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The uncertainty of micrometer screw gauge is 0.01 mm. To find the zero error, join the studs A & B without any object in between. i) If the zero on the micrometer scale is in same line with the zero on the main scale then the instrument has no zero error.

ii) If the zero on the micrometer scale lies above the zero line of the main scale then count the divisions and the zero error must be added to the measurement.

3 divisions 30.01 mm Zero error = +0.03 mm iii) If the zero on the micrometer scale lies below the zero line of the main scale then count the divisions and the zero error must be subtracted from the measurement.

Now place the object firmly between A & B. Note down the i) Main scale reading (S mm) ii) Micrometer scale division which coincides with the zero line of the main scale (M) Measurement = S + 0.01 M Repeat it for 2 or 3 times, find the average value of the measurement.

VERNIER CALLIPERS

1. To find the zero error, join A & B together without any object in between. If the zero on the vernier scale is at the same end of the scale as the zero on the main scale, then the instrument has no zero error. If not, note down the zero error and identify whether to add or subtract it from the measurement. 2. Now place the object so that it is held firmly between A & B. Note down the i) Main scale reading (S mm) ii) The vernier scale division which coincides exactly with the main scale (V) 3. Measurement = S + 0.01 V 4. Repeat it for 2 or 3 times and Find the average value of the measurement. 5. Uncertainty of vernier calliper is 0.01 cm.

Meaning of the terms that are used in question 1. Calculate: a numerical answer is obviously required. Show your working and set your work out clearly. Dont forget the units. 2. Comment: make sure what you write is relevant. Judge amount of detail required from marks / space. 3. Complete: add to (circuit)/ diagrams and/ or tables. 4. Define: you can define quantities by their questions but remember to explain any symbols used. 5. Describe: give the main point as precisely as possible. Labeled diagram can help and are essential when describing experiments. 6. Explain: give some reasoning or refer to theory. A labeled diagram will often improve your answer. Judge amount of detail required from marks/ space. 7. Plot: use scales on graph paper and be precise. Show data points either as a cross or a dot surrounded by a small circle. 8. Show that: show all your working and give your answer to one more significant figure than the approximate value stated in the question. It is very likely that the stated value will be needed in a calculation later in the same question. So even if you cant do this part, you can still attempt the next. 9. Sketch: use labeled axes but only add axes value if told to do so. Sketch roughly but carefully. 10. State: a brief sentence giving the required facts. No explanation is required. 11. Suggest: there is often no single correct answer. Credit is given for good physics reasoning. 12. Use the graph: usually this involves finding either the gradient or the area. Remember that both of these quantities are likely to have units. Vectors and Scalars Scalar Quantity It is defined as a physical quantity that is completely specified by a number and appropriate units. E.g.: distance, mass, time, volume, speed, workdone, energy, etc. Vector Quantity It is defined as a physical quantity that is completely specified by a number and appropriate unit with direction. E.g.: displacement, weight, velocity, momentum, force, acceleration, etc.

Representation of vectors A vector quantity can be represented by a segment of a straight line whose length represent the magnitude of the quantity on a particular scale and whose direction by a single arrow. E.g.: An ant is displaced on a vertical wall for 3m with 30 to the vertical line. The diagram below shows the geometrical representation for this displacement.

B

30 A

3m

The length of AB gives the magnitude of displacement 3m. Angle 30 gives the direction. Addition of vectors (Resultant vector) The resultant of two vectors is the single vector which produces the same effect in both magnitude and direction. Vectors with the same line of action: If the vectors are in the same direction along the same straight line their magnitudes can be added together to find the magnitude of resultant vector. Their direction of the resultant vector will be in the same straight line in their directions .Subtraction of vectors (Resultant vector) If the vector directions are opposite, subtract them to find the magnitude of subtraction of vectors. The direction of subtracted vectors will be in the direction of greater vector quantity. Addition of vectors when the vectors are 90 to each other If two vectors are at 90 to each other, use Pythagoras theorem to find the addition of vectors. Here hypotenuse gives the magnitude of resultant vector and direction.

R P

( )

Parallelogram law If two vectors acting at a point are represented in magnitude and directions by the sides of a parallelogram drawn from that point, there resultant vector is represented by the diagonal of the parallelogram. Resolving a vector quantity into two components in perpendicular directions

R X

Consider a vector R lying in the XY plane and making an angle with x axis as shown in the diagram.

X is called the horizontal component of R. Y is called the vertical component of R. Component along the slope and perpendicular to the slope:

Q P

Show that 1. Component of the weight along the slope 2. Component of the weight perpendicular to the slope

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