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Wendy Choi Mr. Cook IB Biology (Period 3) 20 Oct 2008 Cellular Respiration Syllabus 8.1.1- 8.1.6, 3.7.1-3.7.4

8.1.1 Discuss oxidation and reduction. Relate how oxygen and hydrogen are frequently involved.

Oxidation State (by molecule, atom or iron) Oxidation Reduction Increase Decrease

# Electrons/ # oxygen Hydrogen molecules Loss Gain Gain Loss

8.1.2 Outline the process of glycolysis, including phosphorylation, lysis, oxidation and ATP formation.

Glycolysis yields two ATPs (4 produced, 2 consumed), 2NADH+H+, & 2 pyruvate molecules per glucose: 1. Glucose  glucose-6-phosphate a. by enzyme hexokinase b. One ATP into ADP in process. 2. Glucose-6-phosphate  fructose-6-phosphate by phosphoglucoisomerase. 3. Fructose-6-phosphate  fructose-1,6-diphosphate a. By phosphofructokinase b. Turned one ATP into ADP in the process. 4. Fructose-1,6-diphosphate is lysed a. By aldolase b. Into dihydroxyacetone phosphate (DHAP) and 3-phosphoglyceraldehyde (PGAl). 5. Isomerase transforms DHAP into a 2nd molecule of PGAl.

Choi 2 6. 2 PGAl oxidized by 2 NAD+ a. creates 2 NADH + H+ b. Redox reaction provides energy for triose phosphate dehydrogenase to attach a phosphate group to each PGAl, yielding two molecules of 1,3-diphosphoglycerate (DPG). 7. 2 DPG are used to phosphorylate 2 ADP a. with help of phosphoglycerokinase (substrate-level phosphorylation) b. Yields 2 ATP and 2 molecules of 3-phosphoglycerate. 8. Two 3-phosphoglycerate have their phosphate group relocated by phosphoglyceromutase a. Yields two molecules of 2-phosphoglycerate. 9. Two 2-phosphoglycerate transforms into 2 phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) a. By enolase b. Through the removal of water. 10.2 PEP are used to phosphorylate two molecules of ADP a. With help of pyruvate kinase, b. Yields 2 ATP and two molecules of pyruvate. *  means phosphorylation occurred*

Choi 3 8.1.3 Draw and label a diagram showing the structure of a mitochondrion as seen in electron micrographs.

8.1.4 Explain aerobic respiration including acetyl CoA formation (link reaction), the Krebs cycle, the role of Nadh + H+, the electron transport chain and the role of oxygen.  Aerobic Respiration begins with 3-carbon end products of glycolysis, pyruvate o o o o carboxyl group removed create CO2 gas as a waste product oxidized by NAD+, forming acetate (a C2 compound) and NADH + H+. The acetate is attached to coenzyme A   form the complex acetyl CoA Acetyl CoA enters the mitochondrial matrix and is fed into the Krebs cycle.

 Krebs cycle aka Citric Acid Cycle o Acetyl CoA gives its acetate away to combine with oxaloacetate (C4 compound)   form citrate, a C6 compound Coenzyme A exits the cycle to be recycled

Choi 4   o Citrate is converted to isocitrate, which then loses a CO2 Oxidized - reducing NAD+ to NADH + H+ (Loaded)

The remaining C4 compound, succinate, is oxidized yet again,   Reduce FAD to FADH2 Addition of water forms malate. • Malate is oxidized one last time, reducing NAD+ to NADH + H+, and forming oxaloacetate, the C4 compound that started off the cycle

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The Krebs cycle yields 2 CO2, 1 ATP, 3 NADH + H+, and 1 FADH2 per pyruvate. The NADH + H+ and FADH2 go on to participate in the ETC.

 Electron transport chain takes place in multiprotein complexes embedded within the phospholipid bilayers of mitochondria's inner membranes o o NADH + H+ is oxidized back to NAD+, giving two electrons to a flavoprotein, the first molecule in the complex The flavoprotein then passes the electrons to ubiquinone (Q), which carry them to the first of many proteins in the cytochrome family that make up the rest of the electron transport chain FADH2 actually gives its two electrons to Q (via an iron-sulfur protein), not the flavoprotein. The last step in the electron transport chain is when cytochrome a3 gives the e- to O2. Oxygen= final acceptor of electrons in the chain   once reduced- quickly picks up two hydrogen ions and forms water, a waste product of aerobic respiration. 3 points along the electron transport chain: the protein complexes use the energy provided by the electrons (via redox reactions) to pump H+ ions from the mitochondrial matrix to the intermembrane space. One of these points is the flavoprotein, before the electrons are handed off to Q. Therefore, for every NADH + H+ that is oxidized, 3 H+ ions are pumped across the membrane, and for every FADH2 that is oxidized, only 2 H+ are pumped across.

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8.1.5 Explain oxidative phosphorylation in terms of chemiosmosis. Electrons reduces proton pumps embedded in the membrane between the matrix and inner membrane/cristae of mitochondria o energy to pump protons into the inner membrane space

Choi 5 o o electrons transferred along chain of pumps, continuously losing energy The proton pumps create a high concentration gradient of protons (H+)inside the inner membrane space. Thus, protons diffuse back into the matrix through facilitated diffusion of ATP synthase (channel protein and enzyme). As the protons pass along this protein channel, the kinetic energy of the protons causes the ATP synthase molecule to turn slightly, exposing active sites that create ATP by binding ADP with inorganic phosphate molecules. The result is 34 ATP produced by oxidative phosphorylation.

8.1.6 Explain the relationship between the structure of mitochondrion and its function.  Mitochondrion has a large inner matrix, where Krebs cycle to occur.  Fairly small inner membrane area where protons are pumped into  Proton diffusion back into matrix fast, ATP produced at a faster rate  Inner membrane contains many electron transport chains of proton pumps o o ATP synthase enzymes, allowing for much ATP to be produced Membranes also structured to prevent the protons from diffusing though the membrane, forcing them to enter matrix through ATP synthase molecules.

3.7.1 Define cell respiration. Cell respiration is the controlled release of energy in the form of ATP from organic compounds in cells.

3.7.2 State that in cell respiration, glucose in the cytoplasm is broken down into pyruvate with a small yield of ATP. In cell respiration, glucose in the cytoplasm is broken down into pyruvate with a small yield of ATP.

3.7.3 Explain that in anaerobic cell respiration, pyruvate is converted into lactate or ethanol and carbon dioxide in the cytoplasm, with no further yield of ATP. In anaerobic cell respiration, pyruvate is converted into either lactate by lactic acid fermentation or ethanol and carbon dioxide during alcohol fermentation. This produces no further yield of ATP. The ethanol & carbon dioxide are produced in yeast whereas lactate is produced in humans.

3.7.4. Explain that in aerobic cell respiration, pyruvate is broken down in the mitochondrion into carbon dioxide and water with a large yield of ATP.  Aerobic respiration

Choi 6 o o o each pyruvate enters the Krebs cycle pyruvate is decarboxylated, which produces the carbon dioxide Remaining two-carbon molecule reacts with a reduced Coenzyme A

o one NADH+H+ is formed. The pyruvate then enters the cycle, with the end result being the production of 3 NADH, 3 H+, 3 carbon dioxide molecules, with one ATP. The NADH and H+ molecules will be used in the electron transport chain (ETC), where the H+ will react with oxygen to produce water. The result of the ETC is a large yield of ATP.

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