Is King Lear an Antiauthoritarian Play? Author(s): Johannes Allgaier Reviewed work(s): Source: PMLA, Vol. 88, No. 5 (Oct., 1973), pp.

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the righteousness of total obedience to such a God. The Christian knight worships woman as a symbol and a means of redemptivelove. The proponents of the view that Shakespeare was in a Christian frame of mind when he was writing King Lear sometimes.3 It seems to me that the controversy is at least in part due to a misunderstanding of Christianity or the Christian cultural tradition. and that it therefore makes virtue prevail in the end. This confrontation of doctrine. Why? Because the Fifth Commandment explicitly lays down such a demand and actually sets forth a specific reward for compliance. for example. Western Christianity emphasizes sin and repentance and tolerates the concept offelix culpa. an emphasis that tends to determine the man-God relationship by love and compassion rather than by respect and obedience. To understand the true nature of doctrine one must take a look at the underlying ambivalence. it may appear in the light of what has been said so far that Shakespeare." which. or the existence of an absolute moral order.47) upon which not only Lear but every man is bound.2 that the play is deeply pessimistic. that it affirms the victory of good over evil. fail to distinguish between the doctrine of the Christian religion and the ethos of a cultural tradition that was shaped by Christianity. whose false sense of security should make the philosopher chuckle. said to be held by some critics. retributive justice. as Swinburne did. so vehemently asserted by modern criticism. and their opponents always. and often contradictory doctrines. the Western ethos holds a fascination with Satan as a rebel against an omnipotent God. we arrive at a picture which may be briefly delineated as follows. that in writing King Lear Shakespeare deliberately examined such Christian concepts as divine providence. in writing King Lear. and ethos. an image that should make the poet cry in agony.182).1 On the contrary. ultimately the specifically. such as the omnipotence of God. Doctrine. Western Christianity is unique in its emphasis upon the dignity of suffering in general. has given rise to it. took a critical look at some of the basic doctrinal tenets of Western Christianity. Christian moral doctrine holds that children must honor and obey their parents. if we look at the ethos of Western Christianity. Indeed.4 Thus. namely the confrontation between Cordelia and her father. and that the poet found these tenets out of tune with the ethos of the culture to which he belonged. rather than at its various. partly at least. which was becoming ever more untrustworthy as a reflection of reality to the inquiring mind of the Renaissance. and finally. forms the philosophical basis of the generating circumstance of King Lear. and the majority of modern critics It becomes at once clear that if such a picture of the ethos of Western Christianity is correct. the happy guilt which mysteriously strengthens the bond of love between man and God. or the existence of some universal moral order. victory of love over hate. as in Milton's Paradise Lost. contrary to the natural ideas of justice" ("Notes" to King Lear). like human consciousness. is to a very large extent the result of rationalization. cannot be said to be unChristian.JOHANNES ALLGAIER Is King Lear an Antiauthoritarian Play? OST modern criticism of King Lear directs itself resolutely against the notion.vii. the pessimism of King Lear. The ethos of the culture to which Shakespeare belonged had encouraged the formation of a Christian knighthood in aid of a suffering Redeemer who is not omnipotent and who is subject to fate. a M 1033 . changing. which was based on a myth that held undiminished sway over the Elizabethan imagination as it did over that of many preceding and succeeding generations. namely longevity. or that at worst it was a "wheel of fire" (iv. and the suffering of Christ in particular. thought by Freud to be "characteristic of religion. and came to the conclusion that at best man's world was a "great stage of fools" (Iv. Johnson felt that "Shakespeare has suffered the virtue of Cordelia to perish in a just cause. Dr. that the forms play part of the Christian tradition.

Hazlitt.And once made the distinctionsof folk-tale are never revoked. and as obstinate. or to suspect.5 But the Christian ethos. But from this it follows that some sense of selfhood. that one must love oneself if one wishes to love one's neighbor. as we have seen. In love man becomes unselfish. for reasons which will soon become clear. that is." The boy justifies his refusal to declare his total devotion to his parents in the first stanza of the poem: "Noughtloves anotheras itself. he is more than ever unstable. it was evoked by Lear's faults-faults. The fatheris a man of long-engraffed weakjudgement. that she is guilty of the sin of pride. The unique position love holds among all human experiences. in part at least. namely."7 H.10 It is interesting that Danby sees the "initial moral distinctions" of a myth beneath the surface of a moral doctrine by the standard of which Cordelia is guilty of pride. is a necessary requirement for love. as well as many others. And being young. sometimes to the extent of laying down his life for his friends. and the superiorityit occupies over all the virtues.The play in this first scene relies on the folk-tale. . as Freud conjectures in Beyond the Pleasure Principle." Bradley even doubts if Cordelia "could have brought herself to plead with her sisters for her father's life." but he warns us that "on the other hand there is mingled with her hatred a touch of personal antagonism and of pride. in "A Little Boy Lost. Granville-Barkerjudges Cordelia more sternly. Nor is it possibleto thought A greaterthan itself to know. Even as keen an observer of the human mind as Sigmund Freud fails to see ambivalence in Cordelia's behavior when he says that she "masks her true self" in the conflict with her father. even though he cannot accept Cordelia's rebellion without pointing out that. it is a rebellion against authority per se.9 However. and Swinburne. the will to be oneself. some consciousness of one's own worth and integrity. Freud's discovery that "hostility hidden in the . contains a strong spirit of disobedience and rebellion. now. According to Thomas Becon's midsixteenth-century Catechism. But surely logical pedants need not shrink from accepting such a paradox as a reflection of reality when modern psychology. especially in Christian ethics. other than his insistence on obedience. In his opinion it will be a fatalerrorto presentCordeliaas a meeksaint. Bradley admires "Cordelia's hatred of hypocrisy and of the faintest appearance of mercenary professions.8 Such eminent critics of Shakespeare as Coleridge.6Conversely. is due to its seeming opposition to the impulse of life itself. . she answers uncalculatingly with pride to his pride even as later she answerswith pity to his misery. and physics. She has more than a touch of her fatherin her. She is as proudas he is. can do no better. Danby makes his point clear by comparing Cordelia's situation to that of Blake's Little Boy. A." What the father demands of the little boy.Folk- A brief reflection on the nature of love will make this clear. Danby seems to be able to approach the problem of Cordelia's conduct without the bias of doctrine. for that matter. [Cordelia's] virtues join with herfather'sfaultsand her sisters'wickedness to makeher 'Nothing'both inevitable and right. some "pride" perhaps. or Lear of his daughters. Nor venerates anotherso.for all her sweetness and her youth. It extends love rather to a sufferingredeemer who merits man's compassion than to an omnipotent Father who demands it. The failure to distinguish between ethos and doctrine has led the overwhelming majority of critics either to doubt that Cordelia means what she says in her refusal to declare total devotion to her father on demand. the will-to-be. C. One may look at love therefore as an abandonment of self to the object of one's love. he is rash at the best of times. John F. as it were. choler working more freely on the infirmspiritsof extremeage. is the only thing which by its very nature cannot be subject to the law of obedience. also find Cordelia guilty of pride. . for how can one abandon or suspend something of which one is not in possession or over which one has no control? Our reflection has yielded a paradox. But Cordelia's refusal to compete with her sisters in singing her father's praise is more than just a rebellion against Lear's obvious faults."1 fact that lets the Fifth Commandment appear unique among the ten. only obedience to God held a prerogative over obedience to parents.1034 Is King Lear an AntiauthoritarianPlay? tale is swift and unambiguous in its initial moral distinctions. often a suspension of self-interest.

In the absence of love Yeats's terriblevision of the future becomes reality. as an abandonment of self to the beloved.the centercannot hold. and the even greater monstrosity of giving in to it. [is] at the root of important cultural formations" (Totem and Taboo. the extremes of bestial selfseeking. Thingsfall apart. so debosh'd. a phenomenon that leads to the sanguinary excesses of most revolutions. 854. ("The SecondComing") Goneril and Regan have allowed their power of love to be usurped by a tyrant. To maintain the very bond of love that unites Cordelia with her father and all free men she sacrifices her fortunes by declaring: .but only by meansof the abhorrent slaveryor by means of perfidy:none are more taken in by flatterythan the proud. and of filial devotion. that part of Cordelia's mind. or activated. exists in almost all cases of intensive emotional allegiance to a particular person. Mereanarchyis loosed upon the world. who wish to be the first and are not. There is in self-despising a false kind of piety and religion. which predisposes her to rebel.iv. pp. the prototype of the ambivalence of human emotions" is stated in terms of another paradox which is closely related to the former.and bold That this our court. indeed [that] it represents the classic case. Lear is demanding no less than the surrenderof that inner worth of a person. tyrannical demand has challenged. And in the end even reason and formal justice are drowned in the flood of hate that seeks to avenge the rape of two human souls. and everywhere The ceremonyof innocenceis drowned. The wicked daughters' monstrous cruelty is the cruelty of the slave turned loose. infectedwith their manners.and your disorder'd rabble Make servantsof their betters. such as the tender and the wicked daughters of Lear. Bodkin does not deem Cordelia capable of embodying both extremes of the ambivalence which.229-45) But the bond of human fellowship can never be based on reason and justice alone. The blood-dimmed tide is loosed. One may therefore say that Goneril and Regan allow themselves to be raped and that they become spiritual prostitutes in the process. (iv. Men so disorder'd. then one may conjecture that Lear's self-seeking. a nobility which is perhaps the only source from which a free man may derive an obligation. dormant until now. namely that of "the father who encounters in separate embodiment in his natural successors. spiritual prostitution. even a father or a king. I have defined love as a suspension of selfinterest. and the essence of a sacrifice is that it is voluntarily made. Shows like a riotousinn. 927). There exists an intimate relationship between the tyrant and the slave which Spinoza described in his Ethics: Flattery also [like love] gives birth to peace or crimeof concord."'2Apparently. It is interesting to note in this context Freud's hypothesis that "the coincidence of love and hate towards the same object. But if Freud's hypothesis is indeed correct. What is worse. A specific challenge has met a specific response. At first their behavior toward their father is entirely rational. as in the case of Goneril and Regan. Appendices 21-22) What noble simplicity and tranquil grandeur mark Cordelia's words in contrast to those of her sisters! Cordelia's nobility is of the kind which obliges. cantankerousness. The full monstrosity of Lear's demand. Maud Bodkin sees in King Lear one of her poetic archetypes. We have no reason to doubt the 1035 justice of Goneril's complaint against her father when she charges. and senile pompousness.yet one who despiseshimselfis the nearestto a proudman. to tear open that sanctuary with the brutality of power and authority means nothing less than submitting to spiritual rape. You strikemy people. and although self-despisingis contrary to pride. To allow anyone. governs our feeling toward the parent. and these two aspects find expression in separate figures. they have accepted payment for it. to accept a reward for it. Reason must indeed be outraged by the old king's importunate egoism. Epicurism and lust Makesit more like a tavernor a brothel Than a grac'dpalace. Here do you keep a hundredknightsand squires. of that sovereign sanctuary within the human heart the integrity of which enables human beings to love.Johannes Allgaier unconscious behind tender love. now becomes clear. even a kingdom. Thus love may be said to bear the nature of a selfsacrifice." To the father "the child may be both loving support of age and ruthless usurper and rival. according to Freud. (I.

namely her total love and devotion. I have stated earlier that most critics of King Lear. goes back to the ritual of the Christian mass. kneels before his daughter who humbly begs his blessing. as that of Western "Christian" drama in general. p. To love my father all. her suffering father receives more than the paternal despot had asked for. or subject and king. if we like. the "Divine Despot" is one of Maud Bodkin's poetic archetypes. As if she were referring to her earlier distinction between filial and conjugal love.if they say They love you all? Haply. but as she is led away to prison we hear no word of regret. oppressedking am I cast down. bearing the marks of his suffering. because some implications of Lear's tragedy may be contrary to Christian doctrine. no more nor less."14 I love your Majesty Accordingto my bond. dear love. (v. No blown ambitiondoth our arms incite.iii. only then may one come to a full understanding of a play the origin of which. fail to distinguish between the doctrine and the ethos of the Christian culture to which Shakespeare belonged. which by its very nature is limited by the authority of a father. with stoic aloofness she comforts her father: We are not the first Who with best meaninghave incurr'dthe worst. (iv.iv.13 relationship between child and father. ThereforegreatFrance My mourningand importun'd tearshath pitied. half my care and duty. Cordelia says. fluctuating and changing with him. and our ag'd father's right. the old man. in trying to assess whether the tragedy is a "Christian" play or not. Only if one sees symbolically concealed and yet revealed behind the conflict between Lear and Cordelia the "fierce dispute. But Cordelia's refusal to declare total love and devotion to her father on demand and for a reward implies more than has been said so far. In coming to the rescue of her father Cordelia is giving Lear what she has refused him in the first scene of the play. contains obvious implications about the relationship between man and God. she now risks the fortunes of a kingdom and her life to come to the aid of her father who had so cruelly banished her. the conflict between God and man. "psychoanalytic investigation of the individual teaches with especial emphasis that God is in every case modelled after the father and that our personal relation to God is dependent upon our relation to our physical father. to the love of a wife. and that God at bottom is nothing but an exalted father" (Totem and Taboo.23-28) Whereas Cordelia had forgone the inheritance of a kingdom in order to maintain her integrity as an individual. bad and indifferent. which is one of free choice. 919-20). G. He now receives the very love that Cordelia had previously reserved for her husband. Similarly. as he appears in Shelley's Prometheus Unbound and in "the poems of Milton and Aeschylus" (ArchetypalPatterns in Poetry. Indeed.1036 Is King Lear an AntiauthoritarianPlay? is. The one general principle is exploited in various human stories with heroes good. 250). For thee. According to Freud. It is thy businessthat I go about. And she brings the magnitude of Lear's demand into proper perspective by contrasting her love as a daughter. Sure I shall nevermarrylike my sisters. when I shall wed. Why have my sistershusbands. This failure to examine King Lear against the background of the ethos from which it had arisen has not only led to the awkward judgment that the play was not within the Christian tradition." as Keats saw it ("On Sitting Down to Read King Lear Once Again"). / Betwixt damnation and impassion'd clay. pp.3-6) That which no authority could wrench from . But love. but it has also prevented critics from discovering the myth which the dramatic conflict between individual characters may Thus whatever one may say about the symbolize. In the end she loses her husband's army and her own life. Thatlordwhosehandmusttakemy plightshallcarry Half my love with him. 0 dearfather. Myselfcould else outfrownfalse Fortune'sfrown. be seen as central. Wilson Knight once formulated his concept of Shakespeareandrama as follows: "In the world of Shakespearean tragedy the unique act of the Christ sacrifice can. Perhaps King Lear is such a "great" tragedy because it so barely conceals that ancient reenactment of the sacrificial suffering and death of God at the hands of man and of the resulting reconciliation between man and God. that When Cordelia encounters her father again in Act iv.

thatfromtheircold'stneglect Gods. Arm it in rags.Johannes Allgaier Cordelia's bosom now freely bestows itself upon the object of her pity. And in . 150-66) If society can only be kept in order under the idols The last two lines might have been spoken by Cordelia when she met her father again.28-36) v elscnmerz * Is of authority Lear wants no more part in it. It is the cruel authority of an absolute justice and morality by which his mind had been enslaved until now. Most choice.. Lothian. as Dr. Platesin withgold. He says. "There thou mightst behi 1ldthe great image of authority: a dog's obey'd in office. To bring about a reconciliation between man and God.pomp.iv)." he exclaims to his fellow sufferer Glou cester. Lear's purgatorial suffering and his humility in the end can point only symbolically toward such an to "show the heavens more jiIst" than they appear. and the loving response it elicits. without which order is impossible. yr That bide the peltingof this pitilessstorm. (III. FairestCordelia. Lear's development finds "its culmination in his appalling vision of chaos.. "If we are to love God He 1iIUSt __. when pity awakens his love for his fellowman Poor nakedwretches. The jealous God of Sinai has taken flesh and humbly seeks the love of men by suffering their fate.?< ho I-. as to every man. UC . forsaken. why hast thou forsaken me?" It must have been such a loving response that made the German poet and mystic Novalis set himself the "religious task to have pity for God. And the stronglance of justicehurtlessbreaks. Perhaps there can be no love without pity. The first scene of the play comes to mind again.iv. "My God.gods! 'tisstrange My love should kindleto inflam'drespect. Hark in thine ear. which is the justice. is reminiscent of Christ's desolation upon the cross. I h< ive ta'en Too little care of this! Take physic. (i. defendyou From seasonssuch as these? O.wheresoe'er 3u are. Exposethyselfto feel what wretchesfeel. How shall your houselessheadsand unfed sides. The Old Covenant of the Law between the Heavenly Father and his children has been replaced by the New Covenant of pity and love.L-_-_ YV similar to Lear's in the storm seene. The usurerhangsthe cozener. Changeplacesand handy-dandy. Robesand furr'dgownshide all. 111 ??15Tho 11CCU.i. But even as that reconciliation required the abandonment of authority by the paternal despot. Thou hotly lusts to use her in that kind For which thou whip'st her. of the chasm between reality and justice. Your loop'd and window'draggedn ess.whichis the thief? Thou rascalbeadle. it might have ended with the reconciliation between daughter and father. the scene in which France's love for Cordelia is awakened by his pity for her. If the subject of Shakespeare's drama had only been the conflict between Cordelia and Lear. being poor. If we penetrate to the mythical level of the tragedy. (Iv.. my God. During his purgatorial suffering the old king has come to reject authority as th< e antithesis of love.hold thy bloodyhand! Whydostthoulashthatwhore? Stripthineownback.250-55) 1037 a frenzied vision he recognizes the false image of another authority from which he had securely derived his. Be it lawful I take up what'scast away. but that it is up to hirn.and most lov'd. and to show that the Covenant of obedience." Novalis sees "infinite sadness" in religion.S Ti1'-ynt. Cordelia's and Lear's cruel desolation. 11C - . despis'd! Thee and thy virtueshere I seize upon. That thou mayst shake the superflu? And show the heavensmorejust."'7 In his anguish he sees before himself a sorry procession of human sacrifices to the idol of an absolute morality. According to John M. a pygmy'sstrawdoes pierceit.. But his kingdom is in chaos precisely because it had been governed by idols which brutally suppressed that freedom of the spirit which is the source of love. pUCL as'^A. which Lear realizes here that he must not leave the care of "poor naked wretches" to sc me authority above him.that art most rich. Throughtatter'dclothessmallvicesdo appear. See how yond justice rails upon yond simple thief.l6 He has come to understanc I that he was flattered and obeyed not because of his own inner worth but because of the mantle of authority which he symbolically casts off in ttie storm scene (Im. the full meaning of Lear's change becomes obvious. so the resolution of the underlying dramatic conflict between man and God requires the abandonment of authority by the Divine Despot. Johnson would have preferred it ("Notes" to King Lear).

thoughin Hell: Better to reign in Hell than serve in Heaven. Shakespeare casts off the "mind-forg'd manacles"21of Divine authority in order to attain the freedom of love. 3 Citations from King Lear in my essay are to George Lyman Kittredge'sedition of the play."SQ. earth. 1880). according to their "bond. men only disagree Of creatures rational. Shakespeare offers more than a symbol. Press. 3-8. 16 (1966). pp. King Lear and the Gods (San Marino." because in following him they follow themselves. In King Lear." JEGP.'8 The death in spiritual agony of the hero of King Lear is in no way linked to his catharsis. pp. 27 (1966). when he states: "In King Lear both the medieval and the Renaissance orders of established values disintegrate. or of any moral order. Elton. is not unlike Milton's hell.enmityand strife and levy cruelwars. Alberta. All that remains at the end of this gigantic pantomime. 167-80. Betty Kantor Stuart. the Almightyhath not built Here for his envy.: Princeton Univ. 922. each the other to destroy. for that matter."Truthand Tragedyin King Lear. Most modern critics agree with Dr. N. J. is the earth-empty and bleeding.1967). brutally murdered. 19) Milton could not understand why his devils lived in harmony with each other while men were divided by hate and war. Ginn-Blaisdell. "King Lear and His Comforters. had indeed been replaced by the Covenant of love. and the ambiguous final speeches in the last scene. O shameto men! Devil with devil damned Firm concordholds. appear insignificant and futile. will not driveus hence: Here we may reignsecure. pp. for some interestingreplies to this article see also the two subsequentissues of CriticalQuarterly. 1963)." CE.1038 ntiauthoritarian Is King Lear an A4 Play ? Here at least We shall be free. 18 (1967). almost by accident. 15 (1964). Perhaps no one expresses that insignificance and futility more poignantly than Jan Kott. the freedom of the Christian which was proclaimed at Golgotha. (Paradise Lost I. 2 A Study of Shakespeare (London: Chatto and Windus. 1964). indeed it makes his loving resignation. and God proclaiming peace. Robert K. 277-88. 87-124. as it were. 170-76. they have refused to surrender to the Divine Despot that sovereign sanctuary of their hearts the integrity of which enables them to love each other and to accept the authority of one of their own kind. AbrahamArden Brill (New York: ModernLibrary.p. 2 (1960). Roland M. Calif."'l9But the apparent emptiness and the bleeding are the price men have to pay for their freedom from the authority of a Divine Despot.258-63) made men either slaves or tyrants. Minas Savvas. Frye. 560-62. Freud. 135-46. "Charityin KingLear. 4"Totem and Taboo." SQ.: Huntington Library. "Boethius. (v.496-502) Shakespeare justifies the ways of God to man better than Milton does by making man's suffering at the hands of cruel and arbitraryfortune appear worthwhile in a world which. make the existence of a retributive justice. Wasting (II. revised by Irving Ribner.and in my choice To reignis worthambition. Shakespeare's tragedy of King Lear provides the answer to Milton's puzzle. BarbaraEverett. Jan Kott. King Lear and Maystresse Philosophie. Canada Notes 1 For a list of critics who regard KingLear as a "Christian" play see William R. The devils live in harmony because. no more nor less. like Cordelia.SearsJayne. Rosenberg. especially Lear's death by heartbreak over the dead body of Cordelia. 19-42. Johnson that the events of the last act." CritQ. Among themselves. Presson." Essays in Criticism."The New King Lear. Opinions expressed at the following places are representativeof the "pessimistic"view of the play: Everett. pp. Boleslaw Taborski (New York: Doubleday. so beautifully expressed in his speech just before he is led away to prison. curiously enough." The Basic Writings of Sigmund trans. 406-24. 1966). The Kittredge Shakespeares(Waltham. "King Lear as a Play of Divine Justice. as Spinoza knew when he wrote these strange words in his Ethics: He who loves God must not demandthat God love him in return.1938). University of Alberta Edmonton. . the only freedom that does not lead to anarchy-if we like.. Shakespeare and Christian Doctrine (Princeton.20 It is not only the freedom to suffer but also the freedom to love. appear extremely doubtful. Mass. ed. John D. 325-39. Shakespeare Our Contemporary. 64 (1965). Yet live in hatred.thoughunderhope Of heavenlygrace. and trans.

1963). for charity"Bearethall things. J. 4th rev. 1967).1965). 14-15. 60. pp. p. Others include Robert B. 12 Maud Bodkin. ed. Course of Lectures on Dramatic Art and Literature. pp. rpt. The Catechism of Thomas Becon. p. rpt."Shakespeare:King Lear (London: Arnold.: PrincetonUniv. Heilman. J. Cordelia'saction.7). But see also Knight's defense against Roland M. ed. Press. Brooke. of King Lear (London: Methuen. Arden Ed. A Study of Shakespeare. p." II. 11 I cannot agreewith RobertH. 19Shakespeare Our Contemporary. It. 121-25. 75-84. Furness. Frye's charge of Christian bias in Shakespeare and Religion: Essays of (1946. hopeth Brooke puts it similarly: "We are left with unaccommodated man indeed." In the most startlingscene. Nicholas and enl.. Hazlitt. ed. (London: Methuen. 1907). 16 (1966). See also Kenneth Muir. pp."Shakespeare (Weimar). whateverher motive. for granted. Shakespeare's Doctrine of Nature: A Studyof King Lear (London: Faber. G. p. 1906). 1960). p.1958).N.1965). Swinburne. See "Sex and Pessimismin KingLear. are simultaneouslychannelledtowards recognizing the perpetualvitality of the most vulnerable virtues. (1880. p. Characters of Shakespeare's Plays (London: Dent. Stuart. but in what we become. "London. 3536. New Variorum Ed. ed. 16 For an analysisof Lear'sdevelopment as a tragichero see J. rpt. 173. 198. p. Benjamin Nelson (New York: all things. Irwin. New York: AMS Press." See also "Sex and Pessimism in KingLear. John Black (1846.. Thomas MiddletonRaysor (New York: Dutton. Danby. 1958). 42-43." Essays in Criticism. 11 (1960).ed. rpt. 1960). 6 "The Theme of the Three Caskets. 9 Coleridge. Kenneth Muir. 1844). pp. Archetypal Patterns in Poetry: Psychological Studies of Imagination (1934. the one that sets the events of the tragedyin motion. xiii. 20Cf. 21 WilliamBlake. 413.Conn. 171. 117. 17 43.1952). p. New York: Harper. 1949). 54. KingLear. 1948). Character Problems in Shakespeare's Plays (London: Vintage-Knopf. ed. Forty Years(New York: Barnesand Noble.. p. August Wilhelm von Schlegel. "Fragment 213.trans. p. 1965)." Also Maynard Mack. endurethall things"(I Cor. "The Catharsis of King Lear." . p.believethall things. Princeton. 18 See John Shaw. 8Prefaces to Shakespeare. 1966). Levin Ludwig Schucking. 60. And Cordelia clearly has the author's and the audience'ssympathy. 266-67. 179. rpt. 13 (1960).. 117:The play "begsus to seek the meaningof our human fate not in what becomes of us. Shakespeare: The Great Tragedies (London: Long- mans. crushed by facing ultimate negation. 14 Principles of Shakespearean Production (Harmonds- worth. 119. Hildegard Schumann. The Wheel of Fire: Interpretations of Shakespearean Tragedy: With Three New Essays. 261-67. Clare Byrne Shakespeare's Doctrine of Nature. 1963). 66. 1949).pp. "King Lear: The Final Lines. of California (Berkeley Press.pp." SS. 1-10. 105. 193."that this much "is a given morality in the action. "Konig Jahrbuch Lear.Johannes Allgaier 6 1039 John Ayre. See Harrap. 96. King Lear in Our Time and Los Angeles:Univ. King Lear: A Tragic Reading of Life (Toronto: Clarke. p. ed." p. 231.i. 55-60. lii. p. naked."SQ. 13 Danbyemphasizes the importanceof the studyof "allegorical levels of meaning" for Shakespearecriticism. Middlesex: Penguin. cannot be said to be dictatedby love. Muriel St. 86-87. Greenwich. For some German theories regarding Cordelia's"pride"see Horace H. See also Elton. Stampfer." in On Creativity and the Unconscious. West that the play takes the obligation of children "to love and to revere their parents .: Fawcett. ed. p..p. 449-65. 60: "Our feelings. with OtherPieces (Cambridge:The UniversityPress. This Great Stage (Baton Rouge: LouisianaState Univ. 1961). 10John F. 297. Shakespeareanz Criticism. 15 Novalis: Schriften.p.100/101 (1964-65). New York: American Scholar Publications. Press. 7 Shakespearean Tragedy (1905. 1936).esp. unshelteredby any consolation whatsoever.pp. Wilson Knight. 1922). Minor (Jena: Diederichs. p. 29.

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