Rethinking the Design of Presentation Slides

Fillets reduce leading edge vortices in nature and in engineering

Fillet on dorsal fin of shark

Fillet

Michael Alley
College of Engineering Penn State
Fillet on Seawolf submarine
Fillet

[Rader, 1997]

[Devenport et al., 1991]

[Zess and Thole, 2001]

Templates: http://writing.eng.vt.edu/slides.html

This presentation presents a slide design that is more effective than PowerPoint’s default design
We propose to test a fillet design for turbine blades and vanes downstream of the combustor
Combustor

Is grasped more readily

[Pratt&Whitney, 2000]

The purpose of the fillet design is to reduce vortices that disrupt the film cooling of the blades and vanes

This presentation compares several Three classes of methods exist for methods reducing emissions of sulfur dioxide for reducing emissions of sulfur dioxide

pre-combustion methods

Is more memorable

combustion methods

Power passive modules perform the same functions as discrete circuits but with smaller volumes
post-combustion methods

Passive module

82 cm3

Is more persuasive
Discrete Components

168 cm3

[Alley, 2003] [Alley and Neeley, 2005]

The total volume is cut by more than half

Alley, Michael, The Craft of Scientific Presentations (New York: Springer-Verlag, 2003), chap 4. Alley, Michael, and Kathryn A. Neeley, "Rethinking the Design of Presentation Slides: A Case for Sentence Headlines and Visual Evidence," Technical Communication, vol. 52, no. 4 (November 2005), pp. 417-426.

For a slide to be effective, the audience has to be able to grasp its content quickly

• Hefner developed a dynamic electro-thermal model for IGBT, from of the
temperature-dependent IGBT silicon chip, packages and heat sinks. The temperaturedependent IGBT electrical model describes the instantaneous electrical behavior in terms of the instantaneous temperature of the IGBT silicon chip surface. The instantaneous power dissipated in the IGBT is calculated using the electrical model and determines the instantaneous heat rate that is applied to the surface of the silicon chip thermal model. Hefner incorporated this methodology into the SABER circuit simulator.

• Adams, Joshi and Blackburn considered thermal interactions between the heat sources, substrate, and encloses walls as affected by the thermal conductance of the walls and substrate with the intent of determining which physical effects and level of detail are necessary to accurately predict thermal behavior of discretely heated enclosures.

To

an om

s rd wo y

Chen, Wu and Borojevich are modeling of thermal and electrical behavior using several commercial softwares (I-DEAS, Maxwell, Flotherm and Saber) and 3-D, transient approaches.

3

For a slide to be effective, the audience has to be able to grasp its content quickly

Observations
Segment C (not on the 520 Main St. Property) represents the dominant feature The characteristics of Segment C are vastly different than those of Segments A and B (which are located on the subject property) The characteristics of the dominant portion of the system (Segment C) are suggestive of a perennial stream Direct observations are needed A detailed technical analysis is needed by a qualified, independent hydrologist.

o et m so e Tir

d ea r

3

Alley, Michael, The Craft of Scientific Presentations (New York: Springer-Verlag, 2003), chap 4. Alley, Michael, and Kathryn A. Neeley, "Rethinking the Design of Presentation Slides: A Case for Sentence Headlines and Visual Evidence," Technical Communication, vol. 52, no. 4 (November 2005), pp. 417-426.

For a slide to be effective, the audience has to be able to grasp its content quickly
We propose to test a fillet design for turbine blades and vanes downstream of the combustor
Sentence headline

Observations
• Hefner developed a C (notelectro-thermal model for IGBT,Property) Segment dynamic on the 520 Main St. from of the
temperature-dependent the dominant feature heat sinks. The temperaturerepresents IGBT silicon chip, packages and dependent IGBT electrical model describes the instantaneous electrical behavior in terms of the instantaneous temperature ofSegment C are surface. The The characteristics of the IGBT silicon chip vastly instantaneous power dissipated in the IGBT is calculated using the electrical model different than those of Segments A and B (which and determines the instantaneous heat rate that is applied to the surface of the silicon are model. Hefner the subject property) chip thermal located onincorporated this methodology into the SABER circuit simulator.

Combustor

Visual evidence No bullet lists

• Adams, Joshi and Blackburn considered thermal interactions between the heat system and encloses walls are suggestive of a perennial sources, substrate, (Segment C)as affected by the thermal conductance of the walls and substrate with the intent of determining which physical effects and level of stream detail are necessary to accurately predict thermal behavior of discretely heated Direct Theenclosures. of the fillet design is to reduce vortices purpose observations are needed • Chen, Wu the film coolinganalysis is needed behavior A detailed technical of the blades and vanes that disruptand Borojevich are modeling of thermal and electrical by a using
several commercial softwares (I-DEAS, Maxwell, Flotherm and Saber) and 3-D, qualified, independent hydrologist. transient approaches.

[Pratt&Whitney, 2000]

The characteristics of the dominant portion of the

3

[Zess and Thole, 2001]

We propose to test a fillet design for turbine blades and vanes downstream of the combustor
Combustor

[Pratt&Whitney, 2000]

The purpose of the fillet design is to reduce vortices that disrupt the film cooling of the blades and vanes
4

Alley, Michael, The Craft of Scientific Presentations (New York: Springer-Verlag, 2003), chap 4. Zess, Gary, and Karen Thole, “Computational Design and Experimental Evaluation of Using a Leading Edge Fillet on a Gas Turbine Vane, Proceedings of the ASME Turbo Exposition, 2001-GT-404 (New Orleans: IGTI, 5 June 2001).

Fillets reduce leading edge vortices in nature and in engineering

Fillet on dorsal fin of shark

Fillet

[Rader, 1997]

Fillet on Seawolf submarine

Fillet

[Devenport et al., 1991]

5

The sentence headline should state succinctly the purpose or assertion of the slide

Sentences orient the audience much better than phrases do

Sentences force the presenter to wrestle with the argument

Computations show that the fillet prevents the leading edge vortex and delays the passage vortex
Tinf– Taw Tinf– Tslot
0.5 0.4 0.3

6

0.2

Alley, Michael, The Craft of Scientific Presentations (New York: Springer-Verlag, 2003), chap 4. Zess, Gary, and Karen Thole, “Computational Design and Experimental Evaluation of Using a Leading Edge Fillet on a Gas Turbine Vane, Proceedings of the ASME Turbo Exposition, 2001-GT-404 (New Orleans: IGTI, 5 June 2001).

Computations show that the fillet prevents the leading edge vortex and delays the passage vortex
Tinf– Taw Tinf– Tslot
0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 Passage vortex Leading edge vortex 0 -0.1 -0.2 -0.3

Without Fillet
7

-0.4 -0.5

With Fillet

The body of a slide should supportprevents Measurements show that the fillet the headline with visualof the leading edge vortex lists formation evidence rather than bullet
0.25 0.20 0.15

0.25 0.20 0.15

z/S z/S
0.10 0.05

z/S
0.10 0.05 0 -0.25 -0.20 -0.15 -0.10 -0.05

Leading edge vortex 0 0
-0.25 -0.20 -0.15 -0.10 -0.05 0

0

x/C
Velocity profile: vane without fillet

x/C

Velocity profile: vane with fillet

8

Zess, Gary, and Karen Thole, “Computational Design and Experimental Evaluation of Using a Leading Edge Fillet on a Gas Turbine Vane, Proceedings of the ASME Turbo Exposition, 2001-GT-404 (New Orleans: IGTI, 5 June 2001).

To make slides memorable, you have to consider what to include and what to exclude
Presentation Outline
• Introduction • Background • Pre-Combustion Methods

–coal switching –coal cleaning •Combustion Method –atmospheric fluidized bed • Post-Combustion Methods –adsorption –absorption •Conclusions • Questions?

No

ble a or m me t

9

To make slides memorable, you have to consider what to include and what to exclude
Three classes of methods exist formethods This presentation compares several reducing emissions of of sulfur dioxide for reducing emissions sulfur dioxide

What to include

pre-combustion methods

combustion methods

What to exclude
post-combustion methods

9

[Schmidt, 1989]

Alley, Michael, The Craft of Scientific Presentations (New York: Springer-Verlag, 2003), chap 4. Schmidt, Cynthia, “Methods to Reduce Sulfur Dioxide Emissions from Coal-Fired Power Plants” (Austin, Texas: University of Texas December 1999).

Bullets are not memorable, because bullets do not show the connections

Accelerometer outputs an analog voltage Hardware converts analog signal to digital Computer samples a number of points Data is exported to popular applications

10

[Shaw and others, 1998]

Audiences can remember more when details are presented visually
Accelerometer outputs an output voltage Hardware converts analog signal to digital

Computer samples a number of points Data is exported to popular applications

11

[Robertshaw, 2004]

Robertshaw, Harry, “Class Period 15: Signals and Systems,” classroom presentation (Blacksburg, VA: ME 4005, 16 March 2004). Shaw, Gordon, Robert Brown, and Philip Bromiley, “Strategic Stories: How 3M Is Rewriting Business Planning,” Harvard Business Review (May–June, 1998), pp. 41–50.

In a pilot study, we tested this new design in the teaching slides of a large geology course

Message delivered with typical slide design

Students: Fall 2004

Comparison: Test scores on same questions

Same message delivered with new slide design

Students: Fall 2005

[Alley et al., 2006]

When the tested assertion was in the sentence headline, students performed significantly better
Q: How abundant is iron in the earth’s crust?
Iron ores make up 5.6% of the earth’s crust Where is the largest concentration of iron ores and account for 95% in North America? of the metals used
Iron Ore Distribution

Iron
• An abundant metal, makes up 5.6% of earth’s crust • Properties:
– shaped, sharpened, welded – strong, durable

Iron Ore Distribution
Iron ore

• Accounts for >95% of metals used • Iron ores discovered in 1844 in Michigan’s Upper Peninsula • Soon found other ores in upper Wisconsin and Minnesota

[www.star-bits.com]

Is strong and durable

Can be shaped, sharpened, and welded
[Kesler 1994]

Kesler 1994

Led to 59% recall

Led to 77% recall

13

Level of significance < 0.001

[Alley et al., 2006]

Alley, Michael, Madeline Schreiber, Katrina Ramsdell, and John Muffo, "How the Design of Headlines in Presentation Slides Affects Audience Retention," Technical Communication, vol. 53, no. 2 (May 2006), pp. 225-234.

When answers resided in the sentence headlines, students scored higher on identical test questions
Q: Percentage of world’s resources that the U.S. uses?
Although the U.S. has 5% of the world's population, we use an average of 30% of all resources

U.S. Resource Use
• The United States uses:
– – – – – – 42% of all the aluminum produced worldwide 31% of all the petroleum 29% of all the phosphate 27% of all the copper 27% of the nitrogen 25% of the zinc
United States use of specific resources
(percentage of worldwide use)

• Approximately 30% of all resources worldwide

Led to 71% correct p < 0.025
14

Led to 82% correct

[Alley et al., 2006]

When the tested assertion was in the sentence headline, students performed significantly better
3.5

Score (Sentence) / Score (Traditional)

3.0

Statistically significant increase No significant difference Statistically significant decrease

2.5

2.0

1.5

1.0

0.5

0.0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22

Question

[Alley et al., 2006]

Overall percent correct (traditional headline): Overall percent correct (sentence headline):

70% 82%

p < 0.001

Alley, Michael, Madeline Schreiber, Katrina Ramsdell, and John Muffo, "How the Design of Headlines in Presentation Slides Affects Audience Retention," Technical Communication, vol. 53, no. 2 (May 2006), pp. 225-234.

The slide design presented here is more persuasive than PowerPoint’s default design
Power passive modules perform the same functions as discrete circuits but with smaller volumes
Passive module

Sentence headline can clarify assertions

82 cm3

168 cm3
Discrete Components

Images in body can supply cogent evidence

The total volume is cut by more than half

16

Design leads to fewer slides, which can increase ethos

[Toulmin, 2003] [Zhu, 2003]

Power passive modules perform the same functions as discrete circuits but with smaller volumes
Passive module

82 cm3

168 cm3
Discrete Components

The total volume is cut by more than half
17

Toulmin, Stephen E., The Uses of Argument (New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 2003). Zhu, Julie, “IDEAS Simulation of Thermal Stresses Between Substrate and Copper Stripes With Different Widths, presentation (Blacksburg, VA: ECE Department, Virginia Tech, 2 May 2003).

An argument is more persuasive if the audience knows the claims and warrants
The research question is whether the dunlins of Iceland and the Baltic Sea are different subspecies
Claim: assertion

©Lars Erik Johannessen

http://www.lib.utexas.edu/maps/polar.html

If so, because the population of the Baltic dunlins is declining, it may be a threatened subspecies

Warrant: key background

[Toulmin, 2003]

[Marthinsen et al., 2004]

The research question is whether the dunlins of Iceland and the Baltic Sea are different subspecies

©Lars Erik Johannessen

http://www.lib.utexas.edu/maps/polar.html

If so, because the population of the Baltic dunlins is declining, it may be a threatened subspecies

22

Marthinsen, Gunnhild, Jan T. Lifjeld, and Liv Wennerberg, “Population Differentiation in Dunlins Calidris alpina in Northern Europe” (Oslo, Norway: Zoological Museum, University of Oslo, 6 June 2004). Toulmin, Stephen E., The Uses of Argument (New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 2003).

In summary, this slide design gives a much higher starting point than PowerPoint’s default design
Fillets reduce leading edge vortices in nature and in engineering

more readily understood

Fillet on dorsal fin of shark

Fillet

[Rader, 1997]

more memorable

Fillet on Seawolf submarine

Fillet

[Devenport et al., 1991]

more persuasive
[Zess and Thole, 2001]

Templates: http://writing.eng.vt.edu/slides.html

References Alley, Michael, The Craft of Scientific Presentations (New York: Springer-Verlag, 2003), chap 4. Alley, Michael, and Kathryn A. Neeley, "Rethinking the Design of Presentation Slides: A Case for Sentence Headlines and Visual Evidence," Technical Communication, vol. 52, no. 4 (November 2005), pp. 417-426. Alley, Michael, Madeline Schreiber, Katrina Ramsdell, and John Muffo, "How the Design of Headlines in Presentation Slides Affects Audience Retention," Technical Communication, vol. 53, no. 2 (May 2006), pp. 225-234. Gottlieb, Larry, “How I Leaped Almost Overnight from Traditional Tech Writer to Marcom Guy to Hybrid—in a Tad More Than Four Decades," Proceedings of the 49th Annual Conference for the Society of Technical Communication (Nashville, TN: Society for Technical Communication, 2002). Marthinsen, Gunnhild, Jan T. Lifjeld, and Liv Wennerberg, “Population Differentiation in Dunlins Calidris alpina in Northern Europe” (Oslo, Norway: Zoological Museum, University of Oslo, 6 June 2004). Robertshaw, Harry, “Class Period 15: Signals and Systems,” classroom presentation (Blacksburg, VA: ME 4005, 16 March 2004). Schmidt, Cynthia, “Methods to Reduce Sulfur Dioxide Emissions from Coal-Fired Power Plants,” presentation (Austin, Texas: University of Texas December 1999). Shaw, Gordon, Robert Brown, and Philip Bromiley, “Strategic Stories: How 3M Is Rewriting Business Planning,” Harvard Business Review (May–June, 1998), pp. 41–50. Toulmin, Stephen E., The Uses of Argument (New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 2003). Zess, Gary, and Karen Thole, “Computational Design and Experimental Evaluation of Using a Leading Edge Fillet on a Gas Turbine Vane, Proceedings of the ASME Turbo Exposition, 2001-GT-404 (New Orleans: IGTI, 5 June 2001). Zhu, Julie, “IDEAS Simulation of Thermal Stresses Between Substrate and Copper Stripes with Different Widths, presentation (Blacksburg, VA: Virginia Tech, 2 May 2003).