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Archaic period- development of a polis (art=weird smile and tight posture) 4. Classical period- greatest period of cultural flowering (rise of Athens) (art= ideal beauty and loose figure) 5. Hellenistic Age- Alexander the Great’s rule and spread of Greek Culture (art= emotion and natural figure- not ideal) • • • • • • Cultures of the Mountains and Sea Ancient times, Greece not a united country Collection of separate lands where Greek-speaking people lived Minoan on Crete powerful at the time Greece was a mountainous peninsula in the Mediterranean plus 2000 islands in the Aegean and Ionian seas
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Minoans/Greeks were skilled sea-farers + traders The mountains divided the land into different regions, influencing politics o They had little arable land and transportation Varied climate, mild- supported outdoor life Indo-Europeans settled on Greek mainland in 2,000 BCE called Mycenaeans 1,500 BCE- Mycenaeans contact Minoans + saw value of sea trade o also adaped minoan writing system and art, religion, politics, and literature 1,200 BCE- Mycenaeans fought against independent city of Troy (Trojan war legend) o sea raiders called Dorians attacked/burned Mycenaean cities (could have been distant bronze age relatives-spoke a Greek dialect) Dorians= much less advanced so Greeks forgot how to write o From 1150-750 BCE little is known about Greece o History learned through spoken work (ie. Epics of Homer- based on real events like Trojan war in Iliad) o Iliad hero’s are warriors- Achilles and Hector o Greek Heroic value of Aretē- virtue and excellence esp. displayed in combat/athletics
Had rich myths about Gods Theogony by Hesiod- source of much mythology Sought to explain nature passion etc. Gods had human qualities but lived forever • Athena- goddess of wisdom and Greek guardian of cities. Athens named after her Warring City States: Sec. 2 • Dorians and Mycenaeans began to identify w/ local area less w/ ancestors’ culture • Method of governing changed from tribal/clan control to city states • 750 BCE city-state aka. Polis had (marketplace-agora, fortified hill top- acropolis, villages/countryside) • city-states had many different forms of government (Note: Athens democratic NOT Greece) o monarchy, aristocracy, oligarchy o mostly- powerful ppl gained power through local support and displace previous ruler= tyrant ATHENS: Politics • Moves to democracy • Draco a nobleman created a legal code that all Athenians (rich or poor) are equal under law. Also very harsh punishments (death and slavery) • Solon outlawed debt slavery, created 4 social classes according to wealth- top 3 can hold political office. And all citizens can participate in Athenian assembly + any can bring charge against wrongdoers. • Pisistratus = gained power as a tyrant, redistributed land/wealth, increased public works = more jobs, allowed more citizens active role in gov. (Son Hippies- ousted cause he was mean) • Cleisthenes broke up power of nobility- organized citizens into 10 groups based on location NOT wealth. Increased power of assembly. All citizens can submit laws for debate and passage. Created council of 500- proposed laws and counseled the assembly: members chosen at random. o Created limited democracy but citizenship was very inclusive. Education • Sons of wealthy families received formal educated starting at age 7 o Prepared them to be good citizens, learned reading grammar poetry history math and music and logic and public speaking and debating and athletics o Later boys went to military school • Girls- educated @ home by mother’s and females o Learnt housekeeping and child rearing o Some learnt to read and write but women had very little to do w/ Athenian life SPARTA: South Greece in Peloponnesus, cut of by Gulf of Corinth • Military State o Conquered neighboring messenians and forced them to become helots=peasants who work the land and pay ½ to the Spartans o Messenians revolted and Spartans were outnumbered so barely won Then decided to develop military state • Had an assembly of all Spartan citizens which elected officials and voted on major issues • Council of 30 elders proposed laws for assembly to vote on • 5 elected officials carried out the laws and controlled education and prosecuted in court • they had 2 kings to rule over military • Social Order o
1. Citizens descened from original inhabitants 2. Non-citizen who were free (commerce and industry) 3. Hellots- almost slaves • 600-371 BCE Spartans had most powerful army in Greece, but no original arts • Men in army from age 7-30 o Very tough life but produced tough and resourceful soldiers o Spartan girls received military training and were taught to put service to Sparta above all • Women had considerable freedom b/c men were always away in the army Persian Wars • Iron allowed ordinary citizens to fight (more cheap than bronze) • New kind of army with a phalanx (foot soldiers -hoplites stood side by side with spears and shields) • Persian Wars between Greece and Persian Empire began in Ionia (coast of Anatolia • Greeks had been settled there but Persians conquered area • Ionian Greeks revolted and Athens sent aid • Perian king Darius the Great defeated rebels and voved to destroy Athens • Persian fleet with 25000 men landed in Marathon and fought 10,000 Athenians in phalanxes • Greeks charged and defeated Persians greatly • Pheidippides sent from Marathon to Athens to give news and died • 10yrs later Darius’s son Xerxes went to Greece and they were divided on what to do o came to narrow mtn. pass at Thermopylae- 7,000 Greeks (300 spartans) stopped Persian advance for 3 days. o Athenians debated defense of city o Themistocles ordered evacuation and positioned incredible navy on nearby island Salamis o Xerxes set fire to Athens, but then Greek triremes defeated Persian navy. • Athenians + other greeks formed Delian league. o Encompassed over 200 city states, Headquarters in Athens o Gave money to Athenians to rebuilt city Section 3. democracy and greece’s golden age • 477-431 BCE= golden age of Athes: poetry sculpture drama philosophy architecture and science o advancement in the arts and sciences • Pericles- wise and able statesman in Athens (32 yrs) politician speaker general o 3 GOALS strengthen Athenian democracy hold and strengthen empire glorify Athens o before public officers were unpaid (only wealthy could afford the job) made it a paid job more citizens engaged in self-government o direct democracy = form of gov. in which citizens rule directly and not through representatives o used Delian league money to build absolutely wonderful navy + glorify/beautify Athens (built the Parthanon-honoring Athena) o this period had CLASSICAL ART- portraying ideal beauty • Greek Drama- built 1st theaters and invented drama as an art form o
Herodotus(Athenian)- produced 1st work of history on Persian Wars o Greatest historian on classical age was Thucydides Believed history repeated itself and understand history to understand present • Peloponnesian WAR (btw. Athens and Sparta) 431-404 BCE o Sparta declared war on Athens (for being a power) o Athens had stronger navy, Sparta had stronger army o Pericles strategy- to avoid land battle w/ Spartans (wait for a sea battle) o Spartans marched into Athens + burned everything Pericles barricaded everyone in the city- get supplies thru sea trade But a plague swept through and killed 1/3 of the ppl incl. Pericles o Athens tries to destroy Spartan ally Siscily (but their army/fleet was destroyed) o 404 BCE- Athens surrendered PHILOSOPHY: • Athens lost confidence in democracy + began to question values (gave rise to philosophers) • 2 assumptions for all philosophies o universe is put together in an orderly war o ppl can understand these ‘laws’ through logic and reason • SOPHISTS- questioned ppl’s beliefs and traditional values o Protagoras (famous one)- questioned gods and said there is no standard of truth o Socrates (critic of sophists)- absolute standards existed for truth and justice, but encouraged greeks to question themselves and moral characters Brought to trial and killed for ‘corrupting the youth’ Plato- socrates’ student- wrote the republic= set forth vision of perfectly goverened society an almost meritocracy w/ an elite group (ruler) • Aristotle-plato’s pupil- questioned nature of the world and human belief thought and knowledge. Invented rules for arguing according to logic which was applied to psychology physics and biology o Tutored ALEXANDER the GREAT of Masadonia Section 4. Alexander’s empire • Macedonia (North of Greece) lived in mountain villages; many nobles thought of themselves of Greeks but Greeks didn’t think so • King Philip II created a professional army and prepared an invasion of Greece- hoped to eventually control Perisa • Demosthenes tried to warn Greek city-states of Macedonian threat but they disagreed with each other and were weak • Athens and Thebes united too late • Macedonians defeated Greeks at Battle of Chaeronia which ended Greek independence • City-states retained self government • Philip died before invading Persia • Alexander (not yet the Great) 20 yrs old, under Aristotle’s tutelage learned Greek values • Destroyed a Thebian rebellion • Sought to conquer Persia and Alexander defeated them at Granacus River • Alarmed, Darius raised a huge army but Alexander won through superior tactics (though outnumbered) and they controlled Anatolia • Darius tries to negotiate peace settlement but Alex says no and invades Egypt (part of Persia) and they crown him pharaoh
Armies (Alex and Darius) met near Nineveh and Darius lost completely and Alex soon occupied SW Asia • Alex continued to grow empire • 326 BCE reached Indus Valley but morale was low so they turned back and Alex died on the way home :( • after death, Macedonian generals split up empire • Alexander created a blend of Greek and Eastern customs (Hellenistic culture) and spread this culture throughout the empire Section 5: The Spread of Hellenistic Culture • Hellenistic = Greek blended with Egyptian + Persian + Indian and had a common language (Koine) • Egyptian city Alexandria = center of commerce and Hellenistic civilization o International community, rich trading center o Attractions: Greek god statues, royal palaces, Alexander’s glass tomb, Lighthouse (Pharos), famous museum (to muses) and library (great works and commentaries on them), Colossus of Rhodes, Nike of Samothrace- art more natural, not as ideal o Sci. and tech.: museum had an observatory, Aristarchus of Samos estimated sun was 300x larger than earth disproving Earth>sun Greek belief; proposed Earth and other planets revolve around sun (Ptolmey incorrectly made geocentric model), Eratosthenes calculated Earth’s circumference really well Eratosthenes and Aristarchus used geometry text compiled by Euclid Archimedes estimated value of pi and explained lever o Philosophy and art (all looked for atoraxia = detachment from extremes) Stoicism: Zeno founded stoicism- people should live virtuous lives in harmony with gods’ will/natural laws and human desires are dangerous distractions; promoted social unity • Be involved in politics for the good of all not personal gain, true happiness is found in great achievements Epicureanism: founded by Epicurus- gods who have no interest in humans rule the universe; the only real objects are those that the 5 senses perceive; the greatest good/highest pleasure comes form virtuous conduct and absence of pain; humans’ main goal = achieve harmony of body and mind • Avoid pain seek pleasure, excess leads to pain, avoid politics Cynicism founded by Diogenes: ignore social conventions + avoid luxuries, citizens of the world, live a humble life • By 150 BCE, Hellenistic world in decline, Romans on rise
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