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Introduction:

Corrosion Assessment and Management for ship-shaped offshore structure

IHIAP Offshore Engineering Div Mohamad Faeze 13TH Jan 2014 Ver 1.0

Contents
1.1 Marine corrosion mechanism 1.2 Types of corrosion 1.3 Factors affecting corrosion 1.4 Corrosion management

1.1 Marine Corrosion Mechanism


Electrochemical actions

Galvanic actions

Intergranular actions

Crevice actions

Electrochemical actions
Principal components Anode: Copper metal Cathode: Zinc metal Chemical reactions: Zn(s) -> Zn2+(aq) + 2eCu2+(aq) + 2e- -> Cu(s)

Galvanic actions
Two dissimilar metals, which are immersed in electrolyte(i.e. sea water), are connected directly or by a metallic path

Intergranular actions
Microscopic form of corrosion caused by a potential difference between grain bodies of the metal and grain boundaries i.e. weld zones

Crevice actions
Occur in a relatively in confined space i.e. open joints, under nuts, bolt heads, washer

Erosion actions
Occur under high-velocity seawater flows in bends and elbows of pipes and at strike plates

Microbial actions
Corrosion aided by bacterial activity in the sprinkler system Galvanized coated piping may delay the process of corrosion

1.2 Types of Corrosion


Uniform corrosion

Pitting

Grooving

Weld metal corrosion

Uniform(general) Corrosion
Formed almost uniformly on the surface. Often represents important mechanism of general corrosion on the back of the under-deck steel plates of oil tankers and FPSOs(usually due to uncoated or the coating has failed) Traditional corrosion margin is meant to guard against uniform corrosion(i.e. in trading tanker, plate panel margin is 20%, while entire deck is 10%)

Pitting corrosion
Pitting is a localized form of corrosion, typically occurs on bottom plating, on other horizontal surfaces, and at structural locations that may trap water. Pit growth rates can be many times that for general corrosion, usually associated with acidic environment at the pit bottom. Pit repairs and plate renewals is usually only visible options for this cases.

Grooving corrosion
Manifested as localized line corrosion. Occurs at structural intersections where water or heavy moisture collects or flows. The effect may be exacerbated by structural flexibility and result in loss in scale. Often observed on longitudinal bulkheads in trading tankers

Weld metal corrosion


Galvanic action of weld material with the base metal that may initially lead to pitting or grooving. Often to occur in hand welds than machine welds.

1.3 Factors effecting corrosion


Types of structural materials (e.g. steel, aluminium alloy) Corrosion protection scheme (e.g. coating, anodes, impressed current cathodic protection) Types of cargo or stored material (e.g. oil, seawater, wax content, oxygen content, salinity, reactivity) Dry-wet cycles related to loading/unloading of cargo or stored material Humidity Temperature Oxygen Water velocity

Areas of corrosion concern for shipshaped offshore units


Segregated ballast spaces Cargo only spaces Cargo and/or clean ballast spaces Cargo and/or dirty ballast spaces Cargo and/or storm ballast spaces

1.4 Corrosion management


1. Corrosion margin addition

5. Chemical inhibitors

2. Coating

4. Ballast water deoxygenation

3. Cathodic protection

1.4.1 Corrosion margin addition


The objectives are to reduce costs associated with downtime for repairs and renewal of corroded structural components The value of corrosion wastage(depth) with time can be predicted from tr=C1(T-Tc).
Tr : corrosion depth, mm C1 : determined from statistical analysis of corrosion measurement data T : exposure time(i.e. 25 years design service life) Tc : constant parameter

1.4.2 Coating

Surface preparation

Types of Coating

Selection criteria of coating material

Methodologies for coating-life prediction

Surface preparation
All structural steel must be blasted before coating per ISO 8501 (Sa3) and, Shop-primed with inorganic zinc primer (having minimum dry film thickness of 20microns) Sharp edges(from steel cutting) must be treated, i.e. by grinding to convert them into reasonably smooth arc with a min radius of at least 2mm to prevent from pull-back phenomenon

Types of coating
Coal tar EP offer good resistance to water soil and inorganic acids Polyamide-hardened more resistance to moisture but less resistance to acids Epoxy paints Amine-hardened more resistance to chemical

Excellent water repellent Maximum temperature of 650deg celcius Silicon paints Poor chemical resistance

Zinc paints

Used for galvanic protection Organic requires less surface preparation Inorganic easier to topcoat, more heat resistance Used effectively in neutral and slightly alkaline solutions

Oil-based paint

Easy application, relatively inexpensive Permeable, recommended for mild atmospheric conditions

Must baked to dry better corrosion resistance than oil-based paint Alkyd paint Not suitable for resistance to chemicals

Urethane paints

Good resistance to abrasion Corrosion resistance approaches vinyl and epoxy paints

Better corrosion resistance than oil and alkyd paints Adherence and wetting often poor Vinyl paints Good resistance to aqueous acids and alkalines; max temperature of 65deg celcius

Selection criteria of Coating Material


Adhesive strength Adhesion of at least 140bar per ASTM D4541 Permeability The ability of the ease with which water can work its way through the coating; smaller the permeability, the better the coating durability Glass transition temperature To keep top of the tank cool(if possible 55deg celcius) to keep the coatings become semiplastic; coatings with a high GTT No solvent With modern catalyst-activated coating technology, solventless coatings are feasible and desirable Right filler Aluminum or aluminum oxide filler is thought to be desirablethan hydroschopic filler because it may attract water and weakening the coating

1.4.3 Cathodic Protection


For large areas of submerged steel, cathodic protection is the most common form Applied with coatings and acts as backup Two types:
Impressed current system
More reliable long-term protection Requires the use of continuous external electrical power

Galvanic system
Uses aluminum, magnesium, zinc anodes that attached to steel material exposed to seawater For offshore platforms, pipelines, mooring chains, aluminum or aluminum-zinc anodes are often employed

1.4.4 Ballast Water Deoxygenation


In ballast water tank, oxygen is an important factor that promotes corrosion Corrosion rate can be reduced by 90% when oxygen levels are reduced and maintain below 0.5% Various methods to deoxygenate; vacuum, biological process, or help of inert type of gas

1.4.5 Chemical inhibitors


For corrosion protection of closed systems such as engines or boilers Five types:
Absorption Hydrogen evolution poison Scavengers Oxidizers Vapor phase inhibitors

References
The tankship tromedy: The impending disasters in tankers. Devanney,J.(2006) Rules for building and classing steel vessels. ABS (2000) Handbook of corrosion protection for steel structures in marine environment. AISI(1981) Corrosion prevention of tanks and holds. DNV(1999) ASM handbook: Corrosion. Korb, L.J(1989) Newbuild FPSO corrosion protection A design and operation planning guidelines. Macmillan, A., Fischer, K.P., Carlsen, H., and Goksoyr,O.(2004)