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SIMPLE ADC

Project Objective:
The objective of this project is to construct a simple analog-to-digital converter circuit using the ADC0808 IC. The ADC0808 is an 8-bit Analog-to-Digital converter IC which uses the successive approximation technique for the conversion.

It has a total unadjusted error of LSB. It is capable of converting one of the eight analog input signals, selected with the help of an 8-channel multiplexer. The clock signal required by the IC is generated using an astable multivibrator circuit constructed using 7404 inverter gates. The digital output is displayed using an array of eight LEDs.

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SIMPLE ADC

ANALOG TO DIGITAL CONVERSION


The function of an analog-to-digital converter is to produce a digital wordwhich represents the magnitude of some analog voltage or current. The following are some specifications of an Analog-to-digital converter.

Resolution
The resolution of an Analog-to-Digital converter refers to the number of bits in the output binary word. For example, ADC0808 which produces an 8-bit binary word as output, has a resolution of 1 part in 256 (= 28) or 0.39 percent.

Accuracy
The accuracy specification of an Analog-to-Digital converter is a comparison between the actual output and the expected output. It is specified as a percentage of the full-scale output. Ideally the maximum error for a converter should be no more than the value of LSB.

Linearity
Linearity is a measure of how much the output of the converter deviates from an ideal straight line transfer curve as the input varies from the minimum to the maximum.

Conversion Time
It is the time taken by the converter to produce a valid output binary code for an applied input voltage. A converter is said to be high-speed if it has a short conversion time. Many different types of analog-to-digital converters are available. Differing ADC types offer varying resolution, accuracy and speed specifications. The most popular techniques used for Analog-to-Digital conversion are 1. Parallel (Flash) conversion 2. Successive Approximation ADC 3. Integrating or Dual-Slope ADC

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SIMPLE ADC

The ADC0808
The ADC0808 is a monolithic CMOS device with an 8-bit analog-to-digital converter, 8-channel multiplexer and microprocessor compatible control logic. The 8-bit A/D converter uses successive approximation as the conversion technique. The converter features a high impedance chopper stabilized comparator, a 256R voltage divider with analog switch tree and a successive approximation register. The 8-channel multiplexer can directly access any of 8- single-ended analog signals. It has a total unadjusted error of LSB and a conversion time of 100s.

The device contains an 8-channel single-ended analog signal multiplexer. A particular input channel is selected by using the address decoder. The address is latched into the decoder on the low-to-high transition of the address latch enable (ALE) signal.

256R ladder network has inherent monotonicity, which guarantees no missing digital codes. Additionally, the 256R network does not cause load variations on the reference voltage. The A/D converters successive approximation register (SAR) is reset on the positive edge of the start conversion (SC) pulse. The conversion is begun on the falling edge of the start conversion pulse. A conversion in process will be interrupted by receipt of a new start conversion pulse. When used in the continuous conversion mode by tying the end-of-conversion (EOC) output to the SC input, an external start conversion pulse should be applied after power up. The EOC signal will go low between 0 and 8 clock pulses after the rising edge of start conversion.

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SIMPLE ADC

COMPONENTS USED :

1. ADC 0808
2. LEDS

NAME OF COMPONENT ADC LEDS

SPECIFICATION 0808 -

QUANTITY 1 8

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SIMPLE ADC

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

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SIMPLE ADC

CIRCUIT DESCRIPTION
The ADC0808
The ADC0808 is a monolithic CMOS device with an 8-bit analog-to-digital converter, 8-channel multiplexer and microprocessor compatible control logic .The 8-bit A/D converter uses successive approximation as the conversion technique. The converter features a high impedance chopper stabilized comparator, a 256R voltage divider with analog switch tree and a successive approximation register. The 8-channel multiplexer can directly access any of 8single-ended analog signals. It has a total unadjusted error of LSB and a conversion time of 100s.

The device contains an 8-channel single-ended analog signal multiplexer. A particular input channel is selected by using the address decoder. The address is latched into the decoder on the low-to-high transition of the address latch enable (ALE) signal.

The 256R ladder network has inherent monotonicity, which guarantees no missing digital codes. Additionally, the 256R network does not cause load variations on the reference voltage.

The A/D converters successive approximation register (SAR) is reset on the positive edge of the start conversion (SC) pulse. The conversion is begun on the falling edge of the start conversion pulse. A conversion in process will be interrupted by receipt of a new start conversion pulse. When used in the continuous conversion mode by tying the end-of-conversion (EOC) output to the SC input, an external start conversion pulse should be applied after power up. The EOC signal will go low between 0 and 8 clock pulses after the rising edge of start conversion.

For its operation, the ADC0808 requires a clock signal in the frequency rangeof 10 kHz to 1280 kHz. This signal can be generated using an Astable Multivibrator circuit constructed employing 7404 inverter gates.

LED
A light-emitting diode (LED) is a semiconductor light source .LEDs are used as indicator lamps in many devices and are increasingly used for general lighting. A light-emitting diode (LED) is a semiconductor light source. LEDs are used as indicator lamps in many devices and are increasingly used for general lighting.

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SIMPLE ADC

EXTERNAL INPUTS
ANALOG INPUT
Analog input in the range VREF(+) (5V) and VREF(-) (0V) is given to pin no 26 , analog input may be any of triangular wave or sinewave . For adc 0808 operation required analog input is given from function generator.

CLOCK INPUT
ADC0808 requires a clock signal in the frequency range of 10 kHz to 1280 kHz . A square of 50% duty cycle can be given as clock input to the circuit at pin no 10.

V ref
A voltage of +5v is supplied to the junction of pins 9,11,12,22 from bread board .

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SIMPLE ADC

WORKING
Normally analog-to-digital converter (ADC) needs interfacing through a microprocessor to convert analog data into digital format. This requires additional hardware and necessary software, resulting in increased complexity and hence the total cost .The circuit of A-to-D converter shown here is configured around ADC 0808, avoiding the use of a microprocessor. The ADC 0808 is an 8-bit A-to-D converter, having data output lines D0-D7. It works on the principle of successive approximation .It has a total of eight analog input channels, out of which any one can be selected using address lines A, B and C. Here, in this case, input channel IN0 is selected by grounding A ,B , and C address lines.

Usually the control signals EOC (End Of Conversion), S(Start conversion), ALE (Address Latch Enable) and OE(Output Enable) are interfaced by means of a microprocessor .However, the circuit shown here is built to operate in its continuous mode without using any microprocessor. Therefore the input control signals ALE and OE, being active-high ,are tied to Vcc (+5 volts). The input control signal SC, being active-low, initiates start of conversion at falling edge of the pulse, whereas the output signal EOC becomes high after completion of conversion (digitalization).This EOC output is coupled to SC input, where falling edge of EOC output acts as SC input to direct the ADC to start the next conversion.

As the conversion starts, EOC signal goes high. At next clock pulse EOC output again goes low, and hence SC is enabled to start the next conversion. Thus, it provides continuous 8-bit digital output corresponding to instantaneous value of analogue input. The maximum level of analogue input voltage should be appropriately Scaled down below positive reference (+5V) level.

The ADC 0808 IC requires clock signal of typically 550 kHz, which can be easily derived from an astable multivibrator constructed using 7404 inverter gates. In order to visualize the digital output, the row of eight LEDs (LED1 throughLED8) have been used, wherein each LED is connected to respective data output linesD0 through D7. Since ADC works in the continuous mode, it displays digital output as soon as analogue input is applied. The decimal equivalent digital output value D for a given analogue input voltage Vin can be calculated from the relationship D=Vin/Vref.

Procedure:
First we connect a analog input to pin no 26 , a analog input may be any triangular or sine waveform the function generator . Then a clock signal , a square wave of 50% duty cycle ,of frequency between 10khz to 1280khz is connected to pin no 10 and a positive reference voltage of +5v is input to the junction of pins 9,11,12,22 from bread board . With the inputs given board starts conversion and for every notable change in the amplitude of analog signal , we can see the change in led lighting .

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SIMPLE ADC

RESULT
The above Analog-to-Digital converter circuit has been constructed and the circuit has been found to provide accurate and continuous digital output for input voltage in the entire range of VREF(-) through VREF(+),applied at the selected input terminal.

CONCLUSION:
From the project we undertook , its component procuring and embedding into a board we have got a good kind of experience on what the time , dedication and hard work it takes for a project completion . As project has been completed we now have a clear view on the working of IC ADC 0808 and conversion of signal from analog to digital format .

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SIMPLE ADC

REFERRENCES:
1. Simple Analog-to-Digital Converter - B. P. Ladgaonkar, Electronics for You, September 1999.

2. Modern Electronic Instrumentation and Measurement Techniques Albert D. Helfrick and William D. Cooper, Prentice Hall of India Private Limited, 1997.

3. ADC0808/ADC0809 8-Bit Microprocessor Compatible A/D Converters with 8-channel Multiplexer : Datasheet National Semiconductors.

4. Pulse, Digital and Switching waveforms Jacob Millman and Herbert Taub, Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing Company Limited, 1991.

5. Pulse, Digital Circuits and Computer Fundamentals R. Venkataraman, Dhanpat Rai Publications, 1994.

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