Women, Water & Leadership

(Asia & the Pacific workshop)
13-14 February 2014 (Manila, ADB HQ)

Making Waves: Gender and Water Policy at International and National Level
Promoting change and increased female leadership
The views expressed in this paper are the views of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views or policies of the Asian Development Bank (ADB), or its Board of Governors, or the governments they represent. ADB does not guarantee the accuracy of the data included in this paper and accepts no responsibility for any consequence of their use. The countries listed in this paper do not imply any view on ADB's part as to sovereignty or independent status or necessarily conform to ADB's terminology.

13-14 Feb. 2014

Professor Patricia Wouters

Overview: Women and transboundary water
Part I: Transboundary water challenges and why these matter to women Part II: Transboundary water leadership: opportunities and challenges (policy tools and options) Part III: Making waves – Promoting change and increased female leadership

Slide | 2

Transboundary water challenges and women

Global Water Development Challenge
No development without water 1.4 billion km3 of water on Earth Only a fraction readily available 1.2 billion without safe drinking water and 2.4 billion without sanitation widening water gap

Global environmental change worsening water crisis
Slide | 4

Transboundary water challenges: conflict
More than 300 major TB waters – 75% not regulated by Treaty

BBC News

Slide | 5

Women and TB water – complex challenges

(international law)

(global / local)

Slide | 6

Women shoulder the development challenge

Women spend 200 million hours a day collecting water… etc… etc…

Slide | 7

Women and $$ water – not at Davos
Almost all of the 250,000 or so loans involved with water credits have gone to women, something that stands in contrast to the hugely male makeup—85 percent—of the Davos attendees

Matt Damon urges help from world's rich on water crisis www.water.org

Slide | 8

Transboundary water leadership: opportunities and challenges (policy tools and options)

International Law: Duty to Cooperate
Chapter 1 – Purposes and Principles

To achieve international co-operation in solving

international problems of an economic, social,
cultural, or humanitarian character, and in promoting

and encouraging respect for human rights and for
fundamental freedoms for all without distinction as

to race, sex, language, or religion;
2013: UN International Year of Water Cooperation
Slide | 10

Declaration of Principles of International Law (1970)

“States have the duty to co-operate with one another, irrespective of the differences in their political, economic and social systems, in the various spheres of international relations, in order to maintain international peace and security and to promote international economic stability and progress, the general welfare of nations and international co-operation free from discrimination based on such differences.”
Slide | 11

In Larger Freedom – UN SG report (2005)
“In a world of interconnected threats and challenges, it is in each country’s self-interest that all of them are addressed effectively. Hence, the cause of larger freedom can only be advanced by broad, deep and sustained global cooperation among States. Such cooperation is possible if every country’s policies take into account not only the needs of its own citizens but also the needs of others. This kind of cooperation not only advances everyone’s interests but also recognizes our common humanity.”
Slide | 12

Complex international issues: Sovereignty
National interests

Global community interests
Slide | 13

International Water Law / Law of Nations

International water law
1. Metaframework for international relations

2. Platform for integration

3. Mechanism for Implementation: Substantive & Procedural Rules
Slide | 14

International Water law – Context & Reach
Disciplinary interface

Int’l / Global






s c a l e

Slide | 15

Two global water conventions – UN

1997 UNWC
Allocation framework

1992 UNECE
Limit transboundary impact

Not in force … but

20 years experience
Slide | 16

UN Conventions / Women & ‘Water’
Legal / Ethical approach reflected in human rights instruments (UN Resolutions):

• Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW)
• Right to life, liberty and equality • Right to property, health and education • Right to ‘water’ – UN Resolution on Human Right to Water and Sanitation
Slide | 17

Making waves – Promoting change and increased female leadership

Making waves: Challenges remain

Female President of Harvard Female Head of St Andrews University (Scotland)

Japan’s Governor candidate

Institutional gender issues

Women in Water

‘having it all’

Slide | 19

Promoting Change: 3 pillars

• Legal frameworks • Implementation • Integration

• Identifying issues • Instilling confidence • Agenda setting

• Innovation • Political representation • Power of ‘one’

Slide | 20

Women for Water Partnership
Add women, change everything

grassroots water diplomacy showing how the social capital of women's organizations is used world wide for connecting people across sectors.
Slide | 21

Realising the Chinese Dream?

The ancient Chinese Proverb that “women hold up half the sky” has become an inspiring catchphrase for female opportunity around the world.
Slide | 22


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