# Year 6 – Science 六年级科学 Investigating Force and Energy 探索力和能

Week 周次 Learning Objectives 学习目标 Suggested Learning Activities 建议活动 Pupils push and pull each other’s palms to feel the effect of forces. 学生推和拉彼此的手心来感觉力的效应。 Pupils discuss and conclude that push and pull are forces. 学生讨论和总结：推和拉是力 Based on the above activity pupils discuss and conclude that a force cannot be seen but its effects can be observed. 根据以上活动，学生讨论和总结：我们看不到 力，可是可以观察到力的效应。 1.2 Understanding the effects of a force 了解力的效应 Pupils carry out activities and discuss the effects of pushing a) a stationary ball, b) a moving ball. 学生进行活动并讨论推的效果 a) 一个静止不动的球， b) 一个正在移动的球。 Pupils press, twist or squeeze objects such as plasticine, sponge and spring. 学生挤压或扭转物体如：手工泥、海绵和弹簧 Pupils observe and discuss the effects of forces. 学生观察和讨论力的效应。 Learning Outcomes 学习成果 Pupils 学生 · state that push and pull are forces. 说明推和拉是力 Notes 备录 Vocabulary 词汇 pull-tarikan 拉力 push-tolakan 推力 force-daya 力 palm-tapak tangan 手心

1. Force 力
1.1 Understanding that push and pull are forces 了解推和拉是一种力

· state that force cannot be seen but its effects can be observed. 说明我们看不到力，可是可以 观察到力的效应。

Pupils 学生 · state that a force can move a stationary object. 说明力可以移动一个静止不动 的物体 · state that a force can change the motion of an object. 说明力可以改变一个物体的移 动 · state that a force can change the shape of an object. 说明力可以改变一个物体的形 状

speed - kelajuan 速度 Stationary pegun 停止；不动 moving bergerak 移动 twist – pulas 扭转 press- tekan 挤压

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Year 6 – Science 六年级科学 Investigating Force and Energy 探索力和能

Week 周次

Learning Objectives 学习目标

Suggested Learning Activities 建议活动 Pupils discuss and conclude that a force can: a) move the stationary object, b) stop a moving object, c) change the direction of a moving object, d) make an object move faster or slower, e) change the shape of an object. 学生讨论和总结：力可以 a) 移动静止不动的物体, b) 使一个移动的物体停止, c) 改变一个移动物体的方向, d) 使一个物体移动得较快或较慢, e) 改变一个物体的形状。 Pupils observe an object such as a book or a coin sliding on a surface. 学生观察一个物体如一本书或一个硬币滑过一 个表面。 Pupils discuss that friction slows down a moving object and conclude that friction is a force. 学生讨论有关摩擦力会使一个移动的物体变慢， 及总结摩擦力是一种力。 Pupils carry out activities that involve friction, e.g. a) open the lid of a jar with dry hands, b) open the lid of a jar with oily hands. 学生进行涉及摩擦力的活动，例：

Learning Outcomes 学习成果

Notes 备录

Vocabulary 词汇

1.3 Analysing
friction 分析摩擦力

Pupils · state that friction is a type of force. 说明摩擦力是一种力。

friction - geseran 摩擦力 aerodynamicaerodinamik 空气流动力 oppose bertentangan 对抗 effect - kesan 影响 reduce kurangkan 减少 increase menambahkan 上升

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Year 6 – Science 六年级科学 Investigating Force and Energy 探索力和能
a) 用干燥的手打开瓶盖， b) 用沾油的手打开瓶盖。 Pupils discuss and conclude that it is easier to open the lid of a jar with dry hands because of greater friction. 学生讨论和总结：用干燥的手比较容易打开瓶 盖因为摩擦力比较大。 Week 周次 Learning Objectives 学习目标 Suggested Learning Activities 建议活动 Pupils carry out activities that involve friction, e.g. a) rubbing their palms, b) pulling a heavy object, c) rubbing an eraser against a surface. 学生进行涉及摩擦力的活动，例： a) 摩擦他们的掌心， b) 拉动一个重物， c) 用胶擦摩擦一个表面 Based on the above activities pupils explain the effects of friction: a) their palms become warmer because friction produces heat, b) it is difficult to move the object because friction opposes motion, c) the eraser becomes smaller because friction causes wear and tear. 根据以上活动学生解释摩擦力的效应： a) 他们的掌心变得较热因为摩擦力会产生热， b) 难以拉动重物因为摩擦力与动力对抗， c) 胶擦变得较小因为摩擦会造成磨损或撕破 Pupils list and discuss the effects of friction in everyday life. 学生列举并讨论摩擦力在日常生活中的效应。 Learning Outcomes 学习成果 · describe the effects of friction. 描述摩擦力的效应 Notes 备录 Friction can be reduced by using: a) using roller, marbles b) using talcum powder, oil, wax, grease, air cushion, c) smoothening the surfaces in contact. 以下可以减少摩擦力： a) 使用轮子或弹珠 b) 使用爽身粉、油、腊、 油脂，气垫, c) 使接触的表面平滑 surfaces in contact - permukaan yang bersentuhan 接触的表面

Vocabulary 词汇

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Year 6 – Science 六年级科学 Investigating Force and Energy 探索力和能
Pupils compare the effects of friction by rubbing their palms: a) without oil, b) with oil. 学生比较摩擦他们的掌心时的效应： a) 不沾油 b) 涂油 Pupils discuss and conclude that oil reduces friction. 学生讨论和总结：油减少了摩擦力。 · describe ways to reduce friction. 描述减少摩擦力的方法 · describe ways to increase friction. 描述增加摩擦力的方法

Week 周次

Learning Objectives 学习目标

Suggested Learning Activities 建议活动 Pupils suggest various ways to reduce friction. 学生提出各种减少摩擦力的方法。 Pupils carry out activities to test their suggestions. 学生进行活动来测试他们的提议。 Pupils gather information on the advantages and disadvantages of friction in everyday life. 学生收集有关摩擦力在日常生活中的好处和坏 处的资料。 Pupils discuss various situations where friction occurs and conclude that friction is produced when surfaces are in contact with one another. 学生讨论各种产生摩擦的情形和总结表面互相 接触时会产生摩擦力。 Pupils plan and carry out an experiment to investigate how different types of

Learning Outcomes 学习成果

Notes 备录

Vocabulary 词汇

· state the advantages of friction. 说明摩擦力的好处 · state the disadvantages of friction. 说明摩擦力的坏处 · conclude that friction occurs when two surfaces are in contact. 总结摩擦力在两个表面接触时 产生 · design a fair test to find out how different types of surfaces affect the

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Year 6 – Science 六年级科学 Investigating Force and Energy 探索力和能
surfaces affects the distance a trolley moves. 学生计划和进行一项试验来研究不同种类的表 面如何影响手推车移动的距离。 distance a trolley moves by deciding what to change, what to keep the same and what to measure. 设计一个公平的实验来找出不 同种类的表面如何影响手推车 移动的距离以确定须改变的事 项、固定的事项和须测量的事 项。

Week 周次

Learning Objectives Suggested Learning Activities 学习目标 建议活动 2. Movement 移动 2.1 Understanding Pupils carry out activities to: speed a) compare the distances travelled in a given time by two moving objects, 了解速度 b) compare the time taken by two moving objects to travel a given distance. 学生进行活动来： a) 比较在指定时间内两个移动的物体移动的距 离， b) 比较在指定距离内两个移动的物体所需的时 间。 Pupils discuss and conclude that: a) an object which moves faster travels a longer distance in a given time, b) an object which moves faster takes a shorter time to travel a given distance. 学生讨论和总结： a) 在指定时间内一个移动比较快的物体移动的 距离比较远，

Learning Outcomes 学习成果 Pupils 学生 · state that an object which moves faster travels a longer distance in a given time. 说明在指定时间内一个移动比 较快的物体移动的距离比较远 · state that an object which moves faster takes a shorter time to travel a given distance. 说明在指定距离内一个移动比 较快的物体所需的时间比较短

Notes 备录

Vocabulary 词汇

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Year 6 – Science 六年级科学 Investigating Force and Energy 探索力和能
b) 在指定距离内一个移动比较快的物体所需的 时间比较短。 Pupils conclude that: a) speed is a measurement of how fast an object moves, b) speed can be calculated by using the formula speed = distance/time. 学生总结： a) 速度用以测量物体移动多快 b) 速度可以用以下公式来计算 速度 = 移动的距离 / 所需的时间 Pupils solve problems using the formula. 学生应用该公式来解决难题。 · state what speed is. 说明什么是速度

· solve problems using the formula. 应用有关公式解决难题

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