic ANDOSOLS, partly lithic phase
HU1 Somewhat excessively drained, moderately deep, red, very friable, sandy clay loam to sand clay; in
places rocky:
Ferralic CAMBISOLS; with rhodic or orthic FERRALSOLS and Rock Outcrops
HUC Complex of:
Excessively drained to well drained, shallow, dark red to brown, friable, sandy clay loam clay; in
many places rocky, bouldery and stony in places with an acid humic topsoil:
Dystric REGOSOLS, lithic phase; with LITHOSOLS, humic CAMBISOLS, lithic phase and
Rock Outcrops
266
MURANGA & MARAGUA 20
LB1 Well drained, very deep, dark red, very friable clay:
Nito-rhodic FERRALSOLS
LB2 Well drained, very deep, dark reddish brown to dark brown, friable to rm, clay; in places with a
humic topsoil:
Verto-eutric NITISOLS; with mollic NITISOLS
LB8 Imperfectly drained, very deep, dark grey to black, rm to very rm, bouldery and stony cracking
clay; in places with a calcareous, slightly saline deeper subsoil:
Pellic VERTISOLS, stony phase and partly saline phase
LBC Complex of:
moderately well drained, shallow, yellowish red to dark yellowish brown, gravelly clay over petro-
plinthite or rock (50-70%):
IRONSTONE SOILS; with LITHOSOLS
and:
poorly drained, deep to very deep, dark brown to very dark brown, mottled, rm to very rm,
cracking clay; in places moderately deep to very deep over petroplinthite:
Undierentiated VERTISOLS and vertic GLEYSOLS
RB1 Well drained, extremely deep, dark reddish brown to dark brown, friable and slightly smeary clay,
with an acid humic topsoil:
Ando-humic NITISOLS; with humic ANDOSOLS
RB2 Well drained, extremely deep, dusky red to dark reddish brown, friable clay, with an acid humic
topsoil:
Humic NITISOLS
RB3 Well drained, extremely deep, dusky red to dark reddish brown, friable clay; with inclusions of
well drained, moderately deep, dark red to dark reddish brown, friable clay over rock, pisoferric or
petroferric material:
Eutric NITISOLS; with nito-chromic CAMBISOLS and chromic ACRISOLS and LUVISOLS,
partly lithic, pisoferric or petroferric phase
FUC Complex of:
somewhat excessively drained to well drained, deep to very deep, dark red to dark yellowish
brown soils of varying consistence and texture; in places gravelly:
Ferralic ARENOSOLS; with ferralo-chromic/orthic LUVISOLS and ACRISOLS
UU1 Well drained, moderately deep to deep, dark red to yellowish red, friable, sandy clay loam to clay:
Rhodic and orthic FERRALSOS; with ferralo-chromic/orthic/ferric ACRISOLS
AA1 Well drained to imperfectly drained, very deep, brown to dark brown, friable, micaceous, slightly
calcareous, sandy loam to clay loam; in places with a saline-sodic deeper subsoil:
Eutric FLUVISOLS
NOTES for denitions (of underlined words):
1. mollic Nitisols and chromo-luvic Phaeozems: soils are equally important
2. mollic Nitisols, with chromic-luvic Phaeozems: Nitisols are prevalent
3. in places: in < 30% of the area
4. in many places: in 30-50% of the area
5. predominantly: in > 50% of the area
6. deeper subsoil: below 80 cm
267
MURANGA & MARAGUA
3.4.2 POPULATION AND LAND
MURANGA DISTRICT
Based on the 1999 Population and Household Census Muranga district had a total population of 348,304.
Covering an area of 930 km
2
in 1999, its population density stood 375 persons/km
2
representing an in-
crease of 43.7% compared to 261 persons/km
2
in 1979. With four administrative divisions namely Kiharu,
Kahuro, Kangema and Mathioya portraying high densities (Table 5), it is the third most densely populated
district [only surpassed by Kiambu and Maragua respectively] in Central Province. Te number of persons
per household stood at 4.10 in 1999 compared to 5.02 in 1979. Spatial household composition and distri-
bution besides density are shown in Tables 5 and 6.
Excluding the Aberdare Forest, predominant agro-ecological zones include Tea- Dairy (LH 1 = 27.2%),
Tea- Coee (UM 1 = 34.7%), Main Coee (UM 2 = 35.8%) as depicted in Table 7. Farming of both cash
and food crops is the main economic livelihood.
TABLE 5: POPULATION IN MURANGA DISTRICTS PER DIVISION, LOCATION AND
SUB-LOCATION (Source: Census 1999)
DIVISION / LOCATION /
SUB-LOCATION
Male Female Total Households
Area in
km
2
Density
KIHARU 40,889 43,979 84,868 21,664 239.6 354
GATURI 15,881 17,666 33,547 7,945 104.2 322
Gathukiini 3,849 4,565 8,414 2,097 14.1 597
Gakuyu 3,068 3,462 6,530 1,600 18.1 361
Geitwa/Mugeka 2,688 2,915 5,603 1,348 13.3 421
Nyakiihai 2,846 3,041 5,887 1,253 24.7 238
Kimathi 3,430 3,683 7,113 1,647 34 209
GIKINDU 6,562 6,896 13,458 3,106 81.1 166
Mirira 2,378 2,595 4,973 1,149 32.5 153
Kambirwa 2,773 2,821 5,594 1,294 18.6 301
Githuri 1,411 1,480 2,891 663 30 96
MBIRI 8,261 8,567 16,828 3,859 34.1 493
Maragi 1,747 1,678 3,425 853 4.7 729
Gikandu 2,209 2,169 4,378 979 9.9 442
Muchungucha 4,305 4,720 9,025 2,027 19.5 463
TOWNSHIP 10,185 10,850 21,035 6,754 20.2 1,041
Karuri 2,294 2,630 4,924 1,758 4.3 1,145
Mukuyu 4,930 5,239 10,169 3,385 8 1,271
Njoguini 2,961 2,981 5,942 1,611 7.9 752
KAHURO 43,543 48,561 92,104 22,120 167.9 549
WEITHAGA 7,639 8,574 16,213 3,917 24.6 659
Wanjengi 3,343 3,820 7,163 1,693 9.7 738
Kahuti 2,355 2,604 4,959 1,227 8 620
Wangu 1,941 2,150 4,091 997 6.9 593
KAHUHIA 6,931 7,584 14,515 3,444 27.7 524
Kirogo 2,695 3,047 5,742 1,433 8.7 660
Mukangu 1,632 1,638 3,270 717 8.2 399
Gatheru 2,604 2,899 5,503 1,294 10.8 510
21
268
MURANGA & MARAGUA
DIVISION / LOCATION /
SUB-LOCATION
Male Female Total Households
Area in
km
2
Density
MUGOIRI 14,647 16,423 31,070 7,673 56.3 552
Kahuro 3,794 4,260 8,054 2,053 12.1 666
Gatundu 2,444 2,798 5,242 1,240 10 524
Kiria 4,338 4,638 8,976 2,243 17.8 504
Mirichu 4,071 4,727 8,798 2,137 16.4 536
MURARANDIA 14,326 15,980 30,306 7,086 59.3 511
Theri 2,582 2,925 5,507 1,310 7.9 697
Gathaithi 3,137 3,472 6,609 1,536 18.2 363
Gatuya 3,143 3,467 6,610 1,559 9.8 674
Kaganda 2,642 3,060 5,702 1,305 9.8 582
Murarandia 2,822 3,056 5,878 1,376 13.6 432
KANGEMA 28,434 32,748 61,182 14,806 127.7 479
KANYENYAINI 7,679 8,581 16,260 3,844 29.4 553
Kibutha 1,153 1,304 2,457 557 4.4 558
Githiga 2,348 2,553 4,901 1,175 7.3 671
Gitugu 1,753 1,961 3,714 876 5.9 629
Kanyenyaini 2,425 2,763 5,188 1,236 11.8 440
KIRURI 4,365 4,721 9,086 2,075 37.9 240
Ichichi 1,689 1,848 3,537 769 15.8 224
Karurumo 769 773 1,542 353 6.7 230
Tuthu 730 781 1,511 345 6.5 232
Kiruri 1,177 1,319 2,496 608 8.9 280
IYEGO 7,940 9,655 17,595 4,271 35.5 496
Gikui 2,578 3,078 5,656 1,316 9.1 622
Nyakahura 1,903 2,267 4,170 994 9.9 421
Githunguri 1,437 1,794 3,231 823 6.4 505
Gacharaigu 2,022 2,516 4,538 1,138 10.1 449
MUGURU 8,450 9,791 18,241 4,616 24.9 733
Kanorero 1,536 1,878 3,414 818 4.9 697
Kiairathe 1,579 1,931 3,510 873 5.3 662
Gakira 3,000 3,303 6,303 1,712 8.2 769
Watu 2,335 2,679 5,014 1,213 6.5 771
MATHIOYA 51,798 58,341 110,139 26,304 220.8 499
GITUGI 11,955 13,729 25,684 6,181 49 524
Gitugi 2,426 2,873 5,299 1,322 10.7 495
Mihuti 1,206 1,294 2,500 579 4.3 581
Ngutu 2,677 2,984 5,661 1,350 8.7 651
Runyeki 1,622 1,979 3,601 892 12.4 290
Chui 1,393 1,567 2,960 700 4.1 722
Kambara 1,046 1,167 2,213 538 4.1 540
Karunge 1,585 1,865 3,450 800 4.7 734
KIRU 12,183 13,733 25,916 6,311 45.4 571
Kairo 1,689 1,696 3,385 764 8.6 394
22
TABLE 5: Contiued
269
MURANGA & MARAGUA 23
DIVISION / LOCATION /
SUB-LOCATION
Male Female Total Households
Area in
km
2
Density
Kiambuthia 2,649 2,954 5,603 1,275 11 509
Kora 1,967 2,253 4,220 1,020 5.7 740
Kagumoini 1,871 2,189 4,060 961 7 580
Kanjama 2,610 2,981 5,591 1,263 8.3 674
Kiriaini 1,397 1,660 3,057 1,028 4.8 637
KAMACHARIA 10,414 11,650 22,064 5,530 36.5 604
Thuita 2,464 2,717 5,181 1,193 7.7 673
Kairi 2,098 2,313 4,411 1,082 7.4 596
Kamacharia 2,612 2,973 5,585 1,444 9.6 582
Kamune 3,240 3,647 6,887 1,811 11.8 584
RWATHIA 8,633 9,667 18,300 4,141 45 407
Rwathia 2,501 2,909 5,410 1,239 8.4 644
Wanjerere 1,712 1,861 3,573 787 15.1 237
Kiawambogo 2,105 2,358 4,463 984 12.2 366
Kihoya 2,315 2,539 4,854 1,131 9.3 522
NJ UMBI 8,613 9,562 18,175 4,141 44.9 405
Gatunguru 1,798 2,026 3,824 891 6.1 627
Gacharageini 2,414 2,486 4,900 1,070 16.8 292
Njumbi 3,217 3,848 7,065 1,689 11.9 594
Kiamuturi 1,184 1,202 2,386 491 10.1 236
ABERDARE FOREST 6 5 11 6 174 0
Aberdare Forest 6 5 11 6 174 0
TABLE 6: COMPOSITION OF HOUSEHOLDS IN MURANGA DISTRICT PER DIVISION,
LOCATION AND SUB-LOCATION (Source: Census 1999)
DIVISION / LOCATION /
SUB-LOCATION
Number of
Households
Composition of family
Persons per
Household
15 years and
above
Under 15 years
KIHARU 21,664 2.3 1.6 3.9
GATURI 7,945 2.5 1.8 4.2
Gathukiini 2,097 2.3 1.7 4.0
Gakuyu 1,600 2.4 1.7 4.1
Geitwa/Mugeka 1,348 2.4 1.7 4.2
Nyakii 1,253 2.7 1.9 4.7
Kimathi 1,647 2.5 1.8 4.3
GIKINDU 3,106 2.5 1.8 4.3
Mirira 1,149 2.5 1.8 4.3
Kambirwa 1,294 2.5 1.8 4.3
Githuri 663 2.6 1.8 4.4
MBIRI 3,859 2.6 1.8 4.4
Maragi 853 2.3 1.7 4.0
Gikandu 979 2.6 1.9 4.5
TABLE 5: Contiued
270
MURANGA & MARAGUA
TABLE 6: Contiued
DIVISION / LOCATION /
SUB-LOCATION
Number of
Households
Composition of family
Persons per
Household
15 years and
above
Under 15 years
Muchungucha 2,027 2.6 1.8 4.5
TOWNSHIP 6,754 1.8 1.3 3.1
Karuri 1,758 1.6 1.2 2.8
Mukuyu 3,385 1.8 1.2 3.0
Njoguini 1,611 2.2 1.5 3.7
KAHURO 22,120 2.4 1.7 4.2
WEITHAGA 3,917 2.4 1.7 4.1
Wanjengi 1,693 2.5 1.8 4.2
Kahuti 1,227 2.4 1.7 4.0
Wangu 997 2.4 1.7 4.1
KAHUHIA 3,444 2.5 1.7 4.2
Kirogo 1,433 2.3 1.7 4.0
Mukangu 717 2.7 1.9 4.6
Gatheru 1,294 2.5 1.8 4.3
MUGOIRI 7,673 2.4 1.7 4.0
Kahuro 2,053 2.3 1.6 3.9
Gatundu 1,240 2.5 1.8 4.2
Kiria 2,243 2.3 1.7 4.0
Mirichu 2,137 2.4 1.7 4.1
MURARANDIA 7,086 2.5 1.8 4.3
Theri 1,310 2.5 1.7 4.2
Gatithi 1,536 2.5 1.8 4.3
Gatuya 1,559 2.5 1.8 4.2
Kaganda 1,305 2.6 1.8 4.4
Murarandia 1,376 2.5 1.8 4.3
KANGEMA 14,806 2.4 1.7 4.1
KANYENYAINI 3,844 2.5 1.8 4.2
Kibut 557 2.6 1.8 4.4
Githiga 1,175 2.4 1.7 4.2
Gitugu 876 2.5 1.8 4.2
Kanyenyaini 1,236 2.5 1.7 4.2
KIRURI 2,075 2.6 1.8 4.4
Ichichi 769 2.7 1.9 4.6
Karurumo 353 2.6 1.8 4.4
Tuthu 345 2.6 1.8 4.4
Kiruri 608 2.4 1.7 4.1
IYEGO 4,271 2.4 1.7 4.1
Gikui 1,316 2.5 1.8 4.3
Nyakahura 994 2.5 1.7 4.2
Githunguri 823 2.3 1.6 3.9
Gacharaigu 1,138 2.3 1.7 4.0
MUGURU 4,616 2.3 1.6 4.0
24
271
MURANGA & MARAGUA
DIVISION / LOCATION /
SUB-LOCATION
Number of
Households
Composition of family
Persons per
Household
15 years and
above
Under 15 years
Kanorero 818 2.4 1.7 4.2
Kiairathe 873 2.4 1.7 4.0
Gakira 1,712 2.2 1.5 3.7
Watu 1,213 2.4 1.7 4.1
MATHIOYA 26,304 2.5 1.7 4.2
GITUGI 6,181 2.4 1.7 4.2
Gitugi 1,322 2.3 1.7 4.0
Mihuti 579 2.5 1.8 4.3
Ngutu 1,350 2.5 1.7 4.2
Runyeki 892 2.4 1.7 4.0
Chui 700 2.5 1.8 4.2
Kambara 538 2.4 1.7 4.1
Karunge 800 2.5 1.8 4.3
KIRU 6,311 2.4 1.7 4.1
Kairo 764 2.6 1.8 4.4
Kiambuthia 1,275 2.6 1.8 4.4
Kora 1,020 2.4 1.7 4.1
Kagumoini 961 2.5 1.8 4.2
Kanjama 1,263 2.6 1.8 4.4
Kiriani 1,028 1.7 1.2 3.0
KAMACHARIA 5,530 2.3 1.7 4.0
Thuita 1,193 2.5 1.8 4.3
Kairi 1,082 2.4 1.7 4.1
Kamacharia 1,444 2.3 1.6 3.9
Kamune 1,811 2.2 1.6 3.8
RWATHIA 4,141 2.6 1.8 4.4
Rwathia 1,239 2.6 1.8 4.4
Wanjerere 787 2.7 1.9 4.5
Kiawambogo 984 2.7 1.9 4.5
Kihoya 1,131 2.5 1.8 4.3
NJ UMBI 4,141 2.6 1.8 4.4
Gatunguru 891 2.5 1.8 4.3
Gacharageini 1,070 2.7 1.9 4.6
Njumbi 1,689 2.4 1.7 4.2
Kiamuturi 491 2.8 2.0 4.9
ABERDARE FOREST 6 1.1 0.8 1.8
ABERDARE FOREST 6 1.1 0.8 1.8
TABLE 6: Contiued
25
272
MURANGA & MARAGUA
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273
MURANGA & MARAGUA 27
MARAGUA DISTRICT
Tis is the second most densely populated district in Central Province with 447 persons/km
2
. Occupying an
area of 1065 km
2
with a total of 387,969 people (Population & Household Census, 1999), Maragua is the
smallest district in the province. Te number of persons per household stood is 4.3.
Maragua consist of four administrative divisions including Kigumo, Kandara, Maragua and Makuyu whose
household composition and spatial distribution as well density are shown in Tables 8 and 9. Like Muranga,
its economic viability is dependant on agriculture and the main agro-ecological zones are Tea Dairy Zone
(LH 1 = 33.7%), Tea- Coee Zone (UM 1= 38.8%) and Main Coee Zone (27.5%), Table 10.
TABLE 8: POPULATION IN MARAGUA DISTRICT PER DIVISION, LOCATION AND
SUB-LOCATION (Source: Census 1999)
DIVISION / LOCATION /
SUB-LOCATION
Male Female Total Households Area in km
2
Density
KIGUMO 38,092 40,586 78,678 18,462 436 353
KINYONA 9,501 9,872 19,373 4,361 113 171
Kinyona 2,934 2,999 5,933 1,406 21 283
Kamukabi 3,712 3,919 7,631 1,665 15 509
Gacharage 2,855 2,954 5,809 1,300 25 232
Gatare Forest - - - 52 -
KANGARI 12,759 12,954 25,713 6,198 64 402
Makomboki 3,447 3,477 6,924 1,644 24 289
Kangari 5,249 5,031 10,280 2,473 23 447
Mariira 4,063 4,446 8,509 2,081 17 501
KIGUMO 15,832 17,760 33,592 7,903 46 730
Githima 5,439 6,144 11,583 2,649 15 772
Gachcho 3,999 4,503 8,502 1,963 13 654
Iriguini 1,890 2,067 3,957 1,034 6 660
Kirere 3,460 3,863 7,323 1,712 9 814
Marumi 1044 1183 2227 545 3 742
KANDARA 75,566 81,888 157,454 36,006 234 664
RUCHU 18,076 19,208 37,284 8,344 70 533
Gacharage 4,956 5,067 10,023 2,194 17 590
Mungaria 4,061 4,527 8,588 1,849 13 661
Githumu 4,191 4,260 8,451 1,909 20 423
Gituru 1,543 1,637 3,180 737 9 353
Kariua 3,325 3,717 7,042 1,635 11 640
ITHIRU 13,596 15,264 28,860 6,493 37 780
Kaguthi 3,215 3,629 6,844 1,467 9 760
Githuya 935 991 1,926 440 3 642
Kiiri 2,948 3,299 6,247 1,567 7 892
Gakui/Karimamwaro 4,017 4,547 8,564 1,903 13 659
Gakarara 2,481 2,798 5,279 1,116 5 1056
KAGUNDUINI 13,317 14,215 27,532 6,704 39 706
Githunguri 1,991 2,054 4,045 918 7 578
Kabati 3,688 3,943 7,631 2,066 9 848
274
MURANGA & MARAGUA
TABLE 8: Contiued
DIVISION / LOCATION /
SUB-LOCATION
Male Female Total Households Area in km
2
Density
Kagunduini 2,390 2,597 4,987 1,176 6 831
Kariti 2,962 3,270 6,232 1,442 10 623
GAICNJ IRU 10,511 11,989 22,500 5,336 36 625
Maria-ini 1,784 2,053 3,837 899 8 480
Kagumoini 2,468 2,913 5,381 1262 10 538
Gaichanjiru 2,063 2,097 4,160 956 5 832
Ngurwe-ini 2,636 3,126 5,762 1,393 8 720
Kagira 1,560 1,800 3,360 826 5 672
MURUKA 20,066 21,212 41,278 9129 55 751
Naaro 3,777 3,899 7,676 1,702 10 768
MURUKA 7,702 8,233 15,935 3,461 21 759
Gatitu/Nguthiru 4,515 4,708 9,223 2,069 14 659
Ngararia 4,072 4,372 8,444 1,897 10 844
MARAGUA 44,966 48,598 93,564 22,329 200 456
NGINDA 11,361 12,139 23,500 5,766 43 547
Gathera 3,875 4,294 8,169 1,942 13 628
Kaharo 2,452 2,717 5,169 1,288 9 574
Mbugua 1,782 1,904 3,686 845 8 461
Gakoigo 3,252 3,224 6,476 1,691 13 498
ICHAGAKI 10,621 11,170 21,791 5,551 59 369
Samar 1,355 871 2,226 625 28 80
Kianjiruini 4,211 4,719 8,930 2,503 13 687
Ichagaki 2,948 3,199 6,147 1,378 11 559
Gikomora 2,107 2,381 4,488 1,045 7 641
MUTHITHI 10,975 11,711 22,686 5,027 37 613
Gikarango 3,093 3,159 6,252 1,355 12 521
Kagurumo 2,280 2,457 4,737 1,008 10 474
Munguini 1,649 1,794 3,443 773 4 861
Kiahiti 1,409 1,502 2,911 639 4 728
Muthithi 2,544 2,799 5,343 1,252 7 763
KAHUMBU 9,325 10,757 20,082 4,677 33 609
Kandani 2,671 2,859 5,530 1,143 12 461
Gakuyu 2,114 2,506 4,620 1,132 6 770
Mugumoini 1,183 1,402 2,585 596 4 646
Kahariro 1,285 1,580 2,865 704 5 573
Githembe 2,072 2,410 4,482 1,102 6 747
MARAGUA RIDGE 2,684 2,821 5,505 1,308 33 167
Maragua Ridge 1,430 1,510 2,940 698 23 128
Kamuiru 1,254 1,311 2,565 610 10 257
MAKUYU 28,504 29,769 58,273 13,947 195 287
KAMAHUHA 10,820 11,658 22,478 5,441 48 468
Sabasaba 4,498 4,802 9,300 2,322 14 664
Iganjo 2,175 2,323 4,498 1,069 16 281
28
275
MURANGA & MARAGUA
DIVISION / LOCATION /
SUB-LOCATION
Male Female Total Households Area in km
2
Density
Kamahuha 2,014 2,167 4,181 1,025 9 465
Kaharati 2,133 2,366 4,499 1,025 9 500
KAMBITI 6,491 6,609 13,100 2,988 45 291
Maranjau 823 656 1,479 381 7 211
Kariaini 1,478 1,537 3,015 663 11 274
Kambiti 2,096 2,205 4,301 983 17 253
Mihango 2,094 2,211 4,305 961 10 431
MAKUYU 11,193 11,502 22,695 5,518 110 206
Gathungururu 2,597 2,559 5,156 1,299 48 107
Gakungu 3,109 3,395 6,504 1,459 24 271
Makuyu 2,727 2,870 5,597 1,465 14 400
Kimorori 2,760 2,678 5,438 1,265 24 227
TABLE 9: COMPOSITION OF HOUSEHOLDS IN MARAGUA DISTRICT PER DIVISION,
LOCATION AND SUB-LOCATION (Source: Census 1999)
DIVISION/LOCATION/
SUB-LOCATION
Number of
Households
Composition of Family
Persons per
Household
15 years and
above
Under 15 years
KIGUMO 18,462 2.4 1.8 4.3
KINYONA 4,361 2.5 1.9 4.4
Kinyona 1,406 2.4 1.8 4.2
Kamukabi 1,665 2.6 2.0 4.6
Gacharage 1,300 2.5 1.9 4.5
Gatare Forest - - - -
KANGARI 6,198 2.4 1.8 4.1
Makomboki 1,644 2.4 1.8 4.2
Kangari 2,473 2.4 1.8 4.2
Mariira 2,081 2.3 1.8 4.1
KIGUMO 7,903 2.4 1.8 4.3
Githima 2,649 2.5 1.9 4.4
Gachocho 1,963 2.5 1.9 4.3
Iriguini 1,034 2.2 1.6 3.8
Kirere 1,712 2.4 1.8 4.3
Marumi 545 2.3 1.8 4.1
KANDARA 36,006 2.5 1.9 4.4
RUCHU 8,344 2.5 1.9 4.5
Gacharage 2,194 2.6 2.0 4.6
Mungaria 1,849 2.6 2.0 4.6
Githumu 1,909 2.5 1.9 4.4
Gituru 737 2.5 1.9 4.3
Kariua 1,635 2.5 1.9 4.3
ITHIRU 6,493 2.5 1.9 4.4
TABLE 8: Contiued
29
276
MURANGA & MARAGUA
DIVISION/LOCATION/
SUB-LOCATION
Number of
Households
Composition of Family
Persons per
Household
15 years and
above
Under 15 years
Kaguthi 1,467 2.7 2.0 4.7
Githuya 440 2.5 1.9 4.4
Kiiri 1,567 2.3 1.7 4.0
Gakui/Karimwaro 1,903 2.6 1.9 4.5
Gakarara 1,116 2.7 2.0 4.7
KAGUNDUINI 6,704 2.3 1.8 4.1
Githunguri 918 2.5 1.9 4.4
Kabati 2,066 2.1 1.6 3.7
Kagunduini 1,176 2.4 1.8 4.2
Kariti 1,442 2.5 1.9 4.3
GAICHANJ IRU 5,336 2.4 1.8 4.2
Maria-ini 899 2.4 1.8 4.3
Kagumoini 1,262 2.4 1.8 4.3
Gaichanjiru 956 2.5 1.9 4.4
Ngurwe-ini 1,393 2.4 1.8 4.1
Kagira 826 2.3 1.7 4.1
MURUKA 9,129 2.6 1.9 4.5
Naaro 1,702 2.6 1.9 4.5
Muruka 3,461 2.6 2.0 4.6
Gatitu/Nguthiru 2,069 2.5 1.9 4.5
Ngararia 1,897 2.5 1.9 4.5
MARAGUA 22,329 2.4 1.8 4.2
NGINDA 5,766 2.3 1.8 4.1
Gathera 1,942 2.4 1.8 4.2
Kaharo 1,288 2.3 1.7 4.0
Mbugua 845 2.5 1.9 4.4
Gakoigo 1,691 2.2 1.6 3.8
ICHAGAKI 5,551 2.2 1.7 3.9
Samar 625 2.0 1.5 3.6
Kianjiruini 2,503 2.0 1.5 3.6
Ichagaki 1,378 2.5 1.9 4.5
Gikomora 1,045 2.4 1.8 4.3
MUTHITHI 5,027 2.6 1.9 4.5
Gikarango 1,355 2.6 2.0 4.6
Kagurumo 1,008 2.7 2.0 4.7
Munguini 773 2.5 1.9 4.5
Kiahiti 639 2.6 2.0 4.6
Muthithi 1,252 2.4 1.8 4.3
KAHUMBU 4,677 2.4 1.8 4.3
Kandani 1,143 2.8 2.1 4.8
Gakuyu 1,132 2.3 1.8 4.1
Mugumoini 596 2.5 1.9 4.3
TABLE 9: Contiued
30
277
MURANGA & MARAGUA
TABLE 9: Contiued
DIVISION/LOCATION/
SUB-LOCATION
Number of
Households
Composition of Family
Persons per
Household
15 years and
above
Under 15 years
Kahariro 704 2.3 1.7 4.1
Githembe 1,102 2.3 1.7 4.1
MARAGUA RIDGE 1,308 2.4 1.8 4.2
Maragua Ridge 698 2.4 1.8 4.2
Kamuiru 610 2.4 1.8 4.2
MAKUYU 13,947 2.4 1.8 4.2
KAMAHUHA 5,441 2.4 1.8 4.1
Sabasaba 2,322 2.3 1.7 4.0
Iganjo 1,069 2.4 1.8 4.2
Kamahu 1025 2.3 1.8 4.1
Kaharati 1025 2.5 1.9 4.4
KAMBITI 2988 2.5 1.9 4.4
Maranjau 381 2.2 1.7 3.9
Kariaini 663 2.6 2.0 4.5
Kambiti 983 2.5 1.9 4.4
Mihango 961 2.6 1.9 4.5
MAKUYU 5,518 2.3 1.8 4.1
Gathungururu 1,299 2.3 1.7 4.0
Gakungu 1,459 2.5 1.9 4.5
Makuyu 1,465 2.2 1.6 3.8
Kimorori 1,265 2.5 1.8 4.3
31
278
MURANGA & MARAGUA 32
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279
MURANGA & MARAGUA
3.4.3 AGRICULTURAL STATISTICS:
Development and Trends of Major Cash Crops
MURANGA
Although Muranga is smaller in size compared to Nyeri and Nyandarua, it produces most commodities.
Agriculturally potential land is 76,750 ha. Coee is cultivated on 14,700 ha. Yields are down to 310 kg/ha
per annum because it is neglected due to low coee prices. Tea grows on 10,000 ha, yielding at least 9,000
kg/ha per annum of green leaves. Pyrethrum is grown in small quantities but increasing since 1995.
TABLE 11: MURANGA DISTRICT COFFEE AREA, PRODUCTION AND YIELD TRENDS
(Source: Ministry od Agriculture, DAOs Reports and CBS)
Year Area ha Production tons Yields kg/ha
1980/81 12,615 11,408 904
1981/82 12,500 11,190 895
1982/83 12,563 11,254 896
1983/84 12,638 19,150 1,515
1984/85 12,924 13,262 1,026
1985/86 12,989 12,270 945
1986/87 15,497 19,518 1,259
1987/88 15,497 19,446 1,255
1988/89 19,669 18,610 946
1989/90 20,078 18,669 930
1990/91 20,523 12,813 624
1991/92 20,428 9,361 458
1992/93 19,073 6,815 357
1993/94 13,722 4,050 295
1994/95 15,571 7,369 473
1995/96 15,667 8,295 529
1996/97 5,986 1,998 334
1997/98 6,124 2,073 339
1998/99 6,125 2,060 336
1999/00 14,769 4,550 308
2000/01 13,297 4,997 376
2001/02 13,507 4,735 351
2002/03 14,675 4,556 310
33
280
MURANGA & MARAGUA 34
TABLE 12: MURANGA DISTRICT TEA AREA, PRODUCTION AND YIELD TRENDS
(Source: Ministry of Agriculture, DAOs Reports and CBS)
Year Area ha Production tons Yields kg/ha
1980/81 8,842 26,116 2,954
1981/82 9,047 21,015 2,323
1982/83 9,080 40,850 4,499
1983/84 8,992 43,703 4,860
1984/85 9,095 63,866 7,022
1985/86 9,526 65,062 6,830
1986/87 9,495 63,763 6,715
1987/88 9,783 79,209 8,097
1988/89 9,285 87,319 9,404
1989/90 10,076 94,748 9,403
1990/91 10,281 89,124 8,669
1991/92 10,273 75,869 7,385
1992/93 10,237 82,501 8,059
1993/94 10,237 10,865 1,061
1994/95 10,237 10,956 1,070
1995/96 10,237 11,732 1,146
1996/97 10,237 11,000 1,075
1997/98 10,200 89,200 8,745
1998/99 10,210 90,013 8,816
1999/00 10,101 93,653 9,272
2000/01 9,998 88,462 8,848
2001/02 10,000 90,675 9,068
2002/03 10,101 94,941 9,399
281
MURANGA & MARAGUA 35
TABLE 13: MURANGA DISTRICT PYRETHRUM AREA, PRODUCTION AND
YIELD TRENDS (Source: Ministry od Agriculture, DAOs Reports and CBS)
Year
Area
ha
Production tons
(in metric tons oI dried fowers)
Yields
kg/ha
1980/81 6.5 1.64 252
1981/82 16 0.63 103
1982/83 11 0.57 149
1983/84 9 0.5 182
1984/85 9 0.5 182
1985/86 9 0.566 182
1986/87 9 0.45 182
1987/88 5 0.27 328
1988/89 4.3 0.23 381
1989/90 2 0.11 820
1990/91 2.5 0.13 656
1991/92 1 0.05 1,640
1992/93 1.5 0.08 1,093
1993/94 1.75 0.09 937
1994/95 1 0.05 1,640
1995/96 1.1 0.06 1,491
1996/97 2 0.11 820
1997/98 2.5 0.13 656
1998/99 2.75 0.15 596
1999/00 3.5 0.19 469
2000/01 4 0.2 410
2001/02 5.1 0.28 322
2002/03 4 0.2 410
282
MURANGA & MARAGUA 36
MARAGUA
Created o from Muranga district, Maraguas agriculturally viable land of about 68,800 ha. With two main
cash crops coee and tea, grown on 6,500 ha and 4,000 ha respectively; the economic livelihoods are similar
to Muranga. Annual tea and coee yields are higher than in the neighbouring districts. Tea yields 11,000
kg/ha of green leaves while coee yields 2,800 kg/ha per annum.
TABLE 14: MARAGUA DISTRICT COFFEE AREA, PRODUCTION AND YIELD TRENDS
(Source: Ministry od Agriculture, DAOs Reports and CBS)
Year
(Created 1997)
Area
ha
Production
tons
Yields
kg/ha
1996/97 6,500 10,011 1,540
1997/98 6,500 10,163 1,564
1998/99 6,500 13,000 2,000
1999/00 6,900 21,100 3,058
2000/01 6,480 20,066 3,097
2001/02 6,480 20,066 3,097
2002/03 6,500 18,576 2,858
2003/04 7,829 10,291 1,314
2004/05 7,829 9,644 1,232
TABLE 15: MARAGUA DISTRICT TEA AREA, PRODUCTION AND GREEN LEAF YIELD
TRENDS (Source: Ministry od Agriculture, DAOs Reports and CBS)
Year Area ha Production tons Yields kg/ha
1996/97 3,750 36,901 9,840
1997/98 3,846 38,288 9,955
1998/99 3,846 33,283 8,654
1999/00 4,014 44,616 11,115
2000/01 4,050 45,011 11,114
2001/02 4,000 44,002 11,001
2002/03 4,398 43,415 9,872
2003/04 4,644 53,791 11,583
2004/05 4,705 45,418 9,653
283
MURANGA & MARAGUA 37
DISTRIBUTION OF FARMING ACTIVITIES DURING THE YEAR PER WEEK AND AGRO-ECOLOGI-
CAL ZONES
284
MURANGA & MARAGUA 38
285
MURANGA & MARAGUA 39
286
MURANGA & MARAGUA 40
287
MURANGA & MARAGUA 41
288
MURANGA & MARAGUA 42
289
MURANGA & MARAGUA 43
290
MURANGA & MARAGUA 44
291
MURANGA & MARAGUA
3.4.4 FARM SURVEY IN MURANGA AND MARAGUA DISTRICTS
Te 2004 Farm Survey (FS) in Muranga and Maragua districts covered eight major agroecological zones
and nine Subzones (Table 17). Compared to the previous survey (1978), the 2004 FS was agroecologically
detailed and more explicit. Accordingly, in Muranga district the mean household farm sizes, in ha, in 1978
were as follows: LH 1 (- UM 1): 3.1, UM 1 2: 1.6 and LM 3 4 (+ UM 4): 3.0. Capturing just a few
mean household farm sizes, in ha, in selected AEZs of the 2004 FS in Maragua district namely: UH 1: 1.14,
UM 2: 0.77, UM 3: 1.33, UM 4: 0.74 and LM 4: 2.02. Similarly, in Muranga district mean household
farm sizes, in ha, in selected AEZs of the 2004 FS were as follows UH 1: 2.04, UM 1: 0.68, UM 2: 0.88 and
LM 3: 1.50. It is imperatively clear from these two FS that over the last two decades mean household land
resources have shrunk substantially by more than a half in Muranga and Maragua districts. It is interesting
to note, however, that these are the most productive agro-ecological zones in Central Kenya, and the country
at large. Apart from supporting a large population, they also sustain huge urban populations in Nairobi,
Mombasa and other major urban centres in Kenya through the supply of farm produce. Moreover, these
AEZs for a long time have been the base of coee and tea production [both for domestic and foreign mar-
kets] in Kenya. Terefore, with increasing household family sizes coupled with declining soil fertility trends,
the future of foreign earnings for these commodities is bleak. Te countrys food selfsuciency policies are
equally at stake. Tese can easily complicate the domestic food supply and/or demand systems, thus leading
to food crises with serious implications for the government.
TABLE 17: FARM SURVEY SITES IN MURANGA AND MARAGUA DISTRICTS
District
No. in
Kenya
Agro-Ecological Unit
Farm Survey Sites
AEZone Subzone Soil Unit
MARAGUA
123 LH 1 p or l/vl^m MV 2
Kigumo Division, Kinyona Location,
Kinyona sub-location
124 UM 2 m/ l i m/s RB 2
Kigumo Division, Kigumo Location,
Kirere sub-location
125 UM 3 m/s +s RB 3
Maragua Division, Kahumbu Kahumbu
Location, Kandani sub-location Kandani sub-location
126 UM 4 s/m +s RB 3
Makuyu Division, Makuyu Location,
Makuyu sub-location
127 LM 4 s +s/vs UU 1
Makuyu Division, Kambiti Location,
Kambiti sub-location
MURANGA
128 UH-LH 1 p or l/vl^m MV 2
Kangema Division, Kiruri Location,
Karurumo sub-location
129 UM 1 p or f l^m RB 2
Kangema Division, Muguru Location
Gakira sub-location
130 UM 2 m/l i m/s RB 2
Kiharu Division, Gaturi Location
Gathukiini sub-location
131 LM 3 s +s LB 2
Kiharu Division, Gikindu Location
Kambirwa sub-location
Only the AEZs UM 1 and UM 2 will be discussed briey in both districts as details are found in Subzone
discussions. For simplicity and comparison only livestock, farm & family sizes and use of certied seeds at
planting will be discussed. In the AEZ UM 2, mean household farm sizes in (ha) were almost similar, i.
e. 0.88 and 0.77 in Muranga and Maragua, respectively. Compared to the 1978 FS, these farm sizes have
almost been halved (see above). Livestock keeping is an important practice especially dairy for milk produc-
tion. A higher mean of 2.3 dairy cows/farmer was reported in Maragua compared to Muranga with 1.7
cows/farmer. Keeping improved animals was also reported in Maragua (ca. mean: 0.03 cows/farmer), while
no farmer reported having local zebu breeds. In Maragua district, both local and exotic poultry are kept. Te
mean numbers of local and exotic birds in Maragua were 66.5 and 5.1, respectively (Table 18). In Muranga,
45
292
MURANGA & MARAGUA 46
only local breed of poultry birds were reported with a mean of 10 (Table 18). In both districts, large house-
hold families exist comprising of adults, casual & permanent labourers and children under < 14 years. At
the household level, particularly for this AEZ UM 2, Maragua has more adults per farm (mean: 4.0) than
Muranga (mean: 2.6) and similarly for dependants under < 14 years that is 1.7 and 1.1 children/farmer,
respectively. Engagement of casual and permanent labourers is more pronounced in Muranga than Maragua
having means of 4.3 and 2.6 casuals/farmer and 0.3 and 0.1 permanent/farmer, respectively. In addition, use
of certied seeds at planting is higher in Maragua than Muranga each with means: 76 % and 55 %, respec-
tively. Te trend remains the same even for low input farmers: ~ 50 % and 37 % in Maragua and Muranga,
respectively (Tables 18b & 18i). More discussion will be found in the respective Subzones.
In AEZ UH 1, the mean household farm size is 2.04 ha in Muranga and almost half in Maragua approxi-
mately 1.1 ha. No local zebu breeds were reported in both districts. Dairy farming is practiced in this AEZ
UH 1, though it is slightly more pronounced in Muranga with 2.8 cows/farmer as compared to Maragua
with 2.5 cows/farmer. Similarly for sheep and goats, Muranga has a mean of 4.1 compared to Maragua
having a mean of 2.2. Both exotic and local poultry keeping was reported in Muranga with means of 0.83
and 2.1 birds/farmer, respectively. Only local poultry breeds were reported in Maragua with a mean of 1
hen/farmer. Te average number of adults per family is comparable in both districts, but slightly higher in
Maragua with 2.5 adults/farm than in Muranga having 2.1 adults/farm. In both districts, engagement of
casual and permanent labourers is common with farmers deploying more casuals in Muranga with a mean
of 1.4 casuals/farmer than in Maragua having a mean of 0.2 casuals/farmer. Te trend reverses with per-
manent workers, i.e. higher in Maragua with a mean of 0.63 permanent workers/farmer than in Muranga
having a mean of 0.23 permanent workers/farmer. Regarding use of improved seeds at planting in both dis-
tricts, evidence suggests that this important agronomic practice is poorly undertaken and often ignored. Te
average use of certied seeds was about 0.7 % in UH-LH 1 of Muranga with even Level III (high input)
farmers reporting almost nil. In Maragua, the mean use of better seeds at planting was equally very low in
the Tea-Dairy Zone because maize is neglected there: only 20 % even for high input farmers (Table 18a).
In the Main Coee Zone it is high (average 76%) because of the low income from coee the farmers must
make the best of their basic food crop. More discussion will be found in respective Subzones.
293
MURANGA & MARAGUA 47
294
MURANGA & MARAGUA 48
TABLE 18a: ASSETS, LAND USE, FARMING INTENSITY AND INPUTS IN AEZ LH 1 OF
MARAGUA DISTRICT
Subzone: p or l/v l^ m, Soil unit: MV2 Survey area 123 (Kinyona)
Range
Assets People on farm
Land
ha
Livestock Numbers
Family
Adults
Casual
Labourers
Permanent
Labourers
Number of
children
< 14 years
Dairy Zebu
Sheep &
Goats
Poultry
Avg.0 1.15 2.47 0 2.17 0.87 2.53 0.2 0.63 0.3
Avg.1 1.15 2.64 - 3.82 5.2 2.53 1.2 1.58 3
Up. Qu. 1.52 3 0 4 0 3 0 1 0
Lo. Qu. 0.6 1 0 0 0 1.75 0 0 0
Land Use
Range
Ann. Crops
ha
Perm. Crops
ha
Permanent pasture &
Fodder Crops
ha
Fallow
ha
Other Use
ha
Avg.0 0.24 0.48 0.23 0.01 0.18
Avg.1 0.24 0.48 0.25 - 0.18
Up. Qu. 0.4 0.6 0.31 - 0.21
Lo. Qu. 0.11 0.23 0.10 - 0.16
Farming Diversity & Stocking Intensity
Range
Cropping
Diversity
Crops/year
Stocking Rate
Improved
Cattle
% of total
Farm Land
TLU/ha
Permanent pasture &
Fodder Crops
TLU/ha
Dairy Zebu
Sheep &
Goats
Dairy Zebu
Sheep &
Goats
Avg.0 4.4 2.4 0 0.4 11.6 0 1.9 93.3
Avg.1 4.4 2.6 0 0.7 11.6 0 3.0 100
Up. Qu. 6 2.3 0 0.6 10.8 0 2.6 100
Lo. Qu. 2.8 1.8 0 0 11.6 0 0 100
TLU: Tropical Livestock Unit is a KARI derived factor loading for animals stock in the tropics e.g. dairy =1.1,
local breeds=1.0, cross breeds=1.05, sheep=0.11 and goats=0.09.
Inputs Applied
Range
Improved
seeds used
% of area
Fertilizer applied as pure nutrient
kg/ha
Manure
applied
t/ha
Plant protection
N P
2
O
5
K
2
O
Insecticide
kg/ha
Fungicide
kg/ha
AC AC PC AC PC AC PC AC PC AC PC AC PC
Avg.0 18.8 14.1 7.1 27.6 13.9 - 67.4 17.1 8.6 0.3 0.1 0.1 0.1
Avg.1 51.2 38.4 19.3 30.7 15.4 - 67.4 18.3 9.2 4.1 2.1 0.7 0.4
Up. Qu. 20.5 18.0 12.0 28.8 19.2 - 70.3 16.0 10.7 0 0 0 0
Lo. Qu. 0 0 0 20.5 9.8 - - - - 0 0 0 0
NOTES:
Avg.0 =average of all sample farms
Avg.1 =average of farms, excluding zero entries
Up. Qu./Lo. Qu. =Upper/Lower Quartile, referstoindividual farms, 50%of all samplecasesliebetweenthese =Upper/Lower Quartile, refers to individual farms, 50% of all sample cases lie between these
AC =Annual crops
PC =Perennial crops
295
MURANGA & MARAGUA 49
TABLE 18b: ASSETS, LAND USE, FARMING INTENSITY AND INPUTS IN AEZ UM 2 OF
MARAGUA DISTRICT
Subzone: m/l i m/s, Soil unit: RB 2 Survey area 124 (Kirere)
Range
Assets People on farm
Land
ha
Livestock Numbers
Family
Adults
Casual
Labourers
Permanent
Labourers
Number of
children
< 14 years
Dairy Cross Zebu
Sheep &
Goats
Poultry
(Exotic)
Poultry
(Local)
Avg.0 0.77 2.32 0.03 0 1.13 66.52 5.06 4.03 2.61 0.06 1.65
Avg.1 0.77 2.57 1 2.5 515.5 14.27 4.03 3.24 1 2.43
Up. Qu. 0.84 3 0 0 2 0 10 5 3 0 3
Lo. Qu. 0.4 1 0 0 0 0 0 2 2 0 0
Land Use
Range
Ann. Crops
ha
Perm. Crops
ha
Permanent pasture &
Fodder Crops
ha
Fallow
ha
Forage
ha
Other Use
ha
Avg.0 0.29 0.29 0.07 - 0.02 0.11
Avg.1 0.29 0.29 0.17 - 0.09 0.21
Up. Qu. 0.3 0.34 0.08 0.03 0 0.09
Lo. Qu. 0.2 0.15 0 0.05 0 0
Farming Diversity & Stocking Intensity
Range
Cropping
Diversity
Crops/year
Stocking Rate
Improved
Cattle
% of total
Farm Land
TLU/ha
Permanent pasture &
Fodder Crops
TLU/ha
Dairy Cross Zebu
Sheep &
Goats
Dairy Cross Zebu
Sheep &
Goats
Avg.0 5.6 3.4 0.05 0 0.3 35.7 0.5 0 3.15 88.2
Avg.1 5.6 3.8 1.4 0 0.7 16.6 6.2 0 2.93 97.7
Up. Qu. 7 3.9 0 0 0.5 41.3 0 0 5 100
Lo. Qu. 4 2.8 0 0 0 - - - - 100
TLU: Tropical Livestock Unit is a KARI derived factor loading for animals stock in the tropics e.g. dairy =1.1,
local breeds=1.0, cross breeds=1.05, sheep=0.11 and goats=0.09.
Inputs Applied
Range
Improved
seeds used
% of area
Fertilizer applied as pure nutrient
kg/ha
Manure
applied
t/ha
Plant protection
N P
2
O
5
K
2
O
Insecticide
kg/ha
Fungicide
kg/ha
AC AC PC AC PC AC PC AC PC AC PC AC PC
Avg.0 76.0 49.4 47.5 44.1 42.4 2.0 1.9 20.8 20.0 0.09 0.09 0.5 0.5
Avg.1 81.3 49.4 47.5 45.6 43.8 31.1 29.9 22.2 21.4 2.9 2.8 1.2 1.2
Up. Qu. 95.2 66.7 58.1 66.7 58.1 0 0 23.3 20.3 0 0 0.3 0.3
Lo. Qu. 47.6 40 26 - - 0 0 - - 0 0 0 0
NOTES:
Avg.0 =average of all sample farms
Avg.1 =average of farms, excluding zero entries
Up. Qu./Lo. Qu. =Upper/Lower Quartile, referstoindividual farms, 50%of all samplecasesliebetweenthese =Upper/Lower Quartile, refers to individual farms, 50% of all sample cases lie between these
AC =Annual crops
PC =Perennial crops
296
MURANGA & MARAGUA 50
TABLE 18c: ASSETS, LAND USE, FARMING INTENSITY AND INPUTS IN AEZ UM 3 OF
MARAGUA DISTRICT
Subzone: m/s + s, Soil unit: RB 3 Survey area 125 (Kandani)
Range
Assets People on farm
Land
ha
Livestock Numbers
Family
Adults
Casual
Labourers
Number of
children under
14 years
Dairy Zebu
Sheep &
Goats
Poultry Pigs
Avg.0 1.33 1.48 0.41 3.14 4.17 1.45 2.93 2.55 0.90
Avg.1 1.33 2.05 2 3.96 7.56 10.5 2.93 3.08 2.36
Up. Qu. 1.77 2 0 6 6 0 4 3.5 2
Lo. Qu. 0.6 0 0 1 0 0 2 1.5 0
Land Use
Range
Ann. Crops
ha
Perm. Crops
ha
Permanent pasture &
Fodder Crops
ha
Fallow
ha
Other Use
ha
Avg.0 0.68 0.29 0.27 - 0.09
Avg.1 0.68 0.30 0.32 - 0.14
Up. Qu. 0.87 0.47 0.2 0.11 0.12
Lo. Qu. 0.31 0.05 0.07 0.07 0.1
Farming Diversity & Stocking Intensity
Range
Cropping
Diversity
Crops/year
Stocking Rate
Improved
Cattle
% of total
Farm Land
TLU/ha
Permanent pasture &
Fodder Crops
TLU/ha
Dairy Zebu
Sheep &
Goats
Dairy Zebu
Sheep &
Goats
Avg.0 6.4 1.23 0.3 0.5 6.1 1.5 2.3 69.0
Avg.1 6.4 1.70 1.5 0.6 6.9 6.2 2.4 95.2
Up. Qu. 7.5 1.24 0 0.7 11.0 0 6.0 100
Lo. Qu. 4.5 0 0 0.3 0 0 - 0
TLU: Tropical Livestock Unit is a KARI derived factor loading for animals stock in the tropics e.g. dairy =1.1,
local breeds=1.0, cross breeds=1.05, sheep=0.11 and goats=0.09.
Inputs Applied
Range
Improved
seeds used
% of area
Fertilizer applied as pure nutrient
kg/ha
Manure
applied
t/ha
Plant protection
N P
2
O
5
K
2
O
Insecticide
kg/ha
Fungicide
kg/ha
AC AC PC AC PC AC PC AC PC AC PC AC PC
Avg.0 19.0 21.8 52.1 24.7 59.1 - - 5.8 13.8 0.7 1.6 0.8 1.8
Avg.1 27.5 27.5 63.5 27.6 63.6 - - 7.0 16.1 2.4 5.6 2.5 5.7
Up. Qu. 30.3 26.4 48.4 26.4 48.4 - - 4.6 8.4 0.4 0.7 0.2 0.4
Lo. Qu. 0 9.3 - 22.3 - - - 1.2 7.4 0 0 0 0
NOTES:
Avg.0 =average of all sample farms
Avg.1 =average of farms, excluding zero entries
Up. Qu./Lo. Qu. =Upper/Lower Quartile, referstoindividual farms, 50%of all samplecasesliebetweenthese =Upper/Lower Quartile, refers to individual farms, 50% of all sample cases lie between these
AC =Annual crops
PC =Perennial crops
297
MURANGA & MARAGUA 51
TABLE 18d: ASSETS, LAND USE, FARMING INTENSITY AND INPUTS IN AEZ UM 4 OF
MARAGUA DISTRICT
Subzone: s/m +s, Soil unit: RB 3 Survey area 126 (Makuyu)
Range
Assets People on farm
Land
ha
Livestock Numbers
Family
Adults
Casual
Labourers
Permanent
Labourers
Number of
children
< 14 years
Dairy Zebu
Sheep &
Goats
Poultry
(Local)
Pigs Rabbits
Avg.0 0.74 0.67 1.8 2.83 6.13 0.53 0.4 3.2 1.77 0.03 1.17
Avg.1 0.74 2.5 3.18 3.54 9.68 4 6 3.2 3.31 1 1.94
Up. Qu. 0.92 1 2.25 5 10.5 0 0 4 3 0 2
Lo. Qu. 0.4 0 0 1 0 0 0 2 0 0 0
Land Use
Range
Ann. Crops
ha
Perm. Crops
ha
Permanent pasture &
Fodder Crops
ha
Fallow
ha
Forage
ha
Other Use
ha
Avg.0 0.53 0.14 0.02 0.02 0.01 0.02
Avg.1 0.53 0.16 0.12 - 0.08 0.06
Up. Qu. 0.7 0.17 0 - 0 0.05
Lo. Qu. 0.34 0.04 0 - 0 0.02
Farming Diversity & Stocking Intensity
Range
Cropping
Diversity
Crops/year
Stocking Rate
Improved
Cattle
% of total
Farm Land
TLU/ha
Permanent pasture &
Fodder Crops
TLU/ha
Forage
TLU/ha
Dairy Zebu
Sheep &
Goats
Dairy Zebu
Sheep &
Goats
Dairy Zebu
Sheep &
Goats
Avg.0 5.6 1.0 2.4 0.8 31.4 77.1 24.3 88 216 68 19.6
Avg.1 5.6 3.7 4.3 1.0 23.6 27.2 6.1 33 38.1 8.5 73.3
Up. Qu. 7 1.2 2.5 1.1 - - - - - - 23.3
Lo. Qu. 4 0 0 0.5 - - - - - - 0
TLU: Tropical Livestock Unit is a KARI derived factor loading for animals stock in the tropics e.g. dairy =1.1,
local breeds=1.0, cross breeds=1.05, sheep=0.11 and goats=0.09.
Inputs Applied
Range
Improved
seeds used
% of area
Fertilizer applied as pure nutrient
kg/ha
Manure
applied
t/ha
Plant protection
N P
2
O
5
K
2
O
Insecticide
kg/ha
Fungicide
kg/ha
AC AC PC AC PC AC PC AC PC AC PC AC PC
Avg.0 18.2 5.9 22.8 16.1 62.2 - - 7.3 - 0.1 0.4 0.6 2.1
Avg.1 34.2 19.7 65.8 23.0 76.9 - - 7.8 - 0.8 2.5 1.7 5.5
Up. Qu. 24.3 6.6 26.9 16.4 67.3 - - 7.5 - 0 0 0.6 2.3
Lo. Qu. 0 0 0 0 0 - - 3.0 - 0 0 0 0
NOTES:
Avg.0 =average of all sample farms
Avg.1 =average of farms, excluding zero entries
Up. Qu./Lo. Qu. =Upper/Lower Quartile, referstoindividual farms, 50%of all samplecasesliebetweenthese =Upper/Lower Quartile, refers to individual farms, 50% of all sample cases lie between these
AC =Annual crops
PC =Perennial crops
298
MURANGA & MARAGUA 52
TABLE 18e: ASSETS, LAND USE, FARMING INTENSITY AND INPUTS IN AEZ LM 4 OF
MARAGUA DISTRICT
Subzone: s + s/vs, Soil unit: UU 1 Survey area 127 (Kambiti)
Range
Assets People on farm
Land
ha
Livestock Numbers
Family
Adults
Casual
Labourers
Permanent
Labourers
Number of
children
< 14 years
Dairy Zebu
Sheep &
Goats
Poultry Donkeys Rabbits Pigs
Avg.0 2.02 0.27 1.53 3.8 9.37 0.1 1.13 0.2 2.33 1.17 0.03 1.4
Avg.1 2.02 2.67 3.54 4.38 12.77 1 8.5 3 2.33 2.92 1 2.1
Up. Qu. 1.63 0 3 5.25 11.25 0 0 0 3 2 0 2
Lo. Qu. 0.79 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0
Land Use
Range
Ann. Crops
ha
Perm. Crops
ha
Permanent pasture &
Fodder Crops
ha
Fallow
ha
Other Use
ha
Avg.0 0.56 0.43 0.17 - 0.86
Avg.1 0.56 0.50 0.32 - 4.29
Up. Qu. 0.7 0.65 0.2 0.08 0
Lo. Qu. 0.39 0.14 0.2 0.06 0
Farming Diversity & Stocking Intensity
Range
Cropping
Diversity
Crops/year
Stocking Rate
Improved
Cattle
% of total
Farm Land
TLU/ha
Permanent pasture &
Fodder Crops
TLU/ha
Dairy Zebu
Sheep &
Goats
Dairy Zebu
Sheep &
Goats
Avg.0 4.8 0.2 0.8 0.38 1.7 9.1 4.5 8.3
Avg.1 4.8 1.5 1.8 0.43 9.3 11.2 2.8 83.3
Up. Qu. 5.25 0 1.9 0.7 0 15 5.3 0
Lo. Qu. 3 0 0 0.3 - - - 0
TLU: Tropical Livestock Unit is a KARI derived factor loading for animals stock in the tropics e.g. dairy =1.1, local breeds=1.0,
cross breeds=1.05, sheep=0.11 and goats=0.09.
Inputs Applied
Range
Improved
seeds used
% of area
Fertilizer applied as pure nutrient
kg/ha
Manure
applied
t/ha
Plant protection
N P
2
O
5
K
2
O
Insecticide
kg/ha
Fungicide
kg/ha
AC AC PC AC PC AC PC AC PC AC PC AC PC
Avg.0 5.9 9.3 12.3 13.0 17.0 - - 3.9 5.1 0.7 0.9 0.2 0.3
Avg.1 35.3 23.8 29.0 22.7 27.6 - - 4.0 4.9 2.7 3.2 3.3 4.0
Up. Qu. 0 16.4 17.8 17.3 18.7 - - 3.6 3.9 0.04 0.04 0 0
Lo. Qu. 0 0 0 0 0 - - 0.4 1.3 0 0 0 0
NOTES:
Avg.0 =average of all sample farms
Avg.1 =average of farms, excluding zero entries
Up. Qu./Lo. Qu. =Upper/Lower Quartile, referstoindividual farms, 50%of all samplecasesliebetweenthese =Upper/Lower Quartile, refers to individual farms, 50% of all sample cases lie between these
AC =Annual crops
PC =Perennial crops
299
MURANGA & MARAGUA 53
TABLE 18f: ASSETS, LAND USE, FARMING INTENSITY AND INPUTS IN AEZ UH-LH 1
OF MURANGA DISTRICT
Subzone: p or l/v l^m, Soil unit: MV 2 Survey area 128 (Karurumo)
Range
Assets People on farm
Land
ha
Livestock Numbers
Family
Adults
Casual
Labourers
Permanent
Labourers
Number of
children
< 14 years
Dairy Zebu
Sheep &
Goats
Poultry
(Exotic)
Poultry
(Local)
Avg.0 2.04 2.8 0 4.07 0.83 2.07 2.1 1.43 0.23 1.3
Avg.1 2.04 2.90 4.69 12.5 12.4 2.1 2.26 1 3
Up. Qu. 2.45 4 0 6.25 0 0 2 2.25 0.25 3
Lo. Qu. 1.08 2 0 2 0 0 2 0 0 0
Land Use
Range
Ann. Crops
ha
Perm. Crops
ha
Permanent pasture &
Fodder Crops
ha
Fallow
ha
Other Use
ha
Avg.0 0.33 0.76 0.68 - 0.27
Avg.1 0.33 0.76 0.68 0.28
Up. Qu. 0.43 1 0.8 0.02 0.2
Lo. Qu. 0.14 0.39 0.47 - 0.08
Farming Diversity & Stocking Intensity
Range
Cropping
Diversity
Crops/year
Stocking Rate
Improved
Cattle
% of total
Farm Land
TLU/ha
Permanent pasture &
Fodder Crops
TLU/ha
Dairy Zebu
Sheep &
Goats
Dairy Zebu
Sheep &
Goats
Avg.0 3.9 1.51 0 0.40 4.6 0 1.2 96.7
Avg.1 3.9 1.57 0 0.46 4.7 0 1.4 100
Up. Qu. 5 1.80 0 0.51 5.5 0 1.6 100
Lo. Qu. 3 - 0 0.37 - 0 2 100
TLU: Tropical Livestock Unit is a KARI derived factor loading for animals stock in the tropics e.g. dairy =1.1,
local breeds=1.0, cross breeds=1.05, sheep=0.11 and goats=0.09.
Inputs Applied
Range
Improved
seeds used
% of area
Fertilizer applied as pure nutrient
kg/ha
Manure
applied
t/ha
Plant protection
N P
2
O
5
K
2
O
Insecticide
kg/ha
Fungicide
kg/ha
AC AC PC AC PC AC PC AC PC AC PC AC PC
Avg.0 0.7 33.8 14.5 19.3 8.3 - 28.0 - 5.1 0 0 0.4 0.2
Avg.1 20.2 33.8 15.0 23.4 10.4 - 28.0 - 5.7 0 0 0.6 0.3
Up. Qu. 0 26.7 11.5 26.7 11.5 - 23.1 - 5.4 0 0 0.5 0.2
Lo. Qu. 0 - - 7.7 2.7 - - - 3.6 0 0 0 0
NOTES:
Avg.0 =average of all sample farms
Avg.1 =average of farms, excluding zero entries
Up. Qu./Lo. Qu. =Upper/Lower Quartile, referstoindividual farms, 50%of all samplecasesliebetweenthese =Upper/Lower Quartile, refers to individual farms, 50% of all sample cases lie between these
AC =Annual crops
PC =Perennial crops
300
MURANGA & MARAGUA 54
TABLE 18g: ASSETS, LAND USE, FARMING INTENSITY AND INPUTS IN AEZ UM 1 OF
MURANGA DISTRICT
Subzone: p or f l^m, Soil unit: RB 2 Survey area 129 (Gakira)
Range
Assets People on farm
Land
ha
Livestock Numbers
Family
Adults
Casual
Labourers
Number of
children
< 14 years
Dairy Zebu
Sheep &
Goats
Poultry Rabbits
Avg.0 0.68 2.13 0 1.13 1.23 0.2 1.97 1.5 0.8
Avg.1 0.68 2.13 2.83 3.7 6 1.97 1.55 1.5
Up. Qu. 0.75 2 0 2 2 0 2 2 1.25
Lo. Qu. 0.27 1 0 0 0 0 2 1 0
Land Use
Range
Ann. Crops
ha
Perm. Crops
ha
Permanent pasture &
Fodder Crops
ha
Fallow
ha
Other Use
ha
Avg.0 0.18 0.26 0.16 - 0.08
Avg.1 0.18 0.26 0.16 - 0.12
Up. Qu. 0.20 0.29 0.17 - 0.09
Lo. Qu. 0.08 0.11 0.06 - 0.02
Farming Diversity & Stocking Intensity
Range
Cropping
Diversity
Crops/year
Stocking Rate
Improved
Cattle
% of total
Farm Land
TLU/ha
Permanent pasture &
Fodder Crops
TLU/ha
Dairy Zebu
Sheep &
Goats
Dairy Zebu
Sheep &
Goats
Avg.0 9.5 3.5 0 0.3 14.9 0 2.1 100
Avg.1 9.5 3.5 0 0.8 14.9 0 5.3 100
Up. Qu. 10 3.0 0 0.5 12.9 0 3.2 100
Lo. Qu. 8.8 - 0 0 - 0 0 100
TLU: Tropical Livestock Unit is a KARI derived factor loading for animals stock in the tropics e.g. dairy =1.1,
local breeds=1.0, cross breeds=1.05, sheep=0.11 and goats=0.09.
Inputs Applied
Range
Improved
seeds used
% of area
Fertilizer applied as pure nutrient
kg/ha
Manure
applied
t/ha
Plant protection
N P
2
O
5
K
2
O
Insecticide
kg/ha
Fungicide
kg/ha
AC AC PC AC PC AC PC AC PC AC PC AC PC
Avg.0 47.6 24.3 16.1 25.1 16.7 4.8 3.2 32.5 21.6 0.2 0.1 0.9 0.6
Avg.1 67.9 29.1 19.4 28.9 19.3 - 19.3 32.5 21.6 0.6 0.4 1.08 0.72
Up. Qu. 73.2 28.9 20.0 17.3 12.0 0 0 36.4 25.2 0.2 0.1 1.01 0.69
Lo. Qu. 0 - - - - 0 0 - - 0 0 0.6 0.4
NOTES:
Avg.0 =average of all sample farms
Avg.1 =average of farms, excluding zero entries
Up. Qu./Lo. Qu. =Upper/Lower Quartile, referstoindividual farms, 50%of all samplecasesliebetweenthese =Upper/Lower Quartile, refers to individual farms, 50% of all sample cases lie between these
AC =Annual crops
PC =Perennial crops
301
MURANGA & MARAGUA 55
TABLE 18h: ASSETS, LAND USE, FARMING INTENSITY AND INPUTS IN AEZ UM 2 OF
MURANGA DISTRICT
Subzone: m l i m/s, Soil unit: RB 2 Survey area 130 (Gathukiini)
Range
Assets People on farm
Land
ha
Livestock Numbers
Family
Adults
Casual
Labourers
Permanent
Labourers
Number of
children
< 14 years
Dairy Zebu
Sheep &
Goats
Poultry
Avg.0 0.88 1.67 0 1.83 10 2.37 4.27 0.27 1.13
Avg.1 0.88 2 - 3.06 10 2.37 5.82 1.33 1.89
Up. Qu. 1.47 2 0 3.25 11.25 3 3 0 2
Lo. Qu. 0.38 1 0 0 5 2 0 0 0
Land Use
Range
Ann. Crops
ha
Perm. Crops
ha
Permanent pasture &
Fodder Crops
ha
Fallow
ha
Other Use
ha
Avg.0 0.31 0.34 0.14 - 0.09
Avg.1 0.31 0.34 0.15 - 0.09
Up. Qu. 0.42 0.6 0.23 0.12 0.1
Lo. Qu. 0.1 0.1 0.05 0.09 0.04
Farming Diversity & Stocking Intensity
Range
Cropping
Diversity
Crops/year
Stocking Rate
Improved
Cattle
% of total
Farm Land
TLU/ha
Permanent pasture &
Fodder Crops
TLU/ha
Dairy Zebu
Sheep &
Goats
Dairy Zebu
Sheep &
Goats
Avg.0 5.83 2.1 0 0.42 13.0 0 2.6 83.3
Avg.1 5.83 2.5 0 0.70 14.5 0 4.0 100
Up. Qu. 7 1.5 0 0.44 9.8 0 2.9 100
Lo. Qu. 4 - 0 0 - 0 0 100
TLU: Tropical Livestock Unit is a KARI derived factor loading for animals stock in the tropics e.g. dairy =1.1,
local breeds=1.0, cross breeds=1.05, sheep=0.11 and goats=0.09.
Inputs Applied
Range
Improved
seeds used
% of area
Fertilizer applied as pure nutrient
kg/ha
Manure
applied
t/ha
Plant protection
N P
2
O
5
K
2
O
Insecticide
kg/ha
Fungicide
kg/ha
AC AC PC AC PC AC PC AC PC AC PC AC PC
Avg.0 55.1 53.7 50.3 55.6 52.1 - 12.9 17.1 16.0 0.2 0.2 1.3 1.2
Avg.1 61.2 55.6 52.1 57.5 53.9 - - 19.0 17.8 6.4 6.0 1.8 1.6
Up. Qu. 84.8 54.8 38.3 54.8 38.3 - 0 19.0 13.3 0 0 1.0 0.7
Lo. Qu. 37.1 - - - - - 0 - - 0 0 0 0
NOTES:
Avg.0 =average of all sample farms
Avg.1 =average of farms, excluding zero entries
Up. Qu./Lo. Qu. =Upper/Lower Quartile, referstoindividual farms, 50%of all samplecasesliebetweenthese =Upper/Lower Quartile, refers to individual farms, 50% of all sample cases lie between these
AC =Annual crops
PC =Perennial crops
302
MURANGA & MARAGUA 56
TABLE 18i: ASSETS, LAND USE, FARMING INTENSITY AND INPUTS IN AEZ LM 3 OF
MURANGA DISTRICT
Subzone: s + s, Soil unit: LB 2 Survey Area 131 (Kambirwa)
Range
Assets People on farm
Land
ha
Livestock Numbers
Family
Adults
Casual
Labourers
Permanent
Labourers
Number of
children
< 14 years
Dairy Zebu
Sheep &
Goats
Poultry
(Local)
Poultry
(exotic)
B/
hives
Rabbits
Avg.0 1.50 2.03 0.33 3.3 5.9 13.33 0.07 0.03 1.63 2.8 0.4 0.97
Avg.1 1.50 3.05 5 3.81 7.38 200 2 1 1.63 3.23 1.33 2.07
Up. Qu. 2.04 4 0 4 8.5 0 0 0 2 4.25 1 2
Lo. Qu. 0.6 0 0 1 2.75 0 0 0 1 1 0 0
Land Use
Range
Ann. Crops
ha
Perm. Crops
ha
Permanent pasture &
Fodder Crops
ha
Fallow ha
Other Use
ha
Avg.0 0.76 0.19 0.37 - 0.18
Avg.1 0.76 0.26 0.58 - 0.18
Up. Qu. 1.05 0.25 0.54 - 0.2
Lo. Qu. 0.4 0 0.1 - 0.1
Farming Diversity & Stocking Intensity
Range
Cropping
Diversity
Crops/year
Stocking Rate
Improved
Cattle
% of total
Farm Land
TLU/ha
Permanent pasture &
Fodder Crops
TLU/ha
Dairy Zebu
Sheep &
Goats
Dairy Zebu
Sheep &
Goats
Avg.0 4.8 1.5 0.2 0.44 6.1 0.9 1.8 66.7
Avg.1 4.8 2.24 3.3 0.51 5.8 8.7 1.3 100
Up. Qu. 6 2.2 0 0.40 8.2 0 1.5 100
Lo. Qu. 2.8 0 0 0.33 - - - 0
TLU: Tropical Livestock Unit is a KARI derived factor loading for animals stock in the tropics e.g. dairy =1.1,
local breeds=1.0, cross breeds=1.05, sheep=0.11 and goats=0.09.
Inputs Applied
Range
Improved
seeds used
% of area
Fertilizer applied as pure nutrient
kg/ha
Manure
applied
t/ha
Plant protection
N P
2
O
5
K
2
O
Insecticide
kg/ha
Fungicide
kg/ha
AC AC PC AC PC AC PC AC PC AC PC AC PC
Avg.0 52.2 9.6 - 12.4 - - - 15.4 - 0.1 0.4 0.6 2.4
Avg.1 68.0 20.6 - 20.7 - - - 16.5 - 2.6 - 0.7 1.9
Up. Qu. 72.1 8.8 - 13.1 - - - 15.0 - 0 0 0.4 1.6
Lo. Qu. 13.1 0 - 0 - - - 2.2 - 0 - - -
NOTES:
Avg.0 =average of all sample farms
Avg.1 =average of farms, excluding zero entries
Up. Qu./Lo. Qu. =Upper/Lower Quartile, referstoindividual farms, 50%of all samplecasesliebetweenthese =Upper/Lower Quartile, refers to individual farms, 50% of all sample cases lie between these
AC =Annual crops
PC =Perennial crops
303
MURANGA & MARAGUA 57
TABLE 19a: CROPPING PATTERNS IN AEZ LH 1 OF MARAGUA DISTRICT
Subzone: p or l/vl^ m +s, Soil unit: MV 2 Survey area 123 (Kinyona)
First Rainy Season
Annual & Bi-annual Crops
Crops
Average
0
ha
Average
1
ha
Upper
Quartile
ha
Lower
Quartile
ha
Total Sample Area of 30 Farms
ha %
Cabbages 0.01 0.04 0.00 0 0.35 19.77
Irish potatoes 0.03 0.07 0.08 0 0.98 55.37
Maize 0.00 0.02 0 0 0.02 1.13
Maize & beans 0.01 0.08 0 0 0.42 23.73
Total Sample Area 0.05 1.77 100
Second Rainy Season
Annual & Bi-annual Crops
Crops
Average
0
ha
Average
1
ha
Upper
Quartile
ha
Lower
Quartile
ha
Total Sample Area of 30 Farms
ha %
Cabbages 0.01 0.04 0.01 0 0.41 5.62
Cabbages & kales 0.00 0.02 0 0 0.02 0.27
Irish potatoes 0.01 0.05 0 0 0.32 4.39
Maize 0.06 0.18 0.1 0 1.82 24.97
Maize & beans 0.16 0.24 0.31 0 4.58 62.83
Maize & Irish potatoes 0.00 0.1 0 0 0.1 1.37
Sweet potatoes 0.00 0.04 0 0 0.04 0.55
Total Sample Area 0.24 7.29 100
Perennial Crops
Crops
Average
0
ha
Average
1
ha
Upper
Quartile
ha
Lower
Quartile
ha
Total Sample Area of 30 Farms
ha %
Avocado 0.01 0.05 0 0 0.29 2.00
Bananas 0.01 0.06 0 0 0.24 1.66
Oranges 0.00 0.01 0 0 0.01 0.07
Passion fruits 0.00 0.01 0 0 0.02 0.14
Pears 0.00 0.01 0.00 0 0.08 0.55
Plums 0.00 0.01 0.00 0 0.07 0.48
Tea 0.46 0.46 0.6 0.22 13.77 95.10
Total Sample Area 0.48 14.48 100
NOTES:
Avg.0 =average of all sample farms
Avg.1 =average of farms, excluding zero entries
Up. Qu./Lo. =Upper/Lower Quartile, refers to individual farms, 50% of all sample cases lie between these
304
MURANGA & MARAGUA 58
TABLE 19b: CROPPING PATTERNS IN AEZ UM 2 OF MARAGUA DISTRICT
Subzone: m/l i m/s, Soil unit: RB 2 Survey area 124 (Kirere)
First Rainy Season
Annual & Bi-annual Crops
Crops
Average
0
ha
Average
1
ha
Upper
Quartile
ha
Lower
Quartile
ha
Total Sample Area of 30 Farms
ha %
Beans 0.01 0.09 0 0 0.36 4.35
Cabbages 0.01 0.3 0 0 0.3 3.62
Cucumber 0.00 0.04 0 0 0.04 0.48
French beans 0.01 0.19 0 0 0.38 4.59
Kales 0.01 0.04 0 0 0.14 1.69
Maize 0.19 0.22 0.2 0.04 5.76 69.56
Maize & beans 0.04 0.24 0 0 1.2 14.49
Tomatoes 0.00 0.1 0 0 0.1 1.21
Yams 0.00 0.001 0 0 0.001 0.01
Total Sample Area 0.27 8.28 100
Second Rainy Season
Annual & Bi-annual Crops
Crop
Average 0
ha
Average
1
ha
Upper
Quartile
ha
Lower
Quartile
ha
Total Sample Area of 30 Farms
ha %
Beans 0.01 0.09 0 0 0.36 4.24
Cabbages 0.01 0.3 0 0 0.3 3.54
Cucumber 0.00 0.04 0 0 0.04 0.47
French beans 0.02 0.19 0 0 0.38 4.48
Kales 0.01 0.04 0 0 0.14 1.65
Maize 0.19 0.23 0.2 0.04 5.96 70.27
Maize & beans 0.04 0.24 0 0 1.2 14.15
Tomatoes 0.00 0.1 0 0 0.1 1.18
Yams 0.00 0.001 0 0 0.001 0.01
Total Sample Area 0.28 8.48 100
Perennial Crops
Crops
Average
0
ha
Average
1
ha
Upper
Quartile
ha
Lower
Quartile
ha
Total Sample Area of 30 Farms
ha %
Avocado 0.02 0.06 0.03 0 0.73 8.30
Bananas 0.07 0.07 0.08 0.03 2.14 24.35
Coffee 0.16 0.17 0.2 0.07 4.77 54.27
Macadamia 0.01 0.05 0 0 0.3 3.41
Mangoes 0.00 0.02 0 0 0.02 0.23
Passion fruits 0.03 0.21 0 0 0.83 9.44
Total Sample Area 0.29 8.79 100
NOTES:
Avg.0 =average of all sample farms
Avg.1 =average of farms, excluding zero entries
Up. Qu./Lo. =Upper/Lower Quartile, refers to individual farms, 50% of all sample cases lie between these
305
MURANGA & MARAGUA 59
TABLE 19c: CROPPING PATTERNS IN AEZ UM 3 OF MARAGUA DISTRICT
Subzone: m/s + s, Soil unit: RB 3 Survey area 125 (Kandani)
First Rainy Season
Annual & Bi-annual Crops
Crops
Average
0
ha
Average
1
ha
Upper
Quartile
ha
Lower
Quartile
ha
Total Sample Area of 29 Farms
ha %
Beans 0.1 0.26 0.2 0 2.9 14.80
French beans 0.01 0.2 0 0 0.4 2.04
Irish potatoes 0.02 0.07 0.02 0 0.52 2.65
Kales 0.00 0.1 0 0 0.1 0.51
Maize 0.24 0.58 0.4 0 6.95 35.46
Maize & beans 0.24 0.41 0.4 0 6.9 35.20
Pigeon peas 0.00 0.05 0 0 0.05 0.26
Soya beans 0.00 0.04 0 0 0.04 0.20
Sunfower 0.00 0.05 0 0 0.05 0.26
Sweet potatoes 0.03 0.16 0 0 0.94 4.80
Tomatoes 0.03 0.19 0 0 0.75 3.83
Total Sample Area 0.67 19.6 100
Second Rainy Season
Annual & Bi-annual Crops
Crop
Average
0
ha
Average
1
ha
Upper
Quartile
ha
Lower
Quartile
ha
Total Sample Area of 29 Farms
ha %
Beans 0.1 0.26 0.2 0 2.9 15.18
French beans 0.01 0.2 0 0 0.2 1.05
Irish potatoes 0.02 0.06 0.03 0 0.57 2.98
Kales 0.00 0.1 0 0 0.1 0.52
Maize 0.24 0.63 0.4 0 6.9 36.13
Maize & beans 0.23 0.37 0.4 0 6.7 35.08
Soya beans 0.00 0.04 0 0 0.04 0.21
Sweet potatoes 0.03 0.16 0 0 0.94 4.92
Tomatoes 0.03 0.19 0 0 0.75 3.93
Total Sample Area 0.66 19.1 100
Perennial Crops
Crops
Average
0
ha
Average
1
ha
Upper
Quartile
ha
Lower
Quartile
ha
Total Sample Area of 29 Farms
ha %
Avocado 0.02 0.04 0.01 0 0.44 5.64
Bananas 0.11 0.14 0.2 0.01 3.29 42.18
Coffee 0.08 0.25 0.08 0 2.33 29.87
Macadamia 0.00 0.14 0 0 0.14 1.79
Mangoes 0.06 0.10 0.06 0 1.60 20.51
Total Sample Area 0.27 7.8 100
NOTES:
Avg.0 =average of all sample farms; Avg.1 =average of farms, excluding zero entries
Up. Qu./Lo. =Upper/Lower Quartile, refers to individual farms, 50% of all sample cases lie between these
306
MURANGA & MARAGUA 60
TABLE 19d: CROPPING PATTERNS IN AEZ UM 4 OF MARAGUA DISTRICT
Subzone: s/m + s, Soil unit: RB 3 Survey area 126 (Makuyu)
First Rainy Season
Annual & Bi-annual Crops
Crops
Average
0
ha
Average
1
ha
Upper
Quartile
ha
Lower
Quartile
ha
Total Sample Area of 30 Farms
ha %
Green peas 0.00 0.05 0 0 0.05 0.31
Irish potatoes 0.03 0.06 0.05 0 0.9 5.60
Maize 0.05 0.35 0 0 1.4 8.71
Maize & beans 0.45 0.46 0.6 0.3 13.47 83.82
Pumpkins 0.00 0.05 0 0 0.05 0.31
Sweet potatoes 0.00 0.1 0 0 0.1 0.62
Tomatoes & kales 0.00 0.1 0 0 0.1 0.62
Total Sample Area 0.53 16.07 100
Second Rainy Season
Annual & Bi-annual Crops
Crop
Average
0
ha
Average
1
ha
Upper
Quartile
ha
Lower
Quartile
ha
Total Sample Area of 30 Farms
ha %
Green peas 0.00 0.05 0 0 0.05 0.32
Irish potatoes 0.03 0.06 0.05 0 0.9 5.67
Maize 0.05 0.35 0 0 1.4 8.82
Maize & beans 0.44 0.46 0.6 0.3 13.27 83.62
Pumpkins 0.00 0.05 0 0 0.05 0.32
Sweet potatoes 0.00 0.1 0 0 0.1 0.63
Tomatoes & kales 0.00 0.1 0 0 0.1 0.63
Total Sample Area 0.52 15.87 100
Perennial Crops
Crops
Average
0
ha
Average
1
ha
Upper
Quartile
ha
Lower
Quartile
ha
Total Sample Area of 30 Farms
ha %
Avocado 0.02 0.04 0.04 0 0.56 13.49
Bananas 0.05 0.06 0.06 0.02 1.57 37.83
Coffee 0.02 0.11 0 0 0.55 13.25
Mangoes 0.05 0.08 0.07 0 1.45 34.94
Paw paws 0.00 0.01 0 0 0.02 0.48
Total Sample Area 0.14 4.15 100
NOTES:
Avg.0 =average of all sample farms
Avg.1 =average of farms, excluding zero entries
Up. Qu./Lo. =Upper/Lower Quartile, refers to individual farms, 50% of all sample cases lie between these
307
MURANGA & MARAGUA 61
TABLE 19e: CROPPING PATTERNS IN AEZ LM 4 OF MARAGUA DISTRICT
Subzone: s + s/vs, Soil unit: UU 1 Survey area 127 (Kambiti)
First Rainy Season
Annual & Bi-annual Crops
Crops
Average
0
ha
Average
1
ha
Upper
Quartile
ha
Lower
Quartile
ha
Total Sample Area of 30 Farms
ha %
Beans 0.02 0.25 0 0 0.5 2.96
Cassava 0.00 0.02 0 0 0.02 0.12
Cow peas 0.01 0.05 0 0 0.21 1.24
Coriander (Dhania) 0.00 0.02 0 0 0.02 0.12
Ground nuts 0.00 0.1 0 0 0.1 0.59
Hot pepper 0.00 0.05 0 0 0.05 0.30
Maize 0.14 0.36 0.32 0 4.28 25.37
Maize & beans 0.38 0.42 0.6 0.19 11.42 67.69
Maize & cow peas 0.01 0.2 0 0 0.2 1.19
Pumpkins 0.00 0.01 0 0 0.01 0.06
Tindori 0.00 0.03 0 0 0.03 0.18
Tomatoes 0.00 0.03 0 0 0.03 0.18
Total Sample Area 0.56 16.87 100
Second Rainy Season
Annual & Bi-annual Crops
Crop
Average
0
ha
Average
1
ha
Upper
Quartile
ha
Lower
Quartile
ha
Total Sample Area of 30 Farms
ha %
Beans 0.02 0.25 0 0 0.5 3.02
Cassava 0.00 0.02 0 0 0.02 0.12
Cow peas 0.01 0.05 0 0 0.21 1.27
Coriander (Dhania) 0.00 0.02 0 0 0.02 0.12
Kales, pumpkins & chilies 0.00 0.05 0 0 0.05 0.30
Maize 0.13 0.34 0.23 0 4.02 24.32
Maize & beans 0.38 0.42 0.6 0.19 11.42 69.09
Maize & cow peas 0.01 0.2 0 0 0.2 1.21
Pigeon peas 0.00 0.04 0 0 0.04 0.24
Tindori 0.00 0.03 0 0 0.03 0.18
Tomatoes 0.00 0.02 0 0 0.02 0.12
Total Sample Area 0.55 16.53 100
Perennial Crops
Crops
Average
0
ha
Average
1
ha
Upper
Quartile
ha
Lower
Quartile
ha
Total Sample Area of 30 Farms
ha %
Bananas 0.0002 0.005 0 0 0.005 0.04
Citrus 0.00 0.02 0 0 0.07 0.54
Mangoes 0.37 0.46 0.58 0.09 10.98 85.08
Paw paws 0.06 0.17 0.01 0 1.85 14.34
Total Sample Area 0.43 12.91 100
308
MURANGA & MARAGUA 62
TABLE 19f: CROPPING PATTERNS IN AEZ UH-LH 1 OF MURANGA DISTRICT
Subzone: p or l/vl^m, Soil unit: MV 2 Survey area 128 (Karurumo)
First Rainy Season
Annual & Bi-annual Crops
Crop
Average
0
ha
Average
1
ha
Upper
Quartile
ha
Lower
Quartile
ha
Total Sample Area of 30 Farms
ha %
Kales 0.003 0.08 0 0 0.08 100
Total Sample Area 0.003 0.08 100
Second Rainy Season
Annual & Bi-annual Crops
Crops
Average
0
ha
Average
1
ha
Upper
Quartile
ha
Lower
Quartile
ha
Total Sample Area of 30 Farms
ha %
Beans 0.00 0.04 0 0 0.12 1.23
Cabbages 0.02 0.07 0.04 0 0.67 6.86
Carrots 0.00 0.01 0 0 0.02 0.20
Garden peas 0.00 0.04 0 0 0.04 0.41
Irish potatoes 0.01 0.04 0.01 0 0.28 2.87
Kales 0.00 0.03 0 0 0.06 0.61
Maize 0.01 0.15 0 0 0.3 3.07
Maize & beans 0.06 0.35 0 0 1.76 18.01
Maize & garden peas 0.01 0.22 0 0 0.44 4.50
Maize & Irish potatoes 0.07 0.26 0.06 0 2.08 21.29
Maize, beans & Irish potatoes 0.08 0.28 0.1 0 2.5 25.59
Maize, garden peas & I/potatoes 0.03 0.4 0 0 0.8 8.19
Maize, sweet & Irish potatoes 0.02 0.5 0 0 0.5 5.12
Vegetables 0.01 0.1 0 0 0.2 2.05
Total Sample Area 0.32 9.77 100
Perennial Crops
Crops
Average
0
ha
Average
1
ha
Upper
Quartile
ha
Lower
Quartile
ha
Total Sample Area of 30 Farms
ha %
Avocado 0.002 0.04 0 0 0.07 0.30
Pears 0.07 0.27 0.04 2.16 9.40
Tea 0.64 0.64 0.83 0.39 19.3 84.02
Woodlots 0.05 0.36 0 0 1.44 6.27
Yellow passions 0.0001 0.002 0 0 0.002 0.01
Total Sample Area 0.76 22.97 100
NOTES:
Avg.0 =average of all sample farms
Avg.1 =average of farms, excluding zero entries
Up. Qu./Lo. =Upper/Lower Quartile, refers to individual farms, 50% of all sample cases lie between these
309
MURANGA & MARAGUA 63
TABLE 19g: CROPPING PATTERNS IN AEZ UM 1 OF MURANGA DISTRICT
Subzone: p or f l ^m, Soil unit: RB 2 Survey area 129 (Gakira)
First Rainy Season
Annual & Bi-annual Crops
Crops
Average
0
ha
Average
1
ha
Upper
Quartile
ha
Lower
Quartile
ha
Total Sample Area of 30 Farms
ha %
Arrow roots 0.00 0.03 0 0 0.11 2.18
Beans 0.02 0.05 0.02 0 0.55 10.89
Cabbages (Brassicas) 0.01 0.02 0.02 0 0.36 7.13
Courgettes 0.00 0.00 0 0 0.01 0.20
Cut Flowers 0.00 0.02 0 0 0.04 0.79
Irish potatoes 0.01 0.02 0.02 0 0.41 8.12
Kales 0.00 0.00 0 0 0.01 0.20
Maize 0.01 0.04 0.00 0 0.25 4.95
Maize & Beans 0.10 0.10 0.12 0.04 3.04 60.20
Spices (pepper &
dhania)
0.00 0.01 0 0 0.02 0.40
Sweet potatoes 0.01 0.05 0 0 0.19 3.76
Tomatoes 0.00 0.03 0 0 0.06 1.19
Total Sample Area 0.16 5.05 100
Second Rainy Season
Annual & Bi-annual Crops
Crops
Average
0
ha
Average
1
ha
Upper
Quartile
ha
Lower
Quartile
ha
Total Sample Area of 30 Farms
ha %
Arrow roots 0.00 0.00 0 0 0.004 0.09
Beans 0.02 0.04 0.02 0 0.57 13.00
Cabbages (Brassicas) 0.01 0.02 0.01 0 0.26 5.93
Courgettes 0.00 0.01 0 0 0.01 0.23
Cut fowers 0.00 0.02 0 0 0.04 0.91
Irish potatoes 0.01 0.02 0.02 0 0.29 6.61
Kales 0.00 0.00 0 0 0.01 0.23
Maize 0.01 0.05 0 0 0.19 4.33
Maize & beans 0.09 0.09 0.12 0.04 2.77 63.18
Hot pepper 0.00 0.01 0 0 0.02 0.46
Sweet potatoes 0.01 0.06 0 0 0.18 4.11
Tomatoes 0.00 0.02 0 0 0.04 0.91
Total Sample Area 0.15 4.38 100
310
MURANGA & MARAGUA 64
TABLE 19g Contin.: CROPPING PATTERNS IN AEZ UM 1 OF MURANGA DISTRICT
Subzone: p or f l ^m, Soil unit: RB 2 Survey area 129 (Gakira)
Perennial Crops
Crops
Average
0
ha
Average
1
ha
Upper
Quartile
ha
Lower
Quartile
ha
Total Sample Area of 30 Farms
ha %
Avocadoes 0.02 0.02 0.02 0 0.51 6.42
Bananas 0.04 0.04 0.05 0.01 1.31 16.49
Coffee 0.18 0.18 0.24 0.08 5.43 68.35
Loquats 0.00 0.00 0 0 0.004 0.05
Mangoes 0.01 0.02 0.01 0 0.29 3.65
Tea 0.00 0.08 0 0 0.08 1.01
Woodlots 0.01 0.32 0 0 0.32 4.03
Total Sample Area 0.26 7.94 100
NOTES:
Avg.0 =average of all sample farms
Avg.1 =average of farms, excluding zero entries
Up. Qu./Lo. =Upper/Lower Quartile, refers to individual farms, 50% of all sample cases lie between these
311
MURANGA & MARAGUA 65
TABLE 19h: CROPPING PATTERNS IN AEZ UM 2 OF MURANGA DISTRICT
Subzone: m/l i m/s, Soil unit: RB 2 Survey area 130 (Gathukiini)
First Rainy Season
Annual & Bi-annual Crops
Crops
Average
0
ha
Average
1
ha
Upper
Quartile
ha
Lower
Quartile
ha
Total Sample Area of 30 Farms
ha %
Arrow roots 0.01 0.1 0 0 0.1 1.06
Beans 0.01 0.13 0 0 0.4 4.25
Cassava 0.01 0.06 0 0 0.13 1.38
Chewing cane 0.00 0.05 0 0 0.11 1.17
Irish potatoes 0.01 0.08 0 0 0.25 2.66
Maize 0.10 0.17 0.13 0 3.08 32.73
Maize & beans 0.17 0.19 0.2 0.05 5.21 55.37
Sweet potatoes 0.00 0.04 0 0 0.13 1.38
Total Sample Area 0.31 9.41 100
Second Rainy Season
Annual & Bi-annual Crops
Crops
Average
0
ha
Average
1
ha
Upper
Quartile
ha
Lower
Quartile
ha
Total Sample Area of 30 Farms
ha %
Arrow roots 0.00 0.1 0 0 0.1 1.68
Beans 0.01 0.11 0 0 0.32 5.37
Cassava 0.01 0.06 0 0 0.13 2.18
Chewing cane 0.00 0.05 0 0 0.11 1.85
Irish potatoes 0.01 0.1 0 0 0.1 1.68
Maize 0.06 0.14 0.1 0 1.8 30.20
Maize & beans 0.11 0.13 0.11 0.04 3.37 56.54
Sweet potatoes 0.00 0.02 0 0 0.03 0.50
Total Sample Area 0.2 5.96 100
Perennial Crops
Crops
Average
0
ha
Average
1
ha
Upper
Quartile
ha
Lower
Quartile
ha
Total Sample Area of 30 Farms
ha %
Bananas 0.08 0.08 0.1 0.04 2.44 24.23
Coffee 0.22 0.24 0.39 0.06 6.5 64.55
Macadamia nut 0.04 0.11 0.03 0 1.13 11.22
Total Sample Area 0.34 10.07 100
NOTES:
Avg.0 =average of all sample farms
Avg.1 =average of farms, excluding zero entries
Up. Qu./Lo. =Upper/Lower Quartile, refers to individual farms, 50% of all sample cases lie between these
312
MURANGA & MARAGUA 66
TABLE 19i: CROPPING PATTERNS IN AEZ LM 3 OF MURANGA DISTRICT
Subzone: s + s, Soil unit: LB 2 Survey area 131 (Kambirwa)
First Rainy Season
Annual & Bi-annual Crops
Crops
Average
0
ha
Average
1
ha
Upper
Quartile
ha
Lower
Quartile
ha
Total Sample Area of 30 Farms
ha %
Beans 0.02 0.28 0 0 0.56 2.43
Beans & sunfower 0.03 0.8 0 0 0.8 3.47
Butter nuts 0.01 0.2 0 0 0.2 0.87
Capsicum 0.00 0.1 0 0 0.1 0.43
Cassava 0.00 0.1 0 0 0.1 0.43
Cow peas 0.01 0.15 0 0 0.44 1.91
Dolichos lab lab 0.01 0.4 0 0 0.4 1.73
Irish potatoes 0.01 0.04 0 0 0.24 1.04
Maize 0.09 0.34 0.12 0 2.74 11.87
Maize & beans 0.55 0.59 0.8 0.2 16.64 72.10
Pigeon peas 0.02 0.14 0 0 0.56 2.43
Pumpkins 0.00 0.1 0 0 0.1 0.43
Water melons 0.01 0.2 0 0 0.2 0.87
Total Sample Area 0.76 23.08 100
Second Rainy Season
Annual & Bi-annual Crops
Crops
Average
0
ha
Average
1
ha
Upper
Quartile
ha
Lower
Quartile
ha
Total Sample Area of 30 Farms
ha %
Beans 0.02 0.28 0 0 0.56 2.41
Beans & sunfower 0.03 0.8 0 0 0.8 3.45
Butter nuts 0.01 0.2 0 0 0.2 0.86
Capsicum 0.00 0.1 0 0 0.1 0.43
Cassava 0.00 0.1 0 0 0.1 0.43
Cow peas 0.01 0.15 0 0 0.44 1.90
Dolichos beans 0.01 0.4 0 0 0.4 1.72
Irish potatoes 0.01 0.04 0 0 0.24 1.03
Maize 0.09 0.35 0.13 0 2.78 11.98
Maize & beans 0.55 0.59 0.8 0.2 16.56 71.38
Pigeon peas 0.02 0.14 0 0 0.68 2.93
Pumpkins 0.00 0.1 0 0 0.1 0.43
Terere 0.00 0.04 0 0 0.04 0.17
Water melons 0.01 0.2 0 0 0.2 0.86
Total Sample Area 0.76 23.2 100
313
MURANGA & MARAGUA 67
TABLE 19i Cont.: CROPPING PATTERNS IN AEZ LM 3 OF MURANGA DISTRICT
Subzone: s + s, Soil unit: LB 2 Survey area 131 (Kambirwa)
Perennial Crops
Crops
Average
0
ha
Average
1
ha
Upper
Quartile
ha
Lower
Quartile
ha
Total Sample Area of 30 Farms
ha %
Avocadoes 0.003 0.1 0 0 0.1 1.75
Bananas 0.003 0.05 0 0 0.09 1.58
Citrus 0.003 0.1 0 0 0.1 1.75
Mangoes 0.139 0.25 0.23 0 4.17 73.03
Oranges 0.007 0.1 0 0 0.2 3.50
Passion fruits 0.033 1 0 0 1 17.51
Paw paws 0.002 0.05 0 0 0.05 0.88
Total Sample Area 0.19 5.71 100
NOTES:
Avg.0 =average of all sample farms
Avg.1 =average of farms, excluding zero entries
Up. Qu./Lo. =Upper/Lower Quartile, refers to individual farms, 50% of all sample cases lie between these
314
MURANGA & MARAGUA 68
3.4.5 INTRODUCTION TO THE ACTUAL LAND USE SYSTEMS AND
POTENTIAL INTENSIFICATION BY BETTER FARM MANAGEMENT
A more detailed description can be found together with calculations of protability in the Farm Manage-
ment Guidelines of each district and in the KARI Fertilizer Use Manual (Muriuki and Qureshi, 2001). An
additional important reference material is Small Holder Farming Handbook for Self Employment.
MARAGUA DISTRICT
Te main Agro-ecological Zones in which farm surveys were conducted are: LH 1, UM2, UM3, UM4,
LM4
Subzone LH 1, p or l/v l^m of the Lower Highland Tea Dairy Zone
Tis is a Tea Dairy Zone, with permanent cropping possibilities, dividable in a long to very long cropping season
followed by a medium one as represented by Kinyona sub-location and Kinyona location in Kigumo division
of Maragua district. Te 60 % reliability of the length of cereal and legume growing period during the 1
st
and 2
nd
rainy seasons is more than 210 days and 140 155 days, respectively. Te mean annual rainfall is
between 1700 2400 mm. Te 66 % probability of rainfall during the 1
st
(March May) and the 2
nd
(Oc-
tober February) rains seasons is between 850 1300 mm and 480 680 mm, respectively. A combination
of dominating eutric Nitosols with nito-chromic Cambisols, chromic Acrisols and Luvisols are the soil types
of this Subzone.
In this Subzone, the mean farm household size is 1.14 ha with moderate applications of fertilizers particu-
larly nitrogen and phosphates. Te average applications rates for N and P fertilizers both in annual and cash
crops was reported: 14.1 kg/ha and 7.1 kg/ha and 27.6 kg/ha and 13.9 kg/ha, respectively. Te mean ap-
plication of organic farm manure in both annual and permanent crops was reported as 17.1 t/ha and 9 t/ha,
respectively (Table 18a). During the 1
st
planting season Irish potatoes dominate the annual crops, followed
by cabbages, maize & beans. In the 2
nd
season, in order of importance other crops grown include: intercrop
of maize & beans, Irish potatoes and sweet potatoes. Tea is the most dominant cash crop grown. Other
permanent crops grown in order of importance include: avocados, bananas, pears, plums, passion fruits and
oranges (Table 19a). Te low yields of maize & beans per household (Table 20a) can easily be attributed to
the greater attention and resources allocated to tea. Te fact that planting tea requires more inputs (labour,
fertilizers) farmers in this Subzone seem less interested in growing maize and beans, thus leading to subop-
timal yields shown in Table 20a. With more land use intensication and diversication coupled with sound
land use management practices higher maize & beans yields per capita can be achieved in this Subzone.
315
MURANGA & MARAGUA 69
TABLE 20a: INCREASE OF YIELDS BY BETTER FARM MANAGEMENT IN MAIN AGRO-
ECOLOGICAL UNIT
1)
OF ZONE LH 1, p or l/v l^ m +s, RB 3
Survey area 123 (Kinyona)
Crop, Yields
3)
and Inputs
AEZ: LH 1 TEA - DAIRY ZONE
Subzone: p or l/v l^m (Periods in days
2)
: 1
st
rainy season: 210 or >,
2
nd
rainy season: 140 - 155)
Unit with predom. Soil: RB 3 =eutric NITOSOLS; with nito-chromic CAMBISOLS and
chromic ACRISOLS and LUVISOLS, partly lithic, pisoferric or petroferric phase
Reliable rainfall: 1
st
rainy season
850 1300 mm
2
nd
rainy season: 480 680 mm in
at least 10 out of 15 years
Maize local pure
stand
Yields
3)
kg/ha
Fertilizer:
N kg/ha
P
2
O
5
kg/ha
K
2
O kg/ha
Manure t/ha
Farmers in Prod. Level Farmers in Prod. Level
I=low II=med.
4)
III=high
5)
AEU Pot.
6)
I=low II=med.
4)
III=high
5)
AEU Pot.
6)
-
Maize
Var. HB511 /
Pioneer
Yields
3)
kg/ha
Fertilizer:
N kg/ha
P
2
O
5
kg/ha
K
2
O kg/ha
Manure t/ha
Maize local
intercropped
with
beans
Yields
3)
kg/ha
Fertilizer:
N kg/ha
P
2
O
5
kg/ha
K
2
O kg/ha
Manure t/ha
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
Maize
Var. HB 624
intercropped
with beans
Yields
3)
kg/ha
Fertilizer:
N kg/ha
P
2
O
5
kg/ha
K
2
O kg/ha
Manure t/ha
-
-
-
-
-
1094
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
3300 -
-
-
-
-
-
22
-
-
-
1260
23
-
-
21
3500
Notes
1)
Source: Small Farm Survey (2004)
2)
Figures of these cereals growing periods should be reached or surpassed in 6 out of 10 years; growing periods may be
considered longer due to immediately following second rainy season by middle rains. Then the second growing period is
shorter than the given fgures
3)
Achieved average yields with average rainfall
4)
Farmers with medium inputs
5)
Farmers with high inputs of fertilizer, insecticides, soil and water conservation
6)
Potential yield according to crop list and local climate of this Agro-Ecological Unit if soils are optimally fertilized, plus
optimal crop management
316
MURANGA & MARAGUA 70
317
MURANGA & MARAGUA 71
Subzone UM 2 m/l i m/s of the Main Coffee Zone of Maragua and Muranga Districts
Tis is the Main Coee Zone with a medium to long cropping season, intermediate rains, and a medium to short
one as represented by Kirere sublocation in Kigumo location of Kigumo division in Maragua district and
Gathukiini sublocation of Gaturi location in Kiharu division of Muranga district. Te 60 % reliability
of the length of cereal and legume growing period in Kirere sublocation in Maragua during the 1
st
and 2
nd
rainy season is more than 160 days and 110 130 days, respectively. Te mean annual rainfall is between
1300 1620 mm. Te 66 % probability of rainfall during the 1
st
(March May) and the 2
nd
(October
February) rainy seasons is between 550 820 mm and 320 480 mm, respectively. Te dominant soil
types are the humic Nitosols in Maragua and in Muranga.
In this Subzone, mean household farm size is about 0.8 ha only. In spite of the land shortage, livestock
husbandry practice is common, with mixed dairy farming dominant. Te numbers of dairy cows per farm
was reported: 2.3 cows, cross breeds are almost out now: 0.03 cows and 1.1 sheep & goats. No local zebu
breeds were reported. Many exotic and still a few local poultry birds are kept with means of 66.5 birds and
5.1 birds, respectively. Large families with depandants are common, the mean number of adults, casuals,
permanent workers and children < 14 years per farmer is 4.0, 2.6, 0.1 and 1.7, respectively (Table 18b). In
addition, use of improved seeds at planting is moderately high with a mean of 76 %. About 50 % of Level
I (no inputs) farmers plant improved seeds. Application of agrochemicals is equally high with mean rates
of 50 kg/ha of N and 44 kg/ha of P applied in annual crops. Similar mean rates are applied to permanent
crops: 50 kg/ha of N and 42 kg/ha of P. Te K fertilizers are also applied with mean similar rates of 2 kg/ha
to both annual and permanent crops. Evidence suggests that farmers apply insecticides and fungicides, too.
Te mean application rates are similar for all crops for these agro pesticides: 0.1 kg/ha and 0.5 kg/ha for
insecticides and pesticides, respectively (Table 18b).
Te seasonal cropping patterns of this subzone in Maragua district are shown in Table 19b. During the 1
st
planting season maize dominates the annual crops, followed closely by maize & beans intercrop. Other
annual crops grown in the order of importance are: French beans, beans, cabbages, tomatoes, cucumber
and yams. Te trend remains almost the same during the 2
nd
planting season. Coee is the most dominant
permanent cash crop. In the order of importance other permanent crops grown in this Subzone are: ba-
nanas, passion fruits, avocados, macadamia nuts and mangoes. Te maize varieties grown here are of the
HB513/614 series. Despite the widespread use of N and P fertilizers coupled with use of improved seeds
at planting, average maize yields are very low, not enough for the households (Table 20b). Te soil physi-
cal properties have deteriorated due to continuous cropping throughout the year, hence soils can no longer
respond to additional fertilizers. To restore this anomaly, farmers should be encouraged to adopt minimum
tillage farming methods and intensify application of compost and other organic material.
On the other hand, in Gathukeini sublocation of Muranga district the 60 % reliability of the length of
cereal and legume growing period during the 1
st
and 2
nd
rainy season is between 160 - 170 days and 115
130 days, respectively. Te average annual rainfall is between 1180 1400 mm. Te 66 % probability of
rainfall during the 1
st
(March May) and the 2
nd
(October February) rainy season is between 450 650
mm and 300 400 mm, respectively. Humic Nitosols dominate this Subzone.
In this Subzone, the average farm size is 0.88 ha (Table 18h). Te average numbers of dairy animal, sheep
& goats is about 2, respectively. No local zebu breeds were reported. Te mean local poultry is 10 birds. Te
mean numbers of the farmers family comprising of adults, casual and permanent workers and children un-
der < 14 years are: 2.4, 4.3. 0.3 and 1.1, respectively (Table18h). Te mean use of improved seeds at planting
is ~ 55 % with Level I farmers reporting ~ 40%. Use of N and P fertilizers is a well-established agronomic
practice. Te mean application rates in annual as well as permanent crops for N fertilizers is 54 kg/ha and
50 kg/ha, respectively. Moreover, mean application rates in annual as well as permanent crops for P fertilizers
is 56 kg/ha and 52 kg/ha, respectively. K fertilizers are only applied to permanent crops particularly coee
at the mean rate of 12.9 kg/ha (Table 18h). Te mean application rates for farm manures in annual and
permanent crop is similar 17.1 t/ha and 16.0 t/ha, respectively. In terms of crops and seasonality, the trend is
same throughout the year. Maize & beans intercrop dominate annual crops grown. In the order importance
318
MURANGA & MARAGUA 72
other the annual crops grown in the 1
st
planting season are: maize, beans. Irish potatoes, cassava & sweet
potatoes, chewing cane and arrow - roots. During the 2
nd
planting season the annual crops grown are: maize,
beans, cassava, Irish potatoes, arrow roots and sweet potatoes. Te perennial crops grown in this Subzone,
in order of importance are coee, bananas and macadamia (Table 19h).
Te average maize & beans yields in this subzone are very low in Maragua district and relatively low in
Muranga district despite the use of N and P fertilizer as well as the use of improved seeds at planting (Table
20b & h). Tis is an interesting result that calls for more research to determine the inhibiting factor(s) that
explain the lack of yield response to high inputs and climatic conditions. May be this could be attributed to
the exhaustion of soil micronutrients. Perhaps it is time that farmers in this Subzone were exposed to tech-
nologies that combine optimal quantities of inorganic, organic, manure and green biomass from mucuna,
crotolaria, tithonia, calliandra and leucaena. Such technologies have resulted in impressive maize yields in
Central Highlands of Kenya
1)
. By restoring soil physical properties through notillage farming methods,
farmers are capable of achieving greater maize & beans yields.
Notes
1)
Mucheru, M., Mugendi, D., Kangai, R., Kungu. J ., Mugwe, J . andMicheni, A. (2004): Organicresourcesfor soil J ., Mugwe, J . and Micheni, A. (2004): Organic resources for soil
fertility management in Eastern Kenya. In: Savala, C. E. N., Omare, M.N., and Woomer, P. L. (Eds.), Organic Resources
Management in Kenya: Perspectives & Guidelines, pp.26 - 33.
319
MURANGA & MARAGUA 73
TABLE 20b: INCREASE OF YIELDS BY BETTER FARM MANAGEMENT IN MAIN AGRO-
ECOLOGICAL UNIT
1)
OF ZONE UM 2, m/l i m/s, RB 2
Survey area 124 (Kirere)
Crop, Yields
3)
and
Inputs
AEZ: UM 2 MAIN COFFEE ZONE
Subzone: m/l i m/s (Periods in days
2)
: 1
st
rainy season: 160 or >; 2
nd
rainy season: 110 - 130)
Unit with predom. Soil: RB 2 =humic NITISOLS
Reliable rainfall: 1
st
rainy season
550 820 mm
2
nd
rainy season: 320 480 mm in
at least 10 out of 15 years
Maize local
mono-cropped
Yields
3)
kg/ha
Fertilizer:
N kg/ha
P
2
O
5
kg/ha
K
2
O kg/ha
Manure t/ha
Farmers in Prod. Level Farmers in Prod. Level
I=low II=med.
4)
III=high
5)
AEU Pot.
6)
I=low II=med.
4)
III=high
5)
AEU Pot.
6)
-
Maize
Var. HB513/614,
Pioneer
Yields
3)
kg/ha
Fertilizer:
N kg/ha
P
2
O
5
kg/ha
K
2
O kg/ha
Manure t/ha
-
-
-
0
-
1547
72.7
64.9
3.0
30.6
1575
100
100
0
35
5000 -
-
-
0
-
1503
70.3
62.8
2.9
29.6
1575
100
100
0
35
5000
Maize local
intercropped
with
beans
Yields
3)
kg/ha
Fertilizer:
N kg/ha
P
2
O
5
kg/ha
K
2
O kg/ha
Manure t/ha
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
Maize Var. H614
intercropped
with beans
Yields
3)
kg/ha
Fertilizer:
N kg/ha
P
2
O
5
kg/ha
K
2
O kg/ha
Manure t/ha
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
Notes
1)
Source: Small Farm Survey (2004)
2)
Figures of these cereals growing periods should be reached or surpassed in 6 out of 10 years; growing periods may be
considered longer due to immediately following second rainy season by middle rains. Then the second growing period is
shorter than the given fgures
3)
Achieved average yields with average rainfall
4)
Farmers with medium inputs
5)
Farmers with high inputs of fertilizer, insecticides, soil and water conservation
6)
Potential yield according to crop list and local climate of this Agro-Ecological Unit if soils are optimally fertilized, plus
optimal crop management
320
MURANGA & MARAGUA 74
Subzone UM 3, m/s + s of the Upper Midland Marginal Coffee Zone
Tis is the Marginal Coee Zone, with a medium to short and a short cropping season as represented by Kan-
dani sub-location of Kahumbu location in Maragua division of Maragua district. Te 60 % reliability of
the length of cereal and legume growing period in Kandani sublocation during the 1
st
and 2
nd
rains season
is between 110 130 days and 90100 days, respectively. Te mean annual rainfall is between 900 1350
mm. Te 66 % probability of rainfall during the 1
st
(March May) and the 2
nd
(October February) rains
seasons is between 350 650 mm and 230 380 mm, respectively. An association of eutric Nitosols with
nito-chromic Cambisols and chromic Acrisols and Luvisols soil types dominate this Subzone.
In Kandani Sub-location, the mean farm household size is 1.33 ha. Livestock keeping is a common practice
with mean numbers for dairy, zebu, sheep & goats, poultry and pigs: 1.33, 1.48, 0.41, 4.14, 4.17 and 1.45,
respectively (Table 18c). Te farmers comprises of adults, casuals and dependants i.e. children < 14 years,
each having a mean of 2.93, 2.55 and 0.90, respectively. Fallow land use was reported with Level III farmer
having 0.11 ha and Level I ~ 0.1 ha. Te use of certied seeds at planting is very low with a mean of 19 %.
Only 30.3 % of Level III farmers use improved seeds at planting, while Level I hardly purchase improved
seeds. It seems that the use of unsuitable low yielding local seeds are used at planting. However, the applica-
tion of manures and fertilizers is encouraging. Level I farmers apply at least 1.2 t/ha of farm manures while
Level III farmers apply 4.6 t/ha. In this Subzone, the mean application rate is 5.8 t/ha. Furthermore, the
application of N and P fertilizers especially in annual crops is moderate with mean rates of 21.8 kg/ha and
24.7 kg/ha, respectively (Table 18c).
Table 19c shows the symmetric cropping land use patterns and seasonality in this Subzone. An equal and a
similar number of annual crops are grown throughout the year. Maize & beans are the dominant and most
important annual crops. Te other annual crops grown here, reported in order of importance are: sweet po-
tatoes, tomatoes, Irish potatoes, French beans, kales and soya beans. Sunower is only grown during the 1
st
rains season. Bananas, coee and mangoes in that order dominate the permanent crops with avocados and
macadamia ranked 4
th
and 5
th
, respectively.
Te maize yields of 3713 kg/ha and 1913 kg/ha per annum during 1
st
and 2
nd
rainy seasons respectively, as
reported by Level III farmers are moderately optimal (Table 20c). Te medium zone varieties seem to be
suitable for this Subzone. In addition, the maize & beans intercrop yield of 3893 kg maize per ha during
1
st
rainy season is encouraging, especially if farmers intensify the use of improved seeds at planting. Tis
fair yield return articulates the importance of combining inorganic and organic manures in crop husbandry
practices.
321
MURANGA & MARAGUA 75
TABLE 20c: INCREASE OF YIELDS BY BETTER FARM MANAGEMENT IN MAIN AGRO-
ECOLOGICAL UNIT
1)
OF ZONE UM 3, m/s + s, RB 3
Survey area 125 (Kandani)
Crop Yields
3)
and Inputs
AEZ: UM 3 MARGINAL COFFEE ZONE
Subzone: m/s + s (Periods in days
2)
: 1
st
rainy season: 110 - 130, 2
nd
rainy season: 90 - 100)
Unit with predom. Soil: RB 3 =eutric NITISOLS; with nito-chromic CAMBISOLS and
chromic ACRISOLS and LUVISOLS, partly lithic, pisoferric or petroferric phase
Reliable rainfall: 1
st
rainy season
350 650 mm
2
nd
rainy season: 230 380 mm in
at least 10 out 15 years
Maize local pure
stand
Yields
3)
kg/ha
Fertilizer:
N kg/ha
P
2
O
5
kg/ha
K
2
O kg/ha
Manure t/ha
Farmers in Prod. Level Farmers in Prod. Level
I=low II=med.
4)
III=high
5)
AEU Pot.
6)
I=low II=med.
4)
III=high
5)
AEU Pot.
6)
Maize Var.
HB511/Pioneer
Yields
3)
kg/ha
Fertilizer:
N kg/ha
P
2
O
5
Kg/ha
K
2
O kg/ha
Manure t/ha
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
3713
57.5
57.5
-
10.0
5500 -
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1913
57.5
57.5
-
10.0
3500
Maize local
intercropped
with
beans
Yields
3)
kg/ha
Fertilizer:
N kg/ha
P
2
O
5
kg/ha
K
2
O kg/ha
Manure t/ha
Maize Var.
HB511 / Pioneer
intercropped
with beans
Yields
3)
kg/ha
Fertilizer:
N kg/ha
P
2
O
5
kg/ha
K
2
O kg/ha
Manure t/ha
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
3893
57.5
57.5
-
10.0
5000 -
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
2093
57.5
57.5
-
10.0
3000
Notes
1)
Source: Small Farm Survey (2004)
2)
Figures of these cereals growing periods should be reached or surpassed in 6 out of 10 years; growing periods may be
considered longer due to immediately following second rainy season by middle rains. Then the second growing period is
shorter than the given fgures
3)
Achieved average yields with average rainfall
4)
Farmers with medium inputs
5)
Farmers with high inputs of fertilizer, insecticides, soil and water conservation
6)
Potential yield according to crop list and local climate of this Agro-Ecological Unit if soils are optimally fertilized, plus
optimal crop management
322
MURANGA & MARAGUA 76
Subzone UM 4, s/m + s of the Upper Midland Sunower - Maize Zone
Tis is the Sunower - Maize Zone, with a short to medium and a short cropping season as represented by
Makuyu sub-location in Makuyu location of Makuyu division in Maragua district. Te 60 % reliability of
the length of cereal and legume growing period in Makuyu sublocation during the 1
st
and 2
nd
rains season
is between 100 110 days and 90100 days, respectively. Te mean annual rainfall is between 900 1100
mm. Te 66 % probability of rainfall during the 1
st
(March May) and the 2
nd
(October February) rains
seasons is between 320 450 mm and 230 300 mm, respectively. Te dominant soil associations are eutric
Nitosols with nito-chromic Cambisols and chromic Acrisols and Luvisols.
In this Subzone, land use is intensive as shown by a low mean farm household size of: 0.74 ha (Table 18d).
Animal husbandry practices are also intensive and diverse. Te mean numbers of dairy, zebu, sheep & goats,
poultry, pigs and rabbits are: 0.67, 1.8, 2.83, 6.13,0.53 and 0.4, respectively. Large families exist here, too.
Te average farmers family size comprises of 3.2 adults, 1.77 casuals, 0.03 permanent workers and 1.17
children. On average, every farmer has 0.01 ha for forage. Te use of inputs is very low, with a mean use of
better planting seeds: 18.2 %. Only 24.3% of Level III farmers use improved seeds at planting. Equally, the
mean application rates for N and P fertilizers are very low: 5.9 kg/ha and 16.1 kg/ha, respectively (Table
18d). Nevertheless, the use of farm yard manure is good with a mean of 7.3 t/ha. Level I farmers apply ~ 3
t/ha while Level III farmers fertilize their farms with ~ 7.5 t/ha.
A similar growing and cropping pattern prevails throughout the year (Table 19d). Maize & beans inter-
crop dominate annual crops in both seasons. In order of importance, the other annual crops grown are:
Irish potatoes, sweet potatoes, tomatoes & kales and green peas. Bananas, mangoes are the most important
permanent crops followed by avocados, coee and paw paws in that order. It is necessary for farmers to be
encouraged to use certied seeds (Table 20d).
323
MURANGA & MARAGUA 77
TABLE 20d: INCREASE OF YIELDS BY BETTER FARM MANAGEMENT IN MAIN AGRO-
ECOLOGICAL UNIT
1)
OF ZONE UM 4, s/m + s, RB 3
Survey area 126 (Makuyu)
Crop, Yields
3)
and
Inputs
AEZ: UM 4 SUNFLOWER MAIZE ZONE
Subzone: s/m + s (Periods in days
2)
: 1
st
rainy season: 100 110, 2
nd
rainy season: 90 100)
Unit with predom. Soil: RB 3 =eutric NITISOLS; with nito-chromic CAMBISOLS and
chromic ACRISOLS and LUVISOLS, partly lithic, pisoferric or petroferric phase
Reliable rainfall: 1
st
rainy season
320 450 mm
2
nd
rainy season: 230 300 mm in
at least 10 out of 15 years
Maize local pure
stand
Yields
3)
kg/ha
Fertilizer:
N kg/ha
P
2
O
5
kg/ha
K
2
O kg/ha
Manure t/ha
Farmers in Prod. Level Farmers in Prod. Level
I=low II=med.
4)
III=high
5)
AEU Pot.
6)
I=low II=med.
4)
III=high
5)
AEU Pot.
6)
-
Maize Var.
HB511/Pioneer
Yields
3)
kg/ha
Fertilizer:
N kg/ha
P
2
O
5
kg/ha
K
2
O kg/ha
Manure t/ha
Maize local
intercropped
with beans
Yields
3)
kg/ha
Fertilizer:
N kg/ha
P
2
O
5
kg/ha
K
2
O kg/ha
Manure t/ha
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
Maize
Var.H511/Cargil
intercropped
with beans
Yields
3)
kg/ha
Fertilizer:
N kg/ha
P
2
O
5
kg/ha
K
2
O kg/ha
Manure t/ha
1215
0
0
-
3.3
1591
6.8
18.6
-
8.4
1770
7.7
19.2
-
8.8
3500 1290
0
0
-
3.3
1669
6.9
18.9
-
8.5
1770
7.7
19.2
-
8.8
3000
Notes
1)
Source: Small Farm Survey (2004)
2)
Figures of these cereals growing periods should be reached or surpassed in 6 out of 10 years; growing periods may be
considered longer due to immediately following second rainy season by middle rains. Then the second growing period is
shorter than the given fgures
3)
Achieved average yields with average rainfall
4)
Farmers with medium inputs
5)
Farmers with high inputs of fertilizer, insecticides, soil and water conservation
6)
Potential yield according to crop list and local climate of this Agro-Ecological Unit if soils are optimally fertilized, plus
optimal crop management
324
MURANGA & MARAGUA 78
Subzone LM 4, s + s/vs of the Lower Midland Marginal Cotton Zone
Tis is the Marginal Cotton Zone, with a short and a short to very short cropping season as represented by
Kambiti sub-location of Kambiti location in Makuyu division in Maragua district. Te 60 % reliability of
the length of cereal and legume growing period during the 1
st
and 2
nd
rains season is between 85 100 days
and 75 85 days, respectively. Te mean annual rainfall is between 800 850 mm. Te 66 % probability of
rainfall during the 1
st
(March May) and the 2
nd
(October February) rains seasons is between 200 280
mm and 200 230 mm, respectively. Te dominant soil types are: rhodic/orthic Ferralsols and Luvisols.
In the Kambiti Subzone, the mean household farm size is 2.02 ha. Diverse livestock and crop husbandry
practices prevail. Level III farmers have ~ 0.08 ha of fallow land compared to 0.06 ha for Level I. Te average
number of dairy, zebu, sheep & goats, poultry, donkey, rabbits and pigs per farm are: 0.27, 1.53, 3.8, 9.37,
0.1, 1.13 and 0.2, respectively (Table 18e). Each comprises of 2.33 adults, 1.17 casuals, 0.03 permanent
workers 1.4 children < 14 years. Te use of certied seeds at planting is absolutely low: ~ 6 % as well as mean
application rates of N and P fertilizers: 9.3 kg/ha and 13.0 kg/ha, respectively. Farmers rely heavily on farm
manures: Level I apply ~ 0.4 t/ha and Level III ca. 3.6 t/ha.
Te diversity of crops and land use patterns is shown in Table 19e. Maize & beans intercrop dominate an-
nual crops in both seasons, although farmers are using uncertied seeds at planting. Te other early matur-
ing annual crops grown in the order of importance include: cowpeas, intercrops of maize & cowpeas, kales,
pumpkins & chilies, ground nuts, tindori, tomatoes and pumpkins. Te dominant permanent crops, in the
order of importance, grown here are: mangoes, paw paws, citrus and bananas. (Table 20e). A shift from
traditional agronomic animal and crop husbandry practices to modern mixed farming methodologies (tak-
ing into account the persistent drought regime) should be emphasized across this Subzone if farmers are to
realize better farm returns.
325
MURANGA & MARAGUA 79
TABLE 20e: INCREASE OF YIELDS BY BETTER FARM MANAGEMENT IN MAIN AGRO-
ECOLOGICAL UNIT
1)
OF ZONE LM 4, s + s/vs, UU 1
Survey area 127 (Kambiti)
Crop, Yields
3)
and
Inputs
AEZ: LM 4 MARGINAL COTTON ZONE
Subzone: s + s/vs (Periods in days
2)
: 1
st
rainy season: 85 - 100 or >,
2
nd
rainy season: 75 - 85)
Unit with predom. Soil: UU 1 =rhodic and orthic FERRALSOLS; with ferralo-chromic/
orthic/ferric LUVISOLS
Reliable rainfall: 1
st
rainy season
350 450 mm
2
nd
rainy season: 230 280 mm in
at least 10 out of 15 years
Maize local pure
stand
Yields
3)
kg/ha
Fertilizer:
N kg/ha
P
2
O
5
kg/ha
K
2
O kg/ha
Manure t/ha
Farmers in Prod. Level Farmers in Prod. Level
I=low II=med.
4)
III=high
5)
AEU Pot.
6)
I=low II=med.
4)
III=high
5)
AEU Pot.
6)
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1714
36.5
38.3
-
7.9
3000 -
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
1600
51.1
53.7
-
11.1
2500
Maize Var.HB511
/Pioneer
Yields
3)
kg/ha
Fertilizer:
N kg/ha
P
2
O
5
kg/ha
K
2
O kg/ha
Manure t/ha
Maize local
intercropped
with beans
Yields
3)
kg/ha
Fertilizer:
N kg/ha
P
2
O
5
kg/ha
K
2
O kg/ha
Manure t/ha
-
0
0
-
0.9
1170
13.9
19.2
-
4.2
1342
19.2
20.1
-
5.7
2200 -
0
0
-
0.9
746
13.9
19.2
-
4.2
834
19.2
20.1
-
5.7
ca. 1700
Maize
Var. HB 624
intercropped
with beans
Yields
3)
kg/ha
Fertilizer:
N kg/ha
P
2
O
5
kg/ha
K
2
O kg/ha
Manure t/ha
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
Notes
1)
Source: Small Farm Survey (2004)
2)
Figures of these cereals growing periods should be reached or surpassed in 6 out of 10 years; growing periods may be
considered longer due to immediately following second rainy season by middle rains. Then the second growing period is
shorter than the given fgures
3)
Achieved average yields with average rainfall
4)
Farmers with medium inputs
5)
Farmers with high inputs of fertilizer, insecticides, soil and water conservation
6)
Potential yield according to crop list and local climate of this Agro-Ecological Unit if soils are optimally fertilized, plus
optimal crop management
326
MURANGA & MARAGUA 80
MURANGA DISTRICT
Te main Agro-ecological Zones in which farm surveys were conducted are UH-LH 1, UM 1, UM 2,
LM3.
Subzone UH 1, p or l/v l^m of the Upper Highland Sheep - Dairy Zone
Tis is the Sheep Dairy Zone, with permanent cropping possibilities, divided into a long to very long cropping
season followed by a medium one as typied by Karurumo sub-location of Kiruri location in Kangema divi-
sion of Muranga district. Te 60 % reliability of the length of cereal and legume growing period during the
1
st
and 2
nd
rains season is more than 210 days and between 140 155 days, respectively. Te average annual
rainfall is between 2200 2500 mm. Te 66 % probability of rainfall during the 1
st
(March May) and the
2
nd
(October February) rains seasons is between 1100 1400 mm and 650 700 mm, respectively. Te
dominant soil types are the fertile humic Andosols.
From Table 18f, the average household land size is 2.04 ha/farmer in this Subzone. Dairy farming is the
dominant livestock practice having a mean of 2.8 cows. No local zebu breeds, though on average a farmer
keeps 4.07 sheep and/or goats. Both exotic and local poultry are kept each a mean of 0.83 birds/farmer and
2.07 birds, respectively. Each farm, on average, has at least 2.1 adults with 1.3 children < 14 years. Farmers
here engages more casuals than permanent workers, i e. ca.1.43 casuals and 0.23 permanent worker, respec-
tively. Te high