Not Just Condensation: How Comic Books Interpret Shakespeare Author(s): Marion D.

Perret Reviewed work(s): Source: College Literature, Vol. 31, No. 4, Shakespeare and Popular Culture (Fall, 2004), pp. 7293 Published by: College Literature Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/25115229 . Accessed: 16/02/2012 01:10
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Not Just Condensation: BooksInterpret HowComic Shakespeare
Marion D. Perret

Marion D. Perret is an English Today
professor College. Her atManhattanville essays on comic

comic seemed chasm to and

books the screen

once bridge what a world educational and high culture.

between

low

Like

book versions of Shakespeares plays have appeared in The Language of Comics: Word to

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comic productions, of Shakespeare can be appreci ated on different levels by different audiences: stage versions them as cribs, by their artwork, by that panels can stimulate

who use by schoolchildren older students who analyze teachers who and focus examine find

and Image andApproaches

Teaching Shakespeare's
Hamlet.

and by scholars, who discussion, how they reflect social concerns or

to literature. Non-academic but approaches visually literate viewers move easily back and forth among the popular visual media of film, television, and comics. Men as children never tucked inside Batman their schoolbooks in class now boredom and women who comics superhero to rescue them from films about

watch

of shame. Many and Spidey without them have acquired enough awareness of film to appreciate the means by which technique

" and its words out are The included. because students Classics took over First Publishing series the about changed except the everything the new target audience was "in their mid-20s" and college educated. amuch more approach sophisticated (Levine 1989. middle. almost known name. youngest predominantly appropriate. interpretation clarifies.8-4. adaptation actively in giving a comic book imaginary life. designed specifically for school at 3. subtle.1 according to a depends interpret Shakespeare in for children audience. interpretive. to sim of aword they may not know. Whatever appears. tributor. the Pendulum Classics. count relied on these comic ver these comics when before sions well and high less elementary. and pow capable of effects more ofWill Eisner's term Illustrated Hamlet worthy the new Classics erful make are all Shakespeare's. conception an what the production into vision meld of tor's broader understanding comic book version of a Shakespeare play offers should emphasize?every their aim is to introduce artist the and the adapter. deeper men and women. often daringly. and the artwork King Lear is highly. Jr. and artists of comic books adapt afresh what and re-present his plays to us. though not all of Shake "sequential art. began collecting and in the 1950s and 1960s.48) Pictures became possible. as about the classics. For young interpretation meaning to amore adult understanding of the emo a of subtext consciousness brings Pollock's . How much they interpret and how these comics as inform.1-2). from explaining For so the action can be easily understood. Though by interpretation to the stories and characters just are not entertainingly. the this series. we may appreciate Shakespeare and timeless.8 level. in the interpretation clar is this most the For form readers. Although higher to the catalog of their current dis are American Guidance Service. cooperate of a Shakespeare play offers an interpreta Just as every performance his character and the direc of each actor's tion?or for several. students knew asmuch about Cliffs Notes school reports. Gilberton's with skills the children original Classics reading Illustrated author of comics the most appealed to children of many of history comprehensive he was six (Jones 2002. and character line plifying plot a of level it reveals also but still older children. dramatic. the meaning ification.Jones. Perret 73 a comic's artist makes words of how and actions the creators increase our awareness If we too can visually exciting.. to get them through book Illustrated. the age of the target audience. We may also recognize how the medium makes Shakespeare as we how and readers of the audience make plays necessary. Publishing byWorkman Shakespeare plays put speare's s Othello and of Zarate of do offer the complete text. When William ages: B. illustrated digests as well comic of plots book and versions sketches of of readers Shakespeare's plays character: inescapably. in words and actions.Marion D. large extent upon their intended grades.

may Occasionally. then shifts simultaneously.74 College 31. a footnote explains that he waits of any age who and fear" (Shakespeare 1994a. for the medium requires every reader to fill bringing meaning in the gutter between panels. of playscript may come from the stage direction accompanying while in the the words of the reader's eye takes surveying the panel caption in the as a whole. interpre surprisingly tation takes the form of definition. Comics-savvy readers the meaning and resonance of images.158). the mind's eye moves medium and material. considering and stable meaning points out. zigzagging In much in a new way" (1992. the entire process to rescan the and often interrupting look the same way. when play. . adds artist of how the conventions interpretation a co-creator who and challenges the reader to become shapes his material to find yet more meaning. plexity depth by suggesting any aspect of this artistic juggling quickly leads to exploring Examining other aspects. artist intended the comic book's audience. 18)2. First. and ambiguity explores ambivalence Consciously or unconsciously. . pay attention to the story rather than how the story is being shaped. for this interpretation then his mind's eye sees evidence . just as our sense of the subtext to a line the line. nearly another. young reader might us that Hamlet of the page words a when the adapter's caption tells example. top to bottom. The understanding they bring to the pic comes from verbal interpretation in a caption tures frequently appearing block or banner at the top of a panel.jumps between words and pictures. As Ronald [are] continually left to right. "Signification as the eye . Schmitt deferred but takes in the whole sequentially from one page panel at a to spiraling. Readers a few comics explain at the bottom not know?for "with wonder are unacquainted with Shakespeare's work have no way to detect interpreta tion masked as simple information. Though many readers will not turn from action to learn definitions because they find the pictures to be the unfolding dictionary enough. Naive in the action occurring readers. knowledgeable to to of balance the basic the medium condense and requirement constantly unpacking to convey as fully as possible the play's com against the obligation or more is than shown and said.4 Literature [Fall 2004] in thought and action. while that visual perspective may convey an intel recognize sophisticated or lectual emotional readers have no difficulty point of view. upon interpretation Depending or or verbal. waits "anxiously" for night. information ing at how a comic book interprets a Shakespeare continually back and forth between and audience. all these audiences share to some degree the artist's task of to the story. For mature the readers familiar with tion expressed awareness of the medium. visual be blatant subtle. just as the eye of the comic's reader does not simply move clarify across the page glance. but less skilled or less more The challenge of the artist is readers need direction. howev er.

prominent to Hamlet has that love driven main action.Hamlet. The need to con dense and simplify can force an adapter to eliminate all that makes an intro to be" question to in 222 the words becomes 14. he decides to pretend insanity in order . adapter's phrasing. spective soliloquy worth Farr Hamlet's reduces Naunerle readers grade the Pendulum "To be or not version's fourth the great hall" (Shakespeare than tell us what the Prince not ponder why Hamlet puts off taking see enough of him to sense delay: Polonius is in five. and we do not see how that the Prince is. Consequently. which his show Hamlet staring dagger. reduced from sad. most In the series "Stories famous soliloquy Shakespeare's is so distressed by grief that he "Hamlet Ophelia ful banner as he enters does more by Famous Authors is introduced by a banner thinks of suicide Illustrated. since we know more does. which further considering of the text. especially when a speech is too well known to be passed over in silence. We need not read pondering whether a cap the soliloquy to know his answer to this existential question. it might be better to die" (Shakespeare 1994a. which Hamlet realizes that he must have positive proof that King Claudius has murdered his father. We revenge because we do not of Hamlet's action long second act. the adapter must shorten the play.This overly help is feeling and thinking." informing us and fails to see 1950. No matter who the audience is. thus chang ing the structure and our response. it also influences our perception at two soliloquy panels it introduces. with his has lost his wits appears on the splash page. then sheathing his dagger. Reducing A less recognizable translation from and more lines of Hamlet down to only 48 pages of the nearly 40.000 um?cutting an almost insurmountable words and pictures?is challenge. If death is like sleep. or not to be. "Life is ing. prove attempt than polonius lacks suspense. Because from the char tion gains objective authority by being visually distinguished are contained in speech balloons. especially comes pervasive kind of interpretation to most in comics comic book: pictures though play during nuance to and what than of actions louder words. its seemingly author acters' words.MarionD. 30). gives depth speak must most be is and of these the words characters they speak. itative interpretation tends to discourage the when the visual endorses image caption's reading.12). Perret 75 pictures that follow. staring at Ophelia. and of the why he fails to notice what we see. The in twelve of the nineteen panels in Part II. Polonius's mad. nothing tends to be announced rather For remembering. which this frozen action we find a high hand on his brow. Shakespeare's a tragedy by Shakespeare to the confines of the comics medi cut. version In the "Famous Authors" much than seems to happen because do internal suggested visually. Above summarizes and interprets for us: ly informative banner.The sole visual suggestion deeply disturbed Hamlet shows Hamlet.

1 in the in Ophelia's page pictures their silent meeting play). stereotypical villain Hamlet imagines him the adapter of Berkley/First's the spiritual sensitivity Hamlet. In contrast. leaving Claudius to be. strips King spiritual in his the attempt to pray (3. . The adapter.3. his uncle s Lord Chamberlain and private spy.76 College 31.36-72. "How smart a lash that speech doth give my conscience (3. after he ing of his crime (3. Moving book's Part III. However. dismisses his friends. for it invites us to consider how to respond rather than to feel with him. which that reveal nal rather than internal is less easily drawn.1.3?and the lack of such to a mere three panels all the exchanges sensitivity in his enemy. returns to the end of to 3.4[Fall Literature 2004] that he may not betray his feelings as he seeks evidence.73-96).3): Polonius direct Ophelia how to behave with that Hmlet (1.3 and 2. Hamlet the Players?and. Dana E. Hamlet with Rosencrantz and Guildenstern. Dutch structure to exter reshapes Shakespeare's dramatic emphasize out words action.2 before immediately the famous Hamlet with the comic jumping for by the springling of it. science. Polonius explains to the King his theory is "mad for her love" (2. Dutch. does more . he is deeply in love with Ophelia.1). reorders as well as cuts his source. Act II in this version begins and ends with Hamlet and Ophelia: the splash focused rational account of what room (2. Steven Grant. the Prince ponders "to be or not to Hamlet discuss what between (3. con but Claudius alone with his briefly importantly.Difficult as it is to do. Reducing between characters after the frightened King flees from the playlet's mirror this adapter gives us a Prince who." aside." Because this brief asHamlet's speech expresses the same bloodthirstiness soliloquy in the prayer scene (3. speaks like a fiend: "Now could I drink hot blood and do such bitter business as the day would quake to look on. 8) More calculation than on deep love.These alterations obscure motivation have shown soliloquy and eliminate about 600 lines that would with Polonius. a character what he has Cutting confronting can change our impression ofthat character." and Polonius on encounter the eavesdropping backward. agonized 98-99).1). this abbreviated on inside Hamlet does little to increase our empathy goes with the Prince. In become eliminating Claudius's .2). the last these scenes Polonius advises page shows him rejecting her (3.3.2). daughter of Polonius. the play's third act.2.51 Dutch from the troubled the dimension shown later 54). . Grant can cut that longer speech. 2. so that the planning of the Mousetrap is followed they have just Hamlet and Ophelia learned from on and Claudius be. The radical condensa than leave unclear Hamlet's motivation for passing tion. emphasizes Claudius reveals in both this aside and his prayer of 3. (Shakespeare 1950. he knows that he must now appear to have lost all affection for Ophelia and to try to destroy the love she bears for him. however.2. Between Laertes "to thine own self be true" (1. 269-386).

the reader will get "thrills the publisher cares more about accurate upon whether aplenty.While atrical may . and the playwright's list of events into a living history that has meaning for both its chronological are the play's characters and the reader. which (Shakespeare Kiefer s cover for the Famous and Laertes shows Hamlet revenge Authors grave. 93-94). as well it can convey a general sense of the play as a whole because usually as attract the reader's eye. concerns and values." Depending the comic's cover may epito the play or drawing customers. the one to appear on the cover is chosen. interpretation the covers of these two versions Where instantly convey the editorial or lowbrow.D. tells us less about Shakespeare's play than about wrestling this series' approach?as the inside cover promises. Alex A. There may be no better approach than the one both both artists chose: to embody themes relating to the imagination. which condensation. disappear for almost three acts. characterized. highbrow ond Classics Illustrated versions of A Midsummer Night's Dream reveal how affect interpretation of Shakespeare's larger social and cultural influences vision.3 in a flash: arguably the ulti this interpretation tion to catch the major the cover. To turn a themes. This early version offers few significant moments that can pique inter as visually evoke the world of the play as a whole. Choosing crowding est as well moment Theseus domestic to represent this play is further complicated by several factors: and Hippolyta. With four dis tinct plot lines related as much by theme as by action. From these. ly representing mize or misrepresent what Shakespeare wrote. only one or two of these plots can be pictured on the overwhelm a cover without it and confusing the intended audience. often also suggests the artistic treatment. the adapter has to decide which key in two directions when the story could move moments?"hinge-points" 1977. usually pictures a dramatic situa the reader's attention. The reader often encounters even before opening the comic book. important action but also a consciousness that haunts the hero until he achieves the his father demands. Blum's cover for the Classics Illustrated (Barthes Hamlet his son to shows the Ghost 1952). version in Ophelia's In contrast. and the young lovers. mainly highly especially to be confused and confusing. seem are to not exist who the men. Perret 77 Marion up his one chance to kill the King safely: it leads us to see that at this moment the conscience-stricken Claudius is closer to Heaven than Hamlet is. minor characters. the covers of the first and sec vision of their series. the on an amateur the quarrels of fairies or the difficulty of putting not interest the ordinary comics reader. this play may at first its reader. Henry 1950). Cutting both presupposes and reveals the interpretation which the by adapter decides what mate is and is not The visual important reader may discover to the unfolding of action or character. which summoning (Shakespeare to the presents not only a moment join him on the battlements.

wearing the ass's head bestowed upon him by the impish Puck.16-17). Those who have read the play will know that Bottom and Titania the bowed are enchanted Athens and will note that the dark elements of the wood outside the bright moonlight. and her chin tilts up almost surrounded by tiny but fully developed fairies. provides a charming vision of pure delight. the moon stars. gives ly into two triangles. Those who have not read the play will be struck by the childlike innocence of what they see: the bright primary colors. the our culture. artist. looks down the context invites us to see as a leer.78 College Literature 31. 1996 cover of the second Classics on its mind. like see is disquieting of the pair. there are no have entirely disappeared?despite shadows. the idyllic setting.4[Fall 2004] covers give "to airy nothing a local habitation" (5. both overcast with grey. us to dated The looks series. who seem gently loving and young very much us a cover and somewhat dark threatening. the fairy queen. Behind ded with are Titania. doubling on the woman with a broad grin. as she places a rope of blossoms over sitswith folded hands. Caught up in chasing each other or the border between no attention to the dreamer. The cover of the 1951 A Midsummer Classics Illustrated the style of each res that would in the original Night's Dream. has sex is disturbingly indeterminate. like a child in prayer. Titania kneels. slightly pelvis dreaming the curve of her hip. but her bosom. head of Bottom. which to the sexual than to the innocent. who Young fairies peep out from trees and grass while one soars overhead. the lower right one mainly dark brown lies mottled with patches of dull red. gives more weight than the less shockable of the 1951 version even more The 1996 cover triangle. which lunge from his branch. suggests the cultural attitudes of its time and an interpretation onate with the readers of that time. as though she desires to be kissed. The reader's eye goes first to the in the center of a sylvan scene with an outline great golden moon floating is a deep blue sky stud the moon like a cloud or thought balloon. eyes demurely downcast. The artist. half-exposed by the d?col emphasizing are sensu turns upward. In the lower triangle a young woman one to a tree. In the upper postmodern. that at first glance fairies. male and female?all some also naked below?whose unclad above the waist. riding on a bee.1. very today. The erotic emphasis of this cover. and what we Illustrated version. the upper left divided diagonally a medium one predominantly blue. Alex Blum. below would strike readers readers of today. The slightly open lips letage of her clinging dress. playful activity forms the two triangles. these smiling fairies pay forward as if about to human-sized the upper triangle the Puck. and Bottom. She is ously inviting. the title block. and uninterested totally In contrast. the the sweetness in sex. Richard Case. but in inviting pursuit. at is Her of turned foot the side. beneath the weaver. stands a strange grey form .

18-21) Case our turns us. Stars are high in the distance. but in the the moonlight the surreal shape appears to loom. his co-creators. The tree seems rootless. beneath an intervening lies stretch of the cover's white and beneath background. but by ture. or played against. except that the drawings have been recolored by a com puter.1. when Jan Kott's book Shakespeare. How easy is a bush supposed a bear! (MND 5. the huge cloud containing Bottom Overlooked first. A reader today might Illustrated version dismiss by 1951. Careful from the stump are not only but also various projections kinds of the standing pipes that sprout from rooftops?what appeared a tree is not just organic but also man-made. has been empha Richard Case.MarionD. imagining some fear. The enigmatic object remains mysterious. fearful imagination so its inspection shattered branches reveals that the than create a striking cover for this comic The artist has done more our imaginations to construct the meaning of his pic book. By compelling us a in reading the comic. we the perspective thoughtfully. and more of Case's. he not only interests sophisticated s us to that Theseus belief accept artfully prepares sleight-of-hand Such tricks hath strong imagination That. which since 1964. into an illustration we The interpretation give this cover?half the cultural attitudes of Shakespeare's words. of 1996 rather than imaginations?reflects the covers of this later version though the artwork between that 45 years earlier. Or in the night. summons up the play's shadow side. version cover of the first the less sophisticated senti of A Midsummer Night's Dream as merely Classics but when mental or somewhat Victorian. It comprehends the bringer of that joy. looking back at Blum's work from can see more. played down. is identical to . floating toward the dreamer and the viewer on a patch of blue that could be either water or sky. leaving people and things less clearly defined. but pretation no longer be ignored by a psychologically conscious audience. more open to interpretation. Instead of contrasting appear more magical sharply. inter that can like its horns. at and Titania. if itwould but apprehend some joy. unnatural and nightmarish. The slight haze that mutes sickle of crescent moon blank veiled behind this dark form looks as a to strike the increasingly grey front begins The face. threatening. artist. The bold primary colors of the first cover have been replaced by a more muted world of the later the moonlit and shaded palette that makes and less certain. colors shade into one another. half-created perceived. Our sized by many productions Contemporary discussed Shakespeare's Dream as an erotic nightmare?an that is now played up. Perret 79 seems like the remains of a blasted tree.

and she has a this dreamer represent us? The cover raises for the reader struc Shakespeare does through his "boxes-within-boxes" do we know whether we are fully awake or in the forest and the newly married couples and Thisbe. although Brabantio has not yet said one word character against the man diminishes along with who the tension noble "stole" his daughter. aman in Athenian garb. taking up most of the cover. In retro we one cannot realize that this dreamer of the characters. as lago and Othello to kill Brabantio for the bad things the adapter's "honest" lago says. I love his daughter Desdemona side of things" (Shakespeare 1994b. young lovers who Could nightmare. such optimism may seem somewhat shows illustrated list of characters the helpfully justified: Othello as a handsome man dressed in flowing desert robes. . No thought bubbles connect him to the peaceful vision that floats above him.60) is reduced to the adapter's pedestrian. fall asleep in the forest. which adapts the plays' stories for children. vii).4[Fall Literature 2004] dreamer. The practice of adjusting text or emphasis to accord with current issues and values is far from new. the same question ture of layers of reality: How like Bottom dreaming? We. Pyramus watching like these occur only upon reflection. this however one For instance. await the angry Brabantio book. visually aMoor. The preface to Charles and Mary Lamb's Tales from the writ Shakespeare. view Though we assume the dream is the man's. may be players unaware that we are in a play. thoughts and actions" in 1973 as a series (1807. appealing to the audi can a it is hard for readers to recognize become problematic because ence. laudable its intent. the Pendulum Classics. conceived for schoolchildren. emphasizes bias book to comic they share. carefully eliminate as far as possible references that might seem insensitive to a raised consciousness. In this spirit. of the four be spect. a withdrawing from all selfish and mer a sweet lesson of all and honorable cenary thoughts. 10).80 College 31. but that each cover inspection or de-emphasizes to the concerns of its culture is according Such natural and timeliness. 10). Othello's as the astonishing calm under threat of Shakespeare's "Keep up your bright swords. problem purging replaces Pendulum's the comic effort to make Othello inoffensive at times renders it obscure. making the visual connection left out by the artist. not knowing the play.What Shakespeare wrote may be misrepresented readers who. strengtheners of virtue. for the dew will rust them" (1. only one dreams. we are not told this?the another er interprets. "I wanted he said about you!" (Shakespeare 1994b. after close Interpretative questions of the cover picture or reading of the story. though instantly apparent. In this version. cannot detect interpretative manip ulation of picture or text. In and his men. sometimes with another. ends with that both young and mature readers will find the plays "enrichers ers' wish of the fancy. "It's good that you did and think that he will come to see my n't.2.

unbiased need for her to be tamed. never used. we may not even realize of to present the men's and the correctness of their authority assumption truth. The comic book seems film. woman alone. six. physical characteristics not even his age. Seventeen with his fiery future wife. alone with Kate. what we see through Kate and through the selec . the hero does not look black. Perret 81 which in a note as "a person from the northern part of Africa" is explained In this Othello. that the rivalry for ed and. but panel shows a version is male-dominated. torments Kate the three for panels in which Except no to existence have Bianca about her suitors. One of the first impressions Taming of the Shrew (Shakespeare 1994c) is that most of the scenes are crowd if the reader does not know the play. We never see Kate's face in close-up. none of Othello's is mentioned. and only panels. without offense reveals the difficulty of condensing giving or making showing Shaping them bias. with other men as well as Kate. three panels show Petruchio by himself. Visually. Crucial motivations also disappear: why ety from which Desdemona to he Brabantio his the hero often invited into objects daughter's marrying more his home. women appear apart from men. the rival suitors. Petruchio gets ten panels entirely to himself. especially sense this partly because the Kate and Petruchio Bianca is the main plot. oquy until something to the reader's impres of the panels contributes the men's visual dominance sion that men control even a shrew's domestic world. and the word "black" is (9). Here. plays sometimes perceived as to be drawn. any shaping through with the play. this educational series longer clear. which of the material precedes cannot be detected by one unfamiliar treatment. eight. not women. he he plans and puts into action alone or with is just one of the guys. play.MarionD. but it can affect the reader's sense of the play and the values it the reader gets of Pendulum's The endorses. rather which than as the tamer. To deprive Othello of his rich blackness the impoverishes source Venetian soci for Othello loses the cultural of his the self-doubt. they no book. through selection visual too bland to be interesting. even In this comic about in talk three these men. albeit with the suitors for Bianca as yet another wooer. and why Othello believe Desdemona find Cassio would might are no at attractive than he. whom we see only in terms of her In retrospect. or ser encounter vants. partly because Petruchio appears among a different object. In fact. comes. show him other men?Kate's because the world of the play men. We scenes receive much less attention. as we do so often in are crowded?with Zeffirelli's that Shakespeare gives Kate no solil like this comic forces that recognition upon us. The panels tend of shrew-taming his methods in to father. Glancing into comics form.What we see of Kate illustrates the their values as objective. his first panels depict In this sequence. we realize that most of the scenes in this response to Petruchio.

2. that you emphasizing Kate are "What comic book's the the last words of send for me?" (5. This shrew gets small chance to state her case. calls into question more a shrew and shrewd. depending appreciation in Shakespeare's 5. reshaping of Shakespeare's scene. insur (5. rather formally. Though her action of bringing wife's duty to her husband is cut. this on scene not in in later the last but this only shaping. [She kisses him. changes capitulate. No. because he gives it. When a him Kate. usually to the audience?unseen Petruchio indicate by him.] Now. however. lest they turn back once more home: "Nay. fortunately rejection by asking for though embarrassed. 60). In the Pendulum humiliation not only by her words. in for Kate for kiss the street. my husband?" 1994c. of visually for his intelligence. wit. Where "What of a comic . sir. the play's Kate is obedience.82 College Literature 31. this time in Kate's line. it is Petruchio who us I will kiss you" (Shakespeare let home mind: "Then his go again. 57). for this Kate too much is well ambi some power over her husband?the for children does not offer text reinforces the comic's visual guity.141).1. as for the first time Petruchio version the scold's new if his wife refuses him. In the play. allows us to regard her resentment as less pathological than logical. An affection not ver (Shakespeare in the confines book. Since most women the clothing today would now Kate directors have when first she intolerable.The that Kate. In this to not does have Kate book. your will. no mere household slave. Their version of this play focuses on obedience or not Kate and Petruchio love power relationships. is it you wish. just mated. complies lovingly.104).1 Petruchio risks public the actor. Feminists comic about the mutuality not matched. As if to insure that a version verbal not worry of their relationship. would If they could have seen this later adaptation for children. stay" Pendulum version gives their brief exchange five panels. has ing that the readers will recognize power he gives her by loving her. physique. but the adapter's silent shaping invites us to experience Kate's viewpoint and to think about it. of their rela in the street illustrates the growing mutuality brief exchange to risk public trusts Kate enough tionship.4[Fall 2004] tion of material for each panel. the Lambs as have perceived the male-dominant interpretation accurately repre senting Shakespeare's vision. He gets the kiss he orders. strength. Iwill give thee a kiss. and. and suggests relationship for the couple complex found obedience is demonstrated than can be pictured asks. need 1994c. another small but significant adjustment of the balance of power between text. but by conclusively her long lecture on a in the other wives. Whether is apparently not worth mentioning: Kate simply must learn to herself and accept the fact that her husband governs even the food and domestic each other control she eats and meets on such a situation course?her find she wears. pray thee love.

astride the Just if we mail who is a warrior.2. which in the play and critics of the play. raises questions aminor but repeated visual detail may sug (1996). The last panel in the comic book shows the smiling couple about to depart.275). about every male of the appropriate age in Elsinore may judge by what they wear. will notice it does not answer. sword and dagger. offers the play's text uncut. however. they taking on or an in their roles act." changed words may also suggest her awareness of a power which the husband's whim is iron while the comic's into the ambiguity of the play's text. full page panel fallen body of Old Fortinbras. Kate is delighted other household Kates" (2. the Prince. unlikely more attention between picture Nevertheless. and Polonius. skillfully filled by his uncle. Petruchio and Kate like. to have dwindled cerned. This constant visual (1. The picture husband's request for another public kiss her long speech irony that complicates Our final view of Petruchio and Kate underlie although the the in relationship text suggests a little of as far as this comic book is con a Kate "comformable as her of of Kate is untinged in the play. (Shakespeare 1994a) or omit: Denmark's this Dane emphasizes what other films and tense relationship with Norway. Even the gentle Horatio wears chain and Guildenstern.D. The nearly omnipresent armor keeps us conscious of invasion and aware that this of the possibility now a has role. which in this medium. and she curtseys. proper just putting society. that trouble both film Hamlet the interplay text. a heavy drape.86) to fight affects Hamlet's reminder of the need for courage and for willingness our sense sense of himself and would of affect him.1. he bows. who pay that the young readers for whom to visual text than to verbal and word. blissfully enjoying by the possibility adds a different complication. the result is double-vision this comic is designed. Perret 83 Marion in the comic's version of the street scene may bally expressed switch from "will" to "wish" and from "sir" to "my husband. and helmet indoors. as do Rosencrantz when we first see him is pictured as a vigorous man in his prime. had not the artist pic . unlike his scholar son. It is. shows a virile Old Hamlet. another. beside Kate. or sincerely taking up in playing with each other? This comic book at times merely delighting Before them seems points to be less uncertain at once: of its interpretation than trying to give two view for the mind's eye. prince political philosophical as as to the reader: "suits of woe" to Hamlet is symbolic well Clothing represent one kind of duty. is prepared for war. side by side in a last farewell. armor. sword drawn. gest questions characters Branagh's Anticipating version the Pendulum comic The books downplay first. invite us to think of the bowing These theatrical elements couple as what a actors look curtain Are successful call." is a largish stretch of empty floor. The King wears a dagger. visually. We view them over the shoulders of those who marvel that "Petruchio has indeed tamed a shrew.

The silent threading of scenes becomes a commentary that clothing consideration. however. what most ers she mistakenly emotions. since she. partly because as a was of monster" introduced earlier description jealousy "green-eyed look (64).84 College Literature 31. whom it has turned into amonster. This of color clarifies on the mocking basic level. lago face distorts and begins to turn emerald (84). priority Shakespeare books remains clarity of story line. Here costume colors as well as hair color to whom. but also of Othello. the quartet of (Shakespeare to help us keep track of who should belong together: the two brunettes and the two blondes (Helena and Demetrius) (Hermia and reader ismost likely to become are the confused about which Lysander).1. of desire unnaturally created by the fairy juice. are use thinks her. Acclaim in nature's she lacks (Demetrius turns angrily on the admir and self-confidence). Oscar Zarate. whom lago is reshap ing into his own distorted image. are clad the object sky blue and leaf green. and the artist. the setting of the second temptation becomes expressionistic. begins.The appro of this color change is immediately the priateness apparent. wears red. As lago tortures Othello. with shapes and colors acting as visible of the invisible and inner battle between scene (4. tightly focused on colors. the color of pas sionate love and flaring anger?appropriately.The computer-recolored lovers is color-coded proper pairings in 3. the artist may at times invite questioning that leads to more about the the basic in comic probing thought play. lago by forcing him to at his mental of Cassio's closely picture lying "with" or "on" s Desdemona.1) blue) walk black seem In a more interpreters love and fidelity Othello's ("true" scene As the and lago Iago's jealousy (green). should belong In both versions help the reader remember who Hermia and Lysander. complex action of and character.4[Fall 2004] tured the Prince value-laden deepens caped and muscled throughout the like Superman. where nearly all allegiances are broken and the estab lished pattern is turned inside out. in both the original Gilberton edition of A Midsummer Night's Dream (Shakespeare 1951) and the Though edition 1997). In both versions Helena. partly because the spreading green reflects the jealousy not only of lago. true lovers instinctively drawn to each other. For instance. guiding our understanding of the action and the characters' sophisticated art version such as the Workman sequential a more Othello (Shakespeare color often produces 1983). Much of the action of Othello is inter understanding interested in picturing nal. seems almost more the workings of a character's mind and heart than in presenting external actions in the unfolding torments As Othello plot. Othello that seems disturbingly unstable: diagonal colonnade through amoonlit shadows cast by the blue pillars on the lavender blue wall make the wall .

imprisoning blue cage. color clarifies both the quence dramatic upon the it does so depends and the psychological subtext. Like shape-shifters. As twists Othello's the becomes mind. appears a demonic elongated fingers cast spells. time-consuming. In this scene. action an interpretation to the reader. very impor tant question: How much add to should a comic book interpretation ed audience. and the intend find ourselves taking into account the material. surreal. apertures flooded with green light. composition of the page. to sputtering to frozen silence. The phallic blue blade. writhing when he raved of "noses.148)." begin to straighten into columns again. all the aspects of the comic's some more we art play a part. Behind this almost completely creating heart-shaped of jagged blue nerves or veins. green with jealousy. forced to condense. To is a given.When Othello crashes to the floor. But how medium. that most these several means standing In conveying . among changing physical argumentative positions. conveyed how much be teased out of the reader by open-ended images? The comic is the Workman of interpretation text.MarionD. a as as can matter of insight well become perspective. in any case ensuring that he cannot escape his tor deep blue seaweed-like plants that bend and branch. as Will Eisner points out. now green only in his vest. then into a chaos Othello lago. The two men move and columns. Perret 85 in and out than solidly perpendicular. the artist imagines for the reader" (1982. ears. and the watching lago. and lips. isolate any one component of the artwork for consideration. How much of the and his reader's under imagination strength developing of Shakespeare's work. or shape of a panel. we soon the medium. complete Shakespeare's (Shakespeare not is artist the is novel of graphic Because this 130 page comic book length. the blue columns toppling rather these haps protecting Othello. the blue forms. but instead has the luxury of spelling out or suggesting as he chooses. himself whose magician in his pain. a brief consideration of itmay sharpen our focus on a very basic. is artificial and because both However. places the handle of his dagger between Othello's lips. against a background suddenly leached of color. against the green background. though than others. should come from unobtrusive much editing. in this Shakespeare's play? Interpretation "in practice. The advantages and disadvantages of such free interpretations clearly shows Othello dom to interpret visually are apparent in Zarate 's few departures from eye level perspective. rigidly arched in an epileptic fit. how much be interpretation to the viewer by pictures or captions that dictate a single reading. then into huge mentor. though rewarding. per chic relationship. skillfully used. eyesight. which includes 1983). a substitute for Othello's stands but the general has been reduced from elo vertical. Whether powerfully choose to look at color. tongue. reflecting their psy lago setting turn into bars.

pink lips curving Although here the lovers' skin tones blend almost ty is usually pictured as rosy-cheeked. his widened face?a right eye. of propriety. divided by high hedges. The terrible dis .2 he creates a full-page panel (1983. stacked vertically the top one ("O. structured images of face and hand mark important points in Carefully "If it were now to die. diagonally at the bottom is pleading his case to Othello. from they depart together Separated by the shrubbery. while move tells him how determinedly downward through the maze. Mapping Shakespeare clarity to provide this view captures both the isolation and interconnectedness of those ments. are so united the other. to summarize 3. in spirit that they cannot be and that they. nostril. entering at the upper left corner. to their apparent figures cast shadows far out of proportion uses this kind of distancing perspective. which however.86 College 31. and the top two-thirds of his In the bottom panel portrait heedless we see Desdemona's right ("My dear Othello!") a Venetian this beau into and chin. these happy. as he greets his bride in tier of four panels pictures panel at the left edge is a the panel at the right edge out his soul to his beloved. the lovers is but half himself without flesh. and lago departing on the right to find Othello to see Cassio and Desdemona they conferring. the shifting relationship of Othello 'twere now to be most Cyprus (Shakespeare the lovers' profound wordless shows Between formal the man. rarely for the reader. The overhead perspective allows us to view the characters working their way through a literal maze sun the into a symbolic one of their own creation?in the late afternoon causes. Cassio." declares Othello 1983. Zarate symbols per square inch of any aware of the reader's need for is enough overviews when many plot strands come the most panels giving actions that would be confusing if viewed at eye together in simultaneous level.Together imperceptibly that each of two pictures create the illusion of half a single face. For instance. and the bottom joy at being reunited. Olympian foresee that what will some lords. 57) the characters' move giving a bird's-eye view of a garden maze. standing toward the so he can bring him center. Instead. Zarate. at the bottom left Othello detachment. not yet one separated. my fair warrior!") we see an extreme close-up of Othello's bit of his brow. At the top of the panel. suggesting nose. pouring In two panels are two much smaller ones. and Desdemona. who walk its alleys. he favors visual synec information objective foreshortened provides draws the doche: tight close-ups on parts of the body whose expressiveness to from observation reader interpretation. Emilia joins Cassio and. across the slender white the space dividing the panels. smile.4[Fall Literature 2004] Although his graphics offer comic book.With goes about business as usual with the reader can see how all these actions relate and come may not be good. are three figures: Emilia. The of the military hero. 34). Desdemona right of the panel to them seek her.

about Desdemona lago and Cassio talking. The contrast in words and coloring accents their the eyes now window the lovers' divided souls. Only slightly more helpful is of word and image as we hear Othello say. wisp of ("What horrible fancy's this?") we see Desdemona gold en hair. lago!" Distracting haunt reader.2. difference. seething with jealousy. We grasp almost without whose woman. 90-91). this ing upon his wall. right eye. in the bush scene thinks. 88). "O. reflecting a as were a acts his wife in his home in if he brothel. potent oversimplifies manly husband who. match only in mirrored left panel ("Let me see your eyes: look in my face") we see Othello's dark and in bloodshot brown the skin. however. a of world and that we. can still say "But yet the pity of as illuminating. as Othello the of leaves shadows 1983. symbolically cutting off both song and breath. like awild animal lurking es to watch Sometimes (4. Although s fear that her gesture motivates lago "Strangle her" and suggests Othello's it the than his charms are more resolution. she out of a bear!" and see his hands close on the neck virtue. 159). primitive emotions. Othello become busy co-creators out in As Scott McCloud "Ifwords lock in the Comics. but often out by surreal artwork that excites the viewer's imagination. On Shakespeare wrote seems s in emotion it that Zarate of Othello pages nearly every expressed or or a literal is expanded undercut by visual equivalent. shaggy eyebrow. points Understanding a can take off" of then the sequence. must images to find struggle through . betrayed. Zarate 's images disturb and some plays to be seen and heard. Perret 87 tance that grows between in another composite them is visually represented one now believing action this the of where 4. Two panels.1). resembling green spear points (Shakespeare become slashes that make his face look like one of the African masks hang return to raw. In the second temptation we see Othello. (1993. like Othello. whore. Othello. weighed the visual image leads to real insight. thinking that the woman of her nose? but why is a chunk missing from one side represents Desdemona. When Othello talks with lago about his conversation with Cassio 1983. close-ups of their eyes. the ironic juxtaposition will sing the savageness this of this statue. than apt. pictures really 'meaning' Here Shakespeare's words are honored by use of the full text. nearly all the panels contain the bust of a golden (Shakespeare nose has been broken. words metaphoric. right panel s fair skin.MarionD. the visual image seems more puzzling Sometimes. (96). If it is a symbol for the "divine" Desdemona's supposed fall from a chipped nose seems hardly adequate. Readers of theWorkman of meaning. not decoded. Suggesting Othello's image pictures a passion intense and simple: love for Cassio in no way com plicates his desire to kill his friend. and blue left eye. the believing himself as well it. face extreme In the composition.

4[Fall 2004] what or expressionistic images a visual commentary assume a life of their own. ultimately. At times exotic readers may look more closely at the words. "gazing at the successive pictures of the . and to the readers' need for vision. Zarate s artwork calls attention with the action of the play. like every playwright. resonance of Shakespeare's words for the complex units. or image. stage of "picture-reading. In elaborating on the psychological sub text of a character's words. images and words say imply. in a comic book or the reader's imagination? whether starts with the script. the irony of what Othello unspoken but must not be missed?for in the heat of battle. visual interpretation should bring out the emo is the lines so that the reader cannot overlook what tional reality underlying instance. like other books.The art of Shakespeare their understanding work. perhaps into psychological into words less nuanced and precise individuality. they drawing comic book based upon Othello has a triple obligation?to Shakespeare's of Shakespeare's vision. whose words must be seen on the page before they can audience be heard or resonate worried in the mind. The excitement of a fully realized performance? on stage or screen.When is real and who is honest. terms that reduce to translate their own responses. Shakespeare's where words become visible rather than audible graphic medium. explicitly mov'd" control what we 1983. is now "much unshakable that this hero. the primary task for the artist of a comic book version is to convey as clearly as possible what the play says. denies. itmay interfere with the character's of the play as a whole. will be evaluated not just for itself but also in relation to the source it illustrates and illuminates. but they do so less for clarifica tion of details of Shakespeare's of the one love story than for confirmation as are co-creators from Yet artist of a the the because images. powerful images invite readers interpretation." a psy century ago Fredric Wertham. every artist. becoming that competes to itself. Zarate should not be self-indulgent vision?he at times moves too far from the world of the play into the surreal world of his personal and his intrusive. never get past the love comics would that is. comics.88 College Literature 31. responsibility to present what his for he has an obligation what suggest. What only have more relevance to their lives than to Shakespeare's play. to be fleshed out in performance for the theater or the mind's eye. certainly not readers make of these images may than Shakespeare's. appreciates a receptive and Though responsive audience. a is implied by allow time for grasping what particular phrasing This Words are a play's bones. to his perception or invite the reader to be so. Haifa that children who chologist. 66). offers opportunity to be savored along with whatever images the artist uses to stage the play for the reader's mind: because they are a print medium. Zarate cannot completely (Shakespeare we not him for from all free but this does make of what see.

but they can it remains true that and new questions. is a time when comics superheroes appear in films and betting they still will. with study guides.139). even to a small degree. the are comics as worth well illustrate and changes Despite analyzing Do comic book versions other than those focused of students before the pro the need to condense. for almost 40 years later Roger Sabin notes that both "industry PR" and some comics artists speak of comic books as comic book with aminimal in a comic book. Hamlet. a theater. a generation that go with Illustrated versions a helpful liferation of analytical cribs found the Classics its built-in to the plays.D.272). even a scholar can learn from a comic book. Perret 89 Marion con reading of printed letters" (1954.50). of his skill. when more and older students are turning to graphic novels for can base sophisticat exciting artwork and adult content. though they are and though only a few of them (Mandrake's substitute for Shakespeare as s Pollock's Zarate Othello. in any course that introduces students to Shakespeare. the Acclaim introduction series. set still pictures of action into motion. The out in into dramas books from stories and histories played ing process of translating narratives from page to stage taught Shakespeare how so effectively4 that his stories shine and sur to use the power of his medium action tends to be striking in terms of phys prise even in amedium where a comic ironic than rather ical violence plot twists.Yet generation" are part of the visual pattern. when Neil Gaiman ed comic and college books on A Midsummer teachers may Nights Dream and The Tempest. in a different medium brings fresh insights. "Narrative its medium" of 1999. not a cerebral medium" 1987. they no do. together synergistically.The playwright did not invent twice-heard the story is?if his tales: he borrowed turn and adapted plots from sources in other media. his task of quickening words Sharing for a short time. At commercials. words hear printed panels. The process of reading as we to his fill in what happens between book version joins our imagination as sounds. While give a teacher fresh perspective the "comics are a visual. for the post-literate (1993. a reader who does not know the play is likely itself is a deep structure he ever pauses to reflect. when (McKenzie not in his medi and word interaction between artist catalyzes only picture um but also in the reader's mind. with visual images teaches and increases appreciation of Shakespeare have a place in college courses on comics or other narrative graphic art?Yes. visual and verbal literacy work where words and careful looking at comics challenges thought. While Seeing Shakespeare ver a and of well the pages skillfully illustrated comic book adapted turning to be struck by how good sion. high school discover that a comic book version of a Shakespeare . King Lear) have pictures that illuminate as art. "literature Comic books may not answer a scholar's complex questions. His cern was to some extent justified. but what makes a (Chatman quite independent tale absorbing is the way it is told. 435).

Using the panel of a comic book version in class can lead them to focus on details. comic in using them. seeing and adjusting vision. by posing reflecting open-ended questions. can a of become unless the teacher leads the class to power pictures problem see the way the version differs from its source: since for most of us sight is the dominant student may remember what the comic sense. can take about 12 minutes such as "Why would the artist choose to show a skull in the pupil of Hamlet's does this suggest about what eye just after he has killed Polonius? What is thinking? Is there any other character who might appropriately Hamlet be pictured with a skull as his center of vision?" A quiz question focusing on a single visual detail like this can teach students how to move from recogniz . What. but a way of making his relevance Interpreting Shakespeare clear to each century. Class comics freshly at something they thought they knew. around the page.90 College 31. When only a few panels or a few pages are used in class (which is qualifies as "fair use"). students learn from college on the students' willingness comic books depends as much to Shakespeare are as on the of serious attention suspend any disbelief that comics worthy teacher's Even resource students' imagination so. "Why?" and "So what?"This of class time and specific leading questions first. and it is hard to for a comic book ver justify spending as much as for a paperback edition of the sion of Shakespeare the play. in culture and val Although many students today are sensitive to differences come a to few to class how do close reading of a ues. ifying character. responsively. most often by repeat nudged process. But what play provides really makes these comic books useful pedagogically is that the cutting required by the medium inescapably interprets Shakespeare by reshaping plots and mod to themes and dramatic structure. Reading well-designed as of moves mind while visual the for eye develops agility increasing literacy. Shakespeare knowing or even verbal these students text. once they have learned to see these. can and an and comic books be thoughtfully. the mind moves around ideas. whether visual. the floundering book showed rather than what the playwright said. this problem can less likely to arise. book versions are an underexplored of Shakespeare to to engage the exercises seeking design imaginative of a few panels can lead students to look discussion for the teacher interest. to of students interactive interesting way introducing reading. Shakespeare lives through his writings only when they are read carefully. Furthermore. by directing attention by cultural values and bias. they can be toward considering more deeply and broadly. at ing variations of two basic questions. and the attention span of is likely to be short.4[Fall Literature 2004] a point of connection with their students. and how well. can Shakespeare How comic books be used effectively in a literature a class? They should probably not be used whole: few versions are easy only to obtain. is not sacrilege.

as the limitations just the nature the capabilities ever more of staging and thus sees in the process of get clearly how he must shape the production. a comes to know director rehearsing. author of The Complete Guide 1 For to Classics art" Illustrated. Aware of his medium immediately in practical as well as theoretical terms. but for all time. awareness of what makes Shakespeare. Interpreting Shakespeare's plays First is an "If As Bernice indeed Kliman observes. 2 To avoid confusion comic book s text. 62)." "What difference does make?" or "What kind of relationship do you think these characters have this moment?" "How would you expect them to react if someone walked "Why do they not and character like this at in respond this way?" can lead to questions to their shaping. script ting play as old as the plays is almost size as needed. students may learn to appreciate Shakespeare's artistry grammar school of double scene carefully. comic books problems These of the text. Shakespeare kept on learning as he went on writing. Quarto] [the of his actors as well of Hamlet. in the quotations . as Dan Malan. concerns arise because of comic books. Today. but minds. informed me. he may have learned in acting version to appreciate the artistry of classical authors through a Latin into English. Used imagina shaping and understanding can help the college student begin to recognize critical and theoretical concerns. then reflecting upon how by a similar process: by reading a that simplifies and clarifies. Perret 91 Marion its significance. or place influences tively. then cutting. to cut to the he will condense or empha from the page stage. "Lake is about a 3rd generation publisher ofthat author. While not of the nature of Shakespeare's medium.D. then from this English translation: from process back into Latin. Like other Elizabethan schoolboys. themselves. of simple questions ing a fact to examining Sequences or wrong with "What's missing this picture?. "not of an age. since." Notes accuracy as well as clarity. the series now entitled the Lake Illustrated Classics. as even his rival Ben Jonson acknowl edged. is identified inmy text not as Lake but as Pendulum. of only line 9 February). Comic means of helping students grasp that a single text may be interpreted several and that the culture of the time ways. transposing." that go beyond and enjoyable books can be a convenient only a text. currently distributed by American Guidance Service. that the text itself is an interpretation. then turn this is translated into a visual medium to them an increased bringing with ing back study the verbal medium. Looking carefully at a plot well chosen panel in class may help students comprehend more about adap can open up not tation than poring over books would: the shared exploration unexpectedly?. interpreting. numbers in Shakespeare's from Shakespeare text with not found page in the numbers comic's to the e-mail (2000. began almost after Hamlet was first staged" (1988.

Television."Deconstructive Schmitt. Preface. Shakespeare. but changed. McKenzie. Sabin. "Berkley. First. New York: R. Eisner. Chatman s point is one whose narrative grasp those truth we reveals can with all recognize: great the "Close the for study peculiar of film powers and novel of the versions two media. Authors Illustrated. of the Once and same we impact clarity reasons peculiarities. Will. Charles.Tuck & Sons. Lamb. 5th. ed.4 Literature [Fall 2004] version are given act. Image-Music-Text. Classics Illustrated:A Cultural History with Illustrations. 61. Wang. Hamlet. 1989. "What Novels Can Do That Films Can't (AndVice Versa). Adapted by Dana E. Roland.William. therefore cultural in the attitudes text. William 1807 Reprint. Jefferson. Works Cited Andrew. By Mary and Charles Lamb. Jones. MA: Kitchen Sink Press. Jr. it is both more accurate and less date ance confusing of are to give when given the date when artwork have the Works or text first appeared The entry dates rather of first than the reprinting. In examining how the covers of the Pendulum Classics and Acclaim Books reflect the values of their cultures. How toDraw and Sell Comic Stripsfor Newspapers and Comic Books! Cincinnati: North Light Books.Tamarac. Roger. Trans. and Criticism. Cited appear complete contains bibliographical 3 Andrew Explaining notes information. McCloud. Adaptation 97). FL: Poorhouse Press. of the two versions strikingly emerge" (1999. Hill & Chatman. Comics and Sequential Art. "the hermeneutic we can go circle. Ronald. Bernice Kliman. Concepts in Film Theory.. Leo Braudy andMarshall Cohen. 2000. New York: Routledge. Adult Comics: An Introduction. CT: Illustrated by Henry Press. 436). 9 February. Bridgeport. 1901. content. Famous 1950. Alan. E-mail to the author. and line numbers indicating where the passage may be found in Bevington s edition of The Complete Works of Shakespeare. 2002. ed. Understanding Comics. Dan. about central to interpretation and analyzing that "before theory. New York: Oxford University 1977. Stephen Heath. New York: Oxford University Press. Kiefer. 8. Comics. 1987. 1984. Seymour. Tales from Shakespeare. Unless another source is identified. Hamlet: Film. Dudley." Dudley a text we must discussing is similarly both a leap and a have a global conception of itsmeaning. Northampton. New York: Press. 1982. scene. 1993. Seaboard . 4 Though he is not discussing plays and comic books." Journal of Popular Culture 25:153 1992. Barthes. 1993. W 1988. process" (1984. Malan. NC: McFarland. NJ: Fairleigh-Dickinson University Press.92 College 31. 1999." In Film. Beth. andAudio Performance. 48. the differences in form. Levine. Theory. and CMG Join to Revive Publishers Weekly. the number in parentheses is the number of the page in the comic book being discussed. B.Rutherford." Scott. 24 November. Dutch. Classics Illustrated.

CA: Lake Illustrated Classics. Cruz. Fredric. Othello. 1994a Hamlet. Hamlet. Pendulum Classics. Illustrated by E. A Midsummer Nights Dream. -. -. Othello. The Complete Works -. Adapted by Samuel Willinsky. New York: -. Illustrated by Oscar Zarate. Blum. Foresman. Adapted by Samuel Willinsky. Ed. Perret 93 -. Adapted by Samuel Willinsky. -. 1990. 1951. Wertham. 1952.ed. 99. York: Gilberton. New York: Berkley/First. A Midsummer Illustrated Nights Dream. 1994b. Blum. TTie Seduction of the Innocent. New A. Adapted by Steven Grant. The Taming of the Shrew. of Shakespeare. 1997. 1980. Scott. -. Adapted by Naunerle Farr. Illustrated by Fred Carillo. Reprint Belmont. Classics Illustrated 87. -. Reprint Belmont. 1954. CA: Lake Illustrated Classics. 3rd. CA: Lake Illustrated Classics. View Reprint.Marion D. -. 1983. Adapted by Naunerle Farr. 1980. New York: Gilberton. Illustrated by Alex A. Adapted by Naunerle Classics. Pendulum Classics. 87. Reprint Belmont.New York: Rinehart. cover by Richard Case. R. Hamlet. Classics Glenville: Illustrated. 1980. David Bevington. Gilberton. 1951. Farr. . Blum. New York:Workman Publishing. Illustrated by Tom Mandrake. Classics Illustrated 5. Illustrated Classics by Alex Illustrated by Alex A. Pendulum 1994c. 1980.

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