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Question Sheet 2

MATERIALS SCIENCE PART IB COURSE A: Phase Transformations

AQ2

Question Sheet 2, Solidification Recommended reading Chapter 4, pp 185-243 in Porter D. A. and Easterling K. E, Phase Transformations in nd Metals and Alloys, 2 edition. Chapman & Hall, 1992. [Dept. library Ln30] Chapter 4, pp 189-248 in 3 edition, 2009. Chapter 14, pp 421-478 in Abbaschian R., Abbaschian L. and Reed-Hill R.E., th Physical Metallurgy Principles, 4 edition. PWS Publishing, (2010) [Dept. library A161]
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Web software and other resources www.matter.org.uk/solidification Matter software - see page 3 for site map.

Cambridge Engineering Selector CES on computers in Department or can download a copy for your own use (PC platform only) from www.msm.cam.ac.uk/teaching/ces.php Excellent summaries of many metallurgical processing approaches including solidification www.msm.cam.ac.uk/phase-trans/phase.field.models/movies2.html Solidification movies. www.msm.cam.ac.uk/phase-trans/dendrites.html Dendritic solidification.

www.msm.cam.ac.uk/Teaching/ces Individual casting processes described succinctly in Process Universe in Cambridge Engineering Selector (CES) software see page AH103 for details of how to access this. [CES software can be downloaded from the above web address for your own use only.] www.efunda.com/processes/metal_processing/sand_casting_intro.cfm www.diecasting.org/faq/ Sand casting.

See dynamic processes (e.g. hot chamber machines). Continuous casting & steel making. Investment casting. Fabrication of silicon wafers.

www.steel.org/learning/howmade/concast.htm www.wtec.org/loyola/rp/10_01.htm www.siliconfareast.com/crystal.htm

Questions 1. Distinguish between thermal dendrites and those induced by constitutional undercooling. Using the Al-Si phase diagram, determine the solid/liquid solute partition coefficient and the gradient of the liquidus curve for the solidification of aluminium-rich alloys. State any assumptions. Calculate the thermal gradient necessary to ensure a planar front at a solid-liquid interface in a melt of composition Al-0.3 Si wt.% when solidification occurs at a speed of 5 x 10 mm s . [The diffusivity of Si in liquid Al is 5 x 10 m s .] 2. Give examples of industrial applications for one-dimensional solidification. A bar of aluminium is contaminated with copper at a concentration four times the acceptable limit. It is to be purified by directional freezing, with a planar growth front. Use the Al-Cu phase diagram (Data Book) to estimate the fraction of the bar that will have an acceptable purity. [Assume the maximum solubility of copper in an aluminium solid solution is 5.7 wt.%.]
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rob.wallach@msm.cam.ac.uk

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October 2013

Question Sheet 2

AQ2

3. Sketch free energy versus composition graphs at the three temperatures for the peritectic reaction shown below.

T T1 T2 T3 ! !+" " Composition


4. Ni-P metallic glass strip is made by planar flow casting onto a rotating cooled copper drum. Given that the interfacial heat transfer coefficient is 2 x 10 W m K , estimate the maximum thickness that can be cast. The cooling rate needed for glass formation is 10 K s . The temperature at which vitrification is complete is 1000 K. The heat capacity per unit volume of the alloy is 4 x 10 J m K . Determine the Biot number for the solidification process given that the thermal conductivity of the alloy is 40 W m K . What can be inferred from the value calculated? Give examples of how the lack of a microstructure in metallic glasses is exploited in practical applications. 5. Metallography. Specimens (identified on page AH5 in the Course A notes) are in the IB lab in the Department. Photos are also on the Departments website with the IB Course A material. 5a. Silicon has the diamond structure with directional bonds. This results in poor mechanical properties. Compare the microstructures of metallographic samples M7 and M8 both of which are Al-Si casting-alloys containing silicon particles which nucleate and grow from the liquid; M8 contains also a minute addition of sodium (it is a sodium-modified variant). Discuss why one of these alloys is expected to have better mechanical properties. There are many examples in metallurgy where very small additions of solute have a major influence on microstructure. Given the minute concentrations involved, the effects are unlikely to be thermodynamic in origin. Suggest possible mechanisms to explain such observations. Many castings suffer from shrinkage porosity. The diamond structure of silicon gives it a relatively low density. Explain therefore the popularity of Al-Si alloys for casting applications. 5b. Specimen M2. Explain the basis of the microstructure (contrast seen) given the nature of the equilibrium diagram (see Data Book). 5c. Specimen M5. Account for the appearance of the microstructure using the Sn-Cu phase diagram given in the Data Book. What is the reaction type associated with the microstructure? Why do such reactions rarely proceed to completion?
rob.wallach@msm.cam.ac.uk Page 2 of 3 October 2013
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Liquid L+!

L+"

Question Sheet 2

AQ2

5d. Specimens M3, M4 (cast Al-Cu alloys) and also M6 (as this shows more clearly the eutectic seen in samples M3 and M4). Study of the Al-Cu phase diagram (see Data Book) reveals that the maximum solid solubility of copper in aluminium, ~5.7 wt.%, is above the copper content of both of these specimens. The cast microstructures, however, show significant levels of second phase, ! (CuAl2). Account for this, assuming that the amount of solid-state precipitation during cooling was negligible. Estimate the content of eutectic ("+!) seen in these specimens, and compare these values with those predicted using the Scheil equation. Comment on this comparison. 5e. Specimen M25 is a section from a casting of commercial purity aluminium. The grain structure is visible to the naked eye, although some features may usefully be inspected at low magnification in an optical microscope. Sketch the grain structure of the complete casting and account for the main features observed. Account for the presence of the pronounced shrinkage "pipe" in the upper central part of the casting. How would you expect this to be modified if the alloy had been, say, Al-5 wt.%Cu? Numerical answers to AQ2; full answers will be distributed later. 1. Thermal gradient = 104 K mm at a speed of 5 x 10 mm s . 2. Fraction solidified = 0.37. 4. Maximum thickness = 3.5 x 10 m, i.e. 35 m. Computer-based exercises Matter software on solidification on the web www.matter.org.uk/solidification Choose site map to show below and then select topics equivalent to sections in the lecture notes.
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rob.wallach@msm.cam.ac.uk

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October 2013