Noles or lre 3c|erce ol ladeelr exlracled lror 'Tayseer Vusla|ar|| ladeelr - .,=-· _·==- ¸,.,· ¨ - 0r.

Varrood al-Tarraar
,,-¸|· ¸«-¸|· =· ,.,
The ßeg|nn|ng of Husta|ahu| hadeeth
ll ras |ls oas|s |r lre 0ur.aar ard lre 3urrar ol lre Proprel (). A||aar () says:
} ·,·,,·· ¸,,·, `¿=·· ,··\- ., ·,·-¹ ¸,=|· ·,,|·, . . . {
0 you Wro oe||evel ll a reoe|||ous ev|| persor cores lo you W|lr a reWs, ver|ly |l, . . .
[3oorar a|-lujuraal-019, Aayar-00ê|
Tre Proprel () sa|d ((Vay A||aar ra|e a persor rappy Wro rears sorelr|rg lror us ard lrarsr|ls |l as re reard |l, s|rce
perraps lre ore Wror |l reacres corprererds |l oeller lrar lre ore Wro reard |l.)) [3areer: Arrad, al-T|rr|dree ard lor
l|ooaar lror lor Vas'ood|.
lraar Vus||r reporls |r lre |rlroducl|or ol r|s '3areer¨ lral lor 3eereer - lre larous laao|'ee - sa|d: 'Trey rever used lo
as| aooul lre |sraad, oul Wrer lre c|v|| War oro|e oul, lrey sa|d: Nare lo us your rarralors, lrose Wro oe|orged lo Ar|us-
3urrar, lre|r aradeelr are accepled ard lrose Wro are |rrovalors, lre|r aradeelr are rejecled.¨
The most famous books on the subject:
1) 'a|-Vuradd|lru| Faas|| oayrar-RaaWee Wa| waa'ee¨
- a|-0aadee Aooo Vurarrad a|-lasar |or 'Aod|r-Rarraar ar-Raararurruzee (d.3ê0l). F|rsl ooo|
devoled exc|us|ve|y lo lre suojecl.
2) 'Va'r|lal 'u|ooru|-ladeelr¨
- Aooo 'Aod|||aar Vurarrad |or 'Aod|||aar a|-laa||r ar-Neesaaoooree (d.105l).
3) ¨a|-Vusla|rraj 'a|aa Va'r|lal|| 'u|oor||-ladeelr¨
- Aooo Nu'ayr a|-lsoaraaree (d.130l).
1) 'a|-K|laayar lee 'l|r|r-R|Waayar¨
- Aooo 8a|ar Arrad |or 'A|ee |or Traao|l a|-Kraleeo a|-8agrdaadee (d.1ê3l).
5) 'a|-Jaar|' ||.a|r|aaq|r-RaaWee Wa Aadaao|s-3aar|'¨
- a|-Kraleeo a|-8agrdaadee.
ê) 'a|-l|raa' ||aa ra'r|lal 'usoo||r-R|Waayar Wal-Taqyeed|s 3araa'¨
- a|-0aadee 'lyaad |or Voosaa a|-Yars|oee (d.511l).
Z) 'Vaa |aa Yasa'u|-Vuradd|lra Jar|uru¨
- Aooo lals 'urar |or 'Aod||-Vajeed a|-Vayaarajee (d. 580l).
8) 'u|ooru|-ladeelr¨
- Aooo 'Arr 'ulrraar |or 'Aod|r-Rarraar asr-3rarrazooree: lorus-3a|aar (d.ê13l). 0re ol lre oesl
ooo|s, corror|y |roWr as 'Vuqadd|rrar lorus-3a|aar¨
9) 'al-Taqreeo Wal-Tayseer ||-ra'r|lal 3urar|| 8asreer|r-Nadreer¨
- Vureeyuddeer Yaryaa |or 3raral ar NaWaWee (d.êZêl).
10) 'Tadreeour-RaaWee lee 3rarr Taqreeo|r-NaWaWee¨
- Ja|aa|uddeer 'Aodur-Rarraar |or Aoee 8a|ar as-3uyoolee (d.911l).
11) 'Nazrud-0urar lee 'l|r|| Alrar¨
- Za|ruddeer 'Aodur-Rareer |or a|-lusayr a|-'lraaqee (d.80êl).
12) 'Fal-ru| Vugreelr lee 3rarr A|l|yyal|| ladeelr¨
- Vurarrad |or 'Aod|r-Rarraar as-3a|raaWee (d.902l).
13) 'Nu|roalu| F||r lee Vusla|ar Ar||| Alrar¨
- a|-laal|z |or lajar a|-'Asqa|aaree (d.852l).
11) a|-Varzooralu| 8a|qoor|yyar¨
- 'urar |or Vurarrad a|-8a|qooree (d.1080l).
15) '0aWaa'|dul-Tardeelr¨
- Jaraa|uddeer a|-0aas|ree (d.1332l).
|n|t|a| def|n|t|ons:
'||mu| musta|ah - ,·-
- Tre |roW|edge ol lre pr|rc|p|es ard ru|es oy Wr|cr lre slale ol lre |sraad (cra|r) ard lre lexl (ralar)
ray oe |roWr as regards acceplarce or rejecl|or. ll's uselu|ress lrerelore ||es |r |ls ra||rg poss|o|e lre
d|sl|rcl|or oelWeer aulrerl|c ard Wea| radeelr
a|-hadeeth - .,=¬|·
L|rgu|sl|ca||y - 3orelr|rg reW
Tecrr|ca||y - Tral Wr|cr |s allr|ouled lo lre Proprel () as regards Words, acl|ors or lac|l approva|, prys|ca| lealures
ard craracler|sl|cs
a|-khabar -
L|rgu|sl|ca||y - NeWs
Tecrr|ca||y - Trere are lrree say|rgs :
1) ll |s lre sare as 'a|-radeelr¨
2) Tral Wr|cr |s re|aled lror olrer lrar lre Proprel (), ard
3) Tral re|aled lror lre Proprel () or olrer lrar l|r
a|-athar - ¸·v·
L|rgu|sl|ca||y - A rerrarl
Tecrr|ca||y - Trere are lWo say|rgs :
1) ll |s lre sare as 'a|-radeelr¨, ard
2) 3ay|rgs ard acl|ors allr|ouled lo lre Corpar|ors ard Taao|'eer
a|-|snaad - .··=,·
- las lWo rear|rgs:
1) Ascr|o|rg lre radeelr oac| lo lre ore Wro sa|d |l - correcl|rg lre cra|r ol rarral|or, ard
2) Tre cra|r ol rarralors Wr|cr reacres oac| lo lre lexl - Wr|cr |s lre sare as 'as-sarad¨
as-sanad -
L|rgu|sl|ca||y - A supporl
Tecrr|ca||y - Tre cra|r ol rarralors Wr|cr reacres lre lexl
a|-matan -
L|rgu|sl|ca||y - A rard prolrud|rg parl ol lre earlr
Tecrr|ca||y - Tral Wr|cr lre cra|r ol rarral|or erds al (lre lexl)
a|-musnad -
L|rgu|sl|ca||y - Tral Wr|cr ras oeer allr|ouled lo soreore
Tecrr|ca||y - ll ras lrree rear|rgs :
1) Every ooo| arrarged accord|rg lo lre rarral|or's ol eacr Corpar|or separale|y
2) Tre radeelr Wr|cr |s lraced oac| lo lre Proprel (), (rarloo') W|lr a correcled |sraad (rullas||), ard
3) Tre 'sarad¨
a|-musn|d - =·.«|·
- le Wro rarrales lre radeelr W|lr |ls |sraad
a|-muhadd|th -
- le Wro occup|es r|rse|l W|lr lre sc|erce ol radeelr - W|lr oolr lre sc|erces ol lre lexls ard lre cra|rs
ol rarral|or - ard re |roWs a greal rary rarral|ors ard lre cord|l|or ol lre|r rarralors
a|-haaf|z - =··¬|·
- Trere are lWo say|rgs :
1) le |s lre sare as lre ruradd|lr, ard
2) le |s ol a r|grer slardard - sucr lral Wral re |roWs al every slage |s rore lrar Wral re does rol
|roW
a|-haak|m - ,··¬|·
- le Wro ras |roW|edge corprererd|rg a|rosl a|| ol lre araadeelr sucr lral or|y a very leW escape r|r
6|ass|f|cat|on of the hadeeth as regards the state |n wh|ch |t reaches us:
3o |l |l ras rary cra|rs ol rarral|or - W|lroul a parl|cu|ar ||r|l - lrer |l |s mutawaat|r - ¸··,·-
Ard |l |ls cra|rs ol rarral|or are ||r|led lo a parl|cu|ar ruroer - lrer |l |s a|-aahaad -
a|-mutawaat|r - ¸··,·«|·
L|rgu|sl|ca||y - 3uccess|or, corsecul|ve
Tecrr|ca||y - Tral Wr|cr |s rarraled oy sucr a |arge ruroer ol peop|e lral |l |s |rposs|o|e lral lrey rave |rverled a ||e
lls Cord|l|ors :
1) Tral |l oe rarraled oy a |arge ruroer ol peop|e. 3cro|ars d|ller aooul lre aclua| ruroer requ|red
2) Tral lr|s ruroer |s lourd |r every |eve| ol lre |sraad
3) Tral |l |s |rposs|o|e lral lrey cou|d rave galrered logelrer upor a ||e
C|asses ol a|-rulaWaal|r:
1) a|-mutawaat|ru|-|afzee - _=«·|· ¸··,·«|· (rulaWaal|r |r Word|rg)
- Tral Wrose Word|rg ard rear|rg are rulaWaal|r. e.g. Tre radeelr ((le Wro de||oerale|y ||es upor re -
lrer |el r|r la|e r|s p|ace |r lre F|re.))
2) a|-mutawaat|ru| ma'nawee - ,·-'· ¸··,·«|· (rulaWaal|r |r rear|rg)
- |.e. lre radeelr ol ra|s|rg lre rards |r du'aa - Wr|cr |s reporled |r aooul a rurdred araadeelr, a|| ol
lrer slal|rg lral le () ra|sed r|s rards |r du'aa - oul relerr|rg lo d|llererl occas|ors - so lre rerl|or ol
eacr case |s rol rulaWaal|r, oul lre corror laclor - lral le () ra|sed r|s rards, |s.
Tre rosl larous ooo|s ol rulaWaal|r radeelr :
1) 'a|-Azraar a|-Vularaalr|rar l|| A|roaar|| VulaWaal|rar¨ - as-3uyoolee.
2) '0ululu| Azraar¨ - as-3uyoolee.
3) 'Nazru| Vularaalr|r r|ra| ladeelr|| VulaWaal|r¨ - Vurarrad |or Ja'lar a|-Kallaaree.
khabaru| aahaad -
L|rgu|sl|ca||y - P|ura| ol 'ore¨
Tecrr|ca||y - Tral Wr|cr does rol lu|l||| lre cord|l|ors ol lre rulaWaal|r
- lls d|v|s|ors accord|rg lo |ls ruroer ol cra|rs :
1) mash-hoor -
2) 'azeez - ¸,¸-
3) ghareeb - .,¸-
a|-mash-hoor -
L|rgu|sl|ca||y - 'we||-|roWr¨
Tecrr|ca||y - Tral Wr|cr |s rarraled oy lrree peop|e or rore al every |eve|, oul does rol reacr lre cord|l|or ol lre
rulaWaal|r
a|-mustafeed - ¸,«·.«|·
L|rgu|sl|ca||y - Tral Wr|cr ras oeer spread or poured lorlr
Tecrr|ca||y - Trere are lrree say|rgs :
- 1) Tral |l |s lre sare as 'a|-rasr-roor¨,
2) ll |s rore parl|cu|ar - oolr erds ol |ls |sraad rusl oe equa|,
3) ll |s rore gerera| lrar 'a|-rasr-roor¨.
'a|-rasr-roor¨ - olrer lrar |ls lecrr|ca| rear|rg :
ll |s sorel|res used lo rear lral a radeelr Wr|cr |s rere|y We||-|roWr arorgsl lre peop|e, W|lroul
rav|rg lre cord|l|ors lor lre lecrr|ca| 'rasr-roor¨. Tr|s |rc|udes :
1) Tral Wr|cr ras a s|rg|e |sraad,
2) Tral Wr|cr ras rore lrar ore |sraad, ard
3) Tral Wr|cr ras ro |sraad al a||.
Tre lypes ol 'a|-rasr-roor¨ olrer lrar lre lecrr|ca| rasr-roor :
1) 'rasr-roor¨ lo lre peop|e ol radeelr parl|cu|ar|y, e.g. lre radeelr ol Aras: 'lral A||aar's Vesserger
() rade qurool lor a rorlr aller ru|oo' |rvo||rg aga|rsl R|'| ard 0ra|Waar.¨ [a|-8u|raaree ard
Vus||r|
2) 'rasr-roor¨ lo lre peop|e ol radeelr , lre scro|ars ard lre corror peop|e, e.g. 'Tre Vus||r |s re
Wror lre Vus||rs are sale lror r|s lorgue ard r|s rard.¨ [a|-8u|raaree ard Vus||r|
3) 'rasr-roor¨ lo lre luqaraa (scro|ars), e.g. Tre rosl raled ol lre perr|ss|o|e lo A||aar |s d|vorce.¨
[0a'eel Aooo 0aaWood, lor Vaajar ard a|-laa||r|
1) 'rasr-roor¨ lo lre scro|ars ol 'usoo|¨ (pr|rc|p|es ol l|qr), e.g. 'V|sla|es ard lorgellu|ress rave oeer
sel doWr (lorg|ver) lor ry urrar ard lral Wr|cr lrey are lorced lo do.¨ [3areer al-Taoaraaree lror
TraWoaar|
5) 'rasr-roor¨ lo lre peop|e ol arao|c grarrar.
ê) ¨rasr-roor¨ lo lre corror peop|e.
Tre rosl larous ooo|s ol lrose araadeelr corror upor lre lorgues ol lre peop|e :
1) 'a|-Vaqaas|du| lasarar lee Vasrlarara 'a|a| A|s|rar¨ - as-3a|raaWee.
2) 'Kasrlu| Kralaa Wa razee|u| ||oaas lee Vasrlarara r|ra| radeelr 'a|aa A|s|ral|r-Naas¨ - a|-'Aj|ooree.
3) 'Taryeezul-Tayy|o r|ra| Kraoeelr| leeraa yadurroo 'a|aa A|s|ral|r Naas| r|ra| radeelr¨ - lor ad-
0ayoa' asr-3rayoaaree.
a|-azeez - ¸,¸-|·
L|rgu|sl|ca||y - E|lrer 'rare¨ or 'slrorg¨
Tecrr|ca||y - Tral Wr|cr |s rarraled oy ro |ess lrar lWo rarralors al every |eve|, e.g. Tre radeelr ((Nore ol you
oe||eves url|| l ar rore oe|oved lo r|r lrar r|s lalrer, r|s sor ard a|| lre peop|e.)) [a|-8u|raaree ard
Vus||r|. ll |s rarraled lror lre Proprel () oy Aras lror 0alaadar ard 'Aodu|-'Azeez |or 3urayo, ard
lror 0alaadar oy 3ru'oar ard 3a'eed.
TlE PR0PlET ()
2 Aras Aooo lurayrar
2 0alaadar 'Aodu| 'Azeez lor 3urayo
2 3ru'oar 3a'eed
a|-ghareeb - .,¸-|·
L|rgu|sl|ca||y - Tre s|rgu|ar
Tecrr|ca||y - Tre radeelr Wr|cr al sore slage |s rarraled or|y oy a s|rg|e rarralor - e|lrer |r every slage ol lre
|sraad, or al a s|rg|e po|rl.
A|so ca||ed 'a|-lard¨ :
lr lre v|eW ol a|-laal|z |or lajar 'a|-lard¨ ard 'a|-grareeo¨ are lre sare, excepl lral 'a|-lard¨ |s usua||y
used lo reler lo 'a|-lardu| rul|aq¨ (lral Wr|cr |s reporled oy a s|rg|e Corpar|or), ard 'a|-grareeo¨ lo reler
lo 'a|-lardur-r|soee¨ (Wr|cr occurs |aler |r lre |sraad).
lls lypes accord|rg lo Wrere |l occurs |r lre |sraad:
1) a|-ghareebu| mut|aq (aoso|ule) ¿·='· .,¸-|·, (or 'a|-lardu| rul|aq¨)
- Tral Wr|cr occurs al lre rool ol lre |sraad - oe|rg rarraled oy a s|rg|e Corpar|or, e.g. lre radeelr
((ver||y acl|ors are oul oy |rlerl|ors.)) [Reporled or|y oy 'urar |or a|-Krallaao ()|
2) a|-ghareebun-n|sbee (re|al|ve) _,.`·|· .,¸-|·, (or 'a|-lardur-r|soee¨)
- Tral Wr|cr |s rarraled oy rore lrar ore rarralor lo oeg|r W|lr, lrer soreWrere |r lre |sraad ore ol |ls
rarralors ras or|y ore persor rarral|rg lror r|r.
Types ol grareeo-r|soee :
1) lls oe|rg reporled or|y oy a cerla|r lr|qar (re||ao|e) rarralor. 3ucr as lre|r say|rg: No re||ao|e persor
rarrales |l excepl so ard so.
2) 0r|y a cerla|r persor rarrales |l lror arolrer parl|cu|ar persor. 3ucr as lre|r say|rg: 0r|y so ard so
rarrales |l lror so ard so - ever lrougr |l r|grl rave olrer cra|rs lrrougr olrer rarralors.
3) ll oe|rg or|y rarraled oy peop|e ol a cerla|r loWr or |ard. 3ucr as lre|r say|rg: ll |s or|y rarraled oy
lre peop|e ol Va||ar, or lre peop|e ol 3raar.
1) ll |s reporled lror lre peop|e ol ore |ard oy lre peop|e ol arolrer parl|cu|ar |ard. 3ucr as lre|r say|rg:
ll |s reporled or|y oy lre peop|e ol 8asrar lror lre peop|e ol a|-Vadeerar, elc.
Arolrer c|ass|l|cal|or - As regards Wrelrer lre s|rgu|ar|ly |s |r lre lexl or lre |sraad :
1) grareeo |r |ls ralar (lexl) ard |sraad, |.e. Tral Wrose lexl |s reporled or|y oy a s|rg|e rarralor.
2) grareeo |r |ls |sraad oul rol |r |ls ralar, |.e. a radeelr reporled oy a group ol Corpar|ors, oul ore ol
lrer ras or|y a s|rg|e persor Wro rarrales |l lror r|r, so |l |s grareeo lrrougr lral cra|r ard al-
T|rr|dree descr|oes lral as 'grareeo r|r raadra| Wajr.¨
Farous Wor|s corcerr|rg 'a|-grareeo¨ :
1) '0raraa.|o Vaa|||¨ - ad-0aaraqulree.
2) 'a|-Alraad¨ - ad-0aaraqulree.
3) 'Tre 3urrars Wr|cr are parl|cu|ar lo peop|e ol a parl|cu|ar |ard¨, ['as-surar||-|alee lalarrada o||u|||
surrar r|rraa ar|u| oa|dal|r¨| - Aooo 0aaWood.
Tre d|v|s|or ol a|-|raoaru| aaraad as regards lre slrerglr's ard Wea|ress's :
1) Acceplao|e - ,,,.«- (raqooo|) - Tral lourd lo oe reporled oy lrulrlu| ard acceplao|e rarralors. lls
ru||rg |s lral |l |s oo||galory lo accepl ard acl upor |l.
2) Rejecled - .¸.¸.- (rardood) - Tral rol lourd lo oe reporled oy lrulrlu| ard acceplao|e rarralors. lls
ru||rg |s lral |l |s rol accepled as ev|derce ror acled upor.
a|-|raoaru| raqooo| (acceplao|e reporls) - lls lWo rajor lypes are sareer (aulrerl|c) ard rasar (good)
Wr|cr lrer lurlrer orea| doWr |rlo:
1) sareer - _,¬= - sareer or |ls oWr,
2) sareer ||-grayr|r| - ·¸,-| _,¬= - sareer due lo supporl ol olrers,
3) rasar ||-draal|r| - -··=| ¸.- - rasar or |ls oWr, ard
1) rasar ||-grayr|r| - ·¸,-| ¸.- - rasar due lo supporl ol olrers.
as-saheeh - _,¬=|·
L|rgu|sl|ca||y - 3ourd/rea|lry
Tecrr|ca||y - Tral Wrose |sraad |s correcled lrrougr 'jusl¨ ('ad|) ard prec|se (daao|l) rarralors lror oeg|rr|rg lo erd,
rol oe|rg sraadrdr or rav|rg a r|dder delecl ('|||ar).
Tre l|ve cord|l|ors :
1) |ll|saa|us- sarad - =·.|· ,·.=`·· - Tral |ls |sraad |s correcled. Tral every ore ol |ls rarralors reard |l
d|recl|y lror lre persor re |s rarral|rg lror, lror lre slarl ol lre |sraad lo lre erd.
2) a|-'adaa|ar - - Tral a|| ol |ls rarralors are 'ad| (jusl); |.e. Vus||r, 0l age (oaa||gr), 3are ('aaq||),
Nol ar oper s|rrer (laas|q), ard rol rav|rg oad rarrers ard rao|ls (ra|rrooru| raroo.ar).
3) Tral a|| ol |ls rarralors are daao|l (prec|se), Wr|cr |s ol lWo ||rds:
daolus-sadr - _==|· =,.= (prec|s|or ol lre rearl) - lral re reror|ses |l correcl|y ard lrarsr|ls |l as re
reard |l ard lral re urderslards |l |l re |s reporl|rg |ls rear|rg.
daolu| ||laao - =··´|· =,= (prec|s|or ol Wr|l|rg) - lral re correcl|y Wr|les |l doWr, preserves |l ar ra|es
sure lral |l |s passed or correcl|y.
1) 'adarusr srulroolr - .¸=.=|· ;=.- - Tral |l |s rol sraadrdr. Ard lre sraadrdr |s Wrer lre re||ao|e
rarralors corlrad|cl|rg lrose Wro are rore re||ao|e lrar r|r.
5) 'adaru| '|||ar - -.·-|· ;=.- - Tral |l does rol corla|r ('|||ar) r|dder Wea|ress. Tre '|||ar |s a ror-
apparerl laclor Wr|cr allecls lre aulrerl|c|ly ol lre radeelr, Wr||sl lre |sraad appears lo oe lree lror |l,
e.g. a r|dder gap |r lre |sraad.
ll ary ol lrese l|ve cord|l|ors are rol lu|l|||ed lrer lre |sraad W||| rol oe sareer.
Tre ru||rg regard|rg lre sareer radeelr:
ll |s oo||galory lo acl upor |l accord|rg lo lre corsersus ol lre scro|ars ol radeelr ard a|| lrose Wrose
Word |s courled lror lre scro|ars ol usoo| ard l|qr. ll |s a prool |r lre sraree'ar ard |l |s rol perr|ss|o|e
lor aryore lo |eave oll acl|rg upor |l.
Tre rosl aulrerl|c |sraads:
lr lre v|eW ol a|-8u|raaree lre rosl aulrerl|c |sraad |s: Vaa||| lror Naal|' lror lor 'urar. [Tr|s |sraad
|s |roWr as 's||s||aludr-drarao¨ (lre cra|r ol go|d)|.
lr lre v|eW ol lsraaq |or RaaraWa|r ard Arrad lre rosl aulrerl|c |s: az-Zurree lror 3aa||r lror lor
'urar.
lr lre v|eW ol lor a|-Vadeeree ard a|-Fa||aas |l |s: lor 3eereer lror 'Aoeedar lror 'A|ee.
lr lre v|eW ol lor Va'eer |l |s: A| A'arasr lror loraareer Ar-Na|ra'ee lror 'A|qarar lror 'Aodu||aar
|or Vas'ood.
lr lre v|eW ol lor Aoee 3rayoar |l |s: az-Zurree lror 'A|ee lor a|-lusayr lror a|-lusayr lror 'A|ee.
Tre l|rsl ooo| Wr|ller lo |rc|ude or|y lre sareer:
'3areeru| 8u|raaree¨ Wr|cr Was lo||oWed oy '3areer Vus||r¨. Tre rore aulrerl|c ol lre lWo oe|rg
'3areeru| 8u|raaree¨.
Ne|lrer a|-8u|raaree ror Vus||r lr|ed lo galrer a|| ol lre aulrerl|c araadeelr |r lre|r ooo|s:
3areeru| 8u|raaree corla|rs Z,2Z5 araadeelr |rc|ud|rg repel|l|ors ard aooul 1,000 W|lroul repel|l|ors.
3areer Vus||r corla|rs aooul 12,000 W|lr repel|l|ors ard aooul 1,000 W|lroul.
wr|cr ol lre radeelr ol a|-8u|raaree ard Vus||r rave lre ru||rg ol oe|rg del|r|le|y sareer?:
0r|y lre radeelr Wr|cr lrey reporl W|lr a correcled |sraad are so courled. As lor lrose Wr|cr are
reporled W|lr a rarralor or rarralors r|ss|rg lror lre slarl ol lre |sraad, lrer lrey are lerred a|-
mu'a||aq - ¿.·-«|·. a|-8u|raaree oller does lr|s |r lre crapler read|rgs, oul rol W|lr|r lre lexl ol r|s
ooo|. Ard lrese rarral|ors are ol lWo lypes:
1) Tral Wr|cr |s reporled W|lr cerla|rly, e.g. re sa|d, re ordered, re rerl|ored - lrer lral |s judged lo oe
sareer lror lre persor |l |s rarraled lror.
2) Tral reporled W|lroul cerla|rly, e.g. |l |s sa|d lral, |l |s reporled lral (us|rg lre pass|ve lerse), lrer lral
does rol carry lre auloral|c ru||rg ol |l oe|rg sareer.
Leve|s ol aulrerl|c|ly:
1) Tral reporled oy oolr a|-8u|raaree ard Vus||r,
2) Tral reporled oy a|-8u|raaree a|ore,
3) Tral reporled oy Vus||r a|ore,
1) Tral lu|l||||rg lre cord|l|ors ol oolr a|-8u|raaree ard Vus||r, oul rol reporled oy lrer,
5) Tral lu|l||||rg lre cord|l|ors ol a|-8u|raaree, oul rol reporled oy r|r,
ê) Tral lu|l||||rg lre cord|l|ors ol Vus||r, oul rol reporled oy r|r,
Z) Tral aulrerl|caled oy olrers, rol lu|l||||rg lre cord|l|ors ol oolr a|-8u|raaree or Vus||r.
a|-hasan -
L|rgu|sl|ca||y - 0ood/rardsore.
Tecrr|ca||y - lor lajar exp|a|rs |l lo oe lral Wr|cr lu|l|||s lre cord|l|ors ol lre 'sareer¨ excepl lral lre prec|s|or ol ore
or rore ol |ls rarralors |s ol |esser slardard, |.e. |l lu|l|||s a|| ol lre cord|l|ors (1) lo (5) excepl lral
cord|l|or (3) |s rel lo a |esser degree, lrerelore lre |sraad la||s lror lre slardard ol sareer lo lral ol
oe|rg rasar. Tr|s |s lre del|r|l|or ol lre hasan ||-dhaat|h| - -··=| .
ll's ru||rg: ll |s lre sare as lor sareer ever lrougr |l |s oe|oW |l |r slrerglr
Regard lre say|rg:
1) 'radeelr sareeru| |sraad¨ - 'A radeelr Wrose |sraad |s sareer¨.
2) Tr|s |s ol |esser slardard lrar lre say|rg 'radeelr sareer¨ - 'a sareer radeelr¨, s|rce (1) ray or|y
rear lral lre |sraad |r |lse|l |s 'sareer¨ oul ray corlrad|cl sorelr|rg rore aulrerl|c or sl||| rave a
r|dder delecl. loWever, lre lerr 'radeelr sareer¨ (2) rears lral a|| l|ve cord|l|ors rave oeer rel. ll
roWever (1) |s used oy a deperdao|e laal|z ol radeelr, lrer |l srou|d rear lral lre lexl |s a|so sareer
s|rce |l |s rol usua| lor r|dder delecls lo oe preserl or lor |l lo corlrad|cl sorelr|rg rore sourd.
Tre say|rg ol al-T|rr|dree ard olrers:
hasan-saheeh - _,¬= ¸.-
Tr|s ras oeer exp|a|red oy lor lajar ard agreed lo oy as-3uyoolee as lo||oWs:
1) ll lre radeelr ras lWo |sraads or rore, lrer |l rears lral ore |sraad |s sareer ard lre olrer |s
rasar.
2) ll lre radeelr ras or|y ore |sraad - lrer |l rears lral |l |s sareer |r lre v|eW ol sore scro|ars, rasar
|r lre v|eW ol olrers.
as-saheeh ||-ghayr|h| - ·¸,-| _,¬=|· (sareer due lo supporl):
Tr|s |s lre radeelr Wr|cr |s rasar |r |lse|l oul |s rarraled W|lr arolrer cra|r |||e |l or slrorger lrar |l,
Wr|cr supporls |l ard ra|ses |l lo lre |eve| ol sareer. 3o |l |s r|grer |r |eve| lrar lre rasar ||-draal|r|, oul
|oWer lrar lre sareer ||-draal|r|.
a|-hasan ||-ghayr|h| - ·¸,-| ¸.¬|· (rasar due lo supporl):
ll |s lre radeelr Wr|cr |s or|g|ra||y da'eel, oul ras olrer cra|rs ol rarral|or, ard lre reasor lor |ls or|g|ra|
Wea|ress |s rol s|rlu|ress ol ary rarralor ol r|s oe|rg a ||ar. 3o sucr a radeelr ray oe ra|sed lo lre
|eve| ol rasar |l lWo cord|l|ors are rel:
1) Tral |l |s rarraled lrrougr ore or rore cra|rs ol rarral|or oes|des lre or|g|ra| cra|r, ard lral lre olrer
cra|r |s s|r||ar lo |l or slrorger lrar |l, ard
2) Tral lre reasor lor lre or|g|ra| Wea|ress Was e|lrer soreore's rav|rg a poor rerory, or a r|ss|rg
||r| |r |ls cra|r, or ore ol |ls rarralors oe|rg ur|roWr
3o |l |s ol |esser |eve| lrar lre rasar ||-draal|r|, lrerelore |l ary corlrad|cl|or occurs lre rasar ||-draal|r|
|s g|ver precederce.
Tre ru||rg lor |l: ll |s acceplao|e ard used as prool.
Trose araadeelr Wr|cr are g|ver precederce due lo ouls|de laclors:
Trey are ol d|llererl lypes, lre rosl larous oe|rg:
1) Trose araadeelr reporled oy a|-8u|raaree ard Vus||r |r lre|r '3areers¨,
2) Trose araadeelr Wr|cr are reporled oy var|ous |sraads, a|| ol lrer lree lror Wea|ress or r|dder
delecls,
3) Trose Wrose |sraads are rade up ol pror|rerl scro|ars, e.g. lral reporled oy lraar Arrad, lror
lraar asr-3raal|'ee, lror lraar Vaa|||.
3o |l lrere |s ary corlrad|cl|or, araadeelr sucr as lrese are g|ver prelererce.
a|-rur|ar Wa| ru|rla||l |r radeelr:
a|-muhkam -
L|rgu|sl|ca||y - Tral Wr|cr |s l|rr.
Tecrr|ca||y - Tre acceplao|e (raqooo|) radeelr Wr|cr |s rol corlrad|cled oy arylr|rg ol a s|r||ar lype. Vosl
araadeelr are ol lr|s ||rd.
mukhta||fu| hadeeth - .,=-· .··¬- :
- ll |s lre acceplao|e radeelr Wr|cr ras sorelr|rg |||e |l Wr|cr corlrad|cls |l, lrougr |l |s ao|e lo rarror|se
lrer.
wral |s lo oe dore |l lWo acceplao|e araadeelr are lourd lo oe corlrad|clory?:
Tre lo||oW|rg process |s lo oe lo||oWed:
1) ll |l |s poss|o|e lo rarror|se lrer, lrer lral rusl oe dore, ard lrey lrer srou|d oolr oe acled upor.
2) ll |l |s |r ro Way poss|o|e lo rarror|se lre lWo, lrer:
1) ll |l |s |roWr lral ore aorogales lre olrer, lrer We la|e ard acl or lre aorogal|rg ard |eave lre
aorogaled;
2) we g|ve prelererce lo ore over lre olrer due lo ore ol lre d|llererl Ways ol do|rg so, ard lrere
are rore lrar l|lly ol lrer;
3) Ard |l We carrol l|rd ary Way lo preler ore over lre olrer, lrer We cease acl|rg or e|lrer ol lrer
url|| We are ao|e lo preler ore.
Tre rosl larous ooo|s or lre suojecl:
1) 'l|rl||aalu| ladeelr¨ - lraar asr-3raal|'ee.
2) 'Ta.Wee| Vu|rla||lu| ladeelr¨ - lor 0ulayoar.
3) ¨Vusr|||u| Aalraar¨ - al-TaraaWee.
naas|khu| hadeeth wa mansookhuhu (the abrogat|ng and abrogated ahaadeeth} - --,.·- ¸ .,=-· _=··
L|rgu|sl|ca||y - Rerova| ard corveyarce.
Tecrr|ca||y - A||aar's rep|ac|rg a lorrer ru||rg W|lr a |aler ore.
KroW|edge ol |l |s ore ol lre rosl |rporlarl ard yel rardesl ol lre orarcres ol |roW|edge. Tre rosl
pror|rerl ol lrose We||-versed |r |l Was lraar asr-3raal|'ee. lraar Arrad sa|d: 'we d|d rol |roW lre
gerera||y app||cao|e lror lre exp|a|red, ror lre aorogal|rg radeelr lror lre aorogaled url|| We sal W|lr
asr-3raal|'ee.
loW |s lre aorogaled ard lre aorogal|rg |roWr?:
ll |s |roWr |r ore ol lre lo||oW|rg Ways:
1) ll A||aar's Vesserger () c|ear|y slales so r|rse|l, e.g. lre radeelr ol 8uraydar |r '3areer Vus||r¨:
((l used lo loro|d you lror v|s|l|rg lre graves, so (roW) v|s|l lrer s|rce lrey W||| rer|rd you ol lre
lerealler.))
2) 8y lre say|rg ol a Corpar|or, e.g. lre say|rg ol Jaao|r (): 'Tre |aller ol lre lWo acl|ors lror A||aar's
Vesserger () Was lo |eave Wudoo lror lral loucred oy l|re.¨ [Tre 1 3urar|
3) 8y |roW|rg lre dales ol eacr, e.g. lre radeelr ol 3raddaad |or AWs: ((Tre cupper ard lre ore
cupped rave oolr oro|er lre|r lasl.)) [Aooo 0aaWood|, Wr|cr |s aorogaled oy lre radeelr ol lor 'Aooaas
'lral lre Proprel () rad r|rse|l cupped Wr||sl |r |rraar ard lasl|rg.¨ [Vus||r|, s|rce |r sore rarral|ors
ol lre radeelr ol 3raddaad lrere occurs lral |l Was |r lre l|re ol lre corquesl ol Va||ar, ard lor
'Aooaas Werl a|org W|lr r|r |r lre FareWe|| lajj.
1) 8y lre ev|derce ol |jraa'. ljraa' does rol |lse|l aorogale arylr|rg, oul |s ar ev|derce lral aorogal|or
ras la|er p|ace.
Farous Wor|s or lre suojecl:
1) 'a|-l'l|oaar l|r-Naas||r Wa| Varsoo|r r|ra| Aalraar¨ - a|-laaz|ree.
2) 'ar-Naas||r Wa| Varsoo|r¨ - lraar Arrad.
3) 'Tajreedu| Araadeelr|| Varsoo|rar¨ - lor JaWzee.
a|-khabaru| mardood (rejected narrat|on's} -
- Trere are rary lypes, oul lrey are rosl|y due lo ore ol lWo reasors:
1) 3orelr|rg r|ss|rg |r lre |sraad, ard
2) Narralors oe|rg uracceplao|e.
ad-da'eef - .,-=|·
L|rgu|sl|ca||y - 0ppos|le ol lre slrorg.
Tecrr|ca||y - Tral Wr|cr does rol lu|l||| lre cord|l|ors ol lre rasar radeelr, due lo lre aoserce ol ore or rore ol |ls
cord|l|ors. Ard jusl as lrere are |eve|s ol lre sareer, lrere are |eve|s ol lre Wea|. Tre Wea|er lre
rarralors are lrer lre Wea|er |l oecores, rarg|rg lrrougr:
- da'eef (weak} - .,-=
- da'eef j|ddan (very weak} - ·=- .,-=
- qaahee (base|ess} - _··¸
- munkar (weak and contrad|ct|ng someth|ng more authent|c} -
- mawdoo' (fabr|cated} - , lre Worsl ol lre rejecled reporls.
Tre Wea|esl ol |sraads:
Tre Wea|esl ol |sraads W|lr regard lo Aooo 8a|ar () |s: 3adaqar |or Voosaa ad-0aqeeqee lror
Farqad as-3aoa|ree lror Vurrar al-Tayy|o lror r|r.
Tre Wea|esl ol |sraads ol lre peop|e ol 3raar |s: Vurarrad |or 0ays a|-Vas|ooo lror 'uoa|du||aar
|or Zarr lror 'A|ee |or Yazeed lror a|-0aas|r lror Aooo uraarar ().
Tre Wea|esl ol |sraads W|lr regard lo lor 'Aooaas () |s as-3uddee as-3agreer Vurarrad |or
VarWaar lror a|-Ka|oee lror Aooo 3aa||r lror r|r. [lor lajar says: 'Tr|s |s rol lre Cra|r ol 0o|d
(s||s||aludr-drarao), ralrer |l |s lre Cra|r ol L|es (s||s||alu| |adr|o).
Tre ru||rg regard|rg acl|rg or lre da'eel radeelr:
3ore ol lre greal scro|ars, arorgsl lrer lraars a|-8u|raaree, Vus||r, lor Va'eer ard lor lazar
ro|d lral lre Wea| radeelr |s rejecled oulr|grl ard rol lo oe acled upor as |l |s rol |roW|edge. 0lrers
ro|d lral |l ray oe acled upor |l cerla|r cord|l|ors are rel, ard lrer or|y W|lr regards lo ercouragererl
lor do|rg good or avo|d|rg ev||. Tre cord|l|ors as exp|a|red oy lor lajar oe|rg:
1) Tral |ls Wea|ress |s rol severe,
2) Tral |l la||s urder sorelr|rg gerera| a|ready eslao||sred |r lre sraree'ar, ard
3) Tral |l |s rol cors|dered lo oe sorelr|rg eslao||sred or as rav|rg core lror lre Proprel ().
Tral Wr|cr |s da'eel due lo a gap |r lre |sraad:
Tr|s |s ol lWo lypes:
1) An obv|ous gap - `¸··» =«= (saqlur zaar|rur)
lral lre rarralor Was rol a||ve |r lre l|re ol lre persor re |s rarral|rg lror, or lral |l |s |roWr lral re
rever rel r|r. ll |s c|ass|l|ed |rlo lour lypes:
- a|-mu'a||aq -
- a|-mursa| -
- a|-mu'da| -
- a|-munqat|' - _=«·«|·
2) A h|dden gap - ¯_«- =«= (saqlur |raleeyyur)
- a|-muda||as -
- a|-mursa|u| khafee - _«-· ¸=¸«|·
a|-mu'a||aq -
L|rgu|sl|ca||y 3usperded, rarg|rg
Tecrr|ca||y Tral Wr|cr ras ore or rore rarralors, corsecul|ve|y, de|eled lror |ls |sraad, |.e.:
1) Tral a|| ol |ls |sraad |s de|eled, lrer |l |s sa|d, lor exarp|e: Tre Proprel () sa|d . . .
2) Tral a|| ol lre |sraad |s de|eled up lo lre Corpar|or, or up lo lre Taao|'ee.
ll's ru||rg: Tre ru'a||aq |s rejecled s|rce |l |s r|ss|rg ore ol lre cord|l|ors ol acceplao|||ly, |.e. lral lre
|sraad oe correcled
Tre ru||rg lor ru'a||aq araadeelr |r lre sareera|r:
ll |l |s slaled |r del|r|le lorr: 'le sa|d:¨, elc. lrer |l |s sareer lror lral persor. ll roWever lral |s rol so,
ard |l |s quoled |r lre lorr: 'll |s sa|d:¨, elc. lrer |l W||| rol oe judged lo oe sareer url|| a correcled
|sraad car oe lourd lor |l. lor lajar corp||ed a larous Wor| 'Tagr|eequl-Ta'|eeq¨ Wrere|r re researcres
ard prov|des |sraads lor lre ru'a||aq araadeelr ol '3areeru| 8u|raaree¨.
a|-mursa| -
L|rgu|sl|ca||y - '3el lree¨.
Tecrr|ca||y - Tral Wrose rarralor lror lre erd ol lre |sraad, aller lre Taao|'ee, |s r|ss|rg; |.e. Tral a Taao|'ee says
'Tre Proprel () sa|d . . .¨.
ll's ru||rg: Tre rursa| |s |r pr|rc|p|e da'eel (rejecled), s|rce |l |s r|sses ore ol lre cord|l|ors ol
acceplao|||ly ard lral |s, lre correcl|or ol lre |sraad, ard lral We do rol |roW lre slale ol lre r|ss|rg
||r|, s|rce re ray rol oe a Corpar|or ard so |l ray oe Wea|. loWever, scro|ars rave d|llered over |ls
ru||rg s|rce lr|s lype ol orea| |r lre |sraad |s ur|||e ary olrer, s|rce |l W||| usua||y oe a Corpar|or, ard
a|| ol lrer are perlecl|y acceplao|e ard so |l does rol raller lral We do rol |roW Wro re |s. Trerelore
lrere are oas|ca||y lrree say|rgs as regards lre ru||rg ol lre rursa|:
1) da'eel. Tr|s |s lre pos|l|or ol rosl ol lre ruradd|lroor ard rary ol lre scro|ars ol usoo| ard l|qr.
Trey oase lr|s upor lre lacl lral We do rol |roW lre cord|l|or ol lre r|ss|rg rarralor, s|rce re ray rol
oe a Corpar|or.
2) sareer, used as a prool. Accord|rg lo Aooo lareelar, Vaa||| ard a|so Wral |s We||-|roWr lror
Arrad ard sore olrers: w|lr lre cord|l|or lral lre rarralor oelore lre orea| |s re||ao|e (lr|qar) ard
does rol do |rsaa| excepl lror a re||ao|e rarralor. 8as|rg lr|s upor lre lacl lral |l Wou|d oe |rposs|o|e lor
a Taao|'ee lo reporl sorelr|rg lror lre Proprel () Wr|cr re d|d rol rear lror a re||ao|e source.
3) Acceplao|e W|lr cord|l|ors. Tr|s |s lre pos|l|or ol lraar asr-3raal|'ee ard olrers. Tre cord|l|ors are:
1) Tral lre ore Wro does |rsaa| |s ore ol lre ser|or Taao|'eer,
2) ll re rares lre persor re r|ssed oul, lrer re rares soreore re||ao|e,
3) ll lre lruslWorlry rullaaz rarrale a|org W|lr r|r, lrer lrey do rol d|ller lror r|r,
1) Tral ore oul ol lre lo||oW|rg cord|l|ors |s a|so added:
1) Tral lre radeelr |s rarraled oy arolrer correcled cra|r,
2) Tral lre radeelr |s rarraled oy arolrer rursa| cra|r ard lral lre persor do|rg lre |rsaa|
rarrales lror olrer lrar lrose Wror lre rarralor do|rg lre |rsaa| |r lre l|rsl cra|r rarrales lror,
|.e. r|s sray|rs are rol lre sray|rs ol lre l|rsl ore, |r order lral lrey W||| rol oolr oe do|rg |rsaa|
lror lre sare persor,
3) Tral |l agrees W|lr lre say|rg ol a Corpar|or,
1) Tral rosl scro|ars g|ve a lalWaa |r accordarce W|lr lre |roW|edge corla|red |r |l.
3o |l lrese cord|l|ors are rel, lrer |ls acceplao|||ly |s eslao||sred.
mursa| of the sahaabah - _,·¬=|· ¸=¸-
- Trose araadeelr Wr|cr sore ol lre Corpar|ors reporled rol rav|rg reard lrer d|recl|y lror lre
Proprel (), due e|lrer lo lre|r yourg age, |ale acceplarce ol ls|aar or aoserce. Ard lrere are rary
araadeelr ol lr|s ||rd reporled oy lre very yourg Corpar|ors sucr as lor 'Aooaas ard lor az-Zuoayr.
Tre ru||rg lor rursa|us-saraaoee: wral |s correcl |s lral |l |s sareer ard used as prool, s|rce lre
Corpar|ors rare|y rarraled lror laao|'eer ard |l lrey do lrer lrey say so. Ard |l lrey do rol say arylr|rg
lrer lrey W||| oe rarral|rg lror arolrer Corpar|or, ard a|| ol lrer are aoso|ule|y acceplao|e.
Farous Wor|s or lre rursa|:
1) 'a|-Varaasee|¨ - Aooo 0aaWood.
2) 'a|-Varaasee|¨ - lor Aoee laal|r.
3) 'Jaar|'ul Tar-see| ||.ar|aar|| Varaasee|¨ - a|-'A|aa.ee
a|-mu'da| -
L|rgu|sl|ca||y - wea|ered, d|sao|ed.
Tecrr|ca||y - Tral Wr|cr ras lWo or rore success|ve rarralors r|ss|rg lror |ls |sraad.
lls ru||rg: ll |s da'eel ard |r a Worse cord|l|or lrar lre rursa| or lre rurqal|'. Tr|s |s agreed lo oy a|| ol
lre scro|ars.
wrer |l |s lre sare as lre ru'a||aq ard Wrer |l d|llers:
1) ll lWo success|ve rarralors are r|ss|rg lror lre slarl ol lre |sraad: Trer |l |s ru'a||aq ard ru'da|.
2) ll lWo success|ve rarralors are r|ss|rg |r lre r|dd|e ol lre |sraad: Trer |l |s ru'da| ard rol ru'a||aq.
3) ll a s|rg|e rarralor |s r|ss|rg lror lre slarl ol lre |sraad: Trer |l |s ru'a||aq ard rol ru'da|.
a|-munqat|' - _=«·«|·
L|rgu|sl|ca||y - 'Cul-oll, delacred¨
Terr|ro|ogy - Tral Wrose |sraad |s rol correcled, roWever lre r|ss|rg ||r| occurs. Tr|s lrerelore |rc|udes a|| lre olrer
lypes. loWever, |aler scro|ars ard rary ol lre ear||er ores use |l lo app|y lo olrer lrar lre rursa|,
ru'a||aq ard ru'da|. 3o W|lr lrer |l |s: Tral Wrose |sraad |s rol correcled, oul |s re|lrer rursa|,
ru'a||aq or ru'da|. A|so |rq|laa' ray occur al a s|rg|e po|rl |r lre |sraad, or |r rore lrar ore p|ace.
lls ru||rg: ll |s da'eel oy agreererl ol lre scro|ars, s|rce We do rol |roW lre slale ol lre r|ss|rg rarralor.
a|-muda||as - | at-tad|ees - ¸,|=·|·
L|rgu|sl|ca||y - 'lad|ees¨ |s r|d|rg lre delecls ol ar arl|c|e oe|rg so|d.
Tecrr|ca||y - l|d|rg a delecl |r lre |sraad ard ra||rg |l lo appear lo oe sourd.
lls lypes: ll ras lWo rajor lypes:
1) lad|eesu| |sraad
2) lad|eesusr-sruyoo|r
1) tad|eesu| |snaad - .··=,· ¸,|=·
Tral a rarralor reporls lror lre ore Wror re ras reard lror, lral Wr|cr re d|d rol rear lror r|r, us|rg
sucr Word|rg as W||| |eave lre |rpress|or lral re reard |l lror r|r, lrougr rol del|r|le|y slal|rg so. wral
aclua||y la|es p|ace |s lral lre rarralor reporls lror a sray|r ol r|s, Wror re rarrales sore radeelr
lror, roWever re ras rol reard lr|s parl|cu|ar radeelr lror r|r, oul ralrer re reard |l lror arolrer
rarralor Wro rarraled lror lre sray|r, so re drops lre rare ol lr|s |rlerred|ary ard quoles |l d|recl|y
lror lre sray|r us|rg a Word|rg Wr|cr corveys lre |dea lral re reard |l lror r|r, sucr as: 'lre sray|r
sa|d:¨ or 'lror lre sray|r:¨, roWever re does rol use sucr Word|rg as 'l reard r|r say:¨ or 're rarraled
lo re:¨ as lr|s Wou|d ra|e r|r a ||ar.
The d|fference between tad|eesu| |snaad and a|-|rsaa|u| khafee (h|dden |rsaa|} -
_«-· ,·=_, ¸ .··=,· ¸,|=· ¸,, 3¸·:
Tre d|llererce |s lral lad|ees |s a persor rarral|rg lror soreore re reard lror, sorelr|rg Wr|cr re d|d
rol rear lror r|r. wrereas |rsaa| |s a persors rarral|rg lror soreore re d|d rol rear arylr|rg lror al
a|| (|.e. Was rol a sray|r ol r|s).
tad|eesut-tasw|yah - ,.·|· ¸,|=·
Tr|s |s |r rea||ly a lype ol lad|eesu| |sraad. ll |s: A rarralor rarral|rg a radeelr lror r|s sray|r W|lr r|s
|sraad ard lrer dropp|rg lre rare ol a Wea| rarralor occurr|rg |r oelWeer lWo re||ao|e rarralors Wro
are |roWr lo rave rel eacr olrer, |.e. re rears a radeelr lror r|s sray|r Wro |s re||ao|e (A): Wro
rarrales |l lror a Wea| rarralor (8): Wro rarrales |l lror a re||ao|e rarralor (C). 3o lre correcl |sraad |s
(A)[re||ao|e| lror (8)[Wea|| lror (C)[re||ao|e|. 8ul lre or|g|ra| rarralor crarges |l lo (A)[re||ao|e| lror
(C)[re||ao|e| . . , dropp|rg oul lre Wea| rarralor so lral lre |sraad seers lo oe sareer, ard lre gap |s
r|dder s|rce (A) ard (C) rad aclua||y rel ard lrus rarral|or |s poss|o|e oelWeer lrer. Ard lr|s |s lre
Worsl lorr ol lad|ees ard lre rardesl lo delecl. Trose We||-|roWr lor pracl|c|rg lad|eesul lasW|yar:
8aq|yyar |or a|-wa|eed ard a|-wa|eed |or Vus||r.
2) tad|eesush-shuyookh - _,,=|· ¸,|=·
- Tral a rarralor rarrales a radeelr Wr|cr re reard lror r|s sray|r, ard g|ves r|s sray|r a rare, |uryar
or l|l|e Wr|cr re |s rol rorra||y |roWr oy, |r order lo d|sgu|se r|s |derl|ly.
Tre ru||rg regard|rg lad|ees:
1) lad|eesu| |sraad: |s severe|y cersured ard greal|y raled oy rosl ol lre scro|ars. 3ru'oar sa|d: 'lad|ees
|s lre orolrer ol la|serood.¨
2) lad|eesul-lasW|yar: |s ever rore raled ard cersured, a|-lraaqee say|rg lral |l deslroys lre re||ao|||ly ol
lre persor Wro ras dore |l de||oerale|y.
3) lad|eesusr-sruyoo|r: |s raled lo a |esser exlerl lrar lre l|rsl s|rce ro-ore ras aclua||y oeer dropped
lror lre |sraad.
Reasors lor Wr|cr peop|e pracl|ced lad|ees:
lad|eesu| |sraad:
1) To srorler lre |sraad ard lre ruroer ol ||r|s oelWeer r|r ard lre rarralor ol lre lexl. ('u|uWWu|
|sraad).
2) Tral re r|ssed sorelr|rg lror lre sray|r Wror re rarrales a |ol lror, so re perlorrs lad|ees so lral
|l seers lral re reard lral lror r|r as We||.
3) Tral lre sray|r |s a Wea| rarralor.
1) Tral re ||ved |org lrus a |ol ol olrers a|so rarrale lror r|r, so lrere W||| oe rolr|rg spec|a| aooul r|s
rarral|rg lror r|r |l re used r|s usua| rare.
5) Tral lre sray|r |s yourger lrar lre ore rarral|rg lror r|r.
lad|eesusr-sruyoo|r:
1) Tral lre sray|r |s a Wea| rarralor.
2) Tral re ||ved |org lrus a |ol ol olrers a|so rarrale lror r|r, so lrere W||| oe rolr|rg spec|a| aooul r|s
rarral|rg lror r|r |l re used r|s usua| rare.
3) Tral lre sray|r |s yourger lrar lre ore rarral|rg lror r|r.
1) Tral re rarrales a greal dea| lror r|r, ard so lre rarralor does rol |||e lral r|s rare srou|d appear
so oller |r r|s rarral|or's.
Tre ru||rg regard|rg lre rarral|ors ol a ruda|||s:
3cro|ars rave d|llered aooul lre acceplao|||ly ol lre|r rarral|or's, lre lWo rosl larous pos|l|ors oe|rg:
1) Tre|r rarral|or's are a|| rejecled oulr|grl, lral |s ever |l lrey c|ear|y slale lral lrey reard lre rarral|or
lror lre sray|r. [Tr|s pos|l|or |s rol lre deperdao|e ore|.
2) Tre pos|l|or ol d|llererl|al|or, so lral rarral|or |r Wr|cr lrey c|ear|y slale lral lrey reard lre rarral|or
lror lre sray|r |s accepled. Ard lral rarral|or |r Wr|cr lrey do rol c|ear|y slale lral (e.g. say|rg 'lror so
ard so¨) |s rol accepled. [Tr|s |s lre deperdao|e pos|l|or|.
loW |s lad|ees d|scovered? - E|lrer oy:
1) Tre ruda|||s r|rse|l adr|ll|rg |l Wrer as|ed, or
2) 8y lre slalererl ol a deperdao|e scro|ar lral |l ras occurred.
Farous Wor|s or lad|ees ard lre ruda|||soor:
1) 'al-Taoyeer ||.asraa.|| ruda|||seer¨ - a|-Kraleeo a|-8agrdaadee.
2) TWo Wor|s ol a|-Kraleeo eacr or a separale lype ol lad|ees.
3) 'al-Taoyeer ||.asraa.|| ruda|||seer¨ - 8urraaruddeer |or a|-la|aoee.
1) 'Ta'reel Ar|ul Taqdees o|raraal|o a| VaWsooleer o|l-Tad|eees¨ - a|-laal|z |or lajar.
a|-mursa|u| khafee (h|dden |rsaa|} - _«-· ¸=¸«|·
- ls lral a rarralor rarrales lror a sray|r |r Wrose l|re re ||ved, ard rayoe ever rel r|r, oul re rever
reard arylr|rg lror r|r, us|rg a Word|rg sucr as: 're sa|d:¨.
loW |s |l d|scovered? - 8y ore ol lrree Ways:
1) Tre slalererl ol scro|ar(s) lral lre rarralor rever rel lre sray|r or lral re d|d rol rear arylr|rg lror
r|r.
2) Tre rarralor r|rse|l |rlorr|rg lral re rever rel or reard lror lre sray|r.
3) Tral lre |sraad |s e|seWrere reporled W|lr ar add|l|ora| rarralor oelWeer r|r ard lre sray|r. (Trere |s
roWever d|llererce aooul lr|s s|rce |l ray oe Wral |s ca||ed 'a|-razeed lee rullas|||| asaareed¨.)
lls ru||rg: ll |s da'eel s|rce |ls |sraad |s d|scorrecled.
Farous Wor|s aooul |l:
1) 'al-Talsee| ||-ruorar|| Varaasee|¨ - a|-Kraleeo a|-8agrdaadee
a|-mu'an'an -
- ls lre rarralors say|rg: '3o ard so lror ('ar) so ard so.¨
ls ar |sraad corla|r|rg |l correcled (rullas||) or oro|er (rurqal|')? - 3cro|ars d|ller, rav|rg lWo say|rgs:
1) ll |s oro|er url|| sroWr lo oe correcled.
2) [wr|cr |s Wral |s correcl accord|rg lo lre rajor|ly ol scro|ars|: Tral |l |s |r pr|rc|p|e correcled, W|lr
cerla|r cord|l|ors, lWo ol Wr|cr lrey agree upor ard lrree ol Wr|cr lrey d|ller aooul. 3o lre lWo agreed
upor are:
1) Tral lre rarralor do|rg |l |s rol a ruda|||s.
2) Tral |l Was poss|o|e lral lre lWo rarralors |r quesl|or cou|d rave rel.
Ard accord|rg lo Vus||r lrese lWo are sull|c|erl. Tre lrree exlra cord|l|ors are:
1) Tral |l oe eslao||sred lral lrey rel, deered recessary oy a|-8u|raaree, lor a|-Vadeeree ard
olrers.
2) Tral lrey Were |r eacr olrers corpary lor a |org per|od ol l|re, deered recessary oy 'Aodu|
Vuzallar as-3ar'aaree.
3) Tral |l |s |roWr lral re rarraled lror r|r, deered recessary oy Aooo 'Arr ad-0aaree.
a|-mu.annan -
- ls lre rarralors say|rg: '3o ard so lral (arra) so ard so [sa|d|:.¨
lls ru||rg:
1) Arrad ard sore scro|ars say lral |l |s oro|er url|| |l |s sroWr lo oe correcled.
2) Tre rajor|ly ol scro|ars say lral |l |s lre sare as lor ('ar) ard |s acceplao|e W|lr lre sare cord|l|ors.
Tral Wr|cr are rejecled due lo cr|l|c|sr ol rarralors - Tre reasors lor cr|l|c|sr ol rarralors:
Trere are ler reasors lor cr|l|c|sr ol rarralors, l|ve correcled W|lr lre|r lruslWorlr|ress ('adaa|ar) ard
l|ve W|lr lre|r prec|s|or (daol). As lor lrose re|al|rg lo lre|r 'adaa|ar, lrey are:
1) Ly|rg (a|-|adr|o) - ==´|·
2) 8e|rg accused ol |y|rg (al-lurrar o|| |adr|o) - ==´|·, -«,·|·
3) 0per s|r (l|sq) ¿.·
1) lrroval|or (a|-o|d'ar) --=,|·
5) Tre rarralors oe|rg ur|roWr (a|-jaraa|ar) - .
As lor lrose re|al|rg lo lre|r daol, lrey are:
1) Poor rerory (soo.u| r|lz) - =«-· ·,=
2) Corlrad|cl|rg rore re||ao|e rarralors (ru|raa|alalulr lr|qaal) -
3) Va||rg rary errors; |.e. rarral|rg lr|rgs oy r|sla|e (|alrralu| aWraar) - ·¸v· ·¸··
1) lrao|||ly lo d|sl|rgu|sr Wral |s correcl lror Wral |s a r|sla|e |r r|s rarral|ors (a|-gral|ar)
5) 3er|ous r|sla|es (lar-sru| gra|al) -
Trese resu|l |r lre lo||oW|rg lypes ol Wea| radeelr, oeg|rr|rg W|lr lre Wea|esl:
a|-mawdoo' (fabr|cated} -
L|rgu|sl|ca||y - Tral orougrl or pul doWr.
Tecrr|ca||y - ls a ||e, |rverled ard allr|ouled lo lre Proprel ().
lls |eve|: ll |s lre Worsl ard rosl ev|| ol a|| lre Wea| araadeelr. 3ore scro|ars p|ace |l |r a c|ass ol |ls
oWr, rol ro|d|rg |l lo oe a lype ol Wea| radeelr.
Tre ru||rg regard|rg |ls rarral|or: 3cro|ars rave agreed lral |l |s rol perr|ss|o|e lo rarrale |l excepl lo
exp|a|r lral |l |s laor|caled.
loW |s |l delecled? - ll |s |roWr oy var|ous rears, lror lrer:
1) Tre laor|calors |aler adr|ll|rg |l.
2) Tral Wr|cr |s lre sare as r|s adr|ll|rg |l, sucr as r|s adr|ll|rg lral r|s a||eged sray|r d|ed oelore lre
rarralor's o|rlr.
3) 3ore oulWard |rd|cal|or, e.g. lral lre rarralor |s a Raal|dee ard lre rarral|or supporls r|s parly.
1) 3ore lexlua| |rd|cal|or, e.g. uroel|ll|rg |arguage or a corlrad|cl|or ol lre c|ear lexl ol lre 0ur.aar.
Reasors Wry peop|e laor|caled araadeelr:
1) lrag|r|rg lral lrey Wou|d oe reWarded lor |l, oy lorg|rg araadeelr lo Warr lre peop|e aga|rsl ev||
acl|ors ard ercourag|rg lrer lo do good.
2) To supporl lre|r oWr radrrao.
3) To allac| ls|aar, dore oy lrose Wro cou|d rol allac| ls|aar lror ouls|de.
1) 3ee||rg c|oseress lo ru|ers, oy laor|cal|rg araadeelr |r lre|r lavour lo p|ease lrer.
5) 3ee||rg rorelary ga|r.
ê) 3ee||rg lare, oy rarral|rg araadeelr rol reporled oy aryore e|se.
Farous Wor|s or laor|caled araadeelr:
1) 'K|laaou| VaWdoo'aal¨ - lor a|-JaWzee.
2) 'a|-Laa|eeu| Vasroo'ar l|| araadeelr|| VaWdoo'ar¨ - as-3uyoolee.
3) 'Tarzeerusr 3raree'al|| Varloo'ar 'ar|| araadeelr|sr-sraree'al|| raWdoo'ar¨ - lor 'lraaq a|-K|raaree.
a|-matrook -
L|rgu|sl|ca||y - Aoardored, rerourced.
Tecrr|ca||y - Tral |r Wrose |sraad |s soreore accused ol |y|rg.
Reasors lor accus|rg a rarralor ol |y|rg:
1) Tral lre radeelr |s or|y reporled lrrougr r|r, ard |l corlrad|cls eslao||sred pr|rc|p|es.
2) Tral re |s |roWr lo ||e |r r|s everyday speecr.
Leve|s ol Wea|ress (lre Wea|esl l|rsl - lr|s oe|rg lre arrargererl ol a|-laal|z |or lajar):
1) a|-raWdoo'
2) a|-ralroo|
3) a|-rur|ar
1) a|-ru'a||a|
5) a|-rudraj
ê) a|-raq|ooo
Z) a|-rudlarao
a|-munkar -
Caused |l lre rarralor ras ser|ous r|sla|es, |rao|||ly lo d|sl|rgu|sr error lror lral Wr|cr |s correcl or oper
s|r.
L|rgu|sl|ca||y - 0|sc|a|red, repud|aled.
Tecrr|ca||y - 1) Tral radeelr Wrose |sraad corla|rs a rarralor Wro ras corr|lled ser|ous errors, urao|e lo
d|sl|rgu|sr lrue lror la|se or |s ar oper s|rrer. (Tr|s |s lre del|r|l|or quoled oy a|-laal|z |or lajar) or
2) Tral Wr|cr a Wea| rarralor reporls |r corlrad|cl|or ol lral rarraled oy a re||ao|e rarralor.
Tre d|llererce oelWeer lre rur|ar ard lre sraadrdr:
Tre sraadrdr |s lral Wr|cr a re||ao|e rarralor reporls |r corlrad|cl|or lo lral Wr|cr |s rore re||ao|e.
Tre rur|ar |s lral Wr|cr a Wea| rarralor reporls |r corlrad|cl|or lo lral Wr|cr |s rore re||ao|e.
lls |eve|: ll |s very Wea| (da'eel j|ddar).
a|-mu'a||a| -
0ue lo a rarralor's r|sla|er|y rarral|rg lr|rgs.
Tecrr|ca||y - A radeelr Wr|cr |s apparerl|y aulrerl|c, oul ras a r|dder error allecl|rg |ls aulrerl|c|ly.
a|-'|||ah (h|dden cause of weakness} - -·-|· - wr|cr ras lWo cord|l|ors:
1) Tral |l |s r|dder, rol apparerl, ard
2) Tral |l allecls lre aulrerl|c|ly ol lre radeelr.
Trose larous lor delecl|or ol lre '|||ar:
Arorgsl lrer are lor a|-Vadeeree, Arrad, a|-8u|raaree, Aooo laal|r ard ad-0aaraqulree.
Tral Wr|cr re|ps |r delecl|rg lre '|||ar:
1) A rarralor oe|rg lre or|y ore lo reporl a radeelr.
2) Tral olrers corlrad|cl r|r.
3) 0lrer laclors correcled lo (1) ard (2).
loW |s lre '|||ar urcovered? - 8y galrer|rg lre d|llererl |sraads ard see|rg roW lre|r rarralors d|ller.
wrere does a|-'|||ar occur?:
1) lr lre |sraad, sucr as |rsaa| or a rarral|or |r lacl oe|rg raWqool, rol rarloo'.
2) lr lre lexl (Wr|cr |s rare).
Farous Wor|s aooul a|-'|||ar:
1) 'K|laaou| 'l||a|¨ - lor a|-Vadeeree.
2) 'l||a|u| ladeelr¨ - lor Aoee laal|r.
3) 'a|-'l||a| Wa ra'r|lal|r R|jaa|¨ - Arrad |or laroa|.
1) 'a|-'l||a|u| Kaoeer¨ ard 'a|-'l||a|us-3agreer¨ - al-T|rr|dree
5) ¨a|-'l||a|¨ - ad-0aaraqulree (Wr|cr |s lre |argesl ard rosl exlers|ve).
a|-ru|raa|alar ||lr-lr|qaal (corlrad|cl|rg re||ao|e rarralors) - Tr|s resu|ls |r l|ve lypes ol radeelr:
1) a|-mudraj -
2) a|-maq|oob -
3) a|-mazeed fee muttas|||| asaaneed - =,··=v· ¸=·- _· =,¸«|·
1) a|-mudtar|b - =¸==«|·
5) a|-musahhaf -
a|-mudraj -
L|rgu|sl|ca||y - 3orelr|rg erlered |rlo sorelr|rg e|se.
Tecrr|ca||y - Tral Wrose |sraad ras a lexl correcled lo |l |rcorrecl|y, or lral Wr|cr ras sorelr|rg erlered |rlo |ls lexl
Wr|cr |s rol lror |l.
lls lWo lypes:
1) rudraju| |sraad - .··=,· __=.- : Tral Wrose |sraad ras a lexl correcled lo |l |rcorrecl|y, e.g. lral a
rarralor re|ales ar |sraad, ard lrer sorelr|rg rappers Wr|cr causes r|r lo say sorelr|rg rol
correcled lo lre radeelr, ard sore ol lrose Wro rear |l lr|r| |l lo oe lre lexl ol lre radeelr ard so lrey
reporl |l as sucr.
2) rudraju| ralar - ¸·'· __=.- : Tral Wr|cr ras sorelr|rg added lo |ls lexl Wr|cr |s rol lror |l, W|lroul
ary separal|or. Ard |l |s ol lrree lypes:
1) Tral lre |draaj occurs al lre oeg|rr|rg ol lre radeelr (Wr|cr |s rare), e.g. lral lre rarralor ra|es a
slalererl ard lrer quoles a radeelr d|recl|y aller |l lo supporl |l, so sore ol lre ||slerers lr|r| |l a|| lo
oe parl ol lre sare radeelr.
2) Tral lre |draaj occurs |r lre r|dd|e ol lre lexl (ard lr|s |s ever rarer), e.g. lral a rarralor exp|a|rs a
Word ol lre lexl aller quol|rg |l.
3) Tral lre |draaj occurs al lre erd ol lre radeelr.
Causes ol |draaj - Fror lrer are:
1) C|ar|l|cal|or ol a ru||rg.
2) Exlracl|or ol a ru||rg lror a radeelr oelore corp|el|rg |ls rarral|or.
3) Exp|aral|or ol lre rear|rg ol a Word |r lre lexl.
loW |s |l urcovered? - 8y var|ous Ways, lror lrer:
1) Tral |l |s reporled e|seWrere aparl lror lre lexl.
2) Tral scro|ars dec|are |ls slale lral |l |s so.
3) Tral lre rarralor r|rse|l slales lral |l |s so.
1) Tre |rposs|o|||ly ol |l oe|rg lror lre Proprel's () say|rg.
Tre ru||rg lor |draaj: 3cro|ars are agreed lral |l |s loro|dder ur|ess |l |s lo exp|a|r lre rear|rg ol a Word,
as az-Zurree used lo do.
Farous Wor|s or |draaj:
1) 'a|-Fas|u |||Was||| Vudraj l|r-raq|¨ - a|-Kraleeo a|-8agrdaadee.
2) 'Taqreeou| Varraj o|-larleeo|| Vudraj¨ - lor lajar.
a|-maq|oob -
L|rgu|sl|ca||y - 3orelr|rg lurred arourd.
Tecrr|ca||y - Crarg|rg lre Word|rg lor arolrer |r lre |sraad or lre lexl.
lls lypes:
1) raq|ooous-sarad - , Wr|cr ras lWo lorrs:
1) Tral lre rare ol a rarralor ard r|s lalrer's |s reversed, e.g. |rslead ol 'Ka'o |or Vurrar¨, re |s
ca||ed 'Vurrar |or Ka'o¨.
2) Tral lre rare ol a rarralor |s rep|aced oy lral ol a corp|ele|y d|llererl rarralor, produc|rg a reW
|sraad. 0re Wro does lr|s |s descr|oed as 'slea||rg radeelr¨.
2) raq|ooou| ralar - , Wr|cr a|so ras lWo lorrs:
1) Tre order ol lWo Words |s reversed, e.g. lre radeelr Wr|cr Vus||r reporls lror Aooo lurayrar
aooul lre sever Wro A||aar srades or lre 0ay Wrer lrere |s ro srade olrer lrar lral ol l|s Trrore,
Wrere|r |l occurs: 'ard a rar Wro g|ves |r crar|ly ard r|des |l sucr lral r|s r|grl rard does rol |roW
Wral r|s |ell g|ves |r crar|ly.¨ Tr|s Word|rg oe|rg a rarralor's r|sla|e, lre correcl vers|or oe|rg: 'sucr
lral r|s |ell rard does rol |roW Wral r|s r|grl g|ves |r crar|ly.¨ [a|-8u|raaree ard Vus||r|
2) 0|v|rg lre lexl ol a radeelr lre |sraad ol arolrer ard g|v|rg |ls |sraad a|so lo a d|llererl radeelr,
dore lor exarp|e as a lesl, |||e lre peop|e ol 8agrdaad d|d lo a|-8u|raaree.
Reasors lor perlorr|rg |q|aao, lror lrer:
a) To produce a reW ard d|llererl |sraad, lo |rpress peop|e |rlo rarral|rg lror r|r.
o) To lesl a rarralor's rerory ard prec|s|or.
c) ll ray occur oy acc|derl.
Tre ru||rg regard|rg a|-|q|aao - =:|,· /(a|-qa|o) -
1) ll |l |s dore lor reasor (a), lrer |l |s loro|dder W|lroul a douol, s|rce |l |rvo|ves crarg|rg lre radeelr.
2) ll |l |s dore as a lesl, lrer |l |s perr|ss|o|e W|lr lre cord|l|or lral Wral |s correcl |s exp|a|red oelore lre
erd ol lre s|ll|rg.
3) ll |l |s dore oy r|sla|e, lrer lre ore Wro d|d |l |s lo oe excused, oul |l |l occurs lror r|r repealed|y lrer
|l deslroys r|s prec|s|or ard re |s dec|ared lo oe Wea|.
As lor lre radeelr Wr|cr |s raq|ooo: Trer |l |s Wea|.
Farous Wor|s aooul |l:
1) 'Raal|'u| lrl|yaao l|| Vaq|ooo r|ra| Asraa.| Wa| A|qaao¨ - a|-Kraleeo a|-8agrdaadee.
a|-razeed lee rullas|||| asaareed (|rcrease |r a lu||y correcled |sraad) - =,··=v· ¸=·- _· =,¸«|·
Tecrr|ca||y - A rarralors oe|rg added lo a correcled |sraad.
Cord|l|ors lor |ls rejecl|or:
1) Tral lre ore Wro reporls W|lroul lre add|l|or |s rore sourd lrar lre ore Wro reporls |l W|lr |l.
2) Tral lre add|l|or occurs |r a p|ace Wrere |l |s c|ear|y sroWr lral lre rarralor reard lre or|g|ra| lror r|s
sray|r, |.e. |r lre or|g|ra| |sraad re says, lor exarp|e, 'so ard so rarraled lo re:¨.
ll e|lrer ol lrese lWo |s aoserl, lrer lre add|l|or W||| oe prelerred ard accepled, ard lre |sraad W|lroul |l
W||| oe cors|dered lo oe d|scorrecled (rurqal|'), ard W||| |r lacl oe 'a|-rursa|u| |ralee¨.
Po|rls ra|sed aga|rsl lr|s:
1) Tral |l lre |sraad W|lroul lre add|l|or |s reporled, Wrere lre add|l|or |s pul |r us|rg 'ar (lror), lrer lre
or|g|ra| |s lo oe dec|ared as rurqal|'. Rep|y: ard lr|s |s lre case.
2) Tral |l al lre po|rl lre or|g|ra| del|r|le|y slales lral lre rarralor reard |l lror r|s sray|r, lrer perraps
re reard |l oy rears ol ar |rlerred|ary, ard lrer |aler reard |l d|recl|y. Rep|y: ard a|lrougr lr|s |s
poss|o|e, scro|ars do rol dec|are lre add|l|or lo oe a r|sla|e ur|ess lrey rave ev|derce ol lral.
Farous Wor|s aooul |l:
1) 'Taryeezu| Vazeed lee Vullas|||| Asaareed¨ - a|-Kraleeo.
a|-mudtar|b - =¸
L|rgu|sl|ca||y - Tral caus|rg d|sluroarce.
Tecrr|ca||y - Tral Wr|cr |s reporled |r corlrad|clory lorrs, a|| ol equa| slrerglr.
lls cord|l|ors - ll |s rol dec|ared rudlar|o ur|ess lWo cord|l|ors are preserl:
1) lls rarral|ors d|sagree ard carrol oe rarror|sed, ard
2) A|| ol |ls d|ller|rg rarral|ors are ol equa| slrerglr, so lral rore car oe prelerred over lre olrers.
ll rarror|sal|or |s poss|o|e or prelererce car oe rade, lrer lral |s dore |r ar acceplao|e Way, lrer |l
ceases lo oe rudlar|o.
lls lypes:
1) rudlar|ous-sarad - .=- =·..|· =¸ (Wr|cr |s rore corror), e.g. lre radeelr ol Aooo 8a|ar |r al-
T|rr|dree: 'lood ard |ls s|slers rave lurred ry ra|r Wr|le.¨ ad-0aaraqulree says ol |l: 'll |s rudlar|o,
s|rce |l |s rol reporled excepl oy Way ol Aooo lsraaq, ard lre reporlers lror r|r reporl |l |r aooul ler
d|llererl Ways, sore reporl|rg |l as oe|rg rursa|, olrers as oe|rg raWsoo|; sore dec|ar|rg |l lo oe lror
Aooo 8a|ar, sore lror 3a'd ard sore lror 'Aa.|srar ard |r olrer Ways. Ard |ls rarralors are re||ao|e ard
|l |s rol poss|o|e lo preler sore over olrers or lo rarror|se.
2) rudlar|ou| ralar - ¸·'· =¸ , e.g. lre radeelr ol Faal|rar o|rl 0ays |r al-T|rr|dree: 'ver||y lrere
|s a r|grl due upor Wea|lr olrer lrar lre Za|aal.¨ loWever lor Vaajar's rarral|or lror rer |s: 'Trere |s ro
r|grl due upor Wea|lr olrer lrar Za|aal.¨ a|-'lraaqee says: '3o lr|s |s ar |dl|raao Wr|cr carrol oe
exp|a|red aWay.¨
Fror Wror does |dl|raao occur?:
1) ll ray occur lror a s|rg|e rarralor Wro reporls lre radeelr |r lre d|llererl Ways, or
2) ll ray occur due lo a group ol peop|e eacr rarral|rg sorelr|rg corlrad|clory.
Tre reasor lor |ls Wea|ress:
Tr|s |s oecause |l sroWs lral |ls rarralors rave rol oeer prec|se |r Wral lrey are rarral|rg.
Farous Wor|s aooul |l:
1) ¨a|-Vuqlar|o lee oayaar|| Vudlar|o¨ - lor lajar.
a|-musahhaf -
L|rgu|sl|ca||y - A ||lerary r|sla|e.
Tecrr|ca||y - Crarg|rg a Word |r a radeelr lo olrer lrar lral Wr|cr |s reporled oy lre re||ao|e rarralors e|lrer |r
Word|rg or rear|rg.
lls lypes - ll ras lrree c|ass|l|cal|ors:
1) wrere |l occurs:
1) las-reel |r lre |sraad
2) las-reel |r lre ralar.
2) lls cause:
1) las-reelu| oasar (due lo lre eye), |.e. due lo a r|sread|rg.
2) las-reelus-sar' (due lo lre rear|rg), |.e. due lo r|srear|rg.
3) wrelrer |r lre rear|rg or lre Word|rg:
1) las-reel |r lre Word|rg (|alzee).
2) las-reel |r lre rear|rg (ra'raWee), |.e. lral a|lrougr a rarralor reporls lre Word|rg correcl|y, re
r|s|rlerprels |l, sucr as lre say|rg ol Aooo Voosaa a|-'Arazee: 'we are a roo|e peop|e, lre peop|e ol
'Arazar, A||aar's Vesserger () prayed |r our d|recl|or.¨ le urderslood lr|s lror lre radeelr lral
lre Proprel () prayed loWards 'a| 'Arazar¨ Wr|cr re lrougrl relerred lo lre|r |ard. 'a|-'Arazar¨ |s
roWever a srorl spear Wr|cr le () sluc| |rlo lre grourd ard prayed loWards.
Tre c|ass|l|cal|or ol a|-laal|z |or lajar - le d|v|ded |l lurlrer |rlo:
1) rusarral - (due lo lre dols over lre |ellers), |.e. la||rg Ta lo oe Tra or 8a, elc.
2) rurarral - (due lo |rcorrecl voWe|||rg).
0oes las-reel allecl lre rarralor?:
1) ll |l rare|y occurs lror a rarralor, lrer |l W||| rol allecl r|s prec|s|or.
2) ll roWever |l occurs oller, lrer |l W||| deslroy r|s prec|s|or ard sroW lral re |s rol acceplao|e |r lr|s
l|e|d.
Tre reasor lor a reporlers la|||rg |rlo excess|ve las-reel:
Tr|s W||| oe due lo r|s rarral|rg araadeelr lror ooo|s |rslead ol d|recl|y lror lre sray|rs.
Farous Wor|s aooul |l:
1) 'al-Tas-reel¨ - ad-0aaraqulree.
2) 'ls|aar Krala.|| Vuradd|lreer¨ - a|-Krallaaoee.
3) 'Tas-reelaalu| Vuradd|lreer¨ - Aooo Arrad a|-V|s|aree.
ash-shaadhdh - and a|-mahfooz - (|ts oppos|te}:
L|rgu|sl|ca||y - asr-sraadrdr |s lre 'odd ore oul¨.
Tecrr|ca||y - Tral Wr|cr |s reporled oy a re||ao|e rarralor |r corlrad|cl|or lo soreore rore re||ao|e.
wrere |l occurs: ll occurs |r lre |sraad or |r lre ralar.
a|-rarlooz (lral rela|red/reror|sed):
ls lre oppos|le ol lre sraadrdr, |.e. lral Wr|cr a rore re||ao|e rarralor re|ales |r corlrad|cl|or ol a
re||ao|e rarralor.
Tre|r ru||rg:
asr-sraadrdr |s da'eel ard rejecled.
a|-rarlooz |s aulrerl|c ard acceplao|e.
a|-jahaa|ah b|r-raawee - ¸¸·¸|·, -|·,¬|· - a rarralors oe|rg ur|roWr
Tecrr|ca||y - Tral lre persor or cord|l|or ol a rarralor |s ur|roWr.
lls reasors:
1) Tral a rarralor ras rary rares, l|l|es or descr|pl|ors, so re ray oe ca||ed oy a l|l|e corror lo
olrers.
2) Tral re rarrales very ||ll|e, so lral rayoe or|y a s|rg|e persor rarrales lror r|r.
3) Tral r|s rare |s rol slaled, oe|rg ca||ed 'a sray|r¨, elc.
Exarp|e ol (1): Vurarrad |or as-3aa.|o |or 8|srr a|-Ka|oee. 3ore ca|| r|r 'Vurarrad |or 8|srr¨,
olrers 'larraad |or as-3aa.|o¨, sore 'Aour-Nadr¨, sore 'Aooo 3a'eed¨ ard sore 'Aooo l|sraar¨ so
re ray oe lrougrl lo oe a group ol d|llererl peop|e.
Tre lypes ol rajroo|:
1) majhoo|u| 'ayn - : le Wrose rare |s rerl|ored oul or|y ore persor rarrales lror r|r.
Tre ru||rg regard|rg r|s rarral|ors - Trey are rol acceplao|e ur|ess re |s cerl|l|ed re||ao|e.
loW car re oe cerl|l|ed re||ao|e? - 8y ore ol lWo lr|rgs:
1) Tral soreore olrer lrar lre rarralor lror r|r dec|ares r|r lo oe re||ao|e, or
2) Tral lre persor rarral|rg lror r|r dec|ares r|r lo oe re||ao|e, W|lr lre cord|l|or lral re r|rse|l |s a
cr|l|c ol rarralors.
2) majhoo|u| haa| - ,·-· ,,.,¬- or a|-mastoor - : le Wrose cord|l|or |s ur|roWr. le Wror
lWo or rore rarrale lror, oul rol dec|ared as re||ao|e.
Tre ru||rg regard|rg r|s radeelr - lr lre v|eW ol lre rajor|ly, r|s rarral|ors are rejecled.
3) a|-mubham - ("unc|ear"}: Tral corla|r|rg a rarralor Wrose rare |s rol slaled.
lls ru||rg - ll |s rejecled url|| re car oe |derl|l|ed.
w||| r|s rarral|or oe accepled |l lre rarralor lror r|r says sorelr|rg |||e 'a re||ao|e rar rarraled lo
re.....?¨ - ll W||| sl||| rol oe accepled s|rce re ray oe re||ao|e |r lre v|eW ol lre rarralor, oul rol so |r lre
v|eW ol olrers.
Farous Wor|s or lre suojecl:
1) 'Vood|ru AWraar|| Jar'| Wal-Talreeq¨ - a|-Kraleeo.
2) 'a|-wurdaar¨ - lraar Vus||r.
3) 'a|-Asraa.u| Vuorarar l|| Aroaa.|| Vur|arar¨ - a|-Kraleeo.
1) 'a|-Vuslalaad r|r Vuoraraal|| Valar Wa| lsraad¨ - wa|ee-uddeer a|-'lraaqee.
a|-b|d'ah - --=,|·
ls ol lWo lypes:
1) o|d'ar ru|allarar - ·¸«´- --=, : Tral Wr|cr arourls lo |ulr ard la|es a persor oul ol ls|aar.
2) o|d'ar rulassaqar - -«.«- --=, : Tral Wr|cr ra|es a persor a laas|q oul rol a |aal|r.
Tre ru||rg regard|rg rarral|ors ol ar |rrovalor:
1) ll r|s o|d'ar |s ol lre l|rsl lype, lrer r|s rarral|or's are rejecled.
2) ll ol lre secord lype, lrer accord|rg lo lre rajor|ly ol lre scro|ars r|s rarral|or's are acceplao|e W|lr
lWo cord|l|ors:
1) Tral re |s rol a ca||er lo r|s |rroval|or, ard
2) Tral Wral re rarrales does rol supporl r|s |rroval|or.
soo.u|-h|fz - ·,= =«-· (weak memory}
-
Tecrr|ca||y - 0re Wro |s 'sayy|.u|-r|lz¨ |s lre ore Wro |s r|sla|er rore lrar re |s correcl.
lls lypes:
1) 0re Wrose rerory Was a|Ways oad lrrougroul r|s ||le. Ard sore scro|ars ol radeelr ca|| r|s
rarral|or's 'sraadrdr¨
2) 0re Wrose rerory oecare Wea|, e|lrer due lo o|d age, r|s oecor|rg o||rd or r|s ooo|s oe|rg ourrl,
ard re |s ca||ed 'a|-ru|rla|al¨.
Tre ru||rg lor lre|r rarral|ors:
1) As regards lre l|rsl, r|s rarral|or's are rejecled.
2) As regards lre secord, lrer:
1) wral re |s |roWr lo rave reporled oelore lre '||rl||aal¨ |s acceplao|e.
2) wral re reporled aller lre '||rl||aal¨ |s rejecled.
3) Tral Wr|cr |s rol |roWr Wrelrer |l Was oelore or aller, lrer judgererl |s susperded url|| |l |s c|ear
Wr|cr |s lre case.
a|-ma'roof - ("we||-known"}
Tecrr|ca||y - Tral Wr|cr lre re||ao|e rarralor reporls |r corlrad|cl|or lo Wral a Wea| rarralor reporls; |.e. oppos|le ol
lre rur|ar, |r lre del|r|l|or ol lor lajar.
C|ass|l|cal|or ol lre radeelr accord|rg lo |ls source:
1) a|-hadeethu| qudsee - _==«|· .,=¬|·
Tecrr|ca||y - Tral Wr|cr |s rarraled lo us lror lre Proprel () lror r|s Lord, lre Exa|led ard V|grly.
Tre d|llererce oelWeer |l ard lre 0ur.aar - Tre rosl oov|ous d|llererces are:
1) As lor lre 0ur.aar, lrer |ls rear|rg ard Word|rg |s lror A||aar ard lre radeelr qudsee, |ls rear|rg
|s lror A||aar ard |ls Word|rg lror lre Proprel ().
2) Tre 0ur.aar |s rec|led |r Prayer as parl ol Worsr|p, oul lre radeelr qudsee |s rol.
3) Tre 0ur.aar |s a|| rulaWaal|r ard lre radeelr qudsee does rol rave lo oe.
Corp||al|ors ol araadeelr quds|yyar: ¨a|-lll|raalaalus-3ar|yyar o|| Araadeelr|| 0uds|yyar¨ -
'Aodur-Ra'ool a|-VaraaWee, Wr|cr corla|rs 2Z2 radeelr.
2) a|-marfoo' -
L|rgu|sl|ca||y - 'Ra|sed up¨.
Tecrr|ca||y - Tral allr|ouled lo lre Proprel ().
3) a|-mawqoof -
L|rgu|sl|ca||y - '3usperded¨
Tecrr|ca||y - Tral allr|ouled lo lre Corpar|ors.
ll |s a|so used lor olrer lrar lre Corpar|ors |l reslr|cled, e.g. raWqool lror az-Zurree.
Terr|ro|ogy ol lre peop|e ol Kruraasaar - Trey ca||:
1) a|-rarloo': '|raoar¨ ard
2) a|-raWqool: 'alrar¨.
Tral Wr|cr ras lre ru||rg ol oe|rg 'rarloo'¨:
3ore lypes ol rarral|or rave lre appeararce ol lre raWqool oul are g|ver lre ru||rg ol oe|rg rarloo'.
For exarp|e:
1) Tre say|rg ol a Corpar|or Wro |s rol |roWr lor reporl|rg lror lre Peop|e ol lre 8oo|, a say|rg Wr|cr
|s rol poss|o|e lor |l lo core lror r|s oWr deducl|or, e.g.
1) lrlorral|or aooul lr|rgs ol lre pasl, ard
2) lrlorral|or aooul lre lulure or lre urseer.
2) Tre Corpar|or's say|rg: 'we used lo do so ard so |r lre l|re ol lre Proprel ().¨
3) Tre Corpar|or's say|rg: 'we Were ordered lo do so ard so¨, 'we Were loro|dder lo do so ard so¨,
'Fror lre 3urrar |s . . .¨.
1) Tre lalseer ol a Corpar|or re|al|rg lo lre reasor lor reve|al|or ol a cerla|r aayar.
Ard lre raWqool |s rol ar |rdeperderl prool
1) a|-maqtoo' -
L|rgu|sl|ca||y - 'Cul oll¨
Tecrr|ca||y - Tral allr|ouled lo lre Taao|'eer or lrose aller lrer, e.g. 'a| -lasar a|-8asree sa|d: . . .¨.
ll |s rol a prool.
usage ol asr-3raal|'ee ard al-Taoaraaree - 3ore ruradd|lroor, arorgsl lrer asr-3raal|'ee ard al-
Taoaraaree, use lre lerr Vaqloo' lo reler lo lre Vurqal|'.
a|-musnad -
L|rgu|sl|ca||y - 'Allr|ouled¨
Tecrr|ca||y - Tral Wrose |sraad |s correcled oac| lo lre Proprel ().
a|-muttas|| - ¸=·«|· | a|-mawsoo| -
L|rgu|sl|ca||y - 'Correcled¨.
Tecrr|ca||y - Tral Wrose |sraad |s correcled Wrelrer rarloo' or raWqool.
A correcled |sraad oac| lo a laao|'ee |s rol relerred lo as oe|rg 'rullas||¨ ur|ess reslr|cled, e.g. 'rullas||
lo az-Zurree¨.
z|yaadaalulr-lr|qaal - =·«·|· =·.·,•
Tral Wr|cr sore re||ao|e rarralors reporl |r add|l|or lo Wral olrer re||ao|e rarralors rarrale lror a cerla|r
radeelr.
3cro|ars larous lor devol|rg lrerse|ves lo lr|s:
Aooo 8a|ar 'Aodu||aar |or Vurarrad |or Z|yaad ar-Neesaaoooree.
Aooo Nu'ayr a|-Jurjaaree.
Aou| wa|eed lassaar |or Vurarrad a|-0urasree.
wrere |l occurs:
1) lr lre lexl - oy |rcrease ol a Word or serlerce.
2) lr lre |sraad - oy dec|ar|rg lral Wr|cr |s raWqool lo oe rarloo', or lral rursa| lo oe rullas||.
Tre ru||rg ol z|yaadar |r lre lexl - 3cro|ars rave d|llered aooul |l:
1) 3ore a|Ways accepl lrer,
2) 3ore a|Ways rejecl lrer, ard
3) 3ore rejecl lre add|l|or |l reporled oy lre sare rarralor ard accepl |l |l reporled oy soreore e|se.
lorus-3a|aar d|v|ded lre add|l|ors |rlo lrree c|asses, lo Wr|cr ar-NaWaWee ard olrers agreed. Trey are:
1) Tre add|l|or Wr|cr does rol corlrad|cl lral Wr|cr olrer re||ao|e rarralors reporl, lrer lr|s |s accepled.
2) Tre add|l|or Wr|cr corlrad|cls lral Wr|cr olrer re||ao|e rarralors or a rore re||ao|e rarralor reporls,
lrer lr|s |s rejecled ard |s sraadrdr.
3) Tre add|l|or Wr|cr parl|a||y corlrad|cls lre rore re||ao|e or lre olrer re||ao|e rarralors, ard |s ol lWo
||rds:
1) Reslr|cl|or ol lre urreslr|cled, ard
2) Parl|cu|ar|s|rg lre gerera|.
Ard ar-NaWaWee dec|ares lral lr|s |s accepled.
Tre ru||rg lor add|l|ors |r lre |sraad, |.e. Wrelrer ar |sraad |s rullas|| or rursa|, ard Wrelrer ar |sraad
|s rarloo' or raWqool. 3cro|ars d|ller aooul lr|s, rav|rg lour say|rgs:
1) Tre ru||rg |s g|ver |r lavour ol lre ore Wro dec|ares lre |sraad lo oe rullas|| or rarloo' (|.e.
acceplarce ol lre add|l|or).
2) Tral lre ru||rg |s g|ver |r lavour ol lre ore Wro dec|ares lre |sraad lo oe rursa| or raWqool (|.e.
rejecl|or ol lre add|l|or). [Tr|s oe|rg lre say|rg ol lre rosl radeelr scro|ars|.
3) Tral lre ru||rg |s g|ver |r lavour ol lre rajor|ly.
1) Tral lre ru||rg |s g|ver |r lavour ol lre ore W|lr oeller rerory.
a|-|'t|baar - _·,·-,·
Tecrr|ca||y - 0alrer|rg lre cra|rs ol rarral|or ol a radeelr reporled oy a rarralor lo see |l olrers a|so reporl |l or rol.
a|-mutaab|' - _,··«|· | at-taab|' - _,··|·
Tecrr|ca||y - Tre radeelr Wrose rarralors a|so rarrale lral Wr|cr lre or|g|ra| rarralor |r quesl|or reporls |r Word|rg
ard rear|rg, oe|rg reporled lror lre sare Corpar|or.
ash-shaah|d - =··=|·
Tecrr|ca||y - Tre radeelr Wrose rarralors a|so rarrale lral Wr|cr lre or|g|ra| rarralor |r quesl|or reporls |r Word|rg
ard rear|rg or or|y |r rear|rg, oul lror a d|llererl Corpar|or.
3o a|-|'l|oaar |s lre process ol lo||oW|rg up cra|rs ol rarral|or ol a parl|cu|ar radeelr |r order lo l|rd
supporls (sraWaar|d ard rulaaoa'aal).
A d|llererl usage ol lre lerrs - 3ore scro|ars use:
al-laao|' - lo rear lral supporl|rg rarral|or Wr|cr ras lre sare Word|rg, Wrelrer or rol reporled lror
lre sare Corpar|or, ard
asr-sraar|d - lo rear lral supporl|rg rarral|or Wr|cr ras lre sare rear|rg, Wrelrer or rol reporled
lror lre sare Corpar|or.
Ard lrey ray oe used |rlercrargeao|y W|lroul ary rarr s|rce lre|r purpose |s ore, |.e. supporl|rg lre
or|g|ra| rarral|or.
a|-mutaaba'ah -
L|rgu|sl|ca||y - 'Agreererl¨.
Tecrr|ca||y - Tral a rarralor agrees lo lre rarral|or ol olrers |r rarral|rg a cerla|r radeelr.
Noles or lre 3c|erce ol ladeelr exlracled lror 'Tayseer Vusla|ar|| ladeelr - .,=-· _·==- ¸,.,· ¨ - 0r. Varrood al-Tarraar
lls lWo ||rds:
1) mutaaba'ah taammah - (comp|ete mutaaba'ah}, lral |l agrees W|lr lre or|g|ra| |sraad r|grl
lror lre slarl.
2) mutaaba'ah qaas|rah - ·¸.=·| --,··.- (part|a| mutaaba'ah}, lral |l jo|rs W|lr ard agrees W|lr lre
or|g|ra| |sraad soreWrere |r lre cra|r, oul rol lror lre radeelr.
Exarp|e - (quoled oy lor lajar): Tral Wr|cr asr-3raal|'ee reporls |r 'a|-urr¨ lror Vaa|||, lror
'Aodu||aar |or 0eeraar, lror lor 'urar lral A||aar's Vesserger () sa|d: ((Tre rorlr |s lWerly-r|re, so
do rol lasl url|| you see lre reW roor ard do rol orea| lasl url|| you see |l, ard |l |l |s c|ouded over lrer
corp|ele lre lerr ol lr|rly.))
3ore peop|e lrougrl lral lre radeelr W|lr lr|s Word|rg |s rol reporled lror Vaa||| excepl oy asr-
3raal|'ee, ard Was lrerelore lrougrl lo oe grareeo, s|rce lre sluderls ol Vaa||| reporl |l W|lr lr|s |sraad,
oul W|lr crarged Word|rg.
loWever lrrougr |'l|oaar We l|rd lor asr-3raal|'ee, a rulaaoa'ar laarrar, a rulaaoa'ar qaas|rar ard a
sraar|d:
1) As lor lre rulaaoa'ar laarrar, |l |s Wral a|-8u|raaree reporls lror 'Aodu||aar |or Vas|arar a|-
0a'raoee lror Vaa||| W|lr lre sare |sraad ard asr-3raal|'ee's Word|rg.
2) As lor lre rulaaoa'ar qaas|rar, |l |s Wral lor Kruzayrar reporls oy Way ol 'Aas|r |or Vurarrad
lror r|s lalrer Vurarrad |or Zayd, lror r|s grardlalrer 'Aodu||aar |or 'urar W|lr asr-3raal|'ee's
Word|rg.
3) As lor lre sraar|d, |l |s Wral ar-Nasaa.ee reporls oy Way ol Vurarrad |or lurayr lror lor
'Aooaas lror lre Proprel (), W|lr asr-3raal|'ee's Word|rg.
Trars|aled oy: Aou Ta|rar 0aaWood |or Rora|d 8uroar|, hovemoer '99'

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