ANTHROPOMETRY

Afsaneh Safar cherati M.D Sports Medicine Specialist

What is Anthropometry?

Greek
Anthro- : man -pometry: measurements Literal meaning: “measurement of humans”

The study of measurements or proportions of the human body according to sex, age, etc. for identification purposes & understanding human physical variation.

Kinanthropometry is an emerging scientific specialization concerned with the application of measurement to appraise human size, shape, proportion, composition, maturation and gross function. It is a basic discipline for problem-solving in matters related to growth, exercise, performance and nutrition. Anthropometry is the study of the measurement of the human body in terms of the dimensions of bone, muscle, and adipose (fat) tissue.

more importantly. or. The area has been defined as the quantitative interface between anatomy and physiology. provides for quantification of differential growth and training influences. It puts the individual athlete into objective focus and provides a clear appraisal of his or her structural status at any given time. .

g. .. anthropometry plays an important role in industrial design . Today. and require regular updating of anthropometric data collections. the obesity epidemic). Changes in life styles. nutrition and ethnic composition of populations lead to changes in the distribution of body dimensions (e. ergonomics and architecture where statistical data about the distribution of body dimensions in the population are used to optimize products. clothing design.

Alphonse Bertillon: system of identification depending on the unchanging character of certain measurements of parts of the human body ”Bertillonage”.first adapted by the French police .History of Anthropometry 1883.

to identifying criminals by facial characteristics. . Cesare Lombroso's criminal anthropology.History of Anthropometry 1888: Francis Galton starts research on “Finger Prints” to further anthropometry Anthropometrics was first used in the 19th and early 20th century in criminalistics. he also believed that criminality could be predicted according to the body type.

required by law. “craniometric” certification. Intelligence tests became associated with Anthropometry .Applications of Anthropometry Identification of repeat-offense criminals ( recidivists) Prevention of impersonation Differentiation between the races Advocacy of Eugenics policies in Europe Aryans from Jews: Nazi Germany famously relied on anthropometric measurements to distinguish Aryans from Jews on the basis of measurements of the skull and other physical features.

. according to which characteristics of the body can be translated into characteristics of the mind. During the 1940s anthropometry was used by William Sheldon when evaluating his somatotypes.

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the remainder due to loss of lean body mass and fat. For example : primary anthropometry effects of microgravity Height in Short-term mission : Slight increase during first week then stabilizes at approximately 3% of pre-mission baseline. about 2/3 of the loss is due to water loss. Center of mass shifts headward approximately 3-4 cm… . range. direction of motion. waist. Post flight weight losses average 3. and limbs. Circumference changes in chest. and mass for space module crewmembers and visiting personnel.National Aeronautics and Space Administration Anthropometry and biomechanics for designating points and distances of measurement.4%. Changes due primarily to fluids shifts.

Debate over Anthropometry General Problems with Anthropometry: Cost and error of the instruments used Education needed to be able to take the measurements Error in calculation and measurements slow .

ectomorphic and mesomorphic derived from Sheldon's somatotype theories is today popular among people doing weight training.Different body type: different performance A basically anthropometric division of body types into the categories endomorphic. .

Somatotype A somatotype is a classification of physique based on the concept of shape. disregarding size. Relative dominance of Endomorphy (relative fatness). The pre-eminent system of somatotype classification is the Heath-Carter somatotype. Each component is identified in the sequence endomorphy-mesomorphy-ectomorphy . Mesomorphy (relative musculo-skeletal robustness) and Ectomorphy (relative linearity).

5 to 7 are high and 7. 5.Heath-Carter method Worldwide accepted Rating range is 1-9 Anthropometric or photographic study A rating form and a 3 figure rating Ratings of 2 to 2. 3 to 5 are moderate.5 and above are very high .5 are considered low.

If HWR is greater than.25 then ectomorphy = 0.63 .131 + 4. .601*femur breadth + 0.If HWR is less than 40.161*corrected calf girth .0000014*ΣSF3 [where (SF = sum of triceps.75 then ectomorphy = 0.188* corrected arm girth + 0.58 .463*HWR .If HWR is equal to or less than 38.height*0. or equal to 40.17.0.7182 + 0. [HWR is height/mass.00068*ΣSF2 + 0.28.858*humerus breadth +0.1451*ΣSF .1 . Endomorphy 0.732*HWR .18/height in cms)] Mesomorphy 0. subscapular and supraspinale skinfolds multiplied by (170.5 Ectomorphy One of three equations is used depending on the value of the calculated Height Weight Ratio (HWR) of the subject.25 then ectomorphy = 0.75 and greater than 38.333].

Somatochart Description of subjects relative to their position on the somatochart X=Ecto-Endo Y=2*Meso-(Endo+Ecto) .

0 .0-4. weight lifter.5-3. Mesomorphy component : male gymnast .0-3.0-4. wrestler Basketball male =2.5 Basketball female=4.

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anthropometry is simple. Standard specifications of the International Society for the Advancement of Kinanthropometry (ISAK). .Methodology of anthropometrical assessment Ostensibly. it is not. In reality.

. The tape of choice is Keuffel and Esser Whyteface steel tape Bone calipers: Adapted Mitutoyo bone calipers are recommended for humerus and femur widths.Anthropometry Instruments Anthropometric tape.

GPM) is the classical instrument for the measurement of Anterior-Posterior chest depth . The large widespreading caliper (Siber-Hegner. Anthropometer. The recommended instrument is the Siber-Hegner GPM anthropometer of the Martin type Widespreading calipers.

The preferred instruments are the Harpenden caliper or the Slim Guide skinfold calipers. Stadiometer Medical Scale . Skinfold calipers.

Techniques Precision is a matter of how consistent a measurer is with him or herself (intra-observer reliability) or with other measurers (inter-observer reliability). The development of an anthropometrist’s touch is seldom achieved without extensive practice. . Anthropometrists should verify their precision by calculating the Technical Error of Measurement(TEM) of their testing. Accuracy is a matter of how closely obtained measures conform to true or ideal measures.

Arm girth. . triceps and biceps skinfold sites. A line is marked horizontal to the long axis of the humerus at the midacromiale-radiale distance.Marked Anatomic Landmarks Acromiale :The point at the superior and external border of the acromion process when the subject is standing erect with relaxed arms Radiale :The point at the upper and lateral border of the head of the radius Mid-acromiale-radiale.

Supraspinale :A cross marking the intersection of the iliospinale mark to the anterior axillary border with the horizontal line of the superior border of the ilium at the level of the iliocristale . Iliocristale :The most lateral point superior of the iliac tubercle on the ilio-axilla line. Iliospinale :The inferior aspect of the tip of the anterior superior iliac spine.

Mid thigh: The mid point between the inguinal fold and the anterior aspect of the patella. Abdominal: The site 5cm to the right hand side of the omphalion Mid-calf :The medial aspect of the calf at the widest girth . Subscapulare :The undermost tip of the inferior angle of the scapula.

The two standard ISAK proformas are the full Proforma which contains 42 measurement variables. When there is a question of bilateral asymmetry.Proforma A standard proforma facilitates systematic data collection Only right side values of the subject are taken in surveys. both sides should be taken. and the shortened Level 1 Proforma which is used for training and assessing Level 1anthropometrists .

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The reading is made approximately two seconds after application. .Skinfold Thickness Harpenden skinfold caliper is designed to provide a constant pressure of 10. The long axis of the fold should be parallel to the natural cleavage lines of the skin (Langer’s lines) in the region of measurement. The skinfold is raised by the pinching. when the needle slows.0 g/mm2 of the caliper face at all thicknesses. The fold is raised perpendicularly to the surface of the body at the measurement site. slightly rolling action of the left thumb and index finger.

Triceps. The caliper is applied 1 cm distally from the left thumb and index finger raising a vertical fold at the marked midacromiale-radiale line on the posterior surface of the right arm .

raising a fold oblique to the inferior angle of the scapula in a direction running obliquely downwards in a lateral direction at an angle of about 45° from the horizontal along the natural fold (Langerline) . Subscapular: The caliper is applied 1 cm distally from the left thumb and index finger.

The caliper is applied 1cm distally from the left thumb and index finger raising a vertical fold at the marked midacromiale-radiale line on the anterior surface of the right arm . Biceps.

Iliac crest: The caliper is applied 1cm anteriorly from the left thumb and index finger raising a fold immediately superior to the iliac crest at the mid-axillary line (i.e. above the crest on the mid-line of the body) .

. Supraspinale: The caliper is applied 1cm anteriorly from the left thumb and index finger raising a fold at the intersection of the border of the ilium (project a horizontal line from the iliac crest mark) and a line from the spinale to the anterior axillary border (armpit).

Abdominal: The caliper is applied 1 cm inferiorly to the left thumb and index finger. the omphalion . raising a vertical fold on the right side 5 cm lateral to. and at the level of.

. raising the fold on the anterior of the right thigh. when the leg is flexed to a 90° at the knee by placing the foot on a box. The mid-thigh position for this measure is the estimated halfdistance between the inguinal crease and anterior patella. Front thigh: The caliper is applied 1 cm distally to the left thumb and index finger.

This is easiest to obtain when the subject’s leg is flexed to an angle of 90° at the knee by placing the foot on a box . The caliper is applied 1cm distally to the left thumb and index finger. raising a vertical fold on the relaxed medial right calf at the estimated level of the greatest circumference. Medial calf.

Girths

Instruments: Flexible steel tape, calibrated in centimeters with millimeter gradations. General technique: The metal case is held in the right hand throughout all the girth measurements. The girths are measured with the tape at right angles to the long axis of a bone or body segment.

Arm girth relaxed: The perimeter distance of the right arm parallel to the long axis of the humerus when the subject is standing erect and the relaxed arm is hanging by the sides. The level of the tape is at the measured and marked mid-acromialeradiale distance

Arm girth flexed and tensed: The maximum circumference of the right arm raised to the horizontal position in the sagittal plane with the fully-supinated forearm flexed at the elbow to an angle of 45°-90° . The anthropometrist standing laterally to the right of the subject

Ask the subject some questions to ensure they do not hold their breath. . Waist girth: The perimeter at the level of the noticeable waist narrowing located approximately half way between the costal border and the iliac crest.

during this measure. feet together. without volitionally contracting the gluteal muscles . Gluteal girth (hip girth): The perimeter at the level of the greatest posterior protuberance and at approximately the symphysion pubis level anteriorly. stands erect. The subject.

legs slightly parted. weight equally distributed on both feet the tape is maneuvered to obtain the maximum perimeter of the calf. . Calf girth: With the subject stands erect.

Firm pressure is applied to the branches. The branches are gripped by the thumb and the index finger and rest on the backs of the hands. . The middle finger is used to locate the landmark. General technique: The bone calipers are held in pistol-grip mode.Bone Breadths Instrument: Small Mitutoyo adapted bone caliper.

. Humerus breadth (biepicondylar): The distance between medial and lateral epicondyles of the humerus when the arm is raised forward to the horizontal and the forearm is flexed to a right angle at the elbow. The measured distance is somewhat oblique since the medial epicondyle is lower than the lateral.

Femur breadth (biepicondylar): The distance between medial and lateral epicondyles of the femur when the subject is seated and the leg is flexed at the knee to form a right angle with the thigh. .

Recording the time of day at which measurements are made therefore necessary.1 kg.Body mass (weight) body weight should be obtained on an accurately-calibrated beam-type balance and recorded to the nearest 0. As there are diurnal variations in weight. . it is best to weigh the subject at the same time of day in each testing session.

upper part of the back and usually. but not necessarily. The heels. buttocks.when the head is held in the Frankfort plane.Stretch stature (height) The measurement is taken as the maximum vertical distance from the floor to the vertex of the head . . This position is achieved when the line joining the orbitale to the tragion is horizontal or at right angles to the long axis of the body. the back of the head are in contact with the vertical wall.

Use the sum of varying numbers of skinfolds to calculate percentage body fat. . The most useful application of skinfold data is the comparison over time of repeat measures on an individual to determine and quantify sub-cutaneous fat loss or gain.Data Analysis Skinfolds:The most often-used data from anthropometric measurement is that obtained from skinfolds.

A simple device for achieving this type of comparison is the unisex Phantom devised by Ross and Wilson and updated by Ross and Ward . short in the trunk and narrow in the hips. “short” and “narrow” are subjective evaluations based on some kind of metaphorical model of a human. Proportionality is the relationship of body parts. one to another or to the whole body. Somatotype data can be statistically analyzed. “Long”. Middle distance runners tend to be long in the legs and arms.

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Anthropometry Today Biometrics Nutrition and wellness Weight Training Ergonomics dynamic anthropometry: Measurements taken on and around the figure when it is in any position other than the fixed ones. Evolutionary Significance Changes in humans overtime Monitor growth in children Cranial Anthropometry .

hand and palm geometry. Examples include. . gait. Biometric characteristics can be divided in two main classes: Physiological are related to the shape of the body. but are not limited to typing rhythm. but are not limited to fingerprint.Biometrics Biometrics refers to methods for uniquely recognizing humans based upon one or more intrinsic physical or behavioral traits. Examples include. and voice. face recognition. iris recognition. DNA. Behavioral are related to the behavior of a person.

identification Verification: Am I whom I claim I am? involves confirming or denying a person's claimed identity Identification: Who am I? .Biometrics the automatic identification of a person based on his/her physiological or behavioral characteristics Verification vs.

and computer networks Automobiles: replace keys with key-less entry and key-less ignition Border control and national ID cards . cellular phones. smart cards. workstations.Biometrics Applications Forensics: criminal identification and prison security Prevention of unauthorized access to ATMs. desktop PCs.

find the location and size of every human face Multibiometrics: integrates face recognition.Biometrics Programs Fingerprint Identification Hand Geometry: geometric shape of the hand for authenticating a user's identity Face Location: an arbitrary black and white. fingerprint verification. and speaker verification in making a personal identification . still image.

Iris BenGurion Airport: Hand Geometry FacePass: Face Verification Grocery Store Payment: Fingerprint INSPASS: Hand Geometry .Biometrics in Use Heathrow Airport.

D Anthropometry accurate digital humans.3. and the anthropometrist extracts measurements from the scan rather than directly from the individual. Programs: Cyberware Today people are performing anthropometry with threedimensional scanners. Anthropometry can be greatly aided by the use of DigiSize CySlice Ear Impression 3-D Scanner . The subject has a three-dimensional scan taken of their body.

Future Endeavors of Anthropometry? .

Questions? Thank you for your time! .

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